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2 00

Based on the

2nd International Conference


on
Jean Eisenstaedt A. J. Kox
Centre National de la Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica
Recherche Scientifique Universiteit van Amsterdam
Universite Pierre et Marie XE Amsterdam
Paris Cedex 05 The Netherlands
France and
The Collected of Albert Einstein
Boston University
Boston,MA
U.S.A.

International Conference on the History of General Relativity (2nd:


1988 : Luminy, Marseille, France)
Studies in the history of general relativity : proceedings of the
Second International Conference on the History of General
Kelativ'ltvft Luminy, Marseille, France, 6-9 September'1988 I Jean
Eisenstaedt, A.J.Kox, editors.
p. cm. -- (Einstein studies : v. 3)
Summaries in French~
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-8176-3479-7 (alk. paper)
1. General Relativity (Physics) --History--Congresses.
I. Eisenstaedt, Jean, 1940- Kox, Anne 1. ill. Title.
IV. Series.
QC173'.6 1572 1988 92-20275
9
530.1 1'09--dc20 CIP

on acid-free paper.

© Center for Einstein Studies. 1992


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9876,54321
vi Preface to Volume Three
vii
viii Contents

3
II Conceptual in General KeA~attVltv

JULIAN

DON HOWARD

260

281

0000000000000000000000000.00000 .. 000000 3

an 11"<l1nCt"t~·1n Space 336

364

367

383

393

on
x Contents

to

Ke.A~o.tl'Vlst'IC Cosmology
.Le]ma~ltre to ""-JI_JLJI._Jl.IIIo4J1.
Introduction xi

Jm
xii Jean Eisenstaedt and 1. Kox
s
4 David Lopes Gagean and Manuel da Costa Leite

One is to posit that the differential receptivity of cultural or social


groups to specific ideas reveals sonlething significant about social' and
cultural processes.
A second is to suppose that such differentiation illuminates science as
a social and cultural phenomenon.
A third is to challenge perceived views of what is normative in sci-
ence by expanding the number of cases examined and broadening the
basis of study to include scientific communities thought peripheral to
mainstream science.
A fourth is, to change the focus of study froIn an internal development
of ideas to the social and cultural contexts of their development and
diffusion.
A fifth is to cast a social definition of science as ideology; to do so is to
evade the question of what is normative experience, to rid the research
program of ethnocentric bias, and to even out the distinction between
invention and innovation, disc·overy and reception.

1.

2.

3.

lOec~au~;e of
......._1"'_.............. 41l1t1t1l"'4')1~1t1lnn for an attentive tl"'ldh'lIDnC'n1t",lIh.cll1il'"
sec-
a F,,'i\,;JlLA'i\,;./1.i4liLA
General IkI'a>RQ1I"1l'UT1l1l"'ll7 and Portugal 5

works of
II-J'nllnJf'lllJl1l"A 1902),
Son evolution

One of the benefits that philosophical thought owes to positivism is


the of metaphysics today. Philosophical thought has been
shamed by scientific thought because it has always been progressive
and because of its prolific achievements. (Coimbra 1983, Vol. 1, p. 5)

"science is
to a mere COltnp;lerneJlt
'Il".QIlrtll1'llJf'lt:.1'>rtl

I'\llIn·nilll.r:llfi 1983). In his 1lJihli"\Q.·'l.11n.(ll1"'~~tll,('> style wrote:


","",'V'A.Jl.J1.Jl.VJL"

Studying the mental being that takes itself for granted more readily and
accurately. Analyzing it in su~h a manner that its rationalism can be
shown to be its criterion of truth, and then showing that rationalism
is never hollow, but on the contrary, always results from an activity
that functions on oppositions. Thus, the spirit stands-the sensitive
and spirit; sensitive because its life does not come from isolation,
free . .. because it dominates and coordinates sensitive flux rather
than mixes with it. That mental being is science....
Therefore, we have to demonstrate that science is real and rationaL
It has a real content, even though it has an ideal order. Science is
absolute and concrete in so far as its legitimate domains are concerned;
... [science] is made of notions and not of things. (Coimbra 1983,
Vol. I, p.8)
6 David Gagean and Manuel da Costa Leite

Langevin, i~ a
of UpHdJlh'i.rilhT

space and
7
8 David Lopes Gagean and Manuel da Costa Leite

3.
General Relativity and Portugal 9

1. ·~Ul1a.3Jrnerltos

3,4.

5.

" 1936). In var-


Uni-
choose

7,8.

in an attt~ml)t
1933.
10 David Lopes Gagean and Manuel da Costa

Vice-Admiral CAMPOS and Dr. F. Oom of the National


Observatory, Lisbon, had kindly given us introductions.... (Dyson,
Eddington, and 1920, p. 312)

contrast to
or
General ll-('pl~tn"lltv and Portugal 11

AC4'1ae~mv of Sciences of Lisbon:


£!i 4"'~lJf1lA'1Il"l'l1l'\tT of of
12 David Lopes Gagean and Manuel da Costa Leite

nation was not surprising. is a example what we meant


an alnlost fait-divers aOJl.;;;.,.Il.Jl.Jl.Jl.JlL'VI\,AJI..Jl. ... O'l.,.tJl.""Jl.Jl.ll.Jl.Jl.JIL'V

Let us look at the very concise, A'V' ,

edgment· by to others received by aC'lae:nu«~s).5

Berlin 2. den 9. April 1932


Haberlandstr. 5
An die Akademie der Wissenschaften
Lissabon
Portugal
Ich nehme die Ernennung zum korrespondieren Mitglied der Aka-
demie der Wissenschaften mit freundlichem Dank an.
Mit ausgezeichneter Hochachtung
A. Einstein

are sev-
General Relativity and Portugal 13

5. on an 1i_"H1ill 71Ir11'11""" I basis, succeeded in


producing an active ~.lLJLILll.ll-l.:'.a.'-'JA.A of the general of 1l"'OR"llt""lI71lt"lt7

In we are ternnlteO
~.llJL.lLYO.ll'-'.lL.lL process seems to
\"tVJl.ll."Jil.JL.lL~I\""JiI..lI." occurreIlces, In(1lrre~ct ~'V..ILJULJL....",,"'..IL'L'JLJLUI mean dependence),
of events are ,""VJUJl.lU'VJI...Ii,,",,.ltJl.II,.O of such il-1rn,.nr..ilU-il1hI'7

NOTES

1 The book Nociones de calculo diferencial absoluto (Madrid, 1924), by


Plans y was known in the Portuguese scientific community, but we cannot
be sure to what extent.
2 In Spain, it is also signi~cant that the mathematicians rather than the
physicists were the first to actively receive relativity.
3 Cf. Cartan, Elie, Oeuvres completes. Part VoL 2, p. 1392 (Paris:
Gauthier-Villars) .
4 See references in Zentra/blatt fur Mathematik, as wen as in Mathe-
lnatical Reviews, 1946 and 1951.
5 Archives of the Academia das Ciencias de Lisboa.

REFERENCES

Biezunski, Michel (1987). "Einstein's Reception in Paris in 1922." In Glick,


1987a,pp.169-188.
Coimbra, Leonardo (1912). 0 criacionismo. Oporto: Biblioteca da Renascenca
Portuguesa.
- - (1923). Arazao experimental.Oporto: Biblioteca da Renescenca Portu-
guesa.
- - (1983). Obras, Vol. 1. Oporto: LelIo & Irmao.
(~unha, Pedro Jose da. (1921). Parecer acerca da candidatura do Sr. D. Jose Maria
Plans y Freire a socio correspondente estrangeiro. Lisbon: Academia das
Ciencias de Lisboa.
14 David Lopes Gagean 'and Manuel da Costa Leite

Dyson, Frank Eddington, Arthur S., and Charles (1920). "A De- .
termination of the Deflection of by the Sun's Gravitational· Field.'~
Society of London. Transactions A 220: 291-333.
Einstein, Albert (1944). "Bivector II." Annals 45: 15-23.
Einstein, Albert, and Bergmann, Valentin (1944). "Bivector I." Annals of
Mathematics 45: 1-14.
Eisenstaedt, Jean (1986). "La relativite generalea l'etiage: 1925-1955." Archive
for of Exact Sciences 35: 115-185.
Freitas, Manuel de (1960). "Leonardo Coimbra, inciooncias positivistas na sua
filosofia." Revista Portuguesa de Filosojia 16: 160-175.
Glick, Thomas, F. ed. (1987a). The Comparative J.(e(~eDJ:lon
recht and Boston: ReideL
- - (1987b). ''''I!<lP,I'!:llN'IIiT1lhr " In 1987a,pp. 231~263.
- - (1987c). Ke<;epl10n of In Glick 1~987a,
pp.
Lemos, Vitor (1925). Calculo Tensorial.
Jose de Almeida (1920). sobre 0 pn'nClplO da inercia."
Ciencias de Lisboa. Jomal das Seieneias M(;j~the,na,tlelJ~S,
. Fisieas e 7: 132-145.
- - (1922). "Os criterios da verdade: racionalismo e d.O~~m2ltiS]rnO,," Academia
das Clineias de Lisboa. Jomal Seieneias Fisieas e
Naturaes 9:
- - - (1923). fisica as teorias de Einstein." Academia das Cieneias de
das Seieneias Fisieas e Naturaes 15: 79-96.
l1-4'1l"dJllrillnll'll#Jl (1983). "0 sentidoda filosofia em Leonardo Coirn-
bra." Revista de 345-364.
y Jose Maria (1921a). "Processo hist6rico del calculo diferencial ah-
soluto y su actual." In Asoeiaewn para el Progreso
de las 8. Congresso, Madrid:
- _ . (1921b). Noeiones de mecanica relativista. Madrid: Real
Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas e Naturais.
La science et Paris: Flammarion.
V!l'VSUlue 1tloderne. Son evolution. Paris: Flammarion.
Schouten, Jan A. Ver Ricci-Kalkiil. Berlin: ~n1"11l1lnlPO""
Soares, A. Cyrilo (1922). 0 eonceito de m'ateria e 0 desenvolvimento das teorias
flsicas~ Lisbon.
16 Hubert F.M. Goenner

FIGURE 1. Lecat's statistics on 1l"'pH'r:lI1hl'71lt·U publications of ,an sorts.


'Theory of Relativity in Germany 17

a book is noted,
outside the
Sonderdrncke 1l"nPJ:n1t1l1n,1l"'lIt=ll.d'1

given in Fig. 2.

60

50

30

20

10

08 10 12 U 16 18 20 24 26 28 30 32 J'i 36 38 40 42 YEAR
09 11 13 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43

FIGURE 2. Yearly distribution of German books on relativity, totaL

V.lLJI.",-, J V..IL'V'IlJ'~"""""'.lLQ""Ul (e.g., or


meore~tlC:al physics with Cha~Dte:rs
were .IL.IL.IL~'.IL'l"I."""Y""'"

of Qu,mtlLlffi
rlPJ',laBIn,~'I'Ina"ill"'llt

PUlt)11c~at]LOn 4Jlr-fll"U'1l1r"U, in relativity, I also


Ur'lllh1l"'~~.~rI~1I'1fIl1tnallr1l"allril atom
18 Hubert F.M. Goenner

NO.OF BOOKS

50

40

30

20

10

09 11 33 35 37 39 41 YEAR

FIGURE 3. distribution of German books on relativists.

NO.OF BOOKS

40

30

20

distribution of German books on rel:iltt\jritv by anti-relativists.


Theory of in 19

,
\

12 total

10

8
/
.A.
,
6 ( \
i
i
i
"
2 /
./
j

\,
\

19 21 27 29 31 JJ 35 37 39
24 26 30 32 J4 36 38
FIGURE 5. Comparison of book activity in and
""
mechanics.
20 Hubert F. M. Goenner

TABLE 1. Editions of well-known monographs on relativity


1. mer die spezielle und allgemeine Relativitatstheorie.
2. Collection of edited by O. BlumenthaL

A. Einstein 1917 1917 1918 1921


{ 51 1911 1913 1919 1923 1952
M. v. Laue GRT
1921 1923 1965
M. Born 1920 1921 1922 1964
H. Weyl 1921 1923
Lorenz-Einstein-
1913 1919 1921 1923 .

In
general
I may
11leory of Relativity in (iermany 21

COInDl.ete ac-

NO. OF REFERENCES
70

60

40

30

20

10

13 15 17 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35

FIGURE 6. Combridge's statistics concerning research papers on relativity and


differential geometry.
22 Hubert F. M. Goenner

Sml}1';Ular time scale


(e.. g.. , in terms of
_.aJl.JIl.IIJJiUL.lI.....,,14JIl. l()UIl(1aiUOn must

comments..

NOTES

1 The sources for. the titles that I do not own or have copies of are: veUlscn~~s
tJU(-:herverzelch.nlS, Verlag des Borsenvereins der deutschen Buchhandler
zig; Naturae R. Friedlander u. der schweiz-
book reviews, notably in
Slkt'lUSChe Zeitschrift; advertisements of-the publishers in the books seen.
2 I am grateful to Professor M. E. New for the information
concerning the situation of university libraries.
3 Professor J.D. informed me that a bibliography of
works ·in relativity that he compiled in connection with his book on cosmology
(North 1965) that comprises an intemationallist of books and articles a marked
peak in 1922 reS1Jlte~C1.
4 Cf. the figures given on p. 185 of Beyerchen 1977).
5 For a of the quantitative evaluation of concepts in the history of
science, see the article of M.J. Nye on scientific decline (Nye 1984).
Theory of in Germany 23

REFERENCES

Beyerchen, Alan .D. '(1977). Scientists under Hitler. Haven, .Connecticut:


Yale University Press.
Combridge, J.T. (1965). Bibliography o/Relativity and Grtlvitation Theory 1921-
1937. London: King's College.
Eisenstaedt, Jean (1986). La relativite generale a l'etiage: 1925-1955. Archive
for of Exact Sciences 35: 115-185.
Gehrcke, Ernst (1924). Die Massensuggestion der Relativitiitstheorie. Berlin:
Meusser.
Lecat, Maurice (1924). Bibliographie de la relativite. Bruxelles: Lamertin.
Missner, Marshall (1985). "Why Did Einstein Become Famous in America?"
Social Studies of Science 15: 267~291.
North, David (1965). The Measure ofthe Universe. London and New York:
Oxford University Press (Clarendon).
Jo (1984). "Scientific Decline. Is Quantitative Evaluation Enough?"
Isis 75: 697-708.

Bibliography of Books on Relativity in the German Language


Between 1908 and 1945.
Friedrich (1920). Ortszeit~ Systemzeit, Zonenzeit und das ausgezeichnete
Bezugssystem der Elektrodynamik. Wien: Volksbuchhandlung.
Alliata, Giulio (1921). Verstand contra Relativitiit. Locarno: Vito Carminati.
- - (1922). Das WelthUd der Athermechanik. Leipzig: Hillman.
- - (1922). Die Planetenanomalien im WeltbUd der Athermechanik. Leipzig:
Hillman.
- - (1923). Missverstiindnisse zu den Grundlagen der Einsteinschen Relativi-
tiitstheorie, zu de Sitter~ Einwand zum Impulsprinzip, zum Dopplereffekt.
Leipzig: Hillmann.
Angersbach, Adam (1920). Das Relativitiitsprinzip. Leipzig: Teubner.
Aster, von Ernst (1922). Raum und Zeit in der Geschichte der Philosphie und
Physik. Berlin: Paetel.
Auerbach, Felix (1921). Raum und Zeit, Materie und Energie. Leipzig: Diirrsche
Buchhandlung.
(1923). Die Relativitatslehre und der Mens~h. Potsdam: Der weiBe
Verlag.
Balster,Wilhelm (1928). Der Fehler in der Einsteinschen Relativitiitstheorie,
gemeinverstlindlich dargestellt. Leipzig: Hillmann.
Barnewitz, Friedrich (1920). Einsteins Relativitiitstheorie. Versuch einer volks-
tfimlichen Zusammenfassung. Rostock: Leopolds Universitats-Buchhand-
lung.
24 Hubert F. M. Goenner

Bauer, Hans (1922). Mathematische Einftihrung in die Gravitationstheorie Ein-


steins nebst einer exakten Darstellu!Jg ihrer wichtigsten Ergebnisse. Leip-
zig, V\lien: Deuticke.
Bavink, Bernhard (1921). Ergebnisse und Probleme der NatuIWissenschaft, eine
Einfiihrung in die heutige Naturphilosophie. Leipzig: Hirzel.
Becher, Erich (1915). Weltgebaude, Weltgesetze, Weltentwicklung. Ein Bild der
unbelebten Natur. Berlin: Reimer.
Beck, Guido (1929). "Allgemeine Relativitatstheorie." In Handbuch der Physik,
Band 4. Berlin: Springer.
Becker, Walther (1921). Die Relativitiitstheorie gemeinverstiindlich dargestellt.
Leipzig: Hachmeister u. Thal.
Beer, Fritz (1919). Die Einsteinsche Relativitatstheorie und ihr historisches Fun-
uu,"'''',,,,,, Wien und Leipzig: Perles.
Benedicks, .Carl A .. F.. (1923). Raum und Zeit. Eines Experinzentalphysikers Auf-
fassungen von diesen Begriffen und von deren Veriinderung. Zurich: Orell
Filssli.
Berg, Otto (1910). Das Relativitiitsprinzip der Elektrodynamik. Sonderabdruck
aus Abhandl. Friesschen ·Schule Gottingen (2), 3: 333-382. Gottingen:
.Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht.
Bernays, Paul (1913). Uber die Bedenklichkeit der neueren .Relativitiitstheorie.
Gottingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht.
Erich (1923). Elementare EinfUhrung in die spezielle' Relativitlitstheorie.
Lubeck: Coleman.
HlalsclJLke~ Wilhelm (1921). Vorlesungen iiber Differential-Geometrie und geome-
trische Grundlagen von Einsteins Relativitiitstheorie. Band 1, Elementare
Differentialgeometrie (1923); Baii<f2,Affine Differentialgeometrien (1929);
Band 3, Differentialgeometrie der Kreise und Berlin: Springer.
Bloch, Werner (1918). in die Relativitiitstheorie. Leipzig and Berlin:
Teubner~
Karl (1921). Relativitiitstheorie und ihre Stellung im System der Gesamt-
eifahrung. Dresden and Leipzig: Steinkopf.
Borel, Emile (1931). Zeit und Raum. Stuttgart: Francks~he Verlagshandlung.
Born, Max (1920). Relativitatstheorie Einsteins und ihre physikalischen
Grundlagen. Berlin: Springer.
Botezadu, N. (1939). Wahrheit in der Relativitiitstheorie, des Mi-
chelsson-Versuchs. Produktivgenossenschaft Buchdruckerei Pallas.
Ijra.ck.. Warst'lCle~ J. (1924). Materie und Weltraum in ihrem gegenseitigen physi-
schenund Verhiiltnis auf Grund der .Teilbarkeit des
Raumes. Stade i.
Bresler, Johannes (1922). Jenseits von 1. Bezugslehre (Relativi-
tiitstheorie), 2. Psychiatrie und Psychoanalyse. Halle·A.S.: Marhold.
Brill, Alexander W. von (1909). Vorlesungen zur Einfiihrung in die MecnarnlK
raumerflillter Massen. Berlin and Leipzig: Teubner~
- - (1912). DasRelativitlitsprinzip. Sonderabdruck aus Band 21 der Deutschen
'1beory of UpD':Ilh,ntu in Germany 25

Mathematischen Vereinigung. Leipzig and Berlin: Teubner.


Brosske, Ludwig (1931). Der Sturz der Irrlehre Einsteins und der· bisherigen
Auslegungen der Aberration, des Airy-und des Fizeauschen Versuchs so-
wie wsung. Dusseldorf: Industrieverlag and Druckerei.
Briihlmann, Otto (1924). Wille und Licht, 1. Teil: Licht Kraft in der Physik.
Bern: Haupt.
- - (1931). Moglichkeiten und Deutung der absoluten Konstanz der Lichtge-
schwindigkeit. Leipzig: H\illmann.
- - (1932). Licht gestaltet Physik. Erkenntniskritische Untersuchung der phy-
sikalischen Gestaltung grundslitzlichen Sicherung der Lorentz-Transfor-
mation uoo Aujhebung der speziellen Relativiti;itstheorie. Wien: Braumul-
ler Uni versitats-Verlagsbuchhandlung.
BroIl, Erhard (1929). Erkenntniskritische Grundprobleme der Relativitiitstheorie,
Quanten- und Wellenmechanik. Breslau: Borgmeyer.
tlu~;;nerer, Heinrich (1923). Die Planetenbewegung aUJP Grund der Quantenthe-
orie und eine Kritik ·der Einsteinschen Gravitationsgleichungen. Bonn:
Rohrscheid.
Robert (1923). Die Gesetze der Natul: Aachen: Aachener Verlags- und
.JJ.J1U!'It",'Jl.llJ.\.,1.1. ..

Druckereigesellschaft.
- - (1922). Vber die Einsteinsche Relativitlitstheorie. Aachen: Selbstverlag.
- - (1921). Lehrslitze iiber das Weltall mit Beweis in Form eines offenen
Briefes an Prof Einstein. Aachen: Aachener Verlags- und Druckereige-
sellschaft
Busam,·Theodor (1921). Der Irrtum Einsteins. Der BegriffRaum und Zeit. Re-
tativitlit. Irrtum. Der Ausweg. Baden-Baden: Selbstverlag.
Carlebach, Joseph (1912). Die Geschichtedes Tragheitssatzes im Lichte des Re-
lativitiitsprinzips. Berlin.: Wiedemann.
Carnap, Rudolph (1922). Der Raum. Ein Beitrag zur Wissenschaftslehre~ Kant-
studien: Erganzungsheft 57. Berlin: Reuther and Richard.
Cassirer, Ernst (1921). Erkenntnistheoretisch~ Betrachtungen zur Einsteinschen
Relativitlitstheorie. Berlin: Bruno Cassirer.
Christiansen, Hans (1920). Absolut Eine Ablehnung des "Relativi-
tiitsprinzips" Einsteins auf Grund einer reinen Begriffsmathematik. Wies-
baden: Hofbuchhandlung Staadt.
Christoph, Hans (1925). Die Fahrt in die Zukunft. Ein Relativitlitsroman. Stutt-
gart: Deutsche Verlagsanstalt.
Clauss, Karl (1937). Der Ather eine logische Notwendigkeit. Krefeld: Greven.
Cohn, Emil (1913). Physikalisches fiber und Zeit.. Leipzig: Teubner.
Dieck, 'lVilhelm (1924). Die Relativitlitslehre und ihre Stellung zur zeitgenOssi-
schen Philosophie. Sterkrade: Osterkamp.
Dingler, Hugo (1921). Physik und Hypothese. Versuch einer induktiven Wissen-
schaftslehre nebst einer kritischen Analyse der Relativitlitstheorie. Berlin:
de Gruyter.
- - (1921). Kritische Bernerkungen zu den Grundlagender Relativitlitstheorie.
26 Hubert F. M. Goenner

Wiederabdruck aus Physikalische Zeitschrift 23: 668-675. Leipzig: Hirzel.


- - (1922). Relativitiitstheorie und Oekonomieprinzip. Leipzig: Hirzel.
- - (1923). Das Problem des absoluten Raums in historisch"-kritischer Be-
handlung. Sonderabdruck aus der Radioaktivitat und Elektronik
19: 165-214. Leipzig: Hirzel.
- - (1938). Die Methode der Physik. Munchen: Reinhardt.
Driesch, Hans A. E. (1930). Relativitatstheorie und Weltanschauung" (2. umgear-
beitete Auflage von Relativitatstheorie und Philosophie)" Leipzig: QueUe
und Meyer.
Duschek,Adalbert, und Mayer, Walther (1930). Lehrbuch der Differentfalgeome-
trie. Band 2,: Riemannsche Geometrie. Leipzig und Berlin: Teubner.
Dusing, Karl (1922). Einstein's Relativitatstheorie. Leipzig: Janecke Verlagsbuch-
handlung.
Eddington, Arthur S. (1923). Raum, Zeit und Schwere. Ein Umriss der allge-
rtteinen Relativitiitstheorie. Braunschweig: Vieweg.
- - (1925). ·Relativitatstheorie in mathematis~her (Grundlehren
der mathematischen Wissenschaft, Band 18). Berlin: Springer.
- - (1935). Die NatuIWissenschajt aufneuen Bahnen. Braunschweig: Vieweg.
- - ' (1939). Das ein Versuch seiner philosophischen
Braunschweig: Vieweg.
......... f&.II1<"III,fflVA..

Ehrenfest, Paul (1912). Zur Krise Leiden.


Leiden: Berlin: Springer, 1913.
Otto (1925). VomSyllogismus in der Relativitatstheorie. Die Gravitation
und die l1Jsung eines Weltriitse Is. Wien: Selbstverlag"
Einstein, Albert (1915)" "Die In Die Kultur der Gegenwart.
3. Teil, 1. Band" Leipzig and Berlin: Teubner.
-,- - (1916). Die der allgemeinen KeL:att,'ttliJtstheor'te
Leipzig: Barth"
- - - (1917).Uber die spezielle und allgemeine Braun-
schweig: Vieweg.
- - (1920)" "Aether und RelativiHitstheorie." Rede gehalten am 5. Mai 1920
an der zu £eiden. Springer.
- - (1921). Geometrie und Erweiterte Fassung des Festvortrages
an der Akademie der Wissenschaften" Berlin: Springer.
- - (1922). Vier Vorlesungen iiber Relativitiitstheorie" (Gehalten im Mai 1921
an der Princeton Braunschweig: Vieweg.
- - (1934). Mein Amsterdam: Querida.
Einstein, und Grossmann, Marcel (1913). Entwuifeiner Vel"aU,f?efJneljrzerten
Relativitlitstheorie und einer Theorie der Gravitation. Sonderabdruck aus
Zeitschrift fur und 62: 225-261. and Berlin:
Teubner.
Einstein, Albert, und
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40 A.I Kox

2.

the very be~~lnl11n~g,

3.

3.1 GENERAL

we at in
to 1920, L . . . . . . ., ................... Jf"lh01l""<fJlJf"1tQl.1t"1lC'1tll""C'

papers an emphasis on
General Relativity in the Netherlands 41

A ,,111Ct,("'>1I11lC~Ctllr1~n

me now tum to an overview of

3.2 DROSTE

1917a,
UJl.ll..I.VlI..JIl.\"I\,.Ilt.J1., in
42 A.I Kox

3.3 Do FOKKER
General Relativity in the Netherlands 43

KRAMERS

3.5 HENDRIK LORENTZ

3.7 SCHOUTEN

The maltb.e~m~lUClan ~~"'\\..n.lI"11t.Qn


44 A.I Kox

his he a torma.llS1n
ematically rigorous as it is _1U'J1.J.., , , ......... _JiLJI.\V to the average nIl1l1lTCll'""lIct

made no further f'lAitlltrshll'll1hlA1t1lC' to physics of f-,_JLJo._JLli>Jl,JL

3.8 DE
The astronomer De is a special case, choice of
topics. 1916 1920, he wrote on general rpl~lt1"rllt"
its to cosmology.21
Sitter's was very and Int1lUe][ltu:u.
.IL.IL.IL~ the "gospel" of
C)IV.lLlvU.U• rl=~n~tll"1I1r"\1 otJl1tlltJlr'lJIU

North Sea to three papers in the lV1()nlJruv


Royal Astrofl:omical Society
was lln4)lroro{:'~cC'lIhltJl

3.9
General Relativity in the Netherlands 45

of traits
the Netherlands is the speed
into the ongoing research of
of course, the na.1I~C'A·1l1I41lH

as in Oia.£'I\rIIP.,C!ll,t1l 1"'lr1l'"tJl,t1lA'~C!ll,('\\1l1l has


revived from oblivion oec:au~~e to use it as a test of il'1E-JlTlIE-Jl1l""'JlI

is
rlta.'lTAU,"'ln1l""n..o1t"ll1t fact that
.JL...I .......... _ " "........ physicists who really """JI.'-"M"'''''''''''
46 A.J. Kox

in the sense of a
a of nh"SlCS.. 11llCll1Lalrl~
n1l"'d"1~hl.t:lk1nt1\C were. It is bl11renjtest
General Relativity in the Netherlands 47

not very lIUJlue][lt1~u.

NOTES

1 See Eisenstaedt 1986, 1988b for more details.


2 Although Ehrenfest had succeeded Lorentz as professor of theoretical phys-
ics in the summer of 1912 and Lorentz had moved from Leiden to Haarlem,
48 A.I Kox

Lorentz was still an influential, factor in Leiden physics through his falne and
prestige, as well as through his position as an Extraordinary Professor ("Buitenge-'
woon Hoogleraar").
3 See Kox 1988 and Illy 1989 for more details on Lorentz, and Klein 1970
for more on the contacts between Lorentz, and Einstein.
4 See Einstein 1915.
5 In a footnote to his first paper in the Monthly Notices, De Sitter made the
following comment in connection with Lorentz's lectures: "Many of the results
contained in the present paper are wholly or partially derived from these lectures"
(De Sitter 1916c, p. 707, footnote). He also mentioned "much free interchange
of ideas" between Lorentz, Ehrenfest, Droste, and himself.
6 See Janssen's paper in this volume for a detailed discussion of this work.
7 Lorentz vyas the first to cast the 1914 version of general relativity in'
Harniltonian form (Lorentz 1915). His work on the 1915 version generalized
earlier work by Hilbert (1915).
8 "Droste's Dissertation ist ausserordentlich schon," Einstein to Ehrenfest,
25 1917.
See, for instance, De Sitter 1916e.
~o See in particular Eisenstaedt 1982, 1987, 1988a.
11 An English translation did not appear until 1937, in the fifth volume of
Lorentz's Collected Papers (The Hague: 'Nijhoff).
12 See Havas 1988 and the paper by Damour and Schafer in this volume
for more details.
13 This must be one of the first derivations of contracted Bianchi iden-
tities, if not the first; Pais (1982, p. credits for the first derivation and
dates it at August 1917, whereas paper was submitted in January 1917.
14 The first calculation is in fact due to Schouten (1918a), but his value was
off by a factor of 2/3. See also Schouten 1921.
15 In fact, geodesic precession may still become ~ test of general relativity.
It has been proposed to measure the precession of a gyroscope on board a satellite
orbiting the earth. speaking, this would not a determination of geodesic
precession only, since other effects also contribute to, the total precession. See
Will 1981, pp. 208-212, for more details.
16 As Fokker puts it: "Space is nothing but the mere possibility of events
taking place here-and-there, while time is merely the possibility of events occur-
ring before-and-after each other." 1965, p. 2).
17 See a similar comment by Kramers' biographer Max Dresden (1987,
p. 98). Dresden' only mentions the papers in passing.
18 See note 3; see also Janssen's paper in this volume.
was in Leiden on a stipend. In 1917, his ties with Leiden
became more personal he married Nelly van Leeu~en, one of Ehrenfest's
students. See Isaksson 1985 for more details on Nordstrom's work and
20 See, for instance, Schouten 1918b and Schouten 1924.
21 At an early stage, De Sitter was interested in the possible consequences
General Relativity in the Netherlands 49

on astronomy of the principle of relativity; see De Sitter 1911. His first two
papers on general relativity (De Sitter 1916a, 1916b) were concerned with this
topic as welL
22 See the paper by Sanchez-Ron in this volume for more details on the
reception of general relativity in England.
23 The discussion took place in a series of papers as well as in the cor-
respondence between De Sitter and Einstein; see, e.g., De Sitter 1916d, 1917a,
1917b, 1918, 1920 and Einstein 1918. It is outside the scope of this paper to go
into more detail; see· Kerzsberg 1988, 1989 for an extensive discussion.
24 See, e.g.,· Glick 1987 and the paper by Lopes (lagean and da Costa Leite
in this volume.
25 See Eisenstaedt 1986, 1988b.
26 See, e.g., Fokker 1918b; Kuenen J917; Lorentz 1917b, 1919; Schouten
1920; and Van der Waals Jr. 1923.
27 I limit myself to the more serious anti-relativists and leave out of consid-
eration a few attacks by people such as the writer Lodewijk van Deyssel (1922),
whose arguments betrayed a profound lack of knowledge of the theory.
28 A typical example was a statement by Greeve (1922): "What is called
sitnultaneity by Einstein has nothing to do with the nature of this concept. [... ]
Everyone knows what simultaneity is." ("Wat door Einstein gelijktijdigheid wordt
genoemd is totaal bezijden den aard van dit begrip., [... ] Ieder weet wat gelijk-
tijdigheid is." Emphasis by Greeve.)
29 His view was shared by the physics teacher Wigersma (1922). A typical
objection raised by Wigersmawas the claim that Einstein first established the
constancy of the of light as a fact and then used it as a starting pQint for
the development of a theory, instead of taking Lorentz's approach and using the
existing theory to find a theoretical explanation for the outcome of experiments,
such as the Michelson-Morley experiment.

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Einstein and the History of General Relativity. Don Howard and John
Stachel, cds. Boston: Birkhauser, pp. 277~292.
Fokker, Adriaan Daniel (1915). "A Summary of Einstein and Grosslnann's Theory
of Gravitation." Philosophical Magazine 29: 77-96.
- - (1917). "De virtueele verplaatsingen van het en van
de toepassing van variatieprincipe van Hamil-
ton." Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam. Verslagen
vande Vergaderingen-der Wis- en AfdeeUng 25
(1916-1917): 1067-1084; English translation: "The Vrrtual Displacements
of the Electro-Magnetic and Gravitational Field in Applications of Uamil-
ton's Variation ." van Wetenschappen te
Amsterdam. ofthe Section ofSciences 19 (1916-1917): 968-
984.
- - (1918a). "Over hetgeen in niet-Euclidische ruimten beantwoordt aan eene
verplaatsing evenwijdig aan zichzelf, en over de Riemanniaansche krom-
temaat." Akademie van Wetenschappen te Versla-
gen van de Gewone Vergaderingen der Wis- en Natuurkundige Afdeel-
ing 27 (1918-1919): 363-376; English translation: "On the of
Parallel in Non-Euclidean Space and on Riemann's Measure
of Curvature." van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam.
ProceedIngs o/the Section of Sciences 21 (1918-1919): 505-517.
---.. (1918b). de verkorting van lichamen, die zich bevlegen,
en paradox der. relativiteitstheorie, dieermede samenhangt." Vragen
vanden Dag 33: 395-407.
- - - (1919a). "Het anti-relativisme van ir. M.W. Polak weerlegd." De Ingenieur
34: 297, 299-300.
General Relativity in the Netherlands 53

- - . (1919b). "Het relativiteitsbeginsel in de mechanica. Zakelijk." De Inge-


nieur 34: 651-652.
- - (1920)."De geodetische precessie; een uitvloeisel van Einstein's gravitatie-
theorie." Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam. Versla-
gen van de Gewpne Vergaderingen der Wis- en Natuurkundige Afdeeling
'29 (1920-1921)": 611-621; English translation: "The Geodesic Preces-
sion: A Consequence of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation." Koninklijke
Akademie van Wetenschappen teAmsterdam., Proceedings of the Section
of Sciences 23 (1920-1922): 729-738.
- - (1922). studie. Proeve van antwoord aan .Prof. Dr. G.
Heymans." De 86 (IV): 244-271.
- - (1960). en ruimte, traagheid en zwaarte~ Zeist: De Haan. English
translation: Fokker 1965.
- - (1965). Time and Space, Weight, and Inertia: A Chronogeometrical Intro-
duction to Einstein~ Theory. Oxford: Pergamon.
Thomas F. (1987).~ "Cultural Issues in the Reception of Relativity." In The
Comparative of Relativity. Thomas F. ed. Dordrecht:
pp. 381-400.
Max (ps. of P. (1922). De onhoudbaarheid relativiteits-
theorie. Den Haag: Haga.
Havas, (1988). "The Early ,History of the 'Problem of Motion' in General
77 Upl~t1."rihl' In Einstein and the History ofGeneral Relativity. Don Howard
and John Stachel, eds. Boston: Birkhauser, pp. 234-276.
He~vm(lns, Gerard (1921). "Leekenvragen ten opzichte van de relativiteitstheorie."
De Gids 85 (II): 85-108.
. . . . . . . . ...,.. . . . . ., David (1915). "Die Grundlagen der Physik. (Erste Mitteilung)." Konig-
liche Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen. Mathematisch-physi-
kalische Klasse. Nachrichten: 395-407.
Illy, Jozsef (1989). "Einstein Teaches Lorentz, Teaches Einstein: Their
Collaboration in General Relativity, 1913-1920." Archive for of
Exact Sciences 39: 247-289.
Isaksson, (1985). "Der finnische Gunnar Nordstrom und sein
zur Entstehung der allgemeinen Relativitatstheorie Albert Einsteins."
fur die Geschichte der Naturwissenschaft, Technik
M-A~cl1~rtl1tenjretfle
MeGllZln 22: 29-52.
Kerszberg, Pierre (1988). "The Einstein-De Sitter Controversy of 1916-1917 and
the Rise of Relativistic Cosmology." In Einstein and the of Gen-
.eral Don Howard and John Stach~~, eds. Boston: 1kI!1I"1l"lITh';:-iilllllC"0l."Il"

pp. 325-366.
- - (1989). The Invented Universe: The Einstein-De Sitter Controversy (1916-
1917) and the Rise of Relativistic Cosmology. London and York:
Oxford University Press (Clarendon).
Martin 1. (1970). Paul Ehrenfest: The Making of a Theoretical Physicist.
Amsterdam: North-Holland.
54 'A.I Kox

Kox, A.I (1988). "Hendrik Antoon Lorentz, the and the General Theory
of Relativity." Archive for History of Exact Sciences 38: 67--78. Also in '
Einstein the of General Don Howard and John
Stachel, eds. Boston: Birkhauser, pp. 201-212.
Kramers, Hendrik Anthony (1920a), (1920b). "Over de toepassing van Einstein's
gravitatietheorie op een stationair zwaarteveld I, " Koninklijke Akademie
van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam. Verslagen van de Gewone Vergaderin-
gen der Wis- en Natuurkundige Afdeeling 29 (192o-1921): 409-418;
419-433; 834 ("Naschrift"); English translation: "On the Application of
Einstein's Theory of Gravitation to a Stationary Field of Gravitation."
Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam. of
the Section of Sciences 23 (192o-1922):1052-1073 .
1. P. (1917). "Relativiteitstheorie." De Gids 81 (I): 462-481, 81
..ll.'l1ll.U1V.Il.A1VJLll,

96-123.
Lorentz, Antoon (1915). "Het beginsel van Hamilton in Einstein's theo-
rie zwaartekracht." Akademie van te Am-
sterdam. Verslagen van de Gewone der Wis- en 1 ... Rj'HIHIH_

KU1U.7tlfle Ajdeeling 23 (1914-1915): 1073-1089; English translation: "On


. Hamilton's Principle in Einstein's of Gravitation." KOinlnAtlllJte
Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam. oJf the Section
of Sciences 19 (1916-1917): 75t-765.
- - (1916a), (1916b), (1916c), (1917a). "Over Einstein's theorie der zwaarte-
kracht I, IV~" Akademie van te Amster-
dam.Verslagen van de Gewone Vergaderingen der Wis- en lVal:UUil"/(,UJ1(J,U?e
Af(~eellJ1,tl24
(1915-1916): 13~?-=-l,~02; 25 (1916--1917): 468-
1380-1396; English translation: "On Einstein's Theory of Gravita-
tion I, I~" Akademie van te Amster-
dam. ofthe Section ofSciences 19 (1916-1917): 1341-1354;
1354-1369; 20 (1917-1918): 2-19; 2o-34~
- - (1917b). "De gravitatietheorie van Einstein en de grondbegrippen der na-
tuurkunde." De 32:649-655.
- - (1919). en het licht. Een bevestiging van Einstein's
gravitatietheorie." Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant November 1919.
- - (1923). van het g-veld in de algemeene relativiteitstheorie
met van en stoffeHjke
met eenige over de van staven en den duur van tijds-
intervallen en over de theorieen van en Eddington." KOjruni'(;unte
AICl'laejmle van te Amsterdam. Verslagen van de Gewone
Vergaderingen der Wis- 32: 383-402. English
translation: "The of the Potentials in the General Theory
of Relativity, with Some Remarks about the M~asurement of ..L.J"'B'A~'l.J\.J1U
and Intervals of TIme and about the Theories of and Eddington."
J(oninklijke van te of
the Section of Sciences 29 (1926): 383-399.
General Relativity in the Netherlands 55

Lorentz, Hendrik Antoon, and Droste, Johannes (1917a), (1917b). "De bewe-
ging van een stelsel lichamen onder den invloed van hunne onderlinge
aantrekking, behandeld volgens de theorie van Einstein I, II." Koninklijke
Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam. Verslagen van de Gewone
Vergaderingen der Wis- en Natuurkundige Afdeeling 26 (1917-1918):
392--403; 649-660.
Nordstrom, Gunnar (1917). "De gravitatietheorie van Einstein en de mechani-
ca der continua van Herglotz." Koninklijke Akademie Wetenschap-
pen te Amsterdam. Verslqgen van de Gewone Vergaderingen der Wis- en
Natuurlkundige Afdeeling 25 (1916-1917): 836-843; English translation:
"Einstein's Theory of Gravitation and Herglotz's Mechanics of Continua."
Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Alnsterdam. Proceedings of
the Section of Sciences 19 (1916-1917): 884-891.
- _ . (1918a). "lets over de massa van een stoffelijk stelsel volgens de gravi-
tatietheorie van Einstein." Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te
Amsterdam. Verslagen van Gewone 'Vergaderingen der Wis- en Na-
IUUirKUDw,u~e Afdeeling 26 (1917-1918): 1093-1108; English translation:
"On the Mass of a Material System According to the Gravitation Theory
of Einstein." Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam.
Proceedings ofthe Section ofSciences 20 (1917-1918): 1076-1091.
- - (1918b). "Een en ander over de energie van het zwaartekrachtsveld vol-
gens de theorie van Einstein." Koninklijke Akademie van Weienschappen
te Amsterdam. Verslagen van de Gewone Vergaderingen der Wis- en Na-
tUUirICUD'Ulu~e Afdeeting 26 (1917-1918):1201-1208; English translation:
"On the Energy of the Gravitation Field in Einstein's Theory~" KOininJf(It/jtt'
Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam. Proceedings afthe Section
of Sciences 20 (1917-1918): 1238-1245.
- - (1918c). "Berekening voor eenige bijzondere gevallen volgens de gravi-
tatietheorie· van Einstein." Koninklijke van Wetenschappen te
Amsterdam. Verslagen van de Gewone Vergaderingen der Wis- en Na-
tuurkundige Afdeeling 26 (1917-1918): 1577-1589; English translation:
"Calculation of Some Special Cases, in Einstein's Theory of Gravitation."
Konin-klijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Proceedings of
the Section ofSciences 21 (1918-1919): 68-79.
Pais, Abraham (1982). 'Subtle is the Lord. .. ': The Science and Life ofAlbert
Einstein. London and New York: Oxford University Press (Clarendon).
Polak, lVI.W. (1918). Bezwaren tegen de opvattingen der relativisten. Deventer:
I(luwer.
- - (1919a). "Is de relativiteitstheorie te aanvaarden?" De lngenieur 34: 21-
26.
- - (1919b). "Relativiteitsbeginsel in de mechanica. Weerlegging vemietigd."
lngenieur 34: 439-441.
- - (1922). "De relativiteitstheorieen het denken." Tijdschrift vaor VVijsbe-
geerte 16: 209-219.
56 A.I Kox

Schouten, Jan Arnoldus (1918a). "Over het ontstaan eener praecessiebeweging


tengevolge van het niet euklidisch zijn der ruimte in de nabijheid van de .
zon." Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Alnsterdam. Verslagen
van de Gewone Vergaderingen der Wis- en Natuurkundige Afdeeling 27
(1918-1919): 214-220 (pp. 219-220: addendum by W. De Sitter); En-
glish translation: "On the Arising of a Precession-Motion Owing to the
Non-Euclidian Linear Element of the Space in the Vicinity of the Sun."
Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam. Proceedings of
the Section of Sciences 21 (1918-1919): 533-539 (pp. 538-539: adden-
dum by W. De Sitter).
- - '- (1918b). "Die Analysis zur neueren Relativitatstheorie." Konink-
lijke Akademie van.VVetenschappen te Amsterdam. Verhandelingen (Eerste
Sectie) 12, No.6.
- - (1920). Over de ontwikkeling der begrippen ruimte en tijd in met
het relativiteitsbeginsel. Rotterdam: Nijgh en Van Ditmar. (Based on an
article in the newspaper Handelsblad, January 8, 1920.)
-.. -.- (1921).' de geodetische praecessie." Koninklijke Akademie van We-
tenschappen te Verslagen van de Gewone Vergaderingen der
Wis- en Natuurkundige A/fleeling 29 (1920-1921): English
translation: "On' Geodesic Precession." Akademie van Weten-
scn:aOi~en te Amsterdam. Proceedings ofthe Section ofSciences 23 (1920-
1922): 1108-1112.
- - (1921). Der Kalkill. Berlin: Springer, 1924.
Tresling, (1917). der electronentheorie in een gravitatieveld
.van uit een variatieprincipe. De functie der
electronenbeweging." van te Am-
steJi"aaln. Verslagen van de Gewone der Wis- en Natuur-
kundige Afdeeling 25 (1916-1917): 844-848; English translation: "The
Equations of the of Electrons in a Gravitation Field of Einstein
Deduced from a Variation The of the Motion
of the Electrons." Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amster-
dam. Proceedings of the Section of Sciences 19 (1916-1917): 892-896.
Van den Willem (1920). Vraagstukken uit Einstein's gravitatietheorie. Haar-
lern: Loosjes.
Van der Waals Johannes D. (1923). De relativiteitstheorie.Haarlem: Bohn.
Van Deyssel, (1922). "Einstein's relativiteitstheorie. Een op-
merking." De Gids 37 (I): 153-158.
Wigersma, B. (~922). en relativiteitstheorie. Hun uitkomst en hun
doel. Boissevain.
.......-.A......... ...,........ M. (1981). Theory Lon-
don and New
58 Jose M. Sanchez-Ron

One of results of the war, in the scientific brains of this


were mobilized to such good purpose, is an increase
interest in the achievements of science, whether theoretical or
pralcuc::al. In days, neither the· man in the street nor the man at
the club window could have been to read articles about
hlnlstelLn versus controversy.
General Uplc:llh'i71ltu The British 59

cation were
organizations, in
on

UDJl'·U:";"JI."C~ RELATIVITY IN
60 Jose M. Sanchez-Ron

these events are very Jl.JI.JI.AIIV'V'JII.· IIklLoWlJilllkq, are eleme:nts of a


General Relativity Among The British 61

Royal Astronomical Society) ae~uml~ of stars


llI~"rM1l OinT nht"\1rno-rr.1l1.,~tn:'T

as means of testing· the equivalence lI-''-Jt..:,II.-lI.IL.ll._1I.-V new theory of


Lm~C1emlann 1916).

11l1llf"1t h'll.i1lAJii in its


1917.

A Council Note in 1910 begins with the sentence, "Celestial mechan-


ics, which has hitherto been based on the Newtonian laws of motion, is
profoundly affected by the discoveries which have been made in recent
years regarding measurements of space, time, and force" [Monthly No-
tices, 70: 363]. words were of the character of a prediction, for
the new ideas had at that time scarcely reached the principal force with
which astronomy is concerned-gravitation. remarkable progress
has been made, especially in the last two years, and now there emerges
a complete and self-consistent new system of mechanics, which can be
applied without ambiguity to the problems of gravitational astronomy.
62 . Jose M. Sanchez-Ron
General Relativity Among The British' 63

His explanation [of, the motion of the perihelion of is com-


paratively and on that account will be to the
recent of which introduces very revolutionary concep-
nrC)Vl<lea that it meets certain other astronomical requirements
which seem necessary.

It is disappointing to find that this interesting suggestion [i.e., Lodge's],


which gives a explanation of the most celebrated discordance of
gravitational is apparently unable to satisfy the most stringent
test (Eddington 1917b)
64 Jose M. Sanchez=Ron

in 1920.

2.2
General Relativity Among The British 65

meeting
discussion or~~anlze~a
of eclipse Jil._Ul\,""J1l\.~
..

one
a sort of
66 Jose M. Sanchez-Ron

It was stage to
The condensation claimed by Planck's modification of Stokes's theory,
for the sun as well as for the Earth and for all material bodies, is
no longer devoid of influence on observable phenomena. It suddenly
acquires physical life, so to speak. In other words, the discovery made
in Brazil naturally suggests the idea that the observed deflection is due
to the condensation ofthe ether around the sun, and that although
one has been an implacable enemy of any ether at all for the last 15
years, one does not hesitate to point out this possibility-a last glimpse
of hopt?, perhaps, for the vanished medium.
General ilpl~h1,ntv The British 67
68 Jose M. Sanchez-Ron
General Relativity Among The British 69

the
it also COl1ltalltlea
course, most
n1r.QI1!rllrl!.llll«:'lll1!r D1UOIJlSn{~a in C!1I"\&JI.£'I'II4:llI'llP7£:brll
70 Jose M. Sanchez-Ron
General KeJaU'ritv Among The British 71
72 Jose M. Sanchez-Ron

Some of my readers miss, perhaps, in this volume the enthusias-


tic tone which usually permeates the books and pamphlets that have
been written on the subject (with a notable exception of Einstein's own
writings). Yet the author is the last man to be blind to the admirable
boldness and the severe architectonic beauty of Einstein's But
it has seemed beauties of such a kind, are rather enhanced than
obscured by the adoption of a sober tone and an apparently cold form
of presentation.

3.

The surprising is that this theory has anived at verifiable


it is, marvelous, and it very brilliant mathematical work. It
has been done by using an out-of-the-way calculus developed pure
mathematicians-a kind of tool which only a few
can use. not to be able to use it; I only with (UtJl1CUlltv
follow the must with some kind of
down on you ca~ get results. The
is not dynamicaL There is no apparent aim at real truth. It is
regarded as a convenient mode of expression.

yet, It is true
CIJlh':!tf'\\111'lltl"A3 to
CaJlCU.IUS AiL_".,_.....' _
General II-J';e.B":Jl1t"1I'71I1""itT Among The British 73

the theory, and its eXTJ~enlmeIltal 01nlenSl0l[l,


-.............._ .......'...-...JL_ «)l11tlhn1I1lolh IUU!Jlt".::~·-
sive, was rather Therefore,
74 Jose M. Sanchez-Ron

'" 1IIn.1l""a.n.'1I ra.1I'" elected Dre~Sldent


he chose as
1920) ....hiIlstei.n 7
General Refativity Among The British 75

papers
.time with him in JIJ...J'\l,.lI.IVJl.JUl.JL. I

case is 1l"'.t3'l1"n4l1l1!l'·!lrltJllhR.t3
76 Jose M. Sanchez-Ron

NOTES

1 I shall discuss the case of British philosophers in another,publication.


2 See, for instance, Earman and Glymour 1980.
3 Concerning the nlyth of the incomprehensibility of general relativity in the
Anglo-Saxon world, it is worth recalling the presumably apocryphal exchange that
had Arthur Eddington as its main protagonist: "Professor Eddington," someone
asked him, "is it true that only three people understand general relativity?" "Oh,
who is the third?" was Eddington's reply. Independently of its apocryphal or
even jocular character, this anecdote ,sums up the prevailing opinion among a
large nunlber of individuals.
4 For more about the cultural issues in the reception of relativity, see Glick
1987.
5 See, in this sense, Carr 1921.
6 See, in this regard, Alter 1987.
7 Hald~ne 1921, p.,xL'
8 See Sanchez-Ron 1987.
9 A few aspects related to De Sitter's three papers in the Notices
wer.e discussed by A.D. Crommelin (Crommelin 1931) in the address he delivered
on the occasion of the award of the Gold Medal of the Astrononrical Society
to De Sitter.
10 Actually, it was Bragg who comrnunicated Fokker's paper to rnJtlOS'OlJJ'l-
ical Magazine.
11 See interview conducted by John L. Heilbron with as part of
the '~Archive for History of Physics. Sources for of Quantum
Physics" project descriptions and-some locations of this see
tle:UDr'on~ Fonnan, and Allen 1967.
12 This was before Sitter sent Eddington his first paper for the Monthlv
Notices Sitter's paper was completed during August 1916, and in (see
.Stachel 1986); Eddington was writing to the Dutch astronomer that "I feel sure
you will allow me to make use of the papers you send"].
13 Whether or not Eddington was the moving spirit in the organization of
that discussion is something 'I do not know, although it seems he was (see
in this regard the Eddington sent to De Sitter on in Stachel
1986).
14 Actually, no meetings were held in 1917 and 1918.
15 See p. 364 Eighty=Sixth Meeting ofthe British Association
"forthe of Science: Newcastle-On-Tyne: 1916 1917).
16 See Eve 1939, p. and the account of the meeting published
in Nature 98: 120(1916). Eddington's talk at Newcastle-On-Tyne presumable
coincides with his first paper devoted to general theory of relativity
(Eddington 1916).
17 Among those present at Newcastle-On-Tyne were F.W~ Dyson, E. Ruther-
ford, Ie. McLennan,H.R. Hasse, W.H. H.H. Turner, and A.N. WllliteJleald~
W-ho presided over Section A (mathematics and physics).
General Relativity Among The British 77

18 The council notes, or, more properly, the on the Progress of


Astronomy," were co.rru:pissioned by the Council of the Astronomical So-
ciety. It was only from 1938 that the authors' names V\Tere spelled out, although
the owners of the initials used until then were easily Idelntl!jlable.
19 Lodge referred to an "interesting account" by Eddington
in Nature (Eddington 1916).
20 This view of the 1915-1918 history of relativity in Great Britain,
although not essentially compatible one forward by Earman and Gly-
mour (1980), offers new perspectives and insights concerning the early reception
of Einstein's 1915 in Britain..Compare, in this sense, what I have said
in the text with ·the fonowing statements made by E,arman and Glymour (1980
p. 50): "Yet there is no evidence that before 1919 many British physicists had
warmed to general relativity. What literature appeared on the theory was
generally or concerned with presenting alternatives. Before 1919 there
did not appear in British scientific journals a single article, other than De Sitter's,
or extended the new ·theory. British physicists had ~o take cog-
nizance of the because Eddington and De Sitter had made them
aware that Einstein had succeeded in explaining the long-standing anomaly in
the motion but prior to the eclipse expedition were not disposed
to the new relativistic. account of gravitation or even to much to
understand it"
To further my point, I will recall the case of William Wilson, of King's
College, London, as can be seen in bibliographies such as the ones
Combridge 1965.and Lecat 1924 or in Whittaker's encyclopedic history
(\Alhl1t~r".:llIlrI:lh1l" 1953), to the development of general relativity during the
1920s and 1930s. also in the development of the old quantum the-
ory). 1918, Wilson was discussing specific points of Einstein's theory
at the Physical Society of London (see Wilson 1919); in this paper, received at
the Physical Society on October 21, 1918, Wilson showed that the equations of
motion in a gravitational field can be put in a form.
21 full account of the eclipse expedition results was by Dyson,
Eddington, and Davidson 1920 in the Transactions of the
Society , It might be worth out at this stage that a prelimlnmrv
discussion of of the eclipse results photographs taken at was
presented by Eddington and Cottingham 1920 at the 87th of the British
Association for the Advancement of Science, held at Bournemouth on ~el)te]nbGer
9-13, 1919.
22 for instance, the note in November 21,
1919 (p. 1229), as as ed., 1987, p. 26.
23 in Stachel 1986, p. 234.
24 See The "Einstein's of Gravitation," November
1919, p. 1189; "A Matter of Evidence," November 21, 1919, pp. 1128-1129; and
Lo~ge 1919. In his paper, in the magazine The Century
and After, l.,odge accepted without any reservation the measurements taken by the
78 Jose M. Sanchez-Ron

British expedition, pointing out also that "Before Einstein's prediction nothing of
the kind had been seen, of the kind had been looked for, nor, so far as IS
known, has such an amount of deflection been he could not
refrain from of the of accepting Einstein's "The present
holds it dangerous," he wrote, "to base such far-reaching consequences
[i.e., Einstein's ideas of space and time as expressed in gravitational
even if anything like them can legitimately be drawn-which is doubtful-on a
pre:dicted effect which may after all be accounted for and expressed in simpler'
fashion. Our admiration for the brilliant way in which the fact was arrived at
must not make us too enthusiastically to assimilate the whole complicated
theory out ,of which it arose. For, independent of the above speculation, it is i

indubitable the mathematical theory of relativity-very different from what


philosophers have meant by the term-is almost inevitably complicated."
Lodge also took this to mention his "Electrical Theory of "
to which I have already referred.
25 Usu~ly, ordinary meetings of the Astronomical Society were
devoted to reading of papers. in view of the interest
in the of caused by the of the results of the
obs~rvations, council they would meet the wishes of the
giving the whole time of the meeting of December to the consideration of
Einstein's this, see 1923, p. 23~.
26 See on the of Notices of the
80: 96-119 (1919); "Discussion. on the of
ftlJh,n-nranff Society 32: 245-251 (1920).
Larmor a communication that was read the secretary of
the society; in it, Larmor of he said "How
far it is from a determinate of the universe will appear to anyone
who dips into the of its " At the same Larmor took the
opportunity to out the of with his beloved
principle of least Larmor was active in the discussions that
fonowed the .1919 announcement; a 19th scientist,
he could not Einstein's A sentence in this
sense is the one, which appears in the Larmor wrote in collab-
oration with W.J. Johnston for 1919 meeting at the British Association for
the Advancement of Larmor "If science
is to evolve on the of relations of matter and its time
must to be thrown on to the material observing system in the form of
mOGID.catlon of its structure." For a list of Larmor's papers connected with
issues 'I,J~U""_
llJl,A
see Lecat 1924 and
1l".43U·t:Ilt'll,Yllt-,y I will
-not discuss Larmor's ideas in article.
28 At the royal AstronomLCa! me4~tln2~ Jeans confined practically all
of his comments to the . his of
,:,d·,y was still rather
1l'".43B-Jl't.. C'lll'll1l',\.43'1l"1h!J"I>lI".llB

29 For the exact references, see Lecat 1924.


General Relativity Among The British 79

30 The observations referred to by Fowler were those of Evershed 1914 and


1918; Schwarzschild 1914; St. John 1917; and Grebe and Bachem 1919.
31 Probably, St. 'John's most important work was his revision of the Row-
land's table of solar wavelengths undertaken during the 1920s in collaboration
with other Mt. Wilson colleagues.
32 St. John's first observations and discussions were made in 1917.
33 See Douglas· 1956, pp. -
34 "The Astronomical Tests of Einstein's Law," Monthly Notices ofthe Royal
Astronomical Society 84: 292-295 (1924). The author of this report answered to
the initials A.C.D.C., most probably A.C.D. Crommelin, who was the Society's
secretary during the period 1917-1923.
35 The problem continued to be investigated (see, for instance, Evershed
1928, 1931). Eisenstaedt,1986 has also considered some aspects of this test of
general relativity.
36 This story was told Eve 1939.
37 Rutherford and Compton's note dealt, as they acknowledged, with the
same sort of problems that the chemist Frederick George Donnan vvas studying
at the time (see Donnan 1919). their results were "not in disaccord with
the relation deduced by Prof. Donnan."
38 Arthur Schuster had suggested this problem to Rutherford before the
outbreak of the war.
39 Of course, this was in fact a test of the principle of equivalence.
40 See in this regard Douglas 1956, Stachel 1986, and Sanchez-Ron 1987b.
41 "One of the literary gems of English scientific literature," Rice 1923 called
this book.
42 A second edition was published in 1924. Also, a German translation
appeared in 1925; it contained an appendix written by Einstein.
43 As a matter of fact, during these years, Eddington gave a course of
lectures on general relativity each Easter term. According to Douglas (1956), "a
few senior undergraduates and research students and a few of the younger fellows
took advantage of these lectures. About eight attended the course in 1922.
44 This, is the case, for instance, with VII Geometry), which
includes Eddington's generalization of Weyl's unified theory of the electromag-
netic and gravitational fields, which he had forward in 1921 (Eddington
1921b). I have considered a few of the more advanced topics included in The
Mathematical Theory of Relativity in Sanchez-Ron 1987b.
45 See Eddington 1921b, 1922.
46 See Baldwin a~d Jeffrey 1926, and Baldwin 1979.
47 See, for instance, items numbers 954, 955, 1673, and 1692 of Cambridge
1965, corresponding to papers of Whittaker, and Wirtinger.
48 As far as journals are concerned, my discussion throughout this paper is
based on the analysis of the following journals: Proceedings of the Soci-
ety ofLondon (series A), Philosophical Magazine, Monthly Notices ofthe Royal
Astronomical Society, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of Lon-
80 Jose M. Sanchez-Ron

don, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, The Journal of the London
Mathematical Society, Proceedings of the Society, The
Quarterly Journal (after Vol. its name was
The Journal and The Memoires and Proceedings of
the Manchester Literary and Society. I have also been by
the splendid bibliographies by 1924 and Combridge 1965.
49 It really makes no difference to consider also non-British scientists.
50 Of course, there is nothing 'strange about this; the problems of quantum
physics at the time absorbed the energies of an important part of theoretical and
experimental physicists. In England, the school, or of Rutherford was
dominant.
51 See p. 373 of the (London 1925).
52 See p. 315 of (London 1927).
53 even when he was mentioning general could
not avoid referri~g to physics in very favorable terms. he said
(Richardson 1922), "Relativity is the revolutionary movement in physics which
has caught the eye, because it deals with familiar conceptions
in a manner for the most part is found pleasantly Incomlpre~nelt1SU)le.
is is. only one of a number of changes of COJJnparable mla~l:utlllae.
Among these we have to place the advent of the the of
which I we shaH thoroughly discuss next week."
54 in this regard, items numbers 655,
and 1677 of Combridge 1965, to papers of Conway,
1V1~I{'~Vn_ E.T. and J.M. Whittaker.

lIn111"\l'\1i'"j·Qnt(the 1921, issue,


it included articles
'll'"AB-:1l1l-1i'U·1-lhI7· Einstein,
Ma.tnewSa Jeans, Lodge,
Also important
was monthly review that at presenting in a
form the progress of a list of the articles with general
that in The
....AI.'.Jl1t'lI'\l:'lI1t"'\lY see the in The
Observatory. General Vols. I- 72 (1877-1955), pp.
A

have in general excluded Nature and The Observatory from my considerations


because were more than scientific journals, and I am
only the ones here.
56 was a student hOIOlnjzton's (see in this regard McVittie
57 See also 1930b.
58 An translation of LernaItre"§ 1927 was
putlHsJl1ed in in 1931 . \...II..A",.IL.Il.Jl.(lIJl.UIV 1931).
59 It is interesting to recall that was the president of this society
during the period from 1921 to 19230
60 A partial list can be found in the "Books and p'atJnpl1l1en~" of the --ts1Inl1,OO-
raphy of in 17, 1921, issue dedicated
General Relativity The British 81

to relativity (pp. 811--813). A more complete bibliography can be found in


Sanchez-Perez 1934.
61 The number of these philosophical books was i1mportant Let us recall,
·for instance, the works of Whitehead, Broad, Wildon and Russell.
62 Indeed, the number of books dealing with relativity written by British
scientists is much lower for example, what one has in the German case.
The comparison is also unfavorable In other cases, such as the French one. A
large list of relativity books that covers the period considered here is included in
Sanchez.. perez 1934.
63 The first edition, which did not include general relativity, had been pub-
lished in 1915.
64 Rice was the senior lecturer in Physics at the University of Liverpool.
65 Nunn was Professor of Education at the University of London. I have
included him here, in spite of his not being really a scientist, because his book
shows a considerable knowledge of relativity.
66 The first edition of Electrical Theory (Cambridge University
aOl)eaJrea in 1907; second one, really a new book, in 1913. Only one
chapter (Ch. of the four basic chapters of Campbell's Relativity (Campbell
1923) dealt with general relativity.
67 The first edition had appeared in 1914.
68 As a matter of fact, he also published mathematical books. See, for
instance, Silberstein 1919a,b.
69 In 1912 and 1913, for example, he delivered a course of lectures dealing
with Einstein's special of relativity at University College, London. This
course constituted the base of his book The Theory of (Silberstein
1914).
70 Another expression of his independent,and often unsuccessful,approaches
can be found in his controversial conception of cosmology, which he summed up
in The Size of the (Silberstein 1930), written before Lemaitre's model
became When Eddington 1930b reviewed Silberstein's book, he called
attention to Lemaitre's substantial advance" "renders obsolete the
contrast between Einstein's and De Sitter's cosmologies" on which Silberstein
based his work (see in this regard 1987).
71 See .note 26; Lodge's remark appears on p. 107.
72 In 1912, had a book on the differential geometry
of curves and surfaces.
73 See Forsyth 1920, 1921. In these papers, the author of the ofDif-
ter~~ntl~al Equations his considerable of differential eQllatllOnS
to solve some of equations appearing in general relativity. (Copson 1928)
and Curzon 1924a,b. Curzon's two papers in the Proceedings of the London
Mathematical Society, a society of which he was a member, contained the 80-
called "Curzon Exact Solution" of Einstein's field equations, a solution still often
discussed in some of the modern general relativity texts. As far as I these
two important papers of Curzon (the first is really only an abstract) constitute his
82 Jose M. Sanchez-Ron

only contributions to the development of general relativity.


74 See pp. 690-691 of Merz 1904. There, Merz wrote the foHovving:
'Theory of Groups' has now grown into a very extensive doctrine which accord-
ing to the late Prof. Marius Sophus Lie... is destined to occupy a leading and
central position in mathematical science of the future. . . . though it is an
undoubted fact that the largest systematic works on the subject emanate from the
great Norwegian mathematician, and that his ideas have won gradual recognition
... the epoch-making tract which pushed the novel conception into the foreground
was Prof. F. Klein's 'Erlangen Programme' (1872).... From that date onward,
the different kind of groups have defined and systematically studied, no..
tably by and Lie and their pupils. In this country [Great Britain], although
many of the relevant ideas were contained in the writings notably of Cayley and
Sylvester, the systematic treatment of the subject was little attended to before
publication (1987) of Prof. Burnside's 'Theory of Groups of Finite ' and
latterly of his article on the whole theory of groups in the 29th volume of the
'Eney. Brit.' It has been remarked by those who have studied most pr(J~tO[lnd.jlV
the . of two great branches of mathematical tactics-viz. 'The
Theory of Invariants' and 'Theory of (1roups'-that the progress of science
would have more rapid if the English School had taken. more notice of the
general comprehensive treatment of Lie."
75 For more information about Campbell, see the obituary note (signed by
H. that appeared in the of the London Mathem.atical Society 23:
lxx-lxxi (1924).
76 is definition of Vtelep2lfalLell:sm'. "When the vector ob-
tained at the terminus is the same whatever be the by which the journey frOln
the initial has been we say-that there is tel4~Da~raA~lellsnr'
1930)
77 Of course, Eddington did contribute,· but he was not a mathematician.
78 Of course, we are not taking Eddington into account.
79 The list of Synge's publications is included in ed. 1972.
one can see dealing with general relativity, or with mathematical
problems to Einstein's theory, Synge published in British journals
during the 1920s.
80 UJIhi11tt".:lIIr.A1I'·;~ contributions to relativity are discussed in Synge 1958, as
well as in Temple 1956.
81 See McVittie 1987. See also IVlcVittie's papers referred to in note 47.
General Relativity Among The British 83

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1.
90 Joshua N. Goldberg
US Air Force Support 91
92 Joshua N. Goldberg
US Air Force Support 93
94 Joshua N. Goldberg

of Texas in
Inll'TP1l"'~lIt'\\T

svrnIn.etrLc metric known as the


US Air Force Support 95
96 Joshua N. Goldberg
us Force Support 97
98 Joshua N. Goldberg

aPI)11c:atlC)n to 1IJ~1"Jil._.lI.'''''U or even


US Air Force Support 99

is now known as the (for I\. 1i"1I'1IIf"'-'nr71it1l"'ft

of 1965 gives
100 Joshua N. Goldberg
us Force Support 101

NOTES

uo.~ratlon ....p,loelrCl1DS" was a program by which German scientists, engineers,


and technicians came to states after WWII to on various scientific
and technical projects.

While the description of the in-house research is based on my memory and the
discussions with Fielder and the description of the contract-supported
research was prepared on the basis of the ARL Technical Reports, which were
prepared principal investigators and printed and distributed by ARL. These
contain a descriptive introduction followed by reprints and preprints of the re-
search performed the contract period covered. According to the inside
cover, copies may be obtained by' qualified contractors from the Defense Docu-
mentation Cameron Station, Alexandria, VA 22314. It also says that the
documents have been released for sale through the Clearing House, US
rnent of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22151. Below is a chronological list of the
ARL reports that are concerned with general relativity.

ARL 61-228, "Problems of Gravitation," Pascual Jordan, Wolfgang and


Jiirgen Ehlers.
ARL 63-56, "Quantization of Covariant Field Theories," Peter G. Bergmann.
ARL 64-2, "Research on General and other Gravitational Theories,"
Schild.
ARL 64-3, "Studies in the Relativistic Theory of Interacting "Peter
Havas.
ARL 64-22, "Research jn Gravitational Radiation and Space "Ezra T. New-
lnan.
ARL 65-24, "Contributions to Actual Problems of General " Pascual
Jordan.
ARL 65-254, "Research on Particles and Relativity Theory," Richard
Arnowitt.
ARL 66-0075, "Research Program in Relativity Physics," Hermann Bondi.
102 Joshua N. Goldberg

ARL 66-0194, "Research on Riemannian Spaces," Vaclav H'lavaty.


ARL 66.. 0206, "Problems Relating Theory to the General of
Relativity," Schiller.
ARL 67-0053, "Research on Solutions of the Gravitational Field Equations," Ezra
T. Newman and Allen L Janis.
ARL 69-0113, "Research in Gravitational Theory," Ezra T. Newman and Allen
L Janis.
ARL 70-0003, "A Study of Null Surfaces in Gravitational Theory," Joshua N.
Goldberg.
ARL 70-0066, "Quantization of the Gravitational Field," Peter G. Bergmann.
ARL .70-0120, on General Relativity at Tempera-
tures and in Zero Fields," William M. Fairbank and William
O. Hamilton.
ARL 70-0136, "Research in General Ezra T. Newman and Allen
L Janis..
ARL 71-0323, of the Lorentz Recent ue'vel()pnlen1:S,
Moshe Carmeli and Shimon Malin.
ARL 72-0086, Theory and General Relativity," Moshe Cannell.
73.. 0151, "Studies in and Joshua
N. UOl~(1.0eI·~.
104 Andre Lichnerovvicz

dltter€~ntJLab.le structure
Int€~re~~tea me-
Mathematics and General Relativity 105

altten~nt]laOle structure
C 1 (piecewise
altlerlentlal1~111t.V is
COller(~nCe, an

an
to the
1"'pB4!)j't1't'P

homologous
needs.
106 Andre Lichnerowicz
Mathematics and General Relativity 107

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- - (1924). "Sur les varietes a connexion affineet la theorie de la relativite
generalisee." Ecole Normale. Annales 41: 1-25. in Cartan 1952-
1955, VoL 3, pp. 799-823.
- - (1938). Le~ons sur la theorie des spineurs. II. Les de l' espace
a n ~ 3 dimensions. Les spineurs en geometrie riemannienne. Actualites
Scientifiques et Industrielles, No. 701. Paris: Hermann.
- - (1952-1955). Oeuvres completes. 3 vols. Paris: Gauthier-Villars.
Cattaneo, Carlo (1961). "La formulation relative des lois physiques en relativite
generate." Cours au College de France. Unpublished.
L,.nUlU.lc.;I:"DIWlc:U [Foures], Yvonne (1952). "Theoreme d'existence pour certains

systemes d'equations aux derivees partielles non lineaires." Acta Mathe~


88: 141-225.
Jlw,Pll,4.II..II.JLJl~JJlt.JI" Georges (1927). "Les equations de la gravitation einsteinienne." Memo-
rial des Sciences Mathematiques No. 25. Paris: Gauthier-Villars.
Ehresman, Charles (1941) . "Espaces fibres assoch~s . " Academie des Sciences
(Paris). Comptes Rendus 213: 762-764.
- - (1942). "Espaces fibres de' structures comparables." Academie des Sciences
(Paris). Comptes Rendus 214: 144-147.
Lichnerowicz, Andre (1939). Sur certains problemes globaux relatijs au sys..
terne des equations d' Einstein. Paris: Hermann. Also issued as Problernes
globaux en mecanique relativiste. Actualites Scientifiques et Industrielles,
No. 833. Paris: 1939.
"Sur l'integration des equations d'Einstein." Academie des Sci-
ences (paris). Comptes Rendus 213: 516-518.
- - (1941b)0 "Sur l'integration des equations d'Einstein." Academie des Sci-
ences (paris). Comptes Rendus 213: 549-551.
- - (1944)0 "L'futegration des equations de la gravitation relativiste et Ie pro-
bleme des n corps." Journal des Pures et Appliquees 23:
37-63..
- - (1946). "Sur Ie caractere euclidien d'espaces-temps exterieurs statiques
partout reguliers." Academie des Sciences (paris)o Comptes Rendus 222:
432-436.
- - (1955).. Theories relativistes de la gravitation et de t electromagnensme.
Paris: Masson..
- - (1961) . "Propagateurs et commutateurs en relativite generale." Institut des
Hautes Etudes Scientifiques. Publications Mathematiques. 10: 1-550
- - (1964). "Champs spinorieis et propagateurs en relativite generaleo" Societe
Mathematique de France. Bulletin 92: 11-100..
- - (1973). "Ondes de choc gravitationnelles et electromagnetiques:'In Relati-
vita. Convegno del Febbrai.o del 1972. Istituto Nazionale di Alta Mathe=
108 Andre Lichnero'Nicz

matica. Symposia Mathematica: 12. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 92~
110.
Pauli, Wolfgang (1956). "Ansprach durch den Prasident der " In
zig Jahre Relativitiitstheorie. Bern, 11-16, July, 1955. Verhandlungen.
Andre Mercier and Michel Kervaire, eds. (Helvetica Physica Acta Suppl.
4). Basel: Birkhauser, p. 27.
Stellmacher, Karl (1938). "Zum Anfangswertproblem der Gravitationsgleichun-
gen." Mathematische Annalen 115: 136-152.
1.
110 Andre Mercier
General Relativity at the Turning of Its Renewal 111

making a. younger such as It was


for him a test of capacities.
lmew me I was an assistant to U¥rt.iI-.c..n.n£'lil¥

mechanics at the of . J:::A/"'n1l1Inmr\.n,.,«r


III

a course of lectures on
suggested

very in-
112 Andre Mercier

involve r-nlllllC'lI,rIl.Ql1l"'4'JIt'\II.Ql

for Instanlce,
necessary
to
d"JJ1t"1f"nrjrllllnn
General Relativity at the Turning of Its Renewal 113

case, as it is
place.
114 Andre Mercier
. . . . . ., " at the Turning Point of Its Renewal 115

more Glf:neI1Sl()naLl, Vtrhethf~r JjrUCjlloc:~an

consists in
116 Andre Mercier
General Relativity at the Turning Point of Its Renewal 117
118 Andre Mercier
General Relativity at the Turning Point of Its Renewal 119
120 Andre· Mercier

not start discussions on rpl·!.lt1!'.Tlt"

to
General Relativity at the Turning Point of Its Renewal 121

of "what is are
obsolete, whereas
course,
physics can judge
matters of physics,
126 Julian B. Barbour

Newton's with the rotating vessel of informs


us, that the rotation· of the water with to the sides
of vessel no noticeable centrifugal but that· such
forces are its relative rotation with to the nlass
of earth and other celestial No one is to say
how the would turn-out-if the sides of the vessel increased
in thickness and mass until were several leagues thick.
(Mach 1883, p.
Einstein and Mach's 1IJ1l"11l"1""11"'\Ba. 127

content of Newton's
of space

In reality only one great fact was established. Different pairs of bodies
independently of each other~ and mutually, in themselves,
1Io.I'V!I.,VJl.Jl.JLJLII.Jl.,aV,

pairs of accelerations, whose terms exhibit a constant ratio, the criterion


and characteristic of each pair. (Mach 1883, p. 306)

As soon therefore as we.. have 0 in bodies the existence of a


property determinative of acceleration, our task with regard to
it ends with the recognition- and unequivocal designation of fact.
We shall not get beyond the recognition of this fact, and every venture
beyond it will only be productive of obscurity. (Mach 1883, p. 270)

sentence because, as we see, it


128 Julian B. Barbour

Now what share has every mass in the determination of direction and
velocity in the law of inertia? No definite answer can be given to this
by our experiences. We only know that the share of the nearest masses
vanishes·in comparison with that of the farthest. (Mach 1872)
Einstein and Mach's Principle 129

1i"',a,B.rJlii"lI"f.',a, distances can


1-«.,a,1i"'1tn1t1tll 1977, 1982)] to

n,a,1l""C!nt=1l,.("6ii"lI':l,a, was decisive


by It
not an extensive
f\.J1IC1J1j('llIl"'il'l!l.lil1l"\ IJ'JLVU'.II.V.II.JL.II... nwnerous comments
Il-IIIn'l:'Il'J'tJo'YJ:lI'li'"

Iffil)llCltly or
desire to
llHllnQ~rplln '.JJ4J'~lU''U'-.a. 1989b)..

level.

systems
course,
absurd See]mtlll~IY
gravit,ltiOlnal field are accelerated
present state of our lmowledge"
130 Julian B. Barbour

there were no grounds for believmg were any respects in


a frame of reference u!liformly in a regiO!l free 'of a gravi-
from one at rest in a
ril"'-IHl-.c......LJ.ril O'll"'4Jl"HlItd1\t1!nlndlll
1h.n.11nr1..n.,nr.c..11n.c..rl>1l'llCl'

dealing with gravitation


but his concern
later paper:
4Jlhonh'll'tp. acceleration the
of can

bold.
.,.,.a'!l""1i"01l1l1lR"II:7

reaClln2 of
Einstein and Mach's llJ1"'l"lI"'IlJ'1t'1l"'ll"'RJCll 131

The treatment of the uniformly rotating rigid


great importance on"account of an extension of
to uniformly rotating systems analogous lines of thought to those
that tried to carry out for accelerated translation in the last
section of my paper put>UsJt1eCl
Stachel 1980).

Two masses hover in space at a great distance from all celestial bodies.
are close to each other to have an influence on each
other. suppose-·,an observer follows the motion of the two bodies
by along the direction of the line joining the two
masses to the sphere of the fixed stars. He will establish that this line
traces out on the observable of the fixed stars does not change.
If the observer is possessed of natural understanding, but has
neither geometry nor he will draw the following conclusion:
masses execute a motion that at least in is causally determined
by the system of fixed stars. The laws according to which masses in
my neighborhood move are in determined by the fixed stars." A
man who has passed through the school of science will smile over the
simplicity of the observer and say to him: "The motion of your masses
has nothing to do the heaven of the fixed stars; much rather the
motion is determined by the laws of mechanics quite independently
132 Julian B. Barbour

of the other masses. There is a space R, in which these laws hold.


These laws are such that your masses relnain fixed in a plane in this
space. However, the systelll of fixed stars cannot rotate in . this space,
since otherwise it would be torn apart by powerful centrifugal forces.
Therefore, if it is to be able to exist at all, it must necessarily be at rest
(or at least nearly so!); this therefore is the reason why the plane in
which your masses move always passes through the same fixed stars."
But, our intrepid observer will··say: "You are of course very learned.
But, I believe no more in that giant thing of which you speak and call
space than I could be brought to believe in ghosts. can neither see
such a thing nor form any conception of it;· or should I think of your
space R as a very fine material net with respect to which the other things
are referred? But then, besides R, I can imagine a second such net R'
that moves relative to R in an arbitrary manner (for example, rotates).
Do your equations· then also hold relative to R'?" The educated man
denies ~is with certainty. Then, our simple-minded friend remarks:
"But how do the masses know with respect to which of the 'spaces'
R, R', etc., they should move in accordance with your laws; through
:what do they recognize the space, or the spaces, with respect to which
they must move?" Our educated man is now in the greatest difficulty.
He emphasizes, it is true, that such privileged spaces must exist, but he
is unable to give any reason why those spaces could be distinguished
with respect to others. To which the response of our silnple-minded
friend is: "Then, for the time being I shall continue to regard your
distinguished spaces as an idle invention and hold fast to my belief that
the sphere of the· fixed stars plays--a-part in determining the mechanical
behavior of my test masses."

first recognized that in such a theory universal gravitation must be


accorded a quite fundamental role. For it is already clear from what
has been said earlier that every physical process must, since energy
quantities correspond to it [Einstein is referring ~ere to the energy-
momentum tensor associated with every physical process], generate
a gravitational field. On the other hand, the fact of experience that
all bodies fall equally fast in a gravitational field suggests that in a
Einstein and Mach's Principle 133

gravitational field physical processes unfold in exactly the same way as


relative to an ac.celeratedframe of re.ference (equivalence hypothesis).
italics are again nli'ne and show that importance of
equivalence principle Einstein was precisely it opened a pos-
of extending to more frames of reference
those moving relative to each
other. is logic the 1907 paper atId shows
how consistently that logic right
through to the f \ A ....nnBt:l>t1tt''\n

This is a accounts of general


1rpB!::ltn.,rlt..u his first paper

Of all imaginable spaces R 1 , R z, etc., in any kind of motion relatively to


one another, there is none that we may look upon as privileged a priori
without reviving the above-mentioned epistemological objection. The
laM-'s of physics lnust be of such a nature that they apply to systems
of reference in any kind of motion. Along this road we arrive at an
extension of the postulate of relativity.

It is after weighty argument from


that Einstein 1I1nCJ11l11ftll,~nt:",(1 the ~1iI"'1l1n""'1I·_nCJ1
t:l>A"1l1l1l'll1l.T<f"llIt:l>1t'lf\t:l>

for his argument


134 Julian B. Barbour

one is COInD(~tellt
of vessel lInro'll"'p>I)lC'P>Jil

several leag.ues
This

of th~,--r-~,Rot·."I!rllll·'T
£l>"V'"1I-.0I>1I"tICtllrll1l"tl 1I""II1nnJl"'1l1l""ll11p>

Jl""All'll1l1ltP1rdJl1rOlI1rnp1l1It based on aDt)ar(~ntJlv 1JI!""C'/f'\\11l'II1rp> nature of


in K'
1J11l"'UI....P>c:JIl·1!"'1JI1I'1IJ1""t:h

JI'1O£l/I1r,t1l"1l1hl1.nJIJID forces not Dre~Se]lt

However, this argument is not conclusive, as E.Mach in particular has


shown. Namely, we do not necessarily have to ·trace the origin of the
centrifugal forces to a motion of K' ; rather we can just as well attribute
them to the average rotational motion of ponderable distant masses of
the environment relative to K', which we regard as being "at rest."
Einstein and Mach's 1L.JI1"'1ir.r»1I-nKo. 135

mI =m+
R2-,
. Co
is
136 Julian B. Barbour

principle as main argument for the new theory).


talk, he again referred to what I second ...l..VJiLf,;,Il.VJ1..Il.,lI.G.lWlJ1.

though there was now a ClIOnll'lhI.r JllIr1lt a:JmplUfllcaltlOlrl.


H

said:

The theory that has been outlined eliminates an epistemological short-


coming that is present in not only the original theory of relativity but
also in Galilean mechanics and has been emphasized by E. Mach in
particular. It is also clear that the concept of acceleration of a material
point can no more be given an absolute significance than can that of
velocity. Acceleration can only be defined as relative acceleration of
a point relative to other bodies. This circumstance indicates that it is
meaningless to ascribe to a body a resistance relative to 'acceleration as
such (inertial resistance of bodies in the sense of classical mechanics);
much ratheJ;,. it must be required that the appearance of an inertial resis-
tance be tied to the relative acceleration of the considered body relative
to other bodies. It must be required.that the inertial resistance of a body
can be increased by bringing unaccelerated ponderable masses into the
, neighborhood of the b'ody; and this increase in the inertial tesistance
nlust again disappear if these masses also participate in the acceleration
of the body. (Einstein 1913, p. 290)

relativity of inertia
motion,
In

for an .extension
'It'InClI.n1t1an1l11a.rlIat ill the
Jl._U~.1.u.."""".I1 Academy of Sci-
the Scientia ;account
of opened an ext~en(lea
1l"'pl"JIhUlIt'tT n'll"'llnJr'1lllnlla. in to el1.00nat:e
Einstein and Mach's IIJfI"111"l.rolnBA 137

The that I entertained until recently, as to the limiting condi-


tions to be laid down in spatial infinity, took its stand in the following
conditions. In a consistent theory of relativity there can no inertia
relatively to "space," but only an inertia of masses relatively to one
another. I have a mass at a sufficient distance from all
other masses in the its inertia must fall to zero.
138 Julian B. Barbour

a) The laws of nature are statements


about coincidences; they therefore find their only nat-
ural expression in generally covariant equations.
b) Einstein Inertia--and weight are identical in nature (we-
sensgleich). It follows necessarily this and from the result
of the of relativity that the symmetric "fundamen-
tal tensor" (Gp,1I) determines the metrical properties of space, the
inertial behavior of bodies in as wen as gravitational effects.
We shaH denote the state of space described by the fundamental
as the G-field.
c) The G-field is completely determined by the
nlasses of. the bodies. Since mass and energy are identical in
accordance results of the special of and
the is by means of the symmetric energy
tensor (Tp,II), the is conditioned and determined \Vft,.~l./IfIfl,U"'.~'"
urut b~~stijmm~t) by the energy tensor of the matter. 1918a,
Einstein and Mach's Principle 139

Einsteill'S

that ;.....JJL'-,~.a._
.f"I<IJlllllC~ vVht=•

it must be nn~lC'lIh!~
","",-,JLJLJL",""Jl,'l."jI.",""Jl,JL",""",""U,

about the lawful of coincidences 1I-h_.,.,.11111'.. h Ol:llo.1rIIa1l"'oHII"lr7

In Einstein's eyes,
V'Y!'.4U"lL'-'lULO." second stage of
rp.~:lt1l,.r1t" of well all
1l"Il.1I"''Il'I!'1Ii''>'Il1l''ll.Ra

OLi"'E"n1l"'''1~E'H it

tnerel10re atte~mtJ~ted to it
is by no means accepted
its is aO~;Ollltejlv
140 Julian B. Barbour

The distortion of ideas the of motion by Ein-


stein's idea sonle sort cosmological derivation of mass
was called for has already been mentioned. It was in truth a "red her-
ring" that does not even seem to have with the basic
structure for general relativity. However, root cause of
confusion to topic. is that commenced
work in 1907 led late to general theory of
he stop ask two fundamental questions: (1) as is
granted,
1I1111'1\1i\lTDl1l"ClO,UhT observation is relative, how do we 'define 1l"\AC!l1tll£''ln

i.e., relative to (2) are


OVtla11l11c:al theory of motion into account
the relativity of It was
vividness

nnlhI14~hp'rIl comments on
wrote
In ordinary terrestrial cases, it will answer our purposes quite wen to
reckon the direction and velocity with respect to the top of a tower
or a corner of a room; in ordinary astronomical cases, one or other of
Einstein and Mach's Principle 141

the stars will suffice. because we can also choose other corners
of rooms, anoth.er pinnacle, or other stars, the view may easily arise
that we do not need a point at all from which to reckon. this is
a mistake; such a system of coordinates has a if it can be
determined by· means of bodies.... In fact, any one of the. above points
of origin of coordinates answers our purposes as long as a sufficient
number of bodies fixed positions with respect to one another.
if we wish to apply the law of inertia in an the terrestrial
points of reference would leave us in the lurch, and convinced of their
uselessness, we would grope after celestial ones. with these better
ones, the same thing would happen as soon as the stars move-
ments that were noticeable. When the variations' of the positions of the
fixed stars with respect to one another cannot be disregarded, the laying
of a system of coordinates has reached an end. 1872)

want to distinguish more between quantities that belong to


a physical system as. such (are of the choice of the co-
ordinate system) and quantities that depend on the coordinate system.
142 Julian B. Barbour

One's initial reaction would be to that physics should introduce


in its laws only the of the first kind. it has been
found that approach cannot be realized in as the devel-
opment of classical mechanics has shown. One could,
for example, this was actually done-of introducing in the
laws of classical mechanics only the distance of material points from
each other instead of coordinates; a priori one could that in
this manner the aim of the theory of relativity should be most readily
achieved. However, the scientific development has not confirmed this
conjecture. It cannot with coordinate systems and must there-
fore make use coordinates of quantities that cannot
as the results of definable measurements. (Einstein 1918b)
Einstein and Mach's 1l-81l"1I1rhJ'l>1-nBa. 143
144 Julian B. Barbour
Einstein and Mach's Principle 145

upon· a relatively siulple device 1982), Wllich I


should like to des9ribe briefly because we ev(~nt11alJlv discovered
of general relat.ivity is
1.lIJ1..14.1l.4V.Jl'V'.14..14.U.14. p.&.JUL.a"",.a.p.a._ a more sophisti-
cated version of exactly tIle Sallle device. Since device was explicitly
invented to overcome the problem ·of motion de-
u...,.... previously, I base my
.a.ll.J"'""'_ is on
close the two prillciples. 1I.1011t''1l0l1l"1I.&''\1.lIl1l..... 1

The basic idea is as follows. language used above,


we place second manner on of
we have SOUle 01spI3lCeJne][1t
d: i relative to its mass
l!J'V'I.J•.lllWL .....'.ll.&

1ni (i = 1, 2, ... , r~)


n
(2)
i=l

from ~ u rnrnptT1ll... CCJntum.ratlon.S,


o-v".... on.1t'll.&"\l.·1111 011 ..
(since
we are int,ere:ste:(1
of (2)
first.
variation has 1l.l''L/IL'IITI'L/'-'.IL11. the taking of
snapshots.
device """;r.~ ..... to a
1I-lh."""..... a £i!01j-l"11\'ll1/'·'I!.&"\I."I1\

Inotion is £i!o1t'1lllll.Q~rt the system as a


system needs to finite in some sense)
I called the tun.aalneIltaI of motion. n1l"'.&"\I.hlo·rnn. !HI 'JI'\T1TlI 0' oDtalne:o in
manner an un,lmlt)121UOllS Uo·V.a.JUL.&..ll'-Jl''V''&Jl. motions [the i d:
",..&"\I.1t"1l"'~c~n.&"\l.."I1\rIl'nntnr to mlJl11nllz,lttc.n ..............u' ...... we can
.a..a..V ...... 'lo.lj.I'I

n1l"'n~",.~t:.~rIl to set a
La;gran£Jlan function

(3)

:i and :i are starts as follows.


in one relative 31Id ends another, of the
must be the system as a whole
passes from the to the final configuration along some arbitrary
which we can aSSU111e is by a succession of sllap-
shots, each showing the successive relative configuration of the bodies.
146 Julian B. Barbour

Start Witll tIle follows it on top of


tIlen mininlize the second Sn2lPSJtlot 1t"ir'\f"!,"i.11l1l110

respect to Sn2lPSJtlot relative to


tIle to second 1t"t:hI·r:llt·1l"i.1t:h

snapshot in the same way. snapshot


.........v.Il.JI.\L.-Jl..IL.Jl.UIV

representing the final IVVJl.Jl.Jl.JI.;::;'.UJl.U~UVJUI.. stacking procedure defines a


of reference in :i ':i of each
nrU::Ill1i'lIr'ln

cle are intrinsic variables that in (3).


The physically history all the virtual histories is
assumed to be the one for which

J Lmtrdt

............ \I.-................ u angular mo-


........,

in a relational
system-it

of mass is a1t"t:hI.i)lt·1l"i.111t"i.7

necessary CO]lSeQU~~n(~e It is a possible consequence but


on
\"./I.1VJ!.,rIVJl.JI.,\..ll-tJ
'!nldi)l1l"1l"1If'l1l'11di)l1l" structure of a
-class M~lcnlan "".. . . ._ 'I\v........ ""'·u~ it does not occur at
between
f'lAr.nt:hAr"'1i'11,r.n
Einstein and Mac.h's Principle 147

to deal· Witll the VV.ll~.Il.O.ll.1U\.V.ll.U\.IlJ.IlV


conlplexities introduced by
Let us soon he
trellcnant criticisms of Np~l'lTt{'\n'll~:tln (1'vnamu;s in 1872,
'solved his M~lcn:lan 1t"'ll'lr'nhltJ>·1l'1l1l

sic oVJnaJll1<;s o'utl:Lne:G

I hold in fact (1) that small portions of space are in fact of a nature anal-
ogous to little- hills on a surface which is on the average flat; namely,
that the ordinary laws of geonletry are not valid in them. (2) That
this property of being curved or distorted is continually being passed
on from one portion of space to another after the manner of a wave.
(3) That this variation of the curvature of space is '"vhat really happens
in that phenomenon which we call the motion o!matter, whether pon-
derable or ethereaL (4) That in the physical world nothing else takes
place but this variation, subject (possibly) to the law of continuity.!
a relluctant . . . . . . . . ...,.. . . U-l_A

1lJ .... ,,'IlJ'-'u......... is correct, we must somehow


of curvature 1I""Il.~r.,.1I""Il..,.n0l1t.a.
rate of change
~0410
1I-' .......... ""........ in spaceo
............. 1lJ'-J'!J'.Il.\l.,.Il.'U'.Il..Il.

of space
space at

in 1I""Il.~1l·n""''ll·1I''''Il.Ba

oDltalIleG in the two instants are


up space
estaOllsn how the curvature at a given

have "I see your


£'IOI1!t-II£'11t''''1\.,.,.1!t/'''''1l'''''I[1 £'Inh''Il'lt'llc'Iln will be in some
of the in your . . . . . (1vn~anl1cs to overcome
..,.11., .......... u ... _

analogous . . . . Jl.JlLJL.Il.VU'.Il.\L. faced in I must


that in are
IlJ.Il.U'IlJJI.,",'JI..Il..lLO In your case
148 Julian B. Barbour

the relationships of geometry are at least assumed to persist


from one snapshot to This is you can establish
difference the -of one
snapshot are in fact rigid-body
translations cannot do because Iny geometry is
changing. can one match up of one curved space to those
of We shall have to go over transformations
to - i.e., we must start an mapping that
associates points of first space in a one-to-one manner
in second space, calculate on basis the by
the curvature between each pair of points as by
that construct some analogous to your
_Jl.ll.l.Q"'l"I~JII..ULJLV.llJl over spaces. we must
mapping that the connection
in a continuous manner so that
(11tler~ent ways in
of second.
between two spaces that
two spaces. ,",e can
an curvature at on
Einstein and Mach's Principle 149

general relativity does address the Machian II-,JI.'\JlU'JI.....,.JlJl..II.

way and solves it as well as one may JI. _ _ U,I.II.JiL_lU'A

was long obscured by the fact never


of defining Illation in relational terms at a Nevertheless,
although never general rel-
the (3+1) above, Le., when one considers how
a three-geometry evolves in tillle
certainly have been to at a basic
lems here), it does appear general
covariance in space-time achieved the desired result. 3
conclusion, let us look again at Einstein's of
n1l'"1l1t''ll'''1I'1nin~ in 1918: G-field is completely by the
the bodies. Since mass energy are in accordance
theory of relativity and energy is described
symmetric energy tensor (TJ.tv)~ G-field is
energy tensor of matter."
fornlulation. is Ein-
means by saying the G-field
is by energy tensor of the matter. He
seems to one can somehow specify an energy-momentum
tensor (presumably in the space-time) and from via the
space-time geometry. specification
an energy-momentum tensor specification of the
'-'·IrI'l·..LIJI'·~_.U'lllfIrD~ geometry is in impossible (and actually meaningless). in
it"1l"'d1I111l1l~'ili"l[7nll"llT of therefore is a with
Attem.Dts have made
JiL'\JJl.JiLJiLA'-lILA_Q.,.Il.'"JlA more precise by a Green's JiL'-lIL.II.A'llo"Q.,JiL'--"Jl.A

has been reviewed by who gives


1981). very considerable
arise, I am rather such an
approach because it seems to want to deny atl integral of general
dV11aTIrn.c:al role accorded to space. us
original criticism was of mechanics, which assumed
a fixed structure of space. A to see why space should
not ordinary
Inatter. to matter
use dynamical space making his proposal before
put'llsJtle<t his first criticism of Newton). made
here is tunltlalneIltal n1l"'AhU~·nn of motion (as in the
text) arises in any OVJlaIlrn.c:al theory whenever everything constitutes
universe~be particles in space, fields in space
150 Julian B. Barbour

of the metric tensor


Clh4'~1I'1lB..rllJ31r'Cl of mat-

(1y&laIJ[llC;a! interactioll and


OV1rla1JillCaI degrees
.Il.l.JiLU'''-'IlJ".....IlJiLU'''-'JiL.IllL-

"'II Yo'VOlL-.IlV.I..1I.0 rt~lalm2to


ob-

be

NOTES

1 Quoted from Thorne, and Wheeler 1973, p. 1202.


2 It should be said that the problem of establishing precisely what does
happen in the framework of the Hilbert-Einstein variational principle is far from
easy, and with Isenberg, has somewhat modified his position
compared with his initial analysis (see Isenberg and Wheeler 1979). Hnwe'ver~
believe that in broad terms my assertion is correct. The qualification "as well a
one may reasonably expect" is added to take account of the problems associated
with the existence and uniqueness of the original "thin-sandwich" conjecture of
Wheeler (see 1964).
3 We should note that hitherto in this of the discussion we have consid-
ered only pure geometrodynamics, the case of an evolving three-geometry
--when no matter at all is present. In the more general case when matter fields are
present (for the sake of simplicity let us take the case of a single scalar field 4"»,
the snapshots in the Clifford-Einstein scenario will show not only a curved three-
geometry but also the intensity of the field 1> at each point on it. A procedure
is now required to define the intrinsic variation ofboth and the geometry; in
Einstein and Mach's Principle 151

this case, both <J? and the geometry contribute to the quantity that generalizes (2)
for this case.

REFERENCES

Barbour, Julian B. (1986). "Leibnizian TIme, Machian Dynamics and Quantum


Gravity." In Quantum Concepts in Space and Time. Roger Penrose and
Christopher J. Isham, eds. London and New York: Oxford University
Press, pp. 236-246.
- - (1989). Absolute or Relative Motion? Vol. 1. The Discovery ofDynamics.
Vol. 2. The Frame ofthe World (in preparation) London and New York:
Cambridge University Press.
- - (1990). "The Part Played by Mach's Principle in the Genesis of Relativis-
tic Cosmology." In Modern Cosmology in Retrospect. Silvio Bergia and
Bruno Bertotti, eds. London and New York: Cambridge University Press,
pp.47-66.
Barbour, Julian and Bertotti, Bruno (1977). "Gravity and Inertia in a Machian
Framework." /1 Nuovo Cimento B 38: 1-27.
- - (1982). "Mach's Principle and the Structure of Dynamical Theories."
Royal Society of London; Proceedings A 382: 295-306.
Earman, John, and Glymour, Clark (1978). "Lost in the Tensors: Einstein's Strug-
gles with Covariance Principles 1912-1916." Studies in History and Phi-
losophy of Science 9: 251-278.
Einstein, Albert (1907). "Dber das Relativitiitsprinzip und die aus demselben
gezogenen Folgerungen." Jahrbuch der Radioaktivitlit und Elektronik4:
411-462.
- - (1911). "Dber den Einfluss der Schwerkraft auf die Ausbreitung des
Lichtes." Annalen der Physik 35: 898-908.
- - (1912). "Gibt es eine Gravitationswirkung die der elektrodynamischen
Induktionswirkung analog ist?" VierteljahrsschriftfUr gerichtliche Medizin
undof!entliches Sanitiitswesen 44: 37-40.
- - (1913). "Physikalische Grundlagen einer Gravitationstheorie." Natur-
jorschende Gesellschaft Zurich. Viel1eljahrsschrift 58: 284-290.
- - (1914a). "Zur Theorie der Gravitation." Natuiforschende Gesellschaft
Zurich. Sitzungsberichte: iv-vi.
- - (1914b). "Zum RelativiHitsproblem." Scientia 15: 337-348.
- - (1914c). "Die formale Grundlage der allgemeinen RelativiHitstheorie."
.Koniglich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften (Berlin). Sitzungs-
berichte: 1030-1085.
- - (1916). "Die Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitatstheorie." Annalen der
Physik 49: 769:...822. Quotations are from the English translation: "The
Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity." In Lorentz et at 1923,
pp. 109-164.
152 Julian B. Barbour

- - (1917). "Kosmologische Betrachtungen zur allgemeinen Relativitiits-


theorie." Koniglich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften (Berlin).
Sitzungsberichte: 142-152. Quotations are from the English translation:
"Cosmological Considerations on the General Theory of Relativity." In
Lorentz, et at 1923, pp. 175-188.
- _ . (1918a). "Prinzipielles zur allgemeinen Relativitatstheorie." Annalen der
Physik 55: 241-244.
- _ . (1918b). "Dialog tiber Einwande gegen die RelativiUitstheorie." Die Natur-
wissenschaften 6: 697-702.
Einstein, Albert, and Grossmann, Marcel (1913). "Entwurf einer verallgemein-
erteh Relativitatstheorie und einer Theorie der Gravitation~" Zeitschri/t fur
Mathematik 14nd Physik 62: 225-261.
Foppl, August (1904a). "Ober absolute und relative Bewegung." Bayerische Aka-
demie derWissenschaften. Mathematisch-physikalische Klasse. Sitzungs-
berichte 34: 383-395.
- - - (1904b). "Uber einen Kreiselversuch zur Messung der Umdrehungsge-
schwindigkeit der Erde." Bayerische Akademie der WissenschaftenMathe-
matisch-physikalische Klasse. Sitzungsberichte 34: 5-28.
Friedlander, and Friedlander J. (1896). Absolute und relative Bewegung.
Berlin.
Isenberg, James and Wheeler, John A. (1979). ':'Inertia Here is Fixed by
Mass-Energy There in Every W Model-Universe." In Quanta,
and Cosmology· in Developpment of the Scientific Thought o..f Albert
Einstein. Vol. 1. M. Pantaleo and F. de Finis, eds. New York: Johnson
Corporation, pp. 267-=-22_3.
Kr~~ts(~hnlann, Erich (1917). "Uber den physikalischen Sinn der RelativiUitspostu-
late, A. Einsteins neue und seine ursprtingliche Relativitatstheorie." An-
nalen der 53: 575-614.
Lange, Ludwig (1885). "Ober das Beharrungsgesetz." Koniglich Sachsischen
Gesellschaft der Wissenscha!tenzu Leipzig. Mathematisch"physische
Klasse. Berichte uber die Verhandlungen 37: 333-351.
---- (1886). Die geschichtliche Entwicklung des Bewegungsbegriffs und
voraussichtliches Endergebnis. Leipzig: W. Engelmann.
Lorentz, Hendrik Antoon, et at (1923). The Principle of Relativity: A Collec-
tion of Original Memoirs on the Special and General Theory of Relativ-
ity. Arnold Sommerfeld,ed. W. Perrett and G. B. Jeffery, trans. London:
Me~thulen;
reprint New York: Dover, 1952.
(1872). Die Geschichte und die Wurzel des Satzes von der
derArbeit. Prague: Calve. The quoted passage are from the English trans-
lation: History and Root of the Principle of the Conservation of Energy.
Philip E. Jourdain, trans. Chicago: Open Court, 1911.
- - (1883). Die Mechanik in ihrer Entwickelung, historisch-kritisch dargestellt
Leipzig: Brockhaus. Page numbers cited from the English translation The
Science of Mechanics: A Critical and Historical Account Develop-
Einstein and Mach's Principle 153

ment, 6th ed. T. J. MacCormack, trans. La Illinois: Court,


1960.
Misner, Charles W., Thorne, S., and John Archibald (1973). Grav-
itation. San Fransisco, California: Freeman.
Newton,lsaac (1687). Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. London.
Norton, John (1984). "How Einstein Found His Equations: 1912-1915."
in the Physical Sciences 14: 253-316.
Poincare, H;enri (1902). La science et l'hypothese. Paris: Flammarion.
Raine, Derek (1981). and Space-TIme Structure." on
Progress in Physics 44: 1151-1195.
Stachel, John (1980). "Einstein and the Rigidly Rotati~g Disk." In General Rela-
tivity and Gravitation: A Hundred Years after the of Einstein. Alan
ed. New York: Plenum, pp. 1-15.
-.--- (1986). a Physicist Can Learn from the History of Einstein's Dis-
covery of General In Proceedings ofthe Fourth Marcel Gross-
mann on Relativity. Remo Ruffini, ed. Amsterdam: El-
pp. 1857-1862.
A. (1964). "Geometrodynamics and the Issue of the Final State."
In Groups Topology. Lectures at les Houches
during the 1963 Session of the Summer School of Theoretical Physics,
University of Grenoble. Cecile and Bryce S. eds. New
York and London: Gordon and pp.314-520.
1.
Einstein 155
156 Don Howard
Einstein Eindeutigkeit 157
158 Don Howard
159
160 Don Howard

re~lso:ml]l2 in (lnlWl[fli! not


Einstein and Eindeutigkeit 161

US. 14 is our -n1l'1l1~n.£'aoCl


rHlInQfP'ln drew, is that because equa-
tions admit non-equivalent solutions for events within ~, such'equations
are therefore unacceptable as a satisfactory theory of gravitation.
on to argue we must a theory with restricted
£"'n'%:llt)l'll"'1llt)ln~'a so as to
IlJJL'U'IlJ"""JLII<JL"""U'I transformation
of
Jl"ir"A'lnloCI1r1l"'1l'mJl"i1rllil"\\'InI G'(x).
existence of nn1tll_p.rll1"l11'1.T-:lDp1t1\t Qnlntl1.'"\1t1\(!

Events [das Geschehen] in the gravitational field cannot be determined


uniquely [eindeutig festgelegt] by means of generally-covariant differ-
ential equations for the gravitational field.
If we demand, therefore, that the course of events [der Ablauf
des Geschehens] in the gravitational field be completely determined
[vollsHindig bestimmt] by means of the laws that are to be established,
then we are obliged to restrict the choice of the coordinate system.
(Einstein p. 1067)15

JLJLJL"-'UVJL"UJL'I,'/VJL.'iI,,/U'bI Eindeutigkeit
ar~;unlenlt, in putHISJtled.

The questions regarding the theory of gravitation that were still un-
decided in the summer have clarified themselves in the meantime. A
unique detennination [eindeutige Bestimmung] of the gp,v out of the
Tp,l/ is possible only with the choice of special coordinate systems (rig-
orously provable). (EA 09-344)16
'It'lt711""d1r1l1l"'lIR to on 2 NO'v~rnru~r

I am now quite satisfied with the theory of gravitation. The fact that the
equations of gravitation are not generally covariant, which troubled me
inordinately a little while ago, has turned out to be unavoidable; it can
easily be proven that a theory with generally-covariant equations cannot
exist in case it is demanded that the field be mathematically completely
determined [vollstiindig bestimmt] by the matter. (EA 13-290)17

or less same tormUllatlon is in d.1S~CUSS10]tlS of


ar~~unleIllt.18
nn·l1llt._£'4lf"llln~""lr1ljp.n.("A ~1"Oll1l1mp1r1lt was intro-
JL"""II<ll.4!-AAA'I:o,l1lo.llo to generally-
162 Don Howard
Einstein and ~'llU1eUtl~r!kt~it 163

§12 of my of last year, is correct (in the first three


Pat~aglrap.ns) up to that which is with emphasis at the end of
third From fact that the two systems and G' (x),
referred to the same reference same satisfy the condi-
tions of the grav. no contradiction fonows with the unlQU(~ne:ss
of events des That which was aPl)arC~ntJlV
cornpe~lllrl~ in reflections founders if one considers
that 1) the reference real, 2) that the (simul-
J realization of two different g-systems (or
lI.UI.IUvVUi3 two different
in the same of the continuum is impossible according to
the nature of the
In of §12, the reflections must appear. The
ically real in the world of events (in contrast to that
which is upon the choice of a reference system) consists· in
SD£ltw'..tem1J~Orlll coincidences. * Real are, e.g., the intersections of two
different or the statement that do not intersect Those
statements which refer to the physically real therefore do not founder
on any univocal coordinate If two sys-
tems of the gPl/ (or in general the variables the 'eo.D-""1J'''''Jl.Jl.II-''-Jl.'-'AA
of the are so created that one can obtain the second from the
mere space-time then are cOlnpleteJly
have all SPClltio·..ternp()ral
coincidences in common, I.e., that is observable..
These reflections show at the same time·how natural the demand
for covariance is.
* and in nothing else! 9-363)21

Iflt4ere:SUtJl2: in

the literature on the tOllmaatU)ns


164 Don Howard

In the was correct to the final conclu-


sion. There is no content in the existence of two rl1litf'If3:fr/PJ.'nt

solutions and reference to the same coordinate system


K. two solutions to the same manifold is sense-
less,. and the system K no physical
consideration takes the place of the' L04chtJetl~aCJhtunfl.
is but the of SD3ltio·..ternD(Jral pOllnt-COl.nCJ.<le][lces.
e.g., events were to be built up
the movements of material points, then
of intersection of their
observable in 1l"\1'''1l't''lI''''lInBp>

naturaLUv under all tral1S!(Jmlatllons


1l"\1"'P>"/PJ.1I""IIT/PJ.f"Il

ones are added), if certain uniQU(~nelSS


oe(l1nj~Unlgelt1.1 are maintained. it is most natural to demand of the
laws that they do not determine mote the totality of the
temporal coincidences. to what has been this is
bllltste:lD and ft'tndetlrtif!Jteit 165

achieved by generally-covariant equations. (EA 7-272; Speziali 1972,


pp. 63-64)24
166 Don Howard
Einstein 167

To the raised at the outset? "What should take the place of


the cause and effect?" we may indeed answer: the COlrlce:ots
of and determined elements or ele-
ment and to the about the "meaning" or
"essence" of processes in nature: are of such a kind that we can
reduce them to the continuous and univocal of a
small number of ever elements-i.e.? elements,
means of detennination- that one another unA~ou,elv
p. 180)33

in other tlnJnkt~rs~

All inorganic and that un(ler$~o a~evelopmeint


themselves for a certain time as closed wholes and
direction of certain states..... In pa:lrticulCllfC)
tral nervous system has the capacity to for a time
as a organism, and aU of the processes that occur within the
human being-and those that run to "psychical"
life---ean most easily be understood considering that to
We must conceive of conservation and in
connection with a certain chalfacter of natural processes, with-
168 Don Howard

out which they would not be possible. We must at the same time bring
to bear on nature a certain general presupposition, without whose con-
firmation we ourselves could not either or Such
a presupposition lies at the base of all scientific research, something
of which we may 'be more or less consciously aware, and we may be
of the firm conviction that it hold up everywhere, since we could
not conceive of ourselves, our particular nature, if we
once imagine it being given up. our constitution and
that postulate, as we may designate relevant presupposition, belong
inseparably together. The latter consists in nothing other than the as-
sumption of the thoroughgoing complete or----as we
to say in order to emphasize the most important side of the matter---in
the assumption of the of all processes aller
Vorgiinge]. (1895, 167--168)34

we cannot find an in succession of apt~aI-an(:es.


We must observe that uniqueness L.hlnO(~u1J.~,k]eltJ shows here other
than in the It finds itsn<:ll1""Hrollll D<:Il1'"

expression here above in the the change. Discontinu-


ity would be change, and, in the opposite
of extent there is, in to the Slnzul1:aflAe-
ous Oel:>enaelrlCe of the of facts, also a successive
the numerical measures of these detennining elements.
Before a means of detennination that has a specific value reaches an-
other value from the first by a finite amount, all of the values
lying in between must have been passed, supposing that, in the mean..~
the series of has not~ been and then
under other resumed anew with a different of
the relevant to other elements. . .. If
nature then' there could be no
ot'unj~Qu~en~~ss, not even if in these cases the S111'lUll~aneOl'S dlepe:nd(~nCle,
COllttlnlllOO existence of were cornpleteJlv
assured, even if of the other elements also made
the corresponding for them the (1895,
pp. 177-178)36
169

eXt~luSlon of all other means of from


nlfl.P.'-UTArte it is precisely only the straight-line .path that is
g.HD'''V(l4g.AJlII;-~
nn1d'1!1l1IlP'Bv determined. . . . we can define the straight line itself
no as follows: in our three-dimensional space it is that line
between two points is the sense that for
every deviation from it we can conceive innumerably many others that
are wen For straight line alone can we of
no other justified" ["gleichberechtigte"] line. (1895, p. 190)40
170 Don Howard

no 2)0
is not "a deter-
here we can demand only a or stationary type of
motion within the line. in this case, individual experi-
ence or must in order to IiIJPolt,rJ>1i"'1l"Il"'l11l1l"llJPo

(1895, p. 191)41

process means of may be that determine


nniloneBv IeilldelLlti~~I~ in such a manner that for every variation in this
that one can as the same means,
one can find at least one other variation that would then be determined
in the same way as, and be to; first, and thus
would as it were, the same to be realized as the first. We
shall .designate this as the law of l!;'1jVLleJutU~k;el~t.
p.39).43
171
172 Don Howard
Einstein 173

no
as it 3D[)eaJrs
lWlJil.""Jil.VJll'U"JiI.~I".I" no
SUI)stm(~e as

oec~orrLes~ "J1.Jl.~.B.\\.IlU' the general repreSlent:a-


lIo.

tion of events difterelnt standpoints moving relative to one


with constant VeJ.oClltle:S<t and the of
these such representation of whatever totality
of events must be onto one of
re1Jm"es:ent:ati~Jns of the events.
such malpplln~ What is essential is that eln'delt,ltl~~e C4[)nIlec:tiO][).
IJ.1Ih"ll~'IlI"'''.:Il1 concepts must be bent to fit for its sake. We have meore:t1c:al
of that which is repres4ent(~d e~t~~utJtR

1) replres,ent:atUJns of events in arbltranly many of those systems


of rellerell.1ce that are elnae£,u~ ma1Ppalble onto One- are repre-
sentations of 'the same' event. must be since it is not
given outset. (1912, p.
174 Don Howard
Einstein 175

Today I have great interest read your book in its entirety, and I
infer from it that I have for a long time been your companion
in your way of I have told a gentleman who· is a friend
of about your paper on relativity theory. He has shown a great
interest in it. You would give him great pleasure if you wanted to send
him a of it. ...
I am sending you my new paper on the covariance of the grav. equa-
tions. (EA 19-067)61
176 Don II-IlA'IIl1IrolJl'll"'l"'II
Einstein and Eindeutigkeit 177

One doubt that I still want to raise against monism concerns the tacit as-
sumption of the Eindeutigkeit of all questions and problems that natural
science poses to itself. Such an assumption so easily be accepted.
as self-evident that it may well be appropriate to return to it here with
a few words.
Credit for having first poilJted out the inlportance of a proof of
the of problems may well be claimed by mathematics.65
In order to answer the question to what extent problems in the natural
sciences are one best calls upon·the history of science.
In the third and fourth lecture, it was explained how, e.g., different
views about the nature of light, the emission view and the wave view,
could be maintained side-by-side, and how then, when further experi-
ence had decided in favor of the wave view, the elastic and electromag-
netic theories of could for a long time playa role side-by-side.
This shows how, to be sure, advancing induction restricts
the of but never entirely puts an end to it.
The assertion of the Eindeutigkeit of the problems of natural
science would, after come to the same thing as the abandonment of
inductive natural scientific method.
But the question of the of the problems of physics is
much clearer than in other natural scientific disciplines simply for the
reason that physical problems are susceptible to treatment by mathe-
matical means. In many cases, however, in spite of any Eindeutigkeit in
the fonnal mathematical treatment, there still persists a in
the physical interpretation of the mathematically formulas.
(Volkmann 1896a, pp. 66
178 Don Howard

of energy, Newton's
tion.
Einstein and El1U1eUtlJflKe~lt 179

passage:
The newer mechanics Hertz and Boltzmann ap-
pear to me... to be a on the best way to in the essentla1~
Je,2.1tlrnat e, olhle4~t1\re and
1 sides of this when
conceive of the task of mechanics from the of view of a 1l"\'lIf'b'1l"1I1I1l"'unn

mOOel]ln2~ or of The opposition of and object


can in fact be very well illustrated by the between a model
and the modeled. Vi)74
180 Don Howard
Einstein and ~tlzaeUtlJrlke~lt 181

nature

If the law nature is an abstractum, and thus a center of isolation,


but nature itself a concretum, something superposed, then we may not
expect that there is a law of nature that completely comprehends the
universe in its entirety. Every law of nature aims to nature
or only from one from one of without it
being the case that other points of view should' thereby be excluded.
(1896a, p. 88)77

hended COlnpleteJly

Kirchhoff is wen known for having defined the task of mechanics as be-
ing "to describe motions that occur in nature completely and in the sim-
way"-a formulation that can easily be extended to all of physics,
to all of natural science, if one replaces the word "motions"
with the word "phenomena." This formulation has been characterized
as too narrow in view of its stress upon description; I want to charac-
terize it here as still too broad, in view of its stress on completeness.
assert: It is impossible to describe completely the occur
in nature, we must be content to describe them in, their essentials.
One can to the assertion of the of
that our theories and representations should indeed
""",,_LJ''''.Il. .Il.lfJll.J1'-'AJL us
to determine what occurs the of appearance-
recall the atomistic view of the constitution of matter. Processes that
themselves out beneath the threshold of consciousness roiPA1f"1l"-:)j11l1lh.r

phenomena that appear in consciousness,


rl/p.1"JP.1f"1I'lf1l111l11JP. this still only
pmllaJHy; they also determine processes that out below
the threshold value of consciousness but whose knowledge may still be
necessary for completeness of des{,'ription. The limits of our knowledge
of nature appear to be determined thereby. (1896a, pp. 110--111)78

It is a
182 Don Howard

as RUUlv--a

It is just as easy as it is worthless to indicate and establish such ideal


goals. For them to be of value, ideals and goals must have some con-
nection with reality, they may lie neither too far nor too near. Estab-
lishing such ideals is difficult, but epistemologically valuable. (1896a,
p. 140)79

The question the of a solution was also of


for mathematical and physical disciplines. It is not per-
J1.JI.JI.JI.II-JVJI. ,.I\,A..II.A',rV

mathematically, to assume from the outset that a question-


presupposing a proof of its answer's] existence-must always admit
of only one answer; there can indeed even be several answers. (1902,
p. 109)82

are
183
184 Don Howard
Einstein and ~UU1eUtlJflke'lt 185

in the rarest of cases does nature, with her profusion of appear-


ances, present herself to us in a unified manner; on the contrary, in
majority of cases the world of appearance carries a thoroughly compos-
ite character... then it must be one of the tasks of our understanding to
conceive of the phenomena as they themselves as being com~
186 Don Howard

posed out of a series of partial phenomena and at first to study these


partial phenomena in their purity. Only when we know which'portion
each circumstance sustains in the total only
then do we command the whole., 1897, pp. Volkmann
1896a, p. 70)87
Einstein and Et'UJteutlj~ke'it 187

:o-J~mlb:amt~;m, this on

the can so: is


there a single, a determined ordering bestimmte
SteHetlOf(jnu.n~j of that· which exists, those series of changes
that lye conceive of as connected with one another,
the of which we call "Nature"? But this reduces with-
188 Don Howard

out remainder to this other one: Does that which we call


Nature really exist? Does this single functional connection of events
exist? Or mostconcisely: Does existence exist? p. 335)95

mean, to
nothing less than that a functional connection of "the" events
would be or at least could be given in a determined fashion, in
a single way. For existence means nothing else to him, and nothing else
in general,·than: complete, in no respect detennination of
being, and indeed, since it is a question here of being,
completed in regard to time and space. pp. 335-
336)96

even if we is
it does not follow from that that the of a
mination .of the of that which exists is to be as
me:anlln2:less. That would mean giving up the of existence it-
self; it mean giving up the of as
p.336)97

means aoetermina.tio1n'll such that nothing remains undetermined.


is
1I1n1.ri1.a:.1l-A:~llllnld'.Jlro~1' In other words: is
mUllt1Jta~ete4j, it is ~bsolutely singular,
it is conceived as determined in· a fashion, eXC:ludlln~
cboice. This singularity a great role in Kant's
ence; upon its being rests in his distinction of the
Einstein and ~tluJleuttJ~keit 189

intuition from the concept; intuition means to him "the representation


that can only be given through a singular object." TIme and space are
in this sense "essentially singular" representations, and therefore intu-
itions; there is only one time, only one space, as there is only
one. experience "in which all perceptions are as being in
thoroughgoing and connection." the singularity
of time and of space counts necc'ssarily for as the condition for the
singularity of how can the connection of be a
singular one, without the singular time and the singular space being its
foundation? p. 92)98

It is certain from the outset. .. that no achievable foundation for


or spatial determination based upon empirical means of deter-
!L-'V......,.... !I-' ..., ... 1l.4i-JL

mination may claim any absolute security. Nevertheless- pre-


thereby-one makes the fundamental presupposition that there
is an absolute an absolute space for events in themselves [des
lieScl1lch4ens an siehl, means of if were determinable,
events themselves would be comparison with
these every possible determination could claim only the sig-
. of a useful Upon what basis do we make this
presupposition? It lies originally in the demand, in the funda-
supposition that is directed toward of
that which is or proceeds Existence can be conceived only in
a single way, because it means nothing other than determination
in a way. thus an "analytic proposition" insofar as exis-
tence should be this detennination itself
re(l'utt(~d to be although it is never given
leUJldeutljgJ (and that means: abs;olulte)
detennination would be of ex-
that the determination can never be
le1l1CleUtlJgI in no way changes this conditional maxim.
(1910, p. 328)99
190 Don Howard

l elrlc.1el.lt1~~en j determination
PO~)Slt~Hlt:V of its em-
freedom in the
CO()rd]lna1Les~ does
of nature, because
Jrn()wled£~e
the laws
is the of Minkowsld's in-
ves;ti~:at1()ns: the "invariance" of the laws of nature under aU "Lorentz
tratlst()rm.at1()ns." ... A of ,Q>.1n\1l'll"'\"lI1l"'1lruJr.B

detennination more than that which suf-


establlSnJmelnt of laws of nature, is not necessary.
&.Il.lIl1·"I\.....&.!\,lI G!ol!. u 101
Einstein and ~ll,lI1eutIJ~"elt 191

more

rel:atl{)nSJill:p with one

It is very that Buek is Einstein's lectures and


meets with him and is in the habit of having conversations
with him. Yet finds him unclear in matters, still
has no real about the whole matter, with the sole exception of
the difficult mathematics. (Holzhey vol. 2, p. 436; Universitats-
.tllO'.llotneK MaJrbur~., Ms. 831/52)104
192 Don Howard
Einstein and Eindeutigkeit 193

Funktionsbegriff is
fG,VJl..,II.VJl..ll>iU, e~;De(~laJ.jlv the kind of knowledge
is
j('l4"l>1l,Ql.1nl!t"'.1hl4"l> lWI...ll._q<J.a.A ......'U'<t 'ln1l"r\\nA1I"h:7

In(11Vl(ln~I sut)st(JlIlC(~S and their

nature has
1l"II1lj('l1I1"n1l"'lli4"l>oH rlIo"tl7oBr'\).'IRI1Ml'''llo1nlt"'' (Cassirer
its clearest in
"consciousness of value
develops. In the of number,
"",wn",unp"',,", seems possibility of the log-
194 Don Howard

ical of sensuous" 35 [27]).110


"the concept. of is in the ,. .,""".. . . .""".. . ,""""'"
V'IwTJl.II.VVVQ..

which 96 [74]);111
not of the constitutes the of
122 [93]).112
present investigation, man-
ncr in Of~(\UTllP~C'P

ometry, where Grundlagen


sociated of Iml)11c~lt aC~mll1tl(J~n
mOIU~!Jlt Cassirer wants to n12ml,~nt:
is
,t'tr'll:a'1t1l"'1l £,>d)l B 'U'IlJDVV'Q..O

of nratr'\l.1I"IY'lI4::hthl"'1I"-"d)lB 1l"'aD4'l\V-1IRll.1!"\Io£'l~'

does not 1"'\1I"'.(::bCI31"l1t

as COIJ[luarea
Cassirer starts
asking, in. effect,
to construct a COInpJlete repreS1ent:atic)n
hIlJlste:ln and EtfuteutlJ'lkeit 195

The here seems to be the traditional


and of the mind to copy Lab.zut):Hd,enj
ne,rertJne!c~ss, it becomes evident with
terms have a new and meanln~.
are of in the further are not aSS1Jm~~d as Indle1J(~n(j,ent
existences anterior to but gain their whole
so far as it comes within the scope of the first in
and the which are of them. Such are
terms of and as such can never be "given" in IsolatIon')
in ideal with each other. (1910, 46--47 [36])115

AU the propositions of an1:nrrletl C, aU the operations that it defines,


I

are related solely to the of a progression; hence


196 Don Howard

they are never directed upon "things" but upon the ordi..
nal relation, which prevails between the elements of certain svs.ternatlc
wholes. . .. The function of is, in its me:anl.n,g, lndlCtx~n<.1.ent
of the factual of the objects which are this di-
versity must therefore be we are concerned
to develop the determinate character of this function. Here abstraction
has, in fact, the character of a liberation; it means logical concentration
on relational connection as such with rejection of all psychologi-
cal circumstances, that may force themselves into the subjective stream
of presentations, but which form no actual constitutive aspect of this
connection. . . . is here expressed is just this: that there is a sys-
tem of ideal objects whose whole content is exhausted in mutual
relations. The "essence" of the numbers is completely expressed in
their positions. pp. 49-51 [38-39])116

nUlmbers can

Whenever a is that can be realized in differ-


ent contents, can hold to the form of the system itself as an
undisturbed the difference of the contents, and oe,relc.n
In way, we a new ....nl"'1Pjrot'i';7P'"
indleDC~nd.ent of all but it would be un-
«.. .4l11111 llll~"~ the which thus arises with senlSU()US;LV
We cannot read off its ....PI·oP4erties
77

to, for revealed in all determinateness


the relation from which it

we are led to the Leibnizian of mathematics. Accord-


ing to this mathematics is not the general science of magni-
tude but not the science of quantity but ... Wherever
a definite fonn of connection is given, which we can express in certain
rules axioms, there an "object" is defined in the mathe-
matical sense. 121-122 [92-93])118
Einstein and 1!A1Uleutl)~ke'it 197

un(ler~;taIlldiI12 of
way arltnm~eu.c

to reD~reSDenlr!

The determination of the .individuality of the elements is not the be-


ginning the end of the conceptual it is the logic.a}
goal, which we approach by the progressive connection of universal
relations. The of mathe~atics here points to the analogous
pr()ce (1UJoe of theoretical natural science, for which it contains the
l

and the justification. (Cf. Ch. V.) (1910, p.124 [94]) 120

While us a mixture of heterogeneous circumstances


see~nun2JlV intelWoven and confused, thought demands the
1l1rbIt'JP>:1II"Q1l'"QhB'II.7

separate consideration of each moment and the exact de-


terJrnUlatJlon of the part it plays in the structure of the whole....
COInpJ.ete the total process arises when we connect the partial
U.II.\\,;·ll.lUl.ll.1l..J·· U.Il..

system[s] and as it were, upon each other. This


of the total process appears not merely as a but as
a differentiated in which the of between the
IndllVldln~311 elements is defined. . .. Thus when the of
"isolation" and is by the fact that all real-
ity represents the sum of the manifestations of laws of
nature, and is to be ·conceived as having issued from these the
re~al epistemological of the is concealed. We cannot
be~ here with the origin of things, only with the
and of our insight into things. The "real,." as it is grasped
in the sensuous impression, is not in and for itself a "sum" of various
ele:meJnts., but first appears to us as an absolutely simple and unanal-
whole. This original "simplicit.y" ["Einfalt"] of intuition is only
into a manifold
1hl"'dJl1nC'1hr'll1l"'1l"lt'\lIOIirll Vielgestaltigkeit] by the logically
analytic work of the concept. is here just as much a source
of as it elsewhere appears to be a source of Since we
198 Don Howard

conceive a particular process as successively introduced into different


systems, whose general structure can be . we
increase its in so far as we define
in the of our with exactness. (1910,
pp. 339-342 [256-258])121

If we reVtresent malnema.t1CcUIV a of observations the


'.. .S1.1oe~ro()SltlOIl" of several series, we do indeed increase our
kn()WlOO~~e of and transcendent causes of process; but
we have raised ourselves to a new . .. To describe
a group of to record f"PP,pnf'Bvplh,
the sensuous it means to transform
them From among the known and devel-
forms of connection... a selection and combination
must be such that the given here and now appear as con...
stnlctl.veJ,v deduced elements in the system, which arises. The logical
here cannot be denied even in the theories
whate'ver names it may be concealed. The . . acltu§itment of ideas
presupposes the very of this and thus a sys-
int(~Helctu:al iJlOstlula1tes. It is in the of the un;:untn,g1.uty
pr(J~ce§ises li!A~ru1e'Utl~fl/{e'lt des lie,scnen~~ns--emplna~aze~(1 with
~""'LCe.W"TI".rli1l"1l1l1""llr in the German V.ll.Jl.f."'.ll..:Ll1uuq above
ultJLIrulte!.Y combined. "I am COI1VUlceClA
so as can and that this can
All process is thus determined
momentaJnlyeffective and can thus. take in
Howe'ver", if we the of this COI1Vl(~tlon't
nnt)J1C:IUV led back to all those lUDIOmneIltal COIlcelDU(~ns<} which
COIICe1Dt1()n of the
oh,nOUlslv is not
in the content as in our immediate experience,
but it indicates the goal, which the inteUectuallabor of science to
have this content This goal can if we are
able to establish certain relations in the of seDlsatlons,
199

which differ and have their truth limited to a moment of time;


the rules of these permanent relations we can call to mind indepen-
dently of change of the momentary material. To the extent this
takes place, the scientific concept of nature is confirmed.
(1910, pp. 349-351 [263--264])122
200 Don Howard

it was Einsteinschen.
Relativitlitstheorie .fttlWeUll)'?Ke~ll n111"1l1l1lA''"1lllnll.o> is
Cb."'V'1I"'111.R1H......1I1tRT.T in JI""llAll11n'::li.f'>tlIA1I1l

source.

Judgments .[are]... symbols for states of affairs. conditions do


we impos~ on a symbol? a single one, that it be unam-
Einstein and l:!.;lnae~ftlgjtett 201

biguous (eindeutig), or better still, one-to-one in character, Le., every


symbol must correspond to one and only one significatum and every
significatum to just one symboL Since, by its very nature, a symbol
can have no other meaning than this~, it follows irranediately:
A is true if it uniquely (eindeutig) designates adejinite
state of affairs. (1910, p. 466)126
202 Don II-IlA'I'IT"JI1I"'r1I

And it is indeed mnne<llatelv that the of the


distinction bet'Wef~n true and false statements is, in to preserve
b'in:de1J.fttfIA"-elt of and COIlce1ptual el\.pr4~SS].on~ which is the
ne(;es~;at1{ pl"eC()n(11t!c.n for all unClers,tanO.lnj2;, without which a."' ..L'I>._"' ......... """.",.,. ..

expression would be auc.~etner me:anl1t1~1(~ss.


Einstein and ~l1zaeUtlj~Ke'lt 203

traJrlS!4JrnlOO into
as satlsI4iCtllOn

Under all circumstances, the world of facts must


SVD(1I)OlS to be correlated with it and there is only one
and it is for unalterable and because every fact is
one, not by means of any or any
manner of even if it is there before any conception.
p.472)131

The of our scientific propositions, in word and formula, is in


fact else but a system of symbols correlated to the facts of
and that is whether we declare the real to be
204 Don Howard

a transcendent being or merely the totality and interconnection of the


inlffiediately "given." The system of symbols is called "true,'" how-
ever, if the correlation is Certain features of this
symbol-systenl are left to our choice; we can select them in
this way or that without damaging Eindeutigkeit of the correlation.
It is therefore no contradiction, but lies, rather, in the nature of the
matter, that under certain circumstances, several theories may be true
at the same time, in that they achieve indeed a different, but each for
itself completely eindeutige designation of the facts. (1915, p. 149)132

Yesterday I received your essay and·I have studied it


is among best have until now been written
about From the philosophicai appears to have
been written on. the subject which is nearly so clear. At the same
you have complete command of the There is
in your exposition with which I can find fault. toU"-'.lI..ll.ll..lI."-'.n..,

December 21-610)133
Einstein and Eindeutigkeit 205
206 Don Howard
207
208 Don Howard

where is 349-350) of geometry


lI.V'4.lUl.lI.UU.U,JJl..I1...::J

(Forder 1927). Also, in one of the Inost inter-


S].1!;rulnCan(~e of
esting of 11"'\..1111111 RJ"'l<£1'J"'l<-nlh'll.rooR .roOt-a.Of'1l"''11lf'a'llt-'IlT

1MY'I\4)I'1ta.1NI4)1 Rta.1I~1f"t::l>t4)l1l·1lJ"'l<'i'''ce'' in
1111".. 1l-Ila.1r<1tlf'lld::llnn

Weyl's classic Philosophie Natunvissenscha!t ,


Weyl writes: "The ~el1r-e"111{~nL unsur-
passable of ".. ,,'u.. ,"'v JC'""-"""';;::'_"-'
Einstein and Eindeutigkeit 209

Acknolvledgments:
are owed for .II..II.VJLIlJ.il.lI... JI.

in 1I1t"i1'1!V.Q101l-'lItf'lItrIl1l"1I11t"1l,tf'II '1!V'0l'll""1l4'"11W'Il1O

1 See especially Earman and Glymour 1978a, 1978b, Stachel 1980, Pais
1982~ t~orton 1984, 1987, 1990, Barman and Norton 1987.
2 For details, including a dating of the discovery of the hole argument,
see 1980.
3 See, for example, Stachel i986a, 1986b, where the point-coincidence ar-
is used to criticize the employment of a space-time manifold as the
framework within to construct space-time theories.
4 Earman and Norton 1987, for example, have turned Einstein's point-coin-
cidence argument into an argument against space-time substantivalism; see also
Norton 1988. '
5 See below, section 9.
6 Again, see section 9.
7 For more on connection between the Cauchy problem and general
"!l"'aR'lJIt1\lMt'u see Stachel 1988.

8 The history of the may have been forgotten, but the


questions it raises survive in the work of at least two contemporary philosophers
of science, W.V.O. and Nelson Goodman. In 9ifferent ways, each has
developed a position entailing explicit denial of the Eindeutigkeit principle,
with his doctrines of inscrutability and ontological relativity (see, for
1968), Goodman with his argument that world is not one way,
but many ways (see Goodman 1960); each evinces a thorough understanding of
the issues at stake.
9 See Stachel 1988.
210 Don Howard

10 This is the version found in Einstein 1914, p. 1067; for a discussion of


the evolution of the argument, see Stachel 1980.
11 In effect, Einstein is assuming an active, transformation-a
homeomorphic mapping of the manifold onto itself-in which gp.1I are dragged
along; for further details, see again, Stachel 1980, pp. 78-81.
12 The G1(XI ) constitute the image of the G(x) under the passive coordinate
transformation XII --* x~.
13 The Tp.II(x lI ) and the T~II(xll) are everywhere identical, because outside of
the hole, XII =x~, and inside of the hole, Tp.1I = c, for any constant c, inside the
region ~; the designation "hole argument" (Lochbetrachtung), is thus somewhat
misleading.
14 For more detail, see again Stachel 1980; see also Norton 1984.
15 "Durch allgemein kovariante Differentialgleichungen filr das Gravita-
tionsfeld kann das Geschehen in demselben nicht eindeutig jestgelegt werden.
"Verlangen dass der Ablauf des Geschehens hn Gravitationsfelde
durch die Gesetze vollstiindig bestimmt so sind genotigt,
die Wahl des Koordinatensystems ... einzuschranken."
16 "Die im·Sommer noch schwebenden Fragen betreffend die Gravitations-
theorie haben sich unterdessen geklart. Eine Bestimmung der gp.1I
aus den Tp.1I ist nor bei Wahl moglich (streng
beweisbar)."
17 "Mit der Gravitationstheorie bin ich nun sehr zufrieden. Die Thatsache,
dass die Gravitationsgleichungen nicht allgemein kovariant sind, welche mich vor
einiger. Zeit noch so storte, hat sich als unumganglich herausgestellt; es
Hisst sich einfach das mit allgemein kovarianten Gleichun-
gen existieren falls verlangt vvird, dass das Feld durch die Materie
mathematisch vollsilindig bestimmt wird."
18 See also to fall 1913 09~342), as well as Einstein
and Grossmann p. 260, and 1914b, pp. 216-219.
19 It is this claim. that lay behind Einstein's common characterization of
the main implication of the point-eoincidence argument as being that "time and
space thereby lose last vestige of physical reality" ["dadurch verlieren Zeit
und Raum den letzten Rest von physikalischer (Einstein to . . .
'Il=I................ 1bI.1I.....9

December 1915, EA 21-611), the point being that, since spa'uo-·temlPor'a!


coordinates are themselves not invariant under coordinate transformations, they
cannot correspond to see also Einstein 1915, p. 831, Einstein 1916,
p. 776, and numerous other similar remarks.
20 In a recent, careful reconstruction of the point-coincidence argument em-
ploying full apparatus of differentiable manifolds (something to
Einstein in lack of contributes to various obscurities in Einstein's ac-
count of these matters), John Norton contends that, in addition to the principle of
(active) general covariance, the point-coincidence argument tacitly presupposes
a principle of (active) "Leibniz " according to which any two dif-
feomorphic models of a space-time theory represent the same possible
211

space-time (Norton 1989, ppo 1226-1231)0


21 "In §12 mein.er Arbeit vom letzten Jahre ist alles richtig (in den er-
sten 3 Absatzen) bis aufdas am Ende des dritten Absatzes gesperrt Gedluckteo
Daraus, <lass die beiden Systeme G(x) und G'(x), auf das gleiche Bezugssystem
bezogen, den Bedingungen des Gravo Feldes genligen, folgt noch gar kern Wider-
gegen die des Geschehenso Das·scheinbar Zwingende dieser
sofort wenn man dass
1) <las Bezugssystem nichts Reales bedeutet
2) <lass die (gleichzeitige) zweier verschiedener g-Systeme
(besser gesagt zweier verschiedener Gravo Felder) in demselben Bere~
iche des Kontinuums, der Natur der isto
"An die Stelle des §12 hat folgende Uberlegung zu treteno Das physika-
Hsch Reale an dem Weltgeschehen (im Gegensatz zu dem von der Wahl des
He:zug$sv'steJm Abhangigen) besteht in raumzeitlichen Koinzidenzen. * Real sind
zoBo die zweier verschiedener Weltlinien, bezwo die Aussage,
dass sie einander nicht schneideno Diejenigen Aussagen, welche sich auf das
ph~vslj~a1:LscJtl-~~ea.Le beziehen, gehen daher durch keine (eindeutige) Koordina-
tentransformation verloren Wenn zwei Systeme der gJ1.11 (bezwo aUg der zur
0 0

He:scnrelltlUTIUZ der Welt verwandten Variabeln) so beschaffen sind, dass man das
zweite aus dem ersten durch blosse Raum-Zeit-Transformation erhalten kann, so
sind sie gleichbedeutendo Denn sie haben alle zeitraumHchen Punktkoinzi-
denzen gemeinsam, doho alles Beobachtbareo
"Diese· Uberlegung zugleich wie natiirlich die Forderung der allge-
meinen Kovarianz is!.
* und in nichts andereml"
22 "Dadurch verlieren Zeit und Raum den letzten Rest von physikalischer
Realitato" See also Einstein 1915, po 831, Einstein po and numerous
other similar #JI1'"lr~
11".01'1"11'"

23 See especially Schlick 1917b, ppo 50-630 In a letter to Einstein of Febru-


ary 21-568), Schlick said about this monograph: "And so the essay is
less an account of the general theory of relativity itself, than it is a thorough elu-
cidation of the proposition that space and in physics have now forfeited all
objectivityo" so ist der Aufsatz weniger eine der allgemeinen
Relativitiitstheorie selbst als eine eingehande ErHiuterung des Satzes, dass Raum
und Zeit nun in der Physik aIle Gegendstandlichkeit eingebiisst habeno"] And
what 'was Einstein's judgment of Schlick's handling of this theme? In a let-
ter to Schlick on May 21, 1917 (EA 21-618) he writes: "Again and again I
look at your little book and am delighted by the splendidly clear expositions 0

Likewise, the last section, "Relations to Philosophy," seems to me splendido"


["Immer wieder sehe ich mir Ihr Biichlein an und freue mich der vortrefflich
klaren Ausflihrungeno Auch der letzte Abschnitt 'Bezeihungen zur Philosophie'
scheint mir vortrefflicho"]
24 "An der Lochbetrachtung alles richtig bis auf den letzten Schlusso
Es hat keinen physikalischen Inhalt, wenn inbezug auf dasselbe Koordinatesys-
212 Don Howard

tern K zwei verschiedene Losungen G(x) und G/(x) existieren. Gleichzeitig


zwei Losungen in dieselbe Mannigfaltigkeit hineinzudenken, hat' keinen Sinn
und das System Khat ja keine physikalische Realitat. Anstelle der Lochbetrach-
tung tritt folgende Uberlegung. Real ist physikalisch nichts als die Gesamtheit
der raum-zeitlichen Punktkoinzidenzen. ware z.B. das physikalische Geschehen
aufzubauen aus Bewegungen rnaterieller Punkte allein, so waren die Begegnun-
gen der Punkte, d.h. die Schnittpunkte ihrer Weltlinien das einng Reale, d.h.
prinzipiell beobachtbare. Diese Scbnittpunkte bleiben natiirlich bei allen Trans-
formationen erhalten (und es kommen keine neue hinzu), wenn nur gewisse Bin-
deutigkeitsbedingungen gewahrt bleiben. Es ist also das natiirlichste, von den
Gesetzen zu verlangen, dass sie nicht mehr bestimmen als die Gesamtheit der
zeitraumlichen Koinzidenzen. ,Dies wird nach dem Gesagten durch allgemein
kovariallte Gleichungen erreicht."

25 This is the reading that one finds, for example, in Friedman 1983, pp. 22-
25. Thus, Friedman (p. 24) quotes the following passage' from Einstein 1916:
"All our space-time verifications [Konstatiemngen] amount to a deter-
mination of space-time coincidences. for example, 'events consisted merely
in t~e motion of material points, then ultimately nothing would be observable
but the 1/ of the material points of our rrlcasuring instruments with other
material points, coincidences between the hands of the clock and points on the
clock and observed point-events happening at the same place at the same
time" p. 776; Friedman quotes from p. 117 of the translation in
Lorentz 'et al. 1923.) Friedman comments: "I think it fair to say that this
passage the birth of the modern distinction.
It also contains the of and verificationist interpretations
of science characteristic of later positivism" (p. But this is a forced read-
ing. For one thing, Einstein's German term, "Konstatierungen," need not carry
the verificationist connotations suggested the philosophically unsophisticated
translation by Perrett and It later such connotations when, in
the 1930s in Schlick's hands, it became a technical term-Schlick's altemative
to "protocol sentence"-meaning something like those basic statements reporting
the contents of experience that ground observation statements (see
Schlick 1934). In usage, however, it carries the more ordinary . . . . ~JL&
'bf... AJLJI.....

meaning of "Feststellungen" or "determinations~" Moreover, at the place marked


above by the slashes "II," Friedman omits two whole lines that subtly change
Einstein's meaning~ The affected passage reads, in with the omitted material
,highlighted: for events consisted merely in the motion of material
points, would observable but the meetings of two or
more of these points. the results of our measurings are nothing but
'verifications ofsuch of the material points of our measuring instruments
with other material points, coincidences... " One must ,remember that the coin-
cidences of primary interest to Einstein are infinitesimal points of intersection of
world lines, the points corresponding to the space-time "events" that constitute
the space-time manifold. such points are in no way the kinds of direct
Einstein and Eindeutigkeit 213

"observables" later to be so inlportant in the scientific epistemology of the Vienna


positivists.
Friedman is wrong as well in seeing Schlick as the medium through which
these alleged Einsteinian anticipations of verificationism were carried to Vienna.
The Schlick of the late 1910s, the author of Raum und Zeit in der gegenwtirtigen
Physik (1917b) and the first edition .of the Allgemeine Erkenntnislehre (1918),
was a thoroughgoing realist. Here is what he said about space-tirne coincidences
in general relativity, this in the section of Schlick 1917b that Einstein adjudged
"splendid" (see note 23):
"Physics introduces, as its ultimate indefinable conceptions, the coincidences
of two events: on the other hand, the psycho-genetic analysis of the idea· of
objective space ends in the conception of the space-time coincidence of two
elements of perception. Are they to be regarded simply as one and the same
thing?
"Rigorous positivism, such as that of Mach, affirms them to be so. Accord-
ing to the experienced elements such as colours, tones, pressures,
wannths, etc., are the sole reality, and there are no other actual events beyond the
coming and going of these elements. Wherever else in physics other coincidences
are mentioned, there are only abbreviated modes of speech, economical working-
hypotheses, not realities as perceptions are. Looked at from this point of view,
the conception of the physical world in its objective four-dimensional scheme
would merely be an abridged statement of the correspondence of the subjective
time-space experiences in the realms of the various senses, and nothing more.
"This view is, however, not the only possible interpretation of scientific
facts. If distinguished investigato~s in the domain of the exact sciences do not
cease to urge that the picture of the world as offered by Mach fails to satisfy
them, ground for it is doubtless to be sought in this, that the quantities which
occur in physical laws do not all indicate 'elements' in Mach's sense. The coin-
cidences which are expressed by the differential equations of physics are not
immediately accessible to experience. They do not directly signify a coincidence
of sense-data; they denote non-sensory qualities, such as electric and magnetic
field strengths and similar quantities. There is no argument whatsoever to force
us to state that only the intuitional elements, colours, times, .etc., exist in the
world. might just as well assume that elements or quantities which cannot
be directly experienced also exist. These can likewise be termed ' whether
they be comparable with intuitional ones or not. . .. The picture of the world,
as presented by physics, would then be a system of symbols arranged in a four-
dimensional scheme, by means of which we get ourk1!owledge of reality; that
is more than a merely auxiliary conception, allowing us to find our way through
given intuitional elements."
"The two views stand in opposition; and I believe that there is no rigorous
proof of the correctness of the one and the falseness of the other. The reasons
which indu.ce me to· declare myself in favour of the second-which may, in
contrast to the strictly positivist view, be called realistic-are as follows: ... "
214 Don Howard

(Schlick pp. 58-59: quoting from the translation in Schlick 1979, voL 1~"
pp. 264-265.)
For more on the re14aU()nSJnl'D between Schlick and Einstein as it bears upon
the Jf:£t"1aeuttJ~ke'tt p]rtn(~ipl,e, see section 8.
26 See the correspondence between Petzoldt Mach in Blackmore and
Hentschel 1985; see also MUller 1966. Another source of information,
especially concerning the relationship between Mach and is Wolters
1987.
27 See, for example, Petzoldt 1912a, 1912b.
28 See Petzoldt 1912a, 1914, 1918, 1920a, 1920b, 1921a, 1921b, 1923.
29 See note 59.
30 For further biographical details on Petzoldt, see "MUner 1966 and
Hentschel 1989, 401-405.
31 "Nicht" und Oekonomie, sondern und Sta-
bilitlit heben die Wirklichkeit hervor, uns im Vordergrunde des
Interessesstehen" mjissen." Petzoldt cites Mach 1872a, 1872b, 1882, 1883, and
1886, as wen as Avenarius 1876 as sources of the view he criticizes. Mach
to Petzoldt's criticisms in his (1896, pp. 391-395).
32 See below, section 7, for Cassirer's deployment of the concept of a many-
to-one ("eindeutige") or one-to-one ("ein:,"eindeutige") malpp:m,g
33 "Wir dUrfen also wohlauf die Eingangs aufgeworfene Frage: was soH an
der Ursache und Wirkung treten? antworten: die Begriffe em-
bes:t1nun1te Elemente, OOz. und auf
nach dem 'Sinn' order dem 'Wesen' der sie sind
von der dass wir "sie auf die stetige-und einsinnige einer kleinen
Zahl von immer wiederkehrenden elementen-d..h. Be-
stiInmlunj!Sllratt~eln~-:zurtiCJdtlnre~n konnen, die sich gegenseitig eindeutig bestim-
men."
34 AHe organischen Systeme, die sich erhal-
ten sich eine als abgeschlossene Ganze und andem sich in der "A.B.v..,.u.B.~
Jl.,".B...

auf gewisse stationare Zustande... ". 1m Besonderen vermag das Centralnerven-


system des Menschen eine Hingere Zeit als OOsonderer Organismus zu beste-
hen und .sind aBe in ibm stattfindenden Vorgange-namentlich auch denen
das 'psychische' Leben 'parallel' verHiuft-am leichtesten durch die tle;acn,tuJ]lj.t
jener Tendenz zur Stabilitiit zu begreifen. Diese Erhaltoog und lH"n1-"iUlId"'vh1l11lCV
miissen wir nun im Zusammenhang mit einer gewissen allgemeinen Beschaffen-
'heit denken, ohne die sie nicht moglich ware.. Wrr miissen
gleichsam die Natur eine gewisse allgemeine Voraussetzung herantragen, ohne
deren Bestiitigung wir selbst weder geistig noch korperlich leOOn konnten. Eine
solche "Voraussetzung mehr oder weniger bewusst aller wissenschaftlichen
Forschung "ZU und wir dfufen die feste Ueberzeugung haben, dass sie
sich dawir uns selbst in" unserer geistigen Eigenart nieht
denken konnen, wenn wir sie einmal als aufgehoben vorstellen.. unser
individueller und jenes wie wir "die betreffenden Vorausset-
Einstein and Eindeutigkeit 215

zung auch bezeichnen durfen, gehoren untrennbar zusammen. Letztere besteht in


nichts anderem als in. der Annahme der durchgangigen vollkommenen Bestimmt-
heit oder-wie. wir, urn die wichtigste Seite der Sache sagen
wonen-in der Annahme der Eindeutigkeit aller Vorgiinge."
35 "Unsere hochste geistige Existenz, die hochstentwickelten Theile des Cen-
tralnervensystems sind ohne die Ein.deutigkeit alles Seins und Geschehens gar
nicht zu denken."
36 "Wir konnen also in der Succession der Erscheinungen eine Unbestimmt-
heit nicht finden. Wir miissen nur. beachten, dass die Eindeutigkeit hier andere
Seiten zeigt als bei der simultanen Abhangigkeit. Sie findet da zunachst ihren
besonderen Ausdruck in der Stetigkeit der Aenderung., Unstetigkeit ware sprung-
weise Aenderung und damit im Allgemeinen das Gegentheil der Eindeutigkeit.
Insofern findet ausser der simultanen Abhangigkeit der Bestimmungselemente der
Thatsachen auch eine succedane Abhangigkeit der Masszahlen dieser Bestim-
mungselemente statt. Ehe ein Bestimmungsmittel, das eiuen bestimmten Werth
hat, einen anderen urn eine·endliche Grosse von ihm verschiedenen Werth er-
reicht, muss es alle dazwischen liegenden Werthe passirt falls inzwischen
nicht etwa die Aenderungsreihe unterbrochen und dann unter anderen Bedingun-
gen, in anderem Zusammenhange des betreffenden Bestimmungselementes mit
anderen Bestimmungselementen von Neuem aufgenommen wurde. . .. Gestattete
die Natur solche sprungweisen Aenderungen, so konnte von Eindeutigkeit keine
Rede sein, auch nicht wenn in diesen FaIlen die simultane Abhangigkeit, d.h.
Bestand der physikalischen Gleichungen, vollkommen gewarht wenn also
auch aBe obrigen Bestimmungselemente den entsprechenden, ihnen dann durch
die Gleichungen vorgeschriebenen Sprung mitmachten."
37 Petzoldt had first made this point with regard to Hamilton's and related
principles five years earlier; these are, he said: "nothing other than analytic
expressions for the fact of experience that natural processes are uniquely deter-
mined" ["nichts anderes als analytische Ausdriicke flir die Erfahrungsthatsache,
dass die Naturvorgange eindeutig bestimmte sind'.' (Petzoldt 1890, p. 211).
38 See Ostwald 1893. Petzoldt characterizes the principle thus: "real pro-
cesses here as unique, singular cases among the infinitely many con-
ceivable cases" Vorgange zeigten sich hier als einzigartige, als
singulareFillle unter unendlich vielen denkbaren" (p. 194); and he remarks that
Ostwald regarded this principle as essential to the energeticist program, illustrat-
ing this point by Ostwald's use of the of virtual displacements, which
Petzoldt characterizes as a special instance of the principle of the singular case
(p. 195).
39 These logical principles are considered in the course of Petzoldt's discus-
sion of the Eindeutigkeit of mental processes. He argues that, contrary to Wundt'g
position (Wundt 1894), there can be no purely psychical causality, because no
Eindeutigkeit is to be -found among mental processes alone. But since all nat-
ural processes are subsumed under the law of Eindeutigkeit, mental processes
included, we must, he says, look elsewhere for the conditions of the eindeutige
216 Don Howard

determination of the latter, namely to the physical· realm. This, according to Pet~
zoldt, is an argument for psycho-physical parallelism: "There remains no other
way out than to assume a complete, eindeutige relationship between psychical
phenomena and some kind of physical processes... .if we are to understand psy-
chical life completely, then we must associate it eindeutig, in all of its phases,
with processes in the central nervous system" ["Es bleibt gar kein anderer Ausweg
als· eine vollkommene eindeutige Beziehung zwischen den psychischen Erschei-
nungen und irgendwelchen physischen anzunehmen... .wenn wir das psychische
Leben voll verstehen wollen, so miissen wir es in allen seinen Phasen eindeutig
Vorgiingen des Centralnervensystems zuordnen"] (1895, p. 201). He concludes
by asserting that Avenarius's entire program of a "critique of pure experience"
der reinen Erfarhung"] (Avenarius 1888, 1890) can be seen as an effort
to establish the eindeutige determination of psychical process'es.
40 "Eindeutigbestimmt ist eben bei Ausschluss aller weiteren Bestimmungs-'
mittel ausser eines einmaligen Anstosses nur die geradlinige Bahn. . . . gerade
Linie selbst ~onnen wi! wohl nieht besser definiren, als: sie ist die in unserem
dreidimensionalen Raume durch zwei eindeutig bestimmte-in dem Sinne,
dass wi! zu jeder Abweichung von ihr noch unzahlig viele andere denken konnen,
die ebensogut bestimmt waren. Zu der Geraden allein Hisst sich nieht noch eine
'gleichberechtigte' andere denken." Petzoldt credits Friedrich Poske (1884) with
first having promoted this way of viewing the law of inertia.
41 "Hier is also des Denken 'a priori' bestimmt, hier konnen
wi! nur periodisehe, bez. stationare Bewegungsart innerhalb der Geraden
fordern. In diesem Fane muss also die Einzelerfahrung, bez. das Experiment
elntreten., urn das Denken eindeutig zu bestimmen."
42 While ostensibly an "introductiun" to his mentor Avenarius's Kritik der
reinen Eifahrung (Avenarius 1888, 1890), Petzoldt's deserves to be
read as significant philosophical in its own right, as it was read by' many
contemporaries; see, for example, Boyce Gibson's review of volume one (Petzoldt
in klind Gibson 1900). It should be noted that Boyce Gibson
devotes four of the twelve and one-half pages of his review to a discussion of
the consequences Petzoldt extracts from the Eindeutigkeit principle. Thanks to
Tom Ryckman fora reference that led to his review.
43 "Fur jeden Vorgang lassen sich Bestimmungsmittel auffinden, durch die
er eindeutig bestimmt ist, derart, dass man zu jeder Variation dieses Vorgangs,
die man durch dieselben bestimmt· denken wollte, mindestens noch eine
finden konnte, die dann in gleicher Weise bestimmt, ihr somit gleichwertig ware
,und also gleichsam dasselbe auf Verwirklichung hatte wie jene. Wir wollen
diesen Satz als das Gesetz der bezeic·hnen."
Einstein and Eindeutigkeit 217

44 Mach 1897, p. 495, cites Mach 1872a, p. 42. There we read: "If the
appearances a, (3, T, . ... depend on the appearances x, y, z, ... , then certain
equations
a = fl(x, y, Z, ),

(3 = f2(x, y, Z, ),
T f3(x, y, Z, ),

obtain, from which the a, (3, T, ... are uniquely determined when the x, y, Z, ...
are given." ["Wenn nun die Erscheinungen a (3 T .•. von den Erscheinungen x y Z
... abhangen, so bestehen gewisse Gleichungen ... aus welchen sich die a (3 T
eindeutig bestimmen, wenn die x y Z gegeben sind."] And a few pages earlier
(p. 37), Mach writes: "Let us call the totality of the appearances upon which an
.appearance a may be viewed as being dependent the cause of a. If this totality
is given, then a is determined, and indeed uniquely determin~d." ["Nennen wi!
die Gesammtheit der Erscheinungen, von denen eine Erscheinung a als abhangig
betrachtet kann, die Ursache von a. Wenn diese Gesammtheit gegeben ist,
so ist a bestimmt und zwar eindeutig bestimmt."] But it it is not clear that these
remarks suffice to ground Mach's claim to priority in enunciating the Eindeutigkeit
principle. For when he states a definition of causality, Mach gives only these
loose formulations: "The law ofcausality is thus sufficiently characterized if one
says that it presupposes a dependence of appearances upon one another' ["Das
Causalgesetz ist also hinreichend charakterisiert, wenn man sagt, es setzte eine
Abhiingigkeit der Erscheinungen von einander voraus"] (p. 35, Mach's emphasis):
"One can therefore also express the law of causality in this form: 'the effect is
determined by the cause' " kann also das Causalgesetz auch in der Form
ausdriicken: 'Die Wirkung ist durch die Ursache bestimmt' "] (p. 37). What is
lacking" is an emphasis upon the crucial property of Eindeutigkeit,which Mach
seems to take for granted, but which Petzoldt elevates to the status of a principle
in its own right. Mach's English translator, PhilipE.B. is gen~rous,
however, in crediting Mach with priority. In a note to the earlier of Mach's two
quoted uses of the "Eindeutigkeit" idiom, Jourdain writes: "The principle of the
unique determination of natural events by others has been developed by Joseph
Petzoldt, starting from Mach's considerations of 1872" (Mach 1911, p. 102). I
thank TOIIl Ryckman for drawing my attention to this note.
45 "In bezug auf die dynamischen Falle ist aber die Bedeutung der ein-
deutigen besser und durchsichtiger, als es mir gelungen war, von J.
Petzoldt dargestellt worden."
46 "Ich bin ebenso wie Petzoldt ilberzeugt, dassin der Natur nur das und so
viel geschieht, als geschehen kann, und dass dies nur auf eine Weise geschehen
kann."
47 "Diese Ansicht ist auch sehr wohl vertraglich mit der Aufstellung ein-
deutigerBestimmtheiten, welche iIruner unter Voraussetzung gegebener Umstande
und unter Abstraction von ungewohnlichen und unerwarteten Aenderungen statt-
findet."
218 Don Howard

48 "Nur eine Theorie, welche die immer. komplizierten und durch mannig...
fache Nebenumsmnde beeinflussten Tatsachen der Beobachtung eitifacher
genauer darstellt, als dies durch die Beobachtung eigentlich werden
kann, entspricht dem der eindeutigen Bestimmtheit."
49 See· Einstein to Mileva September 10, 1899 (Stachel et aL 1987,
pp. 229-231, especially n. 8) and February8?,1902 (Stachel et al. 1987, pp. 334-
335). For more on Einstein's reading of Mach, see Stachel et al. 1989, p. xxiv.
50 See Petzoldt 1912a, 1912b, 1914, 1918, 1920a, 1920b, 1921a, 1921b,
1921c, 1923. Petzoldt's formal study of relativity theory (or at least of Einstein's
own papers) seems to have begun in 1910; see the letters from Petzoldt to Mach
of September 22, 1910 and June 1, 1911 (Blackmore and Hentschel 1985, pp. 84-
85, 91-92).
51 For more on both of these battles, see Petzoldt's 1906, 1912b, and 1921c.
52 Cassirer, another proponent of the Eindeutigkeit principle, also argued for
the elimination of the concept of substance, but for different reasons; he saw it
being replaced in modern science the concep~ of functional relationships. See
below, section·7.
53 For more on Petzoldt's· interpretation of relativity, see Hentschel 1989,
pp.405-420. .
54 "Die Aufgabe derPhysik wird damit die Darstel-
lung Vorgange von verschiedenen relativ nut konstanter gegen..
einander bewegten aus und eindeutige die..
ser Jede solche Darstellung irgendwelcher Gesamtheit von Vor..
gangen muBeindeutig auf andere dieser derselben1)
VO]r2~iJ12e sein. Die ist eine· solche Das
WeseIlUH:ne ist jener eindeutige Thm zuliebe mussen sich die
physikalischen Biegung gefallen lassen. Erst das eindeutig durch Be..
griffe Dargestellte beherrschen wir theoretisch und technisch.
"1) Besser: aufeinander abbHdbare von Vorgangen
Bezugssysteme sind DarsteUungen 'desselben' Vor..
ganges. Die Identitiit muss da sie nicht von vorn..
herein gegeben ist."
55 For the of the Klein-Minkowski point of view, see Petzoldt 1912,
pp. 1063-1064, and pp. 36-37; see also Hentschel 1989, pp. 405-420 and
Wolters 1987, pp. 182-187.
56 See Petzoldt to fHlIn"1t1P1Bn 26, 1919 (EA 19..055) and Einstein to
19 August, 1919 19..069).
Einstein to IIJ'pt"''7nRdllt" August 23, 1919 (EA 19..072), Petzoldt to Ein-
stein, 6 , 1920 and Einstein to Petzoldt, July 21, 1920 (EA
19..058).
58 See, again, Petzoldt to blnsteln, 26, 1919 (EA 19-055) and Einstein
to Petzoldt, August 19, 1919 (EA 19..069).
59 See the announcements on the founding of the Gesellschaft for ex..
ample, the Natu1Wissenschaftliche Rundschau 27 (1912): 336, the If'h)'Slk4'1Usche
Einstein and l!JllaeUtlJ~ke'it 219

Zeitschrift 13 (1912): 735-736, and The Journal of Philosophy 9 (1912): 419-


420. Among the other. founding members v/ere Eugen Dietzgen, Sigmund Freud,
Georg David Felix Ernst and F.C.S. Schiller. In 1921
the Gesellschaft was absorbed in the Kantgesellschaft 1989, p. 404).
60 See Thiele 1971, p.70. Einstein had moved to Berlin in April 1914.
He lectured on relativity in winter semester 1914/1915 (see Einstein's autograph
notes on these EA 3-008), and in summer semester 1915 (see Konigliche
Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitiit zu Berlin. Verzeichnis der Vorlesungen Sommer
Semester 1915).
61 "Ich habe heute mit grossem Interesse Ihr Buch zu Ende gelesen, aus
dem ich mit Freude entnehme, schon Hingst Ihr Gesinnungsgenosse gewesen zu
sein.-Ich habe einem kranken Herrn, mit dem ich befreundet bin, von Ihrer
RelativiUitsarbeit erzahlt. Er hat sich sehr dafiir interessiert. Sie wiirden ihm eine
grosse Freude machen, wenn Sie ihm ein Separatum senden wonten....
schicke funen meine neue Arbeit fiber die Kovarianz der Grav.

The "kranker Herr" was Einstein's friend, Dr. Ludwig Kraft.


62 She supports her dating by references to two other items in the Einstein-
Petzoldt correspondence, but there is no discernible connection between these
two letters and card in question.
63 In this, the second edition of Petzoldt 1906, a new section was added
detailing the relevance of relativity theory to Petzoldt's assault on the concept
of substance, which is otherwise the main topic of the book, and the title was
changed slightly, presumably to emphasize the link with relativity theory. Petzoldt
did not another book on relativity until 1921 (Petzoldt 1921b, 1921c).
course the book in question need not have concerned relativity, but it seems
unlikely that Einstein would have been so interested in any of Petzoldt's other
books: and, in any case, Petzoldt published no other books of any kind until
1921.
64 Volkmann's entire professional career was lived at Konigsberg. After
taking his degree there in he became a Privatdozent in 1882, was promoted
to Extraordinary Professor in 1886, and was Ordinariusin 1894. He retired
in 1924 and died in 1938attheageof82. The (1896a, 1910a) and the
Einfiihrung(1900, 1913) were both published by Teubner in Leipzig, and both
went through two editions. As a philosopher of science, Volkmann was a thinker
of striking originality and independence: though he had little lasting influence,
his many writings deserve much more careful scrutiny by contemporary historians
of the philosophy of science.
65 f\shis own later writings made clear (see especially Volkmann 1902),
what Volkmann has in mind here is the Cauchy or initial-value problem, the
general question whether or not a given set of equations and boundary conditions
(initial values) together determine a solution for those equations. From
the mathematical point of this is exactly the problem raised in the hdle
argument. See below, section 9; see also Stachel 1988.
220 Don Howard

66 "Ein Bedenken, welches ieh 'hier noch gegen Monismus geltend maehen
moehte, liegt in der stillschweigenden Vorausetzung der E'indeutigkeit aller der
Fragen und Probleme, welehe sich die Naturwissensehaft Eine solche
Voraussetzung wird so leicht als selbstverstandlich hingenommen, dass es wohl
angemessen sein moehte, bier mit einigen Worten darauf zuriiekzukommen.
"Das Verdienst auf die Wiehtigkeit eines Nachweises der Eindeutigkeit der
Probleme zuerst hingewiesen zu haben, darf wohl die fur sieh in
Ansprueh nehmen. Zur Beantwortung der Frage, in wieweit die naturwissen-
schaftlichen Probleme eindeutig sind, wird man am besten die Geschichte der
Wissenschaft heranziehen.
"In dem dritten' und vierten Vortrag ist ausgefiihrt worden, wie z.B. die
Anschauugen tiber die Natur des Lichtes, die Emanations- un.d die Undulations-
Ansehauung lange Zeit nebeneinander hergehen durften, wie dann, als das weitere
Erfahrungsmaterialzu Gunsten der Undulations-Anschauung entschieden hatte,
die elastische undelektomagnetische Lichttheorie lange Zeit nebeneinander eine
Rolle spielen'durften.
"DiesesBeispiel zeigt, wie allerdings die fortschreitende Induction die Viel-
deutigkeit der' Probleme einschrankt,aber niemals ganz autbebt. Die nell:.1Hlrl~
tung'der vollstiindigen Eindeutigkeit der naturwissenschaftHchen kame
so gut wie mit dem Aufgeben der inductiven naturwissenschaftlichen Methode
iiberhaupt fiberein.
"Nun liegt die Frage nach der Eindeutigkeit Probleme in der ein-
fach aus dem Grunde vieles klarer, als in den anderen naturwissenschaftUchen
UH;clt>l1nen, weil die physikalische Behandlung den mathematisehen Hiilfsmitteln
zuganglieh ist. In vielen Fallen bestehl aber weiter bei aller Eindeutigkeit der
mathematischen formalen noch eine der physikali-
schen dermathematisch eindeutigen Formeln."
67 In a supplement (1896a, pp. 162-169), and) again in Volkmann 1900
(pp. 12-20), the term "law of nature" ["Naturgesetz"] is reserved for those high-
level regularities, such as Newton's law of gravitation or Coulomb's law, that
claim validity only within a narrow domain, whereas the terms "principle"
cip"] (1896a, p. 164) and "postulate" ["Postulat"] (1900, p. 12) are introduced
for those high-level conceptual principles, such as the energy conservation
eiple, that claim validity for all phenomena investigated by the physicist. Laws
of nature, on the one and principles or postulates, on the other hand, thus
differ only in their range of application, and both are to be distinguished from
, intuitive [anschauUche] hypotheses.
68 specifically, hypotheses partake of character of "internal" repre-
__sentations or intuitions Anschauungen], to use the Kantian idiom favored
by Volkmann, since they .are not themselves perceptions or "external" represen-
tations or intuitions [iiussere (1896a, p., 148: see below).
69 The distinction that Newton drew between "certainties" (empirical gen-
·eralizations, like laws of spectral decomposition) and "conjectures" (constructive
~odels, like the corpuscular theory of light) in the course of his debates, with
Einstein and Eindeutigkeit 221

Hooke and others over the theory of light (see? for example, Rosenberger 1895)
is as much a part of the background to Volkmann's distinction between laws
of nature and hypotheses as Kant's distinction between concepts and intuitions.
See, for example, Volkmann. 1898a (which is in ,Volkmann ,1910a, the
second edition of his 1896a). The tradition stemming from Newton also may
have informed Einstein's more famous distinction between theories of principle
and constructive theories, with Volkmann as one of the possible intermediaries.
70 In his 1896a, p.150, Volkmann cites Maxwell 1856, or more specifically,
the German translation 1898) in the Ostwald's Klassiker series. Hertz
1894 and Boltzmann 1892, 1896b, and 1897b are cited in Volkmann pp. vi
and·45.
71 "} ust as in external intuition the, senses admit of a sharpening by means
of tools and instruments, so too analogy constitutes such a sharpening for internal
intuition." ["Ebenso wie ftir die aussere Anschauung die Sinne eine Verscharfung
durch Instrumente und Werkzeuge,zulassen, so bildet ftir die innere Anschauung
eine solche Verscharfung die Analogie."] (1896a, p. 148).
72 According to 'Volkmann: "It is well known that from a mathematical and
physical point of view mechanics is the most highly developed natural scientific
discipline, and that is the reason why precisely the mechanical analogy plays a
relatively large role in physics....[the] principles and theorems of mechanics
have become forms of intuition or representation of physical research." ["Die
Mechanik ist bekanntlich die mathematisch und physikalisch durchgebildetste
naturwissenschaftliche Disciplin, und das ist der Grund, warum gerade die mecha-
nische Analogie in der Physik eine verhaItnismassig grosse Rolle spielt. ...[die]
t'rU1£llJ.len und Stitze [sind] Anschauungsformen der physikalischen
Forchung geworden."] (1896a, pp. 147-148). A physics that relies too heavily
upon the more sensual analogies and models preferred earlier, among which he
includes models featuring the concept of "force" ["Kraft"], is condemned as "an-
thropomorphic" ["anthropomorph"l (1900, p. v). Volkmann's views should be
compared to Planck's later argument in his famous "Leyden lecture" that the his-
tory of physics is a history of "a certain emancipation from the anthropomorphic
elements" gewisse Emanzipation von den anthropomorphen Elementen"]
(Planck 1908, p. 64).
73 Volkmann (1896a, p. 29) cites Mach 1894 as his source for the principle
of comparison.
74 "Die neueren Darstellungen der Mechanik von Hertz und Boltzmann
scheinen .mir... auf dem besten Wege, die in der Natur der Sache liegenden,
berechtigten objectiven und subjectiven Seiten der Forschung atifzunehmen, wenn
sie die Aufgabe der Mechanik unter dem Gesichtspunkt einer Abbildung der
Wirklichkeit erfassen. In der That kann der Gegensatz von Subject und Object
in mancher Richtung sehr gut durch das Verhaltniss von BUd und Gegenstand
veranschaulicht werden." (I have embellished the translation in order to bring out
the many relevant connotations of the terms "BUd" and "Abbildung" in German
scientific and philosophical prose.) The most important source for the view
222 Don Howard

of scientific theories as models or pictures is the introduction to Hertz


1894. Boltzmann elaborated a similar position in several essays; see especially his
1897a, pp. 1-2. Neither Hertz nor however, is to distinguish
as clearly as does Volkmann between laws and postulates, on the one hand, and
hypotheses, on the other; and as a result do not restrict the role of models
and analogies to the hypothetical side of science, as does Vollanann.
75 The first discussion of this doctrine is found in Volkmann 1894.
76 Volkmann (1896a, p. 177) credits Boltzmann (1896a, p. 45) with having
first recognized the general significance of the principle of superposition.
77 das Naturgesetz ein Abstractum, 3rISO ein Isolationscentrumist,
die Natur aber ein Supersitionum, dann werden wir nicht er..
warten dass es ein Naturgesetz giebt, welches das Universum in seiner
Gesammtheit vollig begreift. Jedes Naturgesetz win die Natur, die wurKU,CnJcett
nur nach einer einem Gesichtspunkt begreifen, ohne dass damit
andere Gesichtspunkte ausgeschlossen sein soIlen."
78 "Kirchhoff h.at es als Aufgabe der Mechanik pracisirt: 'die
in der Natur vor sich vollstiindig und auf die eillfacht..
ste Weise zu beschreiben'-eine -Formulirung, die sich leicht auf gesammte
ja auf gesammte wenn man das
Wort 'Bewegungen' durch das 'Erscheinungen' ersetzt.Man hat diese For-
mulirung nach der Seite der als zu eng icb mochte sie
hier nach der der noch immer als zu v,veit oe~~el(:nnen.
Ich sage: es ist unmoglich, in Natur vor sich Erscheinun-
gen zu wir miissen' uns dabei sie nur itn
Wesentlichen zu bes,chI'eH1 en. I

"Man konnte gegen die der einer voHstiindigen


He:schreilt>ulll2 eJlnV\renGeltl.. dass unsere Theorien und ja mit dazu
helfen das was der der Erscheinungen
thatsachlich vor sich erinnere an die atomistischeAnschauung von
der Constitution der Materie. Vorgange, die sich unterhalb der
SchweHe des die in unser Bewusstsein
abet dies nm theilweise: sie auch Vorgange die
dem Schwellenwerth des Bewusstseins und deren Kenntnis
doch fiir Vollstandigkeit der Beschreibung nothwendig sein diirfte. Die
unseres Naturerkennens scheinen mit dadurch bedingt.??
'-I'JI.""fJl.AiU"''''JUI

79 "Es ist ebenso leicht wie solche ideale Ziele und


und die Werth haben sollen, miissen mit der Wirk-
Fiihlting haben, sie diirfen weder zu fern noch z_u nab Solche
aut:-zu~~tel1en ist schwierig, aber erkenntnistheoretisch wertnvoJll.
paper is with only minor chal~ges as the "Zehnter Vortrag"
in the second edition of Volkmann's (Vollanann 1910a, pp. 196-217).
81 For more on the history of this, the Cauchy problem, see Stachel1988.
82 "Auch die Frage nach der einer Losung war fur die mathe..
mat.ischen physikalischen von Es ist mathema-
Einstein and Eindeutigkeit 223

tisch unerlaubt, von vornherein anzunehmen, dass Fragestellung-ihre Exis-


tenzberechtigung einmal vorausgesetzt-immer nur eine Antwort zulassen muB,
es konnten ja auch der Antworten mehrere sein."
83 "Dnd doch lehrt die Potentialtheorie, dass beide Anschauungen eine und
dieselbe Differentialgleichung verbindet, welche daher ebenso auf Grund der
einen wie der anderen Anschauung abgeleitet werden kann."
84 This essay was written in response to Boltzmann's influential essay,
"Uber die Unentbehrlichkeit der Atomistik in der Naturwissenschaft" (Boltzmann
1896b). Neither hostile to atomism, nor the vigorous proponent that Boltzmann
was, Volkmann. argued that an physical phenomena can be divided into three
groups: (i) those whose explanation requires the atomistic hypothesis, among
which he counts electrolytic phenomena and the absorption and dispersion of
along with the kinetic theory of gases; (ii) those for whose explanation the
atomistic hypothesis is definitely in no way essential, among which he includes
such "coarser" or "grosser" ["grobere"] phenomena as elasticity: and (iii) those
for which it is doubtful whether their explanation requires the atomistic hypoth-
esis, and where therefore either model is admissible, among which he includes
capillary phenomena. The atomistic hypothesis is necessary only in those cases
where the scale of the phenomena is such that the mathematical model of in-
finitely divisible volume elements is not applicable. As he had argued earlier
(Volkmann 1896a, pp. 108-114)~ a complete explanation is never achievable, so
the question in every domain is not whether or not one has given a complete
explanation, but whether or not one has explained all that is essentiaL His point
about atomism is that it is not essential for the explanation of many phenomena,
and he concludes the paper by noting that his larger aim is to oppose a "false
monism" ['~falsche Monismns"] (Volkmann 1902, p. 203), advocating which. is
presumably the sin that Boltzmann is supposed to have committed. Boltzmann
replied to Vollanann later that year (Boltzmann 1897c), arguing that in defending
the universal of atomism-by which he means merely the assumption of
systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom-he does not mean to deny
the obvious of infinitesimal methods assuming infinitely divisible vol-
ume elements. He concedes that the atomistic hypothesis may be inessential in
such cases, but he argues that it is not, for reason, incorrect, and that it has
the advantage of being conceptually a clearer model of the phenomena. Finally,
he notes that in those cases-he mentions the work of Navier and Pois-
son on of elasticity-where the atomistic hypothesis had originally served
as the basis for the development of what proved to be the correct mathematical
description, we may be deceiving ourselves if we think.that we can actually free
ourselves of the atomistic model.
85 It is no accident, of course, that this paper appeared in the first volume
of a journal founded and edited by Ostwald. Vollanann concludes his discussion
of atomism thus: "The antipathy of physical chemists toward an exaggerated
estimation of the value of atomism is only to be comprehended from this point
of view and it finds its epistemological explanation on the basis of the view
224 Don Howard

developed here regarding the necessity of a distinction between those features


that are essential and inessential for natural scientific understanding~' Ab-
neigung physikalischer Chemiker gegen eine iibertriebene Werthschatzung del'
Atomistik wird lediglich unter diesem Gesichtspunkt aufzufassen und findet auf
Grund del' hier entwickelten Anschauung von del' Nothwendigkeit einer Unter-
scheidung wesentlicher und unwesentlicher Momente fiir naturwissenschaftliche
Auffassungen ihre erkenntnissmassige ErkHirung~'] (Vollanann 1902, p. 122).
86 "Die Zerlegung der Vorgange in voneinander unabhangige Theile hat P.
Volkmann in treffender Weise als Isolation, die Zusammensetzung eines Vor-
ganges aus solchen lbeilen als Superposition bezeichnet."
87 ~'Nui in den seltensten FaIlen tritt nns die Natur mit ihrer Fiille der
Erscheinungen einheitlichgegeniiber, in der Mehrzahl der Fane tragt die Erschei-
nungswelt im Gegentheil einen durchaus zusammengesetzten Charakter. . .. dann
wird es eine der Aufgaben unserer Erkenntniss sein mussen, die Erscheinungen,
wie sie sich bieten, aus einer Reihe von Theilerscheinungen zusammengesetzt
aufzufassen und zunachst diese Theilerscheinungen in ihrer Reinheit zu studieren.
Erst wenn wirwissen,welchen Antheiljeder Umstand einzeln an del' Gesammter-
scheinung tragt,dann beherrschen wir das Ganze."
88 Both of these examples share with example of vector decomposition
the essential feature that there is no uniquely correct way of carrying out the
analysis of decomposition.
89 "Gegen einige meiner altereD Aufstellungen uber eindeutige Bestimmung
hat Petzoldt vorgebracht, die mir zu denken gegeben haben; ich
muss Erorterung derselben einer spateren vorbehalten."
90 criticisms· elicited a repl)lJrom Volkmann in a letter to Mach of
June 3, in which Volkmann located the basis of the disagreement in his
belief that Mach's phenomenalism provides an insufficient foundation for science
"because of the limits of our senses" ["wegen der unserer Sinne"]
(Thiele 1978, p. 131). For more on Volkmann's views on see Volkmann
1910a, pp. 30-31.
91 For Einstein's reading of see above, note 49. His reading of
Poincare is reported to have taken place with the other members of the "Akademie
Olympia" in see, for example, Solovine 1956, p. viii, and Stachel et al.
1989, p. xxv. Solovine does not say explicitly that the members of the academy
read the 1904 German edition of Poincare 1902.
92 more on Cohen and Natorp, see 1986.
93 was in 1850 to a prominent Zurich family, and he began his
at the University of Zurich under Friedrich Albert Lange. In 1872 he
went where he studied with Helmholtz and Cohen, the relationship with
Cohen, evolving into a close, life-long personal friendship. He returned to Zurich
in 1877, first as a Privatdozent at the and then as Professor of Philosophy
and Pedagogy from 1892 until his death in 1910. Like other representatives of
the Marburg school, he showed a special interest in the implications of Kant's
wo!k for the sciences; see especially his three best-known books, Stadler 1874,
Einstein and Eindeutigkeit 225

1876, and 1883. Einstein took two courses from one an introduction to
Kant in summer semester 1897, the other an introduction to the "Theorie des
wissensehaftlichen Denkens," essentially a course in logic, in winter semester
1897/1898 (see Stachel et al. 1987, pp. 364-365). For further information, see
Cohen's Nachruffor Stadler, Cohen 1910.
94 Petzoldt (1914, pp. 21-23) develops an interesting criticism of Natorp's
argument, pointing out that if an ideal, absolute· spatio-temporal order were to
be postulated standing behind the various relative phenomenal (empirical) spatio-
temporal orderings, it would of necessity comprise an infinity of inherently con-
tradictory spatio-temporal relationships (e.g., the temporal order of space-like
separated events may be reversed for different observers), and be thus, quite lit-
erally, inconceivable. One is not advised to however, upon the dispute
between Petzoldt and Natorp, since Natorp, no less than Petzoldt, is guilty of
what I caned above the "subjectivist" mistake of identifying frames of reference
with the phenomenal worlds of different observers. For a better critical discussion
from the empiricist point of view, see Moritz Schlick's review of Natorp 1910
(Schlick 1911), and the discussion in Schlick's first major work on relativity,
Schlick 1915, pp. 155-163. See also Hentschel 1989, pp. 212-217.
95 "Die Frage kann also mit Sinn iiberhaupt nur so gestellt werden: Gibt es
eine einzige, eine eindeutig bestimmte Stellenordnung des Existierenden, namIich
der in funktionalem Zusammenhang miteinander gedaehten Veranderungsreihen,
deren Inbegriff wir 'Natur' nennen? Diese Frage aber reduziert sieh restlos auf
die andere:· Existiert iiberhaupt eben dies, was wir Natur nennen? Existiert dieser
einzige Funktionalzusammenhang des Gesehehens? Oder ganz kurz: Existiert die
Existenz?"
96 "nichts Geringereso ••also dass ein Funktionalzusammenhang 'des' Ge-
sehehens, sehleehthin eindeutig, in einziger Weise bestirnmt, 'gegeben' ware,
oder doeh gegeben werden konnte. Denn nichts anderes bedeutet ihm und be-
deutet iiberhaupt Existenz als: vollstiindige, in keiner Hinsieht unvoHendete Be-
stimmtheit des Seins, und zwar, da es sich hier um zeit-raumliehes Sein handelt,
vollendete in Bezug auf Zeit und Raum."
97 "so foIgt daraus nieht etwa, dass die Forderung der eindeutigen Bestimmt-
heit der Stellenordnung des Existierenden als sinnlos abzuweisen sei. Das hiesse
den Begriff der Existenz selbst, es hiesse, die Aufgabe derErkenntnis gerade als
Erfahrung preisgeben."
98 "Wrrldiehkeit bedeutet eine Bestimmtheit, so dass nichts unbestimmt
bleibt.. Unbestimmtheit ist eben blosse Mogliehkeit. In anderer Wendung: die
Moglichkeit ist vielfach, sic lasst stets eine Wahl,Wirklichkeit ist schlechthin
einzig, sie wird gedacht als auf einzige, jede Wahl aussehliessende Art bestimmt.
Diese Einzigkeit spielt eine grosse Rolle in Kants Erfahrungslehre: auf ihrer
Forderung beruht besonders seine Unterseheidung der Ansehauung vom Begriff:
Ansehauung heisst ihm 'die VorsteHung, die nm durch einen Gegen-
stand gegeben werden kann.' Zeit und Raum sind in solchem Sinne· 'wesentlich
einzige' Vorstellungen, darum Anschauungen; es gibt nur eine nm einen
226 Don Howard

Raum, so wie es nur eine Erfahrung gibt, 'in welcher aIle Wahrnehmungen als in.
durchgangigem und gesetzmassigem Zusammenhange vorgestellt werden.'
fenbar gilt ihm die Einzigkeit der und des Raumes ffir notwendig als Bedin-
gung der Einzigkeit der Erfahrung; wie konnte der Zusammenhang der Erfahrung
ein einziger sein, ohne dass die einzige Zeit und der einzige Raum ihm zugrunde
lage?"
99 "Voraus... steht fest, dass keine flir empirische Bestimmungsmittel liber-
haupt erreichbare Grundlage der Zeit- und Ortsbestimmung je absolute Festigkeit
wird beanspruchen durfen. Man macht dennoch, ja eben damit die grundsatzliche
Voraussetzung, dass es eine absolute Zeit, einen. absoluten Ort des Geschehens
an sich gebe, mit welchen erst, wenn sie bestimmbar waren, das Geschehen
selbst absolut ware, gegenfiber also jede empirisch mogliche
Bestimmung nm die Bedeutung einer brauchbaren Annahrerung beanspruchen
kann. Woraufbin macht man diese Voraussetzung? Sie urspriinglich in der
Forderung, in der-letzten, grundsatzlichen Supposition der Erfahrung als gerichtet
auf Erkenntnis dessen, was 'wirldich' sei oder. vorgehe. Existenz kann nur auf
einzige bestiinmt gedacht weil sie nichts anderes besagt
als Bestimmtheit auf einzige Weise. Es ist also ein 'analytischer Satz', dass,
sofetn die Existenz zeit-raumlich bestimmt sein solI, diese selbst als
schlechthin eindeutige gefordert, obzwar nie gegeben ist. eine schlechthin
eindeutige das heisst: absolute) Zeit- und 'wiirde die der
Existenz selbst sein; an diesetn andert es dass
die mogliche Bestimmung schlechthin niemals sein
1?0 "Euldidische Raum... [ist] eine in dem be-
stimmten dass er ' m o g l i c h e . bestimmter: ffir
eindeutige gesetzmassige Bestimmbarkeit von Existenz in der Erfahrung."
101 "'Obrigensverliert das Grundgesetz der Bestimmungdamit
nichts von seiner nm die seiner empirischen
ErfiiUung wird in bestimmter Weise. eingeschrankt. Freiheit der Wahl des
Zeitparameters wie der Raumkoordinaten ist fur die Einheit des Naturerken-
nens schon darUlTI nieht wei! sie die der Naturge.,.
setze uberhaupt berilhrt. Gerade dies ist vielleieht das wiehtigste iHt"O".Phnllc
der die 'Invarianz' der Naturiges.et2~e ~~e~e~ntilber
allen 'Lorentz-Transformationen.' ... Eine weitergehende .blIlaeUUj~Ke~lt der em-
pirisehen Zeit- und als die flir die von Naturge-
setzen ja nieht erforderlieh."
102 Einstein to Natorp, 1919 (Universitats-Bibliothek Il.1lI<.:l1Il"'hn11"l'i

831/694): see also to June 26, 1919 (EA 44-519). The 1nllt'uQh'~1P
_yvas ··an "Aufruf des deutschen Geistes zum Sozialismus" (draft in Ms. 831
(Naehlass Natorp), Marburg).
103 See the frequent mentions of Buek in correspondence of Cohen and
Natorp published in Holzhey 1986, voL 2.
104 "Sehr interessant ist es, dass Buek die Vorlesung von Einstein hort &
mit diesem ofter zusammenkommt & griindliehe Aussprache Er findet ibn
Einstein and J!,tl1ae.utiJ~keit 227

im Philosophischen doch unklar, & hat noch immer kein rechtes Urteil tiber die
ganze Sache, bei der nm die schwierige Mathematik ausser Frage steht"
105 Buek reports that he often provided accompaniment for Einstein's
violin See Buek's unpublished essay, "The Einstein I
a " a copy of ,which
isin the Einstein Archive (EA 59-353).
106 See Einstein's autograph I)otes for these lectures (EA 3-008).
107 See Ernst Cassirer to Natorp, 1911 (Universitiits-Bibliothek
Marburg, Ms. 831/643; cited in Holzhey 1986, voL 2, p. 437).
108 The only other signer of the Nicolai manifesto was the Berlin astronomer
Wilhelm Forster. For more on this episode, see Nathan and Norden p.3-7.
There was at least sporadic contact between Einstein and Buek in later years.
in 1918, Einstein recommended who was then to Zurich,
to his friend Besso; see Einstein to Besso, 9, 1918 and July 29,
1918 7-321 and 7-322; Speziali 1972, pp. 128-13O-note that Speziali has
mistranscribed the name "Buek" as "Buck"; I thank Schulmann for con-
the correct transcription). They met again in the spring of 1925 during
Einstein's visit to Argentina, where Buek was then a correspondent for La Nacion
"The Einstein I Knew," p. 5, EA 59-353). And in the SUlTAmer of 1953,
Einstein arrange emergency financial assistance for who was then
in poverty in Paris (see, for exanlple, Einstein to August 4, 1953,
and Buek to Einstein, August 28, 1953, EA 59-352).
109 "Der Funktionsbegriff enthalt in sich zugleich das allgemeine Schema
und das nach welchem der modeme Naturbegriff in seiner fortschrei-
tenden geschichtlichen Entwicklung sich gestaltet hat" Unless otherwise noted,
translations are taken from Cassirer 1923, page number references to
which are given in square brackets.
110 "An ihm entwickelt sich zuerst das Bewusstsein von dem Wert und der
Bedeutung der Begriffsbildung uberhaupt 1m Gedanken der Zahl scheint aile
Kraft des Wissens, aIle Moglichkeit der logischen Bestimmung des Sinnlichen
beschlossen."
111 "Der Zahlbegriff erfiillt und durchdringt sich mit dem allgemeinen Funk-
tionsbe grif["
112 "Die Relationsstruktur als solche, mcht die absolute Beschaffenheit
Elemente macht den eigentlichen Gegenstand der mathematischen Betrachtungs-
und Untersuchungsweise aus."
113 "Der Bestand der urspriinglichen geometrischen Objekte aus-
schliesslich durch die Bedingungen bestimmt, denen sie gehorchen. . .. Der
die Gerade bedeutet uns nichts anderes, -als- ein Gebilde, das mit an-
deren seinesgleichen in Beziehungen steht, wie sie durch gewisse Axiomgruppen
definiert sind."
114 "Es zeigt, dass der reine Begriff fUr aIle nur erdenklichen Anderungen
in der empirischen Beschaffenheit der Wahmehmungen seinerseits vorbereitet
und geriistet ist: die unversellen Reihenformen bieten die Handhabe, jegliche
Ordnung des Empirischen zu verstehen und logisch zu beherrschen."
228 Don Howard

After the general theory of relativity mounted its more formidable challenge
in the years following 1915, Cassirer refined his views on the relation between
geometry and experience and on the a priori component in geometry, arguing
that it is, more specifically, the fundamental, local topological relations common
to Euclidean, Riemannian, and Lobachevskian geometry (essentially Hilbert's
axioms of order and incidence) that retain an a priori status and, hence, are
immune to revision on empirical grounds. For Einstein's rather critical reaction
to this view, see his letter to Cassirer on 5 June, 1920, EA 8-386); see also
Schlick 1921. For further discussion, see Hentschel 1989, pp. 224-231.
115 "Hier scheint ganz im Sinne der traditionellen logischen Doktrin von
einer Mehrheit von Dingen und von dem Vermogen des Geistes, sie abzubilden,
ausgegangen zu werden-; aber dennoch zeigt es sich bei tieferem Eindringen
sogleich, dass die liberlieferten Bezeichnungen selbst einen neuen· Gehalt und
eine neue Bedeutung·gewonnen haben. Die 'Dinge,' von denen in der wei-
teren Ableitung die ist, werden nicht als selbstandige Existenzen vor jeder
Beziehung als vorhanden gesetzt, sondem sie er.halten ihren gesamten Bestand,
soweit er fiir den Arithmetiker in Betracht kommt, erst in und mit den Beziehun-
gen, die von ihnen ausgesagt werden. Sie sind Relationstermen, die niemals 108-
gelost; sondem nm in idealer Gemeinschaft riliteinander 'gegeben' sein konnen."
Ve~le.klna himself writes: "A thing is completely determined by all that
can be affirmed or thought concerning it. A thing a is the same as b (identical
with b), and b the same as a, when all that can be concerning a can also
be thought concerning b, and when all that is true of b can also be thought of
a." ["E~n ist vollsmndig bestimmt durch alles was von ihm ausgesagt
oder gedacht werden kann. Ein dasselbe wie b (identisch mit b), und
b dasselbe wie a, wenn Alles, was von a gedacht werden auch von b, und
wenn Alles, was von b, auch von a gedacht werden kann."] (Dedekind 1893,
p. 1; English from the translation in Dedekind 1901, p.
116 "AIle Satze der aIle Operationen, sie definiert, beziehen
sich lediglich auf die Eigenschaften der Progressionen: sie gehen da-
her niemal8 unmittelbar auf 'Dinge', sondem auf die ordinalen Beziehungen, die
zwischen den bestimmter Inbegriffe obwalten. . . . Die Funktion der
ist ihrer nach unabhangig von der inhaltlichen ver'sC.IJlledlenllelt
Gegenstlinde, die gezlthlt werden konnen; diese Verschiedenheit kann und
muss ausser acht bleiben, wenn es sich darum handelt, lediglich die Be-
stimmtheit dieser Funktion zu entwickeln~ Hier wirkt daher die Abstraktion in
der Tat als eine Befreiung: sie bezeichnet die logische Konzentration auf den Re~
lationszusanunenhang als solchen unter Abweisung aller psychologischen Neben-
umstande,die sich im subjektiven Vorstellungsverlauf herandrangen mogen, die
aber sachlich-konstitutives Moment dieses Zusanunenhangs bUden.... Was
hier zum Ausdruck kommt, ist eben dass es ein Gef~ge·idealer Gegenstande
gibt, deren gesamte~ Inhalt in ihren gegenseitigen Beziehungen erschopft ist. Die
'Essenz' der Zahlen geht in ihrem Stellenwert auf."
On the subject of abstraction as liberation, Cassirer Dedekind again:
Einstein and Eindeutigkeit 229

"With reference to this liberation, of the elements from every other content (ab-
straction), we can correctly call numbers the free creation of the human mind"
["In Rucksicht auf diese Befreiung der Elemente von jedem anderen Inhalt (Ab-
straktion) kann man die Zahlen mit Recht eine freie Schopfung des'menschlichen
Geistes nennen"] (1910, p. 50 [38]: Dedekind 1893, p.21). Dedekind first ad-
vances the view of the numbers as "free creations of the human mind" in the
Foreword to the first edition; see Dedekind 1893, p. vii. Given Einstein's fre-
quent employment of the "free creations" image, it should be noted that Einstein
reportedly read Dedekind 1893 sometime between 1903 and 1905 along with
his fellow members of the Akademie Olympia in see Stachel et al. 1989,
pp. xxiv-xxv.
117 "Wo immer ein System von Bedingungen gegeben ist, das sich in ver-
schiedenen Inhalten erfiiHen kann, da konnen wir, unbekiimmert urn die Verander-
lichkeit dieser Inhalte, die Systemform selbst als lnvariante festhalten und ihre
Gesetze deduktiv entwickeln. Wir erschaffen dadurch ein neues 'objektives'
das in seiner Struktur von aller Willkiir unabhangig ist: aber unkritische
.......,. .......J ........ _ ..... '}

Naivitat warees, den Gegenstand, der auf diese Weise entsteht, mit den sinnlich
wirklichen und wirksamen Dingen zu verwechseln. Diesem Gegenstand konnen
wir nicht empirisch seine 'Eigenschaften' ablesen; und wiT bedfirfen dessen nicht,
da er in all seiner Bestimmtheit vor nns steht, sobald wir einma! die Relation,
aus der er erwachst, in ihrer Reinheit ergriffen haben."
118 "Wieder ist es die Leibniz'sche Grundkonzeption der Mathematik, zu der
unswir hierbei zUrUckgeffihrt sehen. Die Mathematik ist danach nicht die allge-
meine Wissenschaft der Grosse, sondem der Form, nicht der Quantitaf, sondern
der Qualitat. ... Wo immer eine bestimmte,Weise der Verkntipfung gegeben.ist,
diewir in gewissen Grundregeln 'und Axiomen aussprechen konneu, da ist im
mathematischen Sinne ein identisches 'Objekt' fixiert."
119 "Lediglich diese systematische 'Komplexion' der Elemente, nicht ihre
Einzelbestimmtheit, hier als Ausdruck ihrer Wesenheit gebraucht und fest-
gehalten. In disem Sinne hat man mit Recht die Hilbertsche Geometrie eine reine
Beziehungslehre genannt."
120 "Die Bestimmung der lndividualitat der Elemente steht daher, nlcht am
Anfang, sondem am Ende der Begriffsentwicklung; sie ist das logische Ziel, dem
wiT uns dllfCh die fortschreitende Verkniipfung allgemein gfiltiger Beziehungen
annahern. Das Verfahren der Mathematik weist 'hier auf ein analoges Verfahren
der theoretischen Natu1Wissenschajt voraus, fiir welches es den Schliissel und die
Rechtfertigung enth~nt. (S. Kap. y')"
121 "Willlrend die Wirklichkeit uns eine vielfaItige Mischung heterogener
Umstande zeigt, die untrennbar ineinander verwoben und verwirrt scheinen, for-
dert der Gedanke die gesonderte Betrachtung jedes einzelnen Moments und die
genaue Bestimmung des Anteils, der ihm in der Struktur des Ganzen zukommt
... Indem wi! die Teilsysteme miteinander verkntipfen und sie gleichsam sich
iibereinander lagern lassen, entsteht nns damit wiederum das vollstiindige Bild
des Gesamtvorgangs, das jedoch nunmehr nicht nur in der Art einer einheitlichen
230 Don Howard

Totalanschauung, sondem als ein differenziertes Begriffsganzes erscheint, in wel-


chern die Art der Abhangigkeit zwischen den Einzelmomenten fest bestimrnt
ist. ... Wenn daher das Prinzip der 'Isolation' und 'Superposition' gelegentlich
dadurch erkUirt und begriindet werden soIl, dass alles nur die Summe
von Ausserungen einzelner Naturgesetze darstellt und aus diesen als hervorgegan-
gen zu denken ist, so verhiillt diese Wendung bereits den eigentlichen erkenntnis-
theoretischen Sinn des Gedankens. Nicht urn den Ursprung Dinge, sondem
urn den Ursprung und die Beschaffenheit unserer Einsicht in die Dinge kann es
sich hier allein handeln. Das 'Wirkliche', wie es im sinnlichen Eindruck erfasst
wird, ist nicht an und filr sich bereits eine 'Summe' verschiedenartiger Elemente,
sondern steht zunachst als schlechthin einfaches und unzerlegtes Ganzes vor uns.
urspriingliche 'Einfalt' der Anschauung wandelt sich erst unter der logisch
zer',gl1~e(1e~rn(len Arbeit des Begriffs zu einer inneren Vielgestaltigkeit um.Der
ist somit hier ebenso der der wie er sonst allenthalben als
der Quell der erscheint. Indem wir einen einzelnen Vorgang successiv
verschiedenen Systemen einordnen, deren allgemeine Struktur sich mathematisch-
deduktiv ableiten' lasst, geben wir ihm damit bruner Be-
stimmtheit, sofern damit seine Stellung in dem allj!enleUlen Un.enlt1erunj~SPlan
unseres Denkens immer bezeichnet wird."

122 "Haben wir einen gegebenen Inbegriff von durch 'Su-


perposition' Grundreihen .mathematisch so haben wir damit
freilich unsere von den absoluten und transzendenten Ursachen des
verme~l.1rt: wohl aber ist es eine neuer des Wissens, zu
nns damit erhoben haben.... Eine vonPhanomenen beschreiben
heisst alsdann nicht sinnlichen Eindriicke verzeichnen, die
wir von ihr empfangen, sondem es sie umpragen. Unter den
theoretisch bekannten und entwickelten Formen des mathematischen Zusammen-
hangs... solI eine Auswahl getroffen und Zusammenslet-
zung gefunden dass in dem der auf diese Weise VJl.Jl.ql.~v.."".Il.J1\\..,
die und Elemente als konstruktiv abgeleitete Elemente er-
scheinen. Das logische das hiermit gegeben ist, verleugnet sich denn
auch in den Theorien des Empirismus nicht: unter wie verschiedenen Namen
es sich hier auch immer mag. Die 'Anpassung der an
Wirklichkeit' setzt eben den dieser Wirldichkeit selbst und damit
eine· Ganzes intellektueller voraus. Vor allem ist. es das
der des in welchem all diese sich zuletzt
zusammenfassen. 'Ich bin ' so heisst es bei Mach 'dass in
der nur dasund so viel geschieht, als gesche~en und dass dies
_~ nur auf eine Weise geschehen kann.' Alles physische wird dem-
nach . durch die wirksamen Umstande vollsilindig bestimmt und
daher nur in einer Weise vor sich konnen. Analysiert man hIdes die
Griinde dieser Uberzeugung, so man damit implizit auf aile jene
Grundgedanken zuriickgefilhrt, die die sensualistische ver-
l.eugnet. Der der der 'Stabilitiit' des Seins liegt of-
Einstein and Eindeutigkeit 231

fenbar nicht in dem Inhalt der Wahrnehmungen selbst, so wie sie uns im ersten
unmittelbaren Erlebengegeben sind, sondern er bezeichnet dasZiel, dem die wis-
senschaftliche Denkarbeit diesen Inhalt mehr und mehr anzunahern strebt. Dieses
Ziel ist nur dann erreichbar, wenn es gelingt, in dem Wecbsel der Empfindungen,
deren jede von der anderen verschieden ist und in·ihrer Bedeutung
und Wahrheit zunachst nur auf einen.einzigen Zcitmoment beschriinkt ist, gewisse
~le:lcrlOl(~10Ien(le Relationen der Verkniipfung festzuhalten,deren Regeln wir. uns,
unabhangig von der Veranderlichkeit des jeweiligen Materials, zuin Bewusstsein
bringen konnen. In dem alsdas geschieht, entsteht und festigt sich der
wissenschaftliche Begriff der Natur."
123 See the preface to Cassirer 1921, as well as ,Einstein's letter to Cassirer
of June 5, 1920 (EA 8-386).
124 For the correspondence, see items EA 8-384 through 8-396 in the Ein-
stein Archive. See also the references to Einstein in Cassirer 1981.
125 The title of Schlick 1910 notwithstanding, Schlick was the inheritor of an
older logical tradition that regarded judgments as the bearers of meaning, truth,
and hence logical relationships. But already in the present paper he was working
his way toward the more modern conception, itself in part a product of Schlick's
work, that sees linguistic entities-propositions or statements-as bearers of
these properties, for he was careful to stress that he is concerned with judgments
only in their objective aspect, only as entities that can be the common property
of different speakers and knowers; see Schlick 1910, p. 460.
126 "Urteile [sind]... Zeichen fiir Tatbestande. Welche Anforderungen stel-
len wir an eine Zeichen? Nur eine einzige, namIich die, dass es eindeutig sei,
oder besser noch, eineindeutig,~. h. jedem Zeichen muss ein und nnrein
Bezeichnetes und jedem Bezeichneten nnrein Zeichen entsprechen. Da einem
Zeichen seinem Wesen nach keine andere zukommen kann als diese,
so foIgt ohne weiteres:
"Ein Urteil is wenn es einen bestimmten Tatbestand eindeutig bezeich-
net."
127 The crucial chapter four of Reichenbach 1920, which is wholly devoted
to Reichenbach's somewhat idiosyncratic interpretation of Schlick's doctrine of
truth as "eindeutige Zuordnung" concludes: "Thus we may give the critical ques-
tion this form: With which principles does the correlation ofequations to reality
become unambiguous?" ["Darum durfen wir der laitischen Frage diese Form
geben: Mit welchen wird die von zur Wirk-
lichkeit eindeutig?"] (p. 45). And in a later footnote, Reichenbach adds: "The
characterization of knowledge as unambiguous correlation is Schlick's analysis
of reason, and is his synthetic judgment a priori" Charak-
terisierung der Erkenntnis als eindeutige Zuordnung ist Schlicks Analyse der
Vernunft, und die Eindeutigkeit sein synthetisches Urteil a (p. 110).
We tend not to realize today just how influential Schlick's theory of truth was
in its day. For example, it was crucial to the evolution of the distinction between
empirical hypotheses and coordinating definitions, a distinction made famous in
232 Don Howard

Reichenbach's Philosophie der Raum-Zeit-Lehre (1928), and employed in one


way or another by virtually all of the members of the Vienna Circle and their
allies; for more on this, see Howard 1987.
128 For more on the history of this discussion, see Howard 1984, 1987,
1990a.
129 "Es ist ja auch ohne weiteres klar, dass die Unterscheidung von wOOren
und falschen Aussagen tatsachlichnur den Sinn hat, aHem sprachlichen, und
gedanklichen Ausdruck die Eindeutigkeit zu wahren, welche die notwendige
Vorbedingung alles VersHindnisses ist und· ohne die jede Bezeichnung und jeder
Ausdruck iiberhaupt sinnIos ware."
130 Ofcourse, a defender of Schlick might argue that it is the term "John,"
not the proposition containing it that is ambiguous. But this defense leads either
to the no less silly medieval doctrine of Adamic proper names, or to Russell's
doctrine of definite· descriptions, which is more a persuasive evasion than a so-
lution.
131 "Es 'muss. sich der Welt der Tatsachen ein Zeichensystem unter allen
Umstanden eindeutig zuordnen lassen, und es gibt immer nur eine und
die ist fiir uns· unveranderlich und ewig, weil jede Tatsache nur eine ist,
kein .Deuteln und keine menschliehe Auffassungsweise ist sie doch
vaT aHem Auffassen da."
132 "Die Gesamtheit unserer naturwissenschaftlichen Satze in Wort und
Formel namIich ist nic·hts als ein Zeiehensystem, das den Tatsachen der
lichkeit ist; unddas ist gleieh sieher, mag man nun die Wirldichkeit
fiir ein Sein erkHiren oder nur fiir den Inbegriff und Zusammen-
hang des unmittelbar . Bas--Zeichensystem heisst aber 'wahr', wenn
die Zuordnung voHstiindig eindeutig ist. Gewisse Eigenschaften dieses Zeichen-
systems sind unserer Willkiir liberlassen, wir konnen sie so oder so walllen, ohne
doch der Eindeutigkeit der Zuordnung zu sehaden. Es/ist also kein Widerspruch,
sondern liegt in der Naturder Saehe, dass unter Umstanden mehrere
Theorien zugleich wahr sein konnen, indem sie eine zwar verschiedene, aber
doch jede flir sich vollig eindeutige der Tatsachen leisten."
Compare the underdeterminationist thesis expressed with
the rather similar remark in the "Einleitung" to Hertz 1894, p. 2: "The models that
we. make of things are not uniquely determined by the requirement that the
consequences of the models be again the models of the consequences. Different
models of the same objects are possible, and these models can be distinguished
from one in several respects." ["Eindeutig sind welche wir
uns von Dingen machen noch nicht bestinup.t durch die Forderung,
_dass die Folgen der BUder wieder die BUder der Folgen seien. Verschiedene
Bilder derselben Gegenstande sind moglieh und diese BUder konnen sieh naeh
verschiedenen Richtungen unterscheiden."] Notice that does not use the
term "model" in the sense that term has in modern formal semantics:
for him it means something more like "image," and these "models" or "images"
fu:nction epistemologically like theories.
Einstein and Eindeutigkeit 233

133 "Ich habe gestern Ihre Abhandlung erhalten und bereits vollkommen
durchstudiert. Sie gehort zu dem BesteD, ,vas bisher tiber Relativitat geschrieben
worden ist. Von philosophischer Seite scheint tiberhaupt nichts annaherend so
Klares fiber den Gegenstand geschrieben zu sein. Dabei beherrschen Sie den
Gegenstand materiell vollkommen. Auszusetzen habe ich an Ihren Darlegungen
nichts."
134 "Der Aufsatz [ist] weniger eine Darstellung der allgemeinen Relativitats-
theorie selbst als eine eingehende ErUiuterung des Satzes, dass Raum und Zeit
nun in der Physik aile Gegenstandlichkeit eingebtisst haben."
135 For most of my information about Schlick's stay in Zurich I am indebted
to Dr. A.J. Kox, Assistant Director of the Vienna Circle Archive in Amsterdam
and co-editor, along with Henk Mulder, of the forthcoming edition of Schlick's
correspondence.
136 See Laue to Schlick, January 5, 1912 (EA 71..35), April 2, 1913 (EA
71-20), and August 19, 1913 (EA 71-21).
137 For details, see Howard 1984, 1987, and 1990a.
138 Camap cites at these points, among other works, Cassirer 1921, Natorp
1910. Petzoldt 1921b, and Schlick 1917b, 1918, and 1920.
139 Though a helpful start has been made in Corcoran 1980, 1981.
140 Among other things, it has been shown that Einstein did not. write the
famous EPR paper, did not like the argument it contained, and developed his own
rather different argument for incompleteness within weeks of the publication of
the EPR paper. For details, see Fine 1981, Howard 1985, 1990b.

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1.
The Correspondence of Albert Einstein and Gustav Mie 245
246 J6zsef
The Correspondence of Albert Einstein and Gustav Mie 247

radius of curvature and the density was ind.eDt~ndent of the


coordinates.
Mie aalrutte<t
However, new
equations with the ,-,vr.::)Jl.Jl.,I.'.J'Jl.Vjc;;.Jl.'-'jUlJ,l

ele:me][lt of space,

stars.

COSMOLOGICAL
248 Jozsef

correS1DOI1Gel[lCe was

2.3 PR1::;PP.1RR~1.n FRAME


The Correspondence of Albert Einstein and Gustav Mie 249

1hl".,.t-·at-'l/f'II11'1l0 fields. 4
in his .struggle for an
us suppose,
(Febru-
.str4112Jlt rod
Le.,

for

measurements were
IL"'" VVJl.U.\Wl.VJlJl., respectively. why
answer is as follows: the
''-It:MI1l11hrll.1Ml1l''1l1Ml of
in the sphere is at rest
not in ""'Jl.Jl.JLVOl~UJl.U is at rest. space,
250 Jozsef
The Correspondence of Albert Einstein and Gustav Mie 251

of general covariance of an
electronrJf"t>.1t'I1I1tll1l"'bl"lr
252 Jozsef

was
space is O'ILJL"'",IL-VJI..lLVll\,8o

me the ohO£l>hl'll1ta

it is
The Correspondence of Albert Einstein and Gustav Mie 253
254 J6zsef
The Correspondence of Albert Einstein GustavMie 255
256 Jozsef

also ~'Il'llf'llhlrtt::llLlJn ~1V'\..'.Il..IL.Il.~'ll.JL


LlJf'lfllAntArII !I1Ilf'1l.lIll

device.
It is not so easy to
I

1·· It is a pity that have been unable to get permission to quote Mie's
letters. I may therefore only their contents. Professor Helmut Spehl
of FreiburgUniversity infonned me of the regrettable fact that Gustav
Mie's estate is out of the reach of historians. It consists of at least 1000 items.
A 60-pagemanuscript on the Einstein-Mie correspondence had been
prepared by Professor but it had to be left because Mie's
Correspondence of Albert Einstein and Gustav Mie 257

heirs withheld their permission to quote or publish anything. The documents are
now kept by a priv~te solicitor.
2 The numbers refer to the Control Index of the Einstein Archive at the
Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
3 .At the time, Einstein did not accept De Sitter's matter..free solution; the
day after he had submitted the on March 7, he read a lecture before the
Prussian Academy·criticizing De (Einstein 1918c).
4 Mie did not mention an important feature of Poincare's universe: its
finite size before introducing the force field. Supposing that geometricians in
this universe construct their geometry with the of (allegedly) rigid rods and
(allegedly) uniformly running clocks, they will arrive at a non-Euclidean space
without field and infinite in its dimensions. In "reality" the universe is finite
and Euclidean, with a field of force prevailing in it (Poincare 1902, Section 4).
Poincare concluded that none of geometries may have a real existence; they are
mere conventions, while Mie adhered to the variant with the field of force.
5 a thorough analysis of Einstein's rotating spheres see Kerszberg 1987,
pp.56-62.
6 That there must have been some confusion in what the effect of distant
masses might consist of is witnessed De Sitter's distinction, though for conve-
nience, between ordinary matter producing gravity and world-matter producing
inertia Sitter 1917).
7 Mie's mentioning Kretschnmnn is not merely a reference to a paper. There
was a closer contact between them. There are features in Kretschmann's paper
lKI'ets,ChrnatJ~n 1917) that suggest that he shared Mie's view in some respects:
too, used the term "ether," and denied the general principle of relativity in
Einstein's sense. Kretschmann remarked in a footnote to the paper that
given him advice in a letter of February 1916.
8 Strictly speaking, Mie wrote Einstein a letter on June 29, 1919, in which
he asked Einstein's of Hermann as a prospective professor of math-
ematics at Halle University, outlined his investigation of the electric field
of a charged rotating around a gravitating center (later published as
Mie 1920a), and invoked Einstein's belp in an experiment. Einstein's answer
is unknown.
9 For a discussion of Einstein's return to the see Illy 1989.

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258 J6zsef Illy

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39: 1-40.
The Correspondence of Albert Einstein and Gustav Mie 259

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1.
History of Einstein's Relativistic Ether Concept 261

2.1 EINSTEIN BELIEVED IN THE EXISTENCE OF THE .ETHER IN THE


SENSE (1894-1899)

As a or existence of a
stationary elastic ""'JI..lI.JI..!iVJI.!iVJUlv,.. speeds. In 1894
or 1895, he wrote Investigation

2.2 EINSTEIN HAD DOUBTS ABOUT THE EXISTENCE OF A STATIONARY

I am more and more convinced that the electrodynamics of moving


bodies, as it is presented today, does not correspond with reality, and
that it will be possible to formulate it in a simpler way. The introduction
of the term "ether" into the theories of electricity led to the notion of a
nledium of whose motion one can speak without Qeing able, believe,
to attach a physical meaning to this statement 2

2.3 EINSTEIN A..oVJiL.,I.L'I.li\..L..IJl..J THE EXISTENCE OF ETHER

existence his paper


tHlln~!rp.. n 1905). . . . "'. . . . ., ""'. .-.... to deny the
262 Ludwik Kostro

2.4 ~'l"'I\.TC''lI''''lDT1\,.T INTRODUCED THE ",-",-""'.L'I"-".I!U.I!..

SOInetlm(~S born in a alSCU~~Sl(]~n

short form:

we
admit that the general of relativity is closer to the ether hypoth-
esis than This new ether theory, however, would not
violate principle of relativity, because the state of this gp.lI =ether
not be that of a rigid in an independent state of motion,
but every state of motion would be a function of position, determined
through the material processes. 3
As we can see, nlh·'il.T~lI£1"IJlB

of
History of Einstein's Relativistic Ether Concept 263

covariant 1l1f'Ila.:t1l"'1l"'oI1lll

relativistic
or

2.5 ... VJll ....J..IiI..'JI...LL.Il...V OF THE RELATIVISTIC ETHER

Physical space and the ether are only different terms for the same
thing. . .. The four..dimensional space of the special theory of relativity
is just as rigid and absolute as Newton's space. (Einstein 1954c)
The rigid four-dimensional space of the special· theory of relativity is
to some extent a four-dimensional analogue of H .. A. Lorentz's rigid
three-dimensional ether. (Einstein 1954b)
264 Ludwik Kostro

(Einstein 1920a)
havior of ·~D>1Il"'1III'JlB
'II"Yll .....

mentioned sense oec:au~;e


it is

a theory of the continuum in which a new structural element appears


side by side with the metric such that it forms a single whole together
with the metric. (Einstein 1954c)

,AND ITS MEANING

1IH1l1l1lIC!TP'sn wrote:
Physical space and the ether are only different terms for the same thing;
fields are physical states of ~pace. (Einstein 1954c)
History of Einstein's Relativistic Ether Concept 265

Einstein's concept is a result of a 2ralou:al 4.:lAr"\tll'T4.:lt1IAn

and matental1:ZatilOn of physical space. process of activation,


dynamization, and occurred step
after definitive of relativity.
the period under
Avenarius), 1H1Inl~TP'in H' .......... •L1I1 .••• JII._

as with'phys- flIAllllfllA.ll,rpb.r!l

as as a
in physics. In lUI. • • " wrote to
• ..,VI "'-.I .... ,..

For me, it is absurd to ascribe physical properties to "space." The


totality of masses generates a g/-tll-field (gravitational field), which in its
turn controls the course of all processes, including the propagation of
light rays and the behavior of measuring rods and clocks.4

ontologically most . . . . . . . .
I I..I'...., ... 'lI.'_........

objects physics must be V.4.J1..Il.'UJI."'l"IV'I".II.

1924). to hmstcln.,
266 Ludwik Kostro

Space, brought to light by the corporeal object, made a physical reality


by Newton, has in the last few decades swallowed ether and time and
seems C;lbout to swallow also the field and the corpuscles, so that it
remains as the sole medium of reality. (Einstein 1930a)

COIlstl1utm2 a matter

space as opposed. to "what fills space" has no separate existence....


There is 110 such thing as an empty space, a space without field.
Space-time does not claim existence on its own, but only as a structural
of the field. (Einstein 1954b)

This word ether has changed its meaning many times in the develop-
ment of science.... Its story, by no means finished, is continued by the
relativity and Infeld 1938)
History of Einstein's Jk.I'pl":Jlh"i:111~tllro Ether Concept 267

2e7 DETAILS OF THE·HISTORY OF THE NEW ETHER

would have been more right if I had limited myself, in my earlier


publications, to emphasizing only the nonexistence of an ether velocity,
instead of arguing the total nonexistence of the ether, for I can see that
with the word ether we say nothing else than that space has to be viewed
as a carrier of physical qualities?
268 Ludwik Kostro

Since .lIL-4"""'........-"- ....... hy-


pothesis, the V.l\.'-'llJ.I\.~"".I\.a..I\.
of ljeIlfC}~e
gust 27, he an
newspaper Berliner Tageblatt 1920c).
same .year, 86th meeting of
Natruforscher Arzte" was in
25). existence was one of
discussion; Einstein

... there is a weighty argument-to be adduced in favor of the ether


hypothesis. To deny the ether is ultin1ately to assume that empty space
has no physical qualities whatsoever. (Einstein 1922a)
f\ f'Ar1l..n.-r.rllll1n11\"\!r to lH'llrU:l,t,p'ln'

an
As to the mechanical nature of the Lorentzian ether, it may be said of
it, in a somewhat playful spirit, that immobility is the only mechanical
property of which it has not been ,deprived by H.A. Lorentz. It may
be added that the whole change in the conception of the ether, which
special theory of relativity brought about, consisted of taking away
from the ether its last mechanical quality, namely, its immobility. More
careful reflection teaches us, however, that the special theory of relativ-
ity does not compel us to deny ether. We may assume the existence of .
an ether; only we mustgive up ascribing a definite state of motion to it,
Le., we must by abstraction take from it the last mechanical characteris-
tic that Lorentz had still left it. ... Generalizing we must say this: There
may be supposed to be extended physical objects to which the idea of
motion cannot be applied. They may not be thought of as consisting of
particles that allow themselves to be separately tracked through time.
History of Einstein's Relativistic Ether Concept 269

In Minkowski's idiom, this is expressed as follows: Not every extended


conformation in. the four-dhnensional world can be regarded as com-
posed of world threads. The special theory of relativity forbids us to
assume the ether to consist. of particles observable through time, but
the hypothesis of ether in itself is not in conflict with the special theory
of relativity. (Einstein 1922a)

According general in Il-'-.u~ \WL~/~Jl.lil4lL is incompre-


hensible an ether.
. . . according to the general theory of relativity, space is endowed with
physical qualities; in this sense, therefore, there' exists and ether. Ac-
cording to the general theory of rel.ativity, space without ether is un-
thinkable; for in such space, not only would there be no propagation of
light, but also no possibility of existence for standards of space and time
(measuring rods and clocks), nor therefore any space-time intervals in
the physical sense. this ether may not be thought of as endowed
with the quality characteristic of ponderable media, as consisting of
parts that may be tracked through time. The idea of motion may not
be applied to it. (Einstein 1922a)

The ether of the general theory of relativity is a medium that is it-


self devoid of all mechanical and kinematical qualities, but it helps to
determine mechanical (and electromagnetic) events. (Einstein 1922a)

'Il"a I 4r'1t1l-1I"1! 1'1I11-"I! 7 because of


Nature
to
of
rtli3'11'TcaIAn.~1I'ncall~1t

so only a

(13) Special relativity and the ether. It is clear that in theory


of relativity there is no place for the notion of the ether at rest If
the reference systems K and K' are completely equivalent for the
formulation of the laws of nature, it is inconsistent to base the theory
on a conception that distinguishes one of these systems from the other
ones. If one postulates an ether at rest with respect to K, it moves with
respect to K', which is not in accord with the equivalence of the two
system.s.
270 Ludwik Kostro

Therefore, in 1905, I was of the opinion that it was no longer


allowed to speak about the ether in physics. This opinion, however,
was too radical,· as we will see later when we discuss· the the-
ory of relativity. It does remain allowed, as always, to introduce a
medium filling all space and to assume the electromagnetic fields (and
matter as well) are its states. it is not allowed to attribute to this
medium a state of motion in each point,. in analogy to ponderable mat-
ter. This ether may not be conceived as consisting of particles that can
be individually tracked in time. (Einstein 1920b)
U _ _ Ij,Jil.'lVJ!I..a. is on po 34:
(22) General relativity and ether. It is not difficult to incorporate the
laws of nature, already known from special relativity, into· the broader
framework of general relativity. The mathematical methods were read-
ily available in. the "absolute differential calculus," based on the work
of Gauss a~d Riemann and further developed by Ricci and Levi-Cevita
in particular.. It concerns a rather simple way of generalizing the equa-
tions from the special case of the constant 9p,1/ to the case of the spatio-
te.mporary varying gP,1/. In aU laws generalized in this way, a role is
played by the gravitational potentials 9"'1/' which, in a word, express
the physical properties of empty space.
once again "empty" space appears as endowed vvith
cal properties, no longer as physically empty, as seemed to be the
case according to special relativity. One can thus say that the ether is
resurrected in the general theory of relativity, though in a more subli-
mated form. The ether of the general theory of differs from
the one of earlier optics by the fact that it is not matter in the sense of
mechanics. Not even the concept of motion can be applied to it. It is
furthermore not at all homogeneous, and its state has no autonomous
existence but on the field;,.generating matter. Since in the new
theory, metric facts can no longer be from "true" physical
facts, the concepts of "space" and "ether" merge together. Since the
properties of space appear as determined by matter, according to the
new theory, space is no longer a precondition for matter; the theory of
space (geometry) and of time can no longer be presupposed to
actual physics and· expounded of mechanics and gravita-
tion. (Einstein
History of Einstein's KeJlatl~i11stlC Ether Concept 271

space
matter ""'-JJl.lI.JI.!lJ'VO'lo..IU

in 1924 in his
... one can defend the view that this notion includes all ob-
jects of physics, since according to a consistent field theory, ponderable
matter and the elementary particles from which it is built also have to
be regarded as "fields" of a particular kind or as particular "states" of
space. (Einstein 1924)

According to the views here presented, the axiomatic foundation of


physics appears as follows. The real is conceived as a four-dimensional
continuum with unitary structure of a definite kind (metric and direc-
tion). The laws are differential equations, which the structure mentioned
satisfies, namely, the fields that appear as gravitation and electromag-
netism. The material particles are positions of high density without
singularity.
We may summarize in symbolic language. .Space, brought into
light by the corporeal object, and made a physical reality by Newton,
has in the last few decades swallowed ether and time and also seems
about to swallow the field and the corpuscles, so that it remains as the
sole medium of reality. (Einstein 1930a)
In a 1l"\.r:l1l"'1tll£'l1l1RQllrSll1 em.ph'ltiC way, ''''-'LAW UI.II.'...... /lULH. space was
expressed 1H1lnl~tP'Rn in a at
The strange conclusion to which we have come is this-it now appears
that space will have to be regarded as a primary thing and that matter
is derived from it, so to speak, as a secondary result Space is now
turning around and eating up matter. We have always regarded matter
as a primary thing and space as a secondary result. Space is now having
its revenge, so to speak, and is eating up matter. that is still a pions
wish. (Einstein 1930d)

was DUIt>11~~ne~a
~ACtA"4i:'£'IhIOritj-

Deutsche Bergwerks-Zeitung in the


an 1929).
272 Ludwik Kostro

was
resources
space,
a l A . '0' . " . . .....,'......'"

possessing en-
most tuIllGaIneIltal

Physical space and the ether are only different terms for the same thing;
fields are states of space. If no particular state of motion can
be ascribed to the does not seem to any ground "for
introducing it as an of a special sort alongside of space. (Einstein
1954c)
History of Einstein's Relativistic Ether Concept 273

20
space-
nB1tIh'~'1I"Jt'",h he

tec.nntCal papers,

3.

EINSTEIN'S ETHER CONSTITUTED AN ULTRAREFERENTIAL


REALITY

it is oe(~au:~e
atSUn~~U(~n D(~twleen space o.lAA W' nuu'oJl""'''

pre;-.hl,nst,emtan physics.
COlme~cte~a or

a reference
also to

.!\..II..IL".Il.'--"\lo,.IIo\w.'VV'~'t
according. to
space does not constitute
.lI..lI..iL\W!.VUIY:"••I"-! an , ,. . .
respect to none
are reference spaces~
274 Ludwik Kostro

Physical space as
tutes an ult1rar(~telren·t1al
a

3.2 THE RELATIVISTIC ETHER IS


AC COr'OlIJl2 to Einstein,
1 a retlere][lCe
of reference

3.3 OF PARTS
History of Einstein's Relativistic Ether Concept 275

we can an
JLV""'IVV\l",~ to each
segments
Se2mell1t c~[)nstit1Jltes a distance

se~:me~nts oe{~au~~e it is not composed

DYNAMIC AND AIl'.Ill."'-".AA"'-"....... OF THE REI~R]RN(~E SPACES

AAA'-'·Il.-A~.IL.II. of the reference


existence
a
we
276 Ludwik Kostro

Ins'tantaneolls spaces. space-time as the rel-


ativistic is not composed of lines or Ins'tantaneol1S
It a continuum f'lnllnn,n.ClCJ,rlI
of events is expressed as 'If'l/nl~ JII..'l.J.II.Jil'l."

every extended ",",'V'.II.J1.JII..'V'JL.II..Il..II.1lo4\VJil'V'Jil.ll.

regarded as composed 1922a)

3.5 THE RELATIvIsTIC ETHER· CONSTITUTES A .A.V..Il...lLjJll.,P.Il.'U.L'UL THAT IS NOT


COMPARABLE WITH ANY
History of Einstein's Relativistic Ether Concept 277

3.6 THE RELATIVISTIC ETHER PLAYS AN PART IN


PHENOMENA

of ele~mt~ntlfY
1"Mr.n~J1l1l'llAr'ltll£'l\n 1I"'I>.01l""lhl£"lR,C1ICl

As we can see, 1H11nICTP"an a nonatomic


£"IiI"'lnClllr1l.t:h1""o.r1

etller as every nn,rSlcal


creation of
lnerti()-2j~avjltatLonal one), cannot

as has
278 Ludwik Kostro

some Einstein's papers very discussions,


expressed in

NOTES

The numbers in brackets refer to the control index of the Einstein Archive at the
Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
1 Einstein to Marcel Grossmann, September 6, 1901. Published in Stachel
1987,-pp.315-316.
2 Einstein to Mileva Maric, August 10, 1899. Published in Stachel et
al. 1987, pp. 225-227.
3 Einstein to H.A. Lorentz, June 17, 1916 (EA 16-453)..
4 Einstein to Ernst Mach, December 1913 (EA 16-454).
5 Einstein to' Lorentz, November 15, 1919 (EA16-494).
6 Einstein to Carl Seelig, quoted in Einstein's "Mein Weltbild,~' in
1983.
7 Einstein to H.A. Lorentz, November 15, 1919 (EA 16.. 494)
8 Einsteinlo Lorentz,November 15, 1919 (EA 16-494).

REFERENCES

Dmde, Paul (1894). Physik des Aethers aufelektromagnetischer Stutt-


gart: .Ferdinand Enke.
- - ' (1900). der Optik. Stuttgart: S. Hirzel.
Einstein, Albert (1905). "Zur Eleldrooynamik bewegter Annalen der
Physik 17: 891-921.
- - . ' (1909). "Uber die Entwicldung unserer Anschauungen tiber das Wesen und
die der Strahlung." Physikalische Zeitschrift 10: 817-825.
- - (1910). "Le de relativite et ses consequences dans la physique
moderne." des Sciences Physiques et lVaturelles 29: 5-28, 125-
44.
- - (1914). "Vom RelativiHitsprinzip." Vossische Zeitung, 26, 1914
(Supp!. 8), pp. 33-34.
- .- (1916). "Die Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitatstheorie.'? Annalen der
Physik 49: 769-822.
- - (1918). "Dialog tiber Einwande gegen die Relativitatstheorie." Die Natur-
wis$enschaften 6: 697-702.
--·(1919). "Spielen Gravitationsfelder im Aufbau der materiellen Element-
arteilchen eine wesentliche Rolle?" Preussische Akademie der Wissen-
schaften (Berlin). Sitzungsberichte: 349-356.
- - (1920a). Ather und Relativitatstheorie. Rede Gehalten am 5. Mal 1920 an
der Reichs-Universitiit zu Leiden. Berlin: Springer.
- - (1920b).. "Grundgedanken und Methoden der RelativiHitstheorie in Ihrer
Entwicklung DargesteUt." Unpublished manuscript (EA 2-070).
History of Einstein's Relativistic Ether Concept 279

- - (192Oc). "Meine Antwort fiber die antirelativitiitstheoretische G.m.b.H."


Berliner Tageblatt und Handelszeitung, August 27, 1920, pp. 1-2.
- - (1921). "A Brief Outline of the Development of the lbeory of Relativity."
Nature 106: 782-784.
- - (1922a). "Ether and the Theory of Relativity." In Sidelights on Relativity.
G.B. Jeffery and W. Perrett, trans. London: Methuen; New York:
pp. 1--24. Translation of Einstein 1920a.
- - (1922b). "Geometry and Experience.'? In Sidelights on Relativity. G.B. Jef-
fery and W. trans. London: Methuen; New York: E.P. Dutton.
- - (1924). "Uber den Ather." Schweizerische naturJorschende Gesellschajt.
Verhandlungen 105:85-93.
- - - (1929). "Professor Einstein spricht fiber das physikalische Raum- und
Aether-Problem.'? Deutsche Bergwetks-Zeitung, December 15, 1929, p. 11.
-.- - (1930a). "Raum, Ather und Feld in der Physik." Forum Philosophicum
1: 173-180. English translation "Space, Ether and the Field in Physics."
Forum Philosophicum·I: 180-184.
- - (1930b). "Raum.. , Feld.. und Ather-Problem in der Physik." In Gesamt;..
bericht, Zweite Weltkraftkonferenz, Berlin, 1930, VoL 19. Franz zur Neden
and Carl Theodor Kromer, eds. Berlin: VDI-Verlag, pp. 1-5.
- - (193Oc). "Das Raum.. , Feld.. und Ather-Problem in der Physik." Die Ko-
ralk. Monatshefte fiir aUe ,Freunde von Natur und Technik 11: 486-487.
- - (193Od). "Address at the University of Nottingham." Science 71: 600-610.
- - (1934a). Mein Weltbild. Amsterdam: Querido Verlag.
- - (1934b). "Das Raum-, Ather.. und Feld-Problem in der Physik." In Einstein
1934a,pp.229-248.
--.,-' (1934c). Essays in Science. 'Alan Harris, trans. New York: Philosophical
Library. Abridged translation of Einstein 1934a.
- - (1934d). "The Probleln of Space, Ether, and the Field in Physics." In
Einstein 1934c, pp. 61-77.
- - (1936). "Physik und Realitiit" Journal of the Franklin Institute 221: 313-
347.
- - (1947). "The Problem of Space, Ether, and the Field in Physics." In Man
and the Universe. Saxe Commins and R. N. Linscot, eds. New York:
Random House, pp. 471-482.
- - (1954a).ldeas and Opinions. Carl Seelig, ed. Sonja Bargmann, trans. New
York: Crown, 1960.
- - (1954b). "Relativity and the Problem of Space." In Einstein 1954b, pp.
360-377. '
- - (1954c). "The Problem of Space, Ether, and the Field in Physics." In
Einstein 1954b, pp. 276-285.
- - (1955). "Appendix II." In The Meaning of Relativity, 5th. ed. Princeton,
New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
- - (1983). "Mein Weltbild." FrankfurtlM, Berlin, Wien: Verlag UHstein
GmbH, p. 199.
280 Ludwik Kostro

Einstein, Albert, and Hopf, Ludwig (1910). "Statistische Untersuchungen der


Bewegung eines Resonators in einem Strahlungsfeld." Annalen der Physik
33: 1105-1115.
Einstein, Albert, and Infeld, Leopold (1938). The Evolution of Physics: The
Growth of Ideas from Early Concepts to Relativity and Quanta. New
York: Simon & Schuster.
Einstein, Albert, and Kaufman, Bruria (1955). "A New Form of the Relativistic
Field Equations." Annals ofMathematics 62: 128-138.
Einstein, Albert, and Lenard, Philipp (1920). "Algemeine Diskussion tiber Rela-
tivitatstheorie." Physikalische Zeitschrift 21: 666-668.
Einstein, Albert, and Rosen, Nathan (1935). "The; Particle Problem in the
Theory of Relativity." Physical Review 48: 73-77.
Einstein, Albert (1920). "Allgemeine Diskussion tiber RelativiHitstheorie." Physi-
kalische Zeiischrift 21: 666-668.
Faddeev, L. D. (1979). "Le vedute di Einstein e talune vedute contemporanee sulle
particelle elementarL" In Centenario di Einstein 1879-1979. Florence:
Giunti Barbera, pp.765-793.
Gehrcke, Ernst ( 1920). "Die Relativitatstheorie, eine wissenschaftliche lV.lla:s:st::]li~
suggestion." Schriftin aus dem Verlage der Arbeitsgemeinschajt deutscher
Natuiforscher zur Erhaltung reiner Wissenschaft e.~, No.1. , Berlin.
Illy, Jozsef (1988). "Einstein Teaches Lorentz, Lorentz Teaches Einstein. Their
Collaboration in General Relativity, 1913-1920." Archive for History of
Exact Sciences 39: 247-289.
(1988). Antoon Lorentz, the and the General Theory
of Archive for of Exact Sciences 38: 67-78.
(1918). "Uber RelativiHitsprinzip, Ather, Gravitation." Jahrbuch
der Radioaktivitat und Elektronik 15: 117-136.
Lorentz, A. "La gravitation." Scientia 16: 28-59. Reprinted in
Collected Vol. 7, The Hague: Nijhoff~ 1934, pp. 116-146.
Jagdish (1971). "Albert Einsteins erste wissenschaftliche Arbeit." Physi-
kalische Blatter 27: 386-391.
Ono, Y. A. (1983). "Einstein's Speech at Kyoto University, December 14, 1922."
NTM-Schfiftenreihe filr Geschichte der Natunvissenschaften, und
Meo.UZln20: 25-28.
Pais, Abraham (1982). "Subtle is the ... ": The Science and
Einstein. London and New Oxford University Press.
Weyland, (1920). "Betrachtungen uber Einstein's Relativitatstheorie und die
'-I'~, Schriften aus dem Verlage der Arbeitsgemeinschaft
........J1.11...... ..... '-I'll.Jlfi->."

deutscher Natuiforscher zur Erhaltung reiner No.2.,


Berlin.
1.

We shall true to the principle of relativity in its broadest sense if


we give such a form to the laws that they are valid in every such four-
dimensional system of coordinates, that is, if the equations expressing
the laws are covariant with respect to arbitrary transformations. (Ein-
stein 1922, p. 60)
1I"'lt.'lI""',,"~141ll1Mr1'.·o1tllA~n4:.' are common in Jjnlst~~Jl.n
a commentators
views because it is now for any rea-
to a generally-covariant
+A'If"1n"'AlIlIB41ll1~t:l> it of modem
these 2eIler:all,r-C()vanant InC.I,uae
1I"ll"'OA1Nt:l>4:.'
282 John Norton

the usual relativity any .I..I..:l.M""'.I.VI;:)\I..E..I.JIl.~


IIJ.l.JI.Il.1I.V.l.gJ.l.VO, '\,I1U'.l!.!LIl...l!.\.I\..r\\".lI.V'.l!..l!. ",ll_H.lIlVI_IL,'HH

eral covariance
some texts on ~V.IL,Jl.V.l.I1..U Tl-liBQtii"ii1",
theory wil1}out recourse to V.l.Jl..JL.l.V.Il·IIJ.l.lI.,.ro

example,
not even have entries for
_ ......4I_Jf"d:'lClt. of

Where we now a space-time mathematically by a differen-


tiable manifold with a point set of unspecified elements, Einstein simply
used number manifolds, open sets of the

Einstein's coordinate systems are coordinate charts of a


differentiable manifold of the modern approach. Rather? they corre-
spond to the modern representation of an actual or physically possible
space-time by a general differentiable manifold.
The Physical Content of General Covariance 283

2.

Gab = kTab (1)

tensor
1H1111(;!!t13'd11l k is a constant. In everyday 'ft1l"'4'Jl,(\lt'llI"l13

C.rOt1lVelrl1elr1t. to treat a single (M, gab, Tab) as rep:res€~nt . .

(Active)3 General Covariance: If (M, 0 1 , O2 , ••• ) is any model of the


space-time theory and h any diffeomorphism from M to hM, then the
carried along tuple (hM, h*Ol, h*02' ...) is also a model of the theory.
(Active) Leibniz Equivalence: If (M, 01, O2 , •••) and (hM, h*Ol,
h*()2, ...) are diffeomorphic models of a space-time theory, then
represent the same physically possible space-time.

to story:
The requirements of (active) general covariance and Leibniz equiva-
lence are not forced on us by mathematical necessity; they are physical
principles that we can choose to accept or deny.
284 John Norton

1. Under canonical interpretation, the properties that distinguish two


diffeomorphic models do not correspond to· any observable physical
properties. So, we admit Leibniz equivalence in order to minimize in-
stances of distinct physical states of affairs that cannot be distinguished
The Physical Content of General Covariance 285

by any possible observation.

course, we
equivalence
able
2. The generation of diffeomorphic models is a gauge freedom of theo-
ries generally-covariant field equations. If we deny Leiblliz equiv-
alence, we force indeterminism in many space-time theories. For ex-
ample, even general-relativisUc space-times that admit Cauchy surfaces
become indeterministic.

as these seems unwar-


to prop-
.....,"-'Jil.Jl.'VUIV'\JJlJII."'"JUl.JII.~

ism.

8.
286 John Norton

At the foundation of his research, Riemann laid n variables Xl, X2, •.• ,
X n , each of which can take all real values. Riemann denoted the totality
of their value systems as a manifold of n dimensions; by a value
system X~, xi, ... , x~, he meant a point in this manifold. 1928,
p.289)

We win to visualize state of things the method. Let


x, y, z be coordinates for space and let t denote time.... A
of space at a point of time, that is, a system of x, y, z, t, I will
call a world point The manifold-_Qfall x, y, z, t systems of
values we will the world.

Modem approach: An actual or physically possible space-time is, rep-


resented a general differentiable manifold, that is,
one with a point set of unspecified elements.
Older approach: An actual or physically possible space-time is repre-
sented mathematically by a special case of the general differentiable
manlt()l<.l, a manifold, Jln, or its open subsets. The representa-
tion, which may only be "patchwise," is a coordination of the space-time
with points of so that the maps Xl, X2, ••• , X n or x, y,
z, t (Minkowski) that effect this coordination are -called "coordinate
systems."
The Physical Content of General Covariance 287

Einstein's and many others' later expositions. of these expo-


sitions presented a review of current state of Llleory
a self-contained primer on the ma,the~mElt1Cal te~Cl1l[)lQlues needed to work
with the theory. Einstein's assumption was his physicist readers were
unacquainted with these himself
assistance of in 1912
to gain access to on the review article
by

p.

11llnAOV'll'~I1I.(1U:l'lt,{::...rtI is
1n1nmllt1"p

the Sndi,(:~-,nItlJB~ CCJOrdlDlate . . W•..,'M.",OI.O_ expo-


sitions move Imme(!l~LteJ.V
288 John Norton

use of a ITlanJLtOJ.O 11l1l1l1lnhA::ll'\l'"

older 'lt1t"'nr'll1l'ltllr,,_

1t1t"'Or«lI1tllr~n used a

we use nowo To illtlSu'ate


structures
to close £IIrunn'l)l'\l"'1l,~n11l
JLV.II..JII..II...II..UJI:UQ,..II..'V.II...II..O in a way
oretic of '.nrl\·.A16~1I-Jil_.DlIlflfJll-A

401 MODELS

(M,9ab)0 (2)

(3)
The Physical Content of General Covariance 289

where A is an set of R 4 , the nl'l1~.1I1lt1lhAC' (On)ik... are and


each matrix occupies to a geometric object of
rank in
pnlll1'1.,'r::IlBp1l1lt

4.2 COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

....... JI\. .11- RELATIVITY AND GENERAL RELATIVITY

....A ..... . . . , · _.......... A .... J" .... " ... ".,,_


., ... Its model set is set
aellne~o and satisfies
n'lI'"A'1Itl'lrnllC' .'1.'

(I')

ds 2 = -dxr - dx~ - dx~ + dx~,

to a

(7)

(8)
290 John Norton

more interesting case of mU.ltlp.le JU1Jl."'U~"""Jl.O


mattcr on

(8')

1. is so every
altter~ent to every
2. X4 is a
VVJULl,::JlL.UJI.Jl.lL. X4 represient h,n,\pr~~n'l1"1~~('l~~~

3.

COlJl2fUlenC;e of
par~Ulel c::."1l"'Ir'lf)lllohftc::."

V 2 = (dX l/ dx4)2 +
(dX2/ dX4)2 + (dX3/dX4)2 reo:res(~nts a of rete~ren~;:;e
~Jl.Jl.JL'-'.LJL.II.Jl. velocity;
The Physical Content of General Covariance 291

5. ....v...."'..-. . . __.. . significance of Xl, ;c2, X3 CO-


OfCllmaLtes are measures CO()rOJLna1te is a
measure

Covariance of a theory under a group G of transformations:


If (A, (Ol)ik .. " (02)ik .. " ...) is a model of a space-time theory, then
any tuple (AI, (Ol)~k .. · ,(02)~k related to it by a transformation
0 • • , •••)

within G is also a model of the theory.


Leibniz equivalence: If two models (A, (Ol)ik ,(02)ik and 0 • 0 0 00, • 0 -)

(AI, (Ol)~k· ,(02Xk · . " 0 of a space-time theory are related by a


• 0 •• )
292 John Norton

transformation within G, then the two models represent the same actual
or physically possible space-time.

.II.~lI."""V.ll."""'~ as a
stein's assertions
some as
reQIUlrements.. Einstein
of a covariance re(IUU~enlenl,

of understanding corresponding to the general of rela-


tivity. For, from the standpoint of the Lqrentz group, two solutions
would incorrectly have to be viewed as physically different if can
be transformed into each other by a nonlinear transformation of coordi-
nates, if from the point of view of the group they are
different representations of the same field. (Einstein pp. 70-73)
The Physical Content of Covariance 293

significant judgments are JLJl.V"/VU'U'~JLJI.


In this regard~, status

Tik
(R4 , hik, Tik) is a
of (R4 , hik' Tfk)
same
294 John Norton

7.3 PRINCIPLE OF

(8)
The Physical Content of General Covariance 295

be to a

where A is some has the


constant values
The ,t"1af'll,'l!,'01l"1lff'R1l"II,t"1aiC.llH

The assumption of the complete physical equivalence of the systems of


coordinates K and K', we call the "principle of equivalence"... (Einstein
1922, p. 56)

claim:
The reQiUlrement of general covariance of embraces the
ciple of as a quite special case." (Einstein. 1916b, p. 641)

This is a
commentators.
1I'1Ir"Ilrto,rll£MI"n
296 John Norton

misremembered. as I pvt'\6dJ1111l1l

its prescient treatment of rpl·::at'!l"V,,711t'u 1l"\1I"'1I1r1lf'l1l1l''\lpC! in


time theories.

8.1 ·THE POPULAR VERSION


example,
Graves (1971, p. 137).)
expressing any given
The Physical Content of General Covariance 297

only represent it as a purely formal property that pres-


ence of formal property can be guaranteed in of a wide
range of a task so loosely that it is triv-
ially achievable. Thus, presence of E = rne in the laws of
relativity can shown to of If one modifies
the of so that string E = mCL becomes
m in terms of the energy E of
carried E = TrtC2 is
....A"t.'I""II"1!('I,C/I.''I''1'1l7

nn'tl~1I4r"1l/l)\IIIU CC)ntLn~ent m' = m, m' is as

ndJl1l111I"1JA"t.l!"II~ and more Int4~re:St1I]l2


the outset of his paper,
1H1I1I1lQlfPil1l1l DletVlfee:n covariance
worry: 14:
... imagine that physical observations consist in the last analysis of
the determination of pure topological relations (coincidencesa ) between
space-time objects of perception and, hence immediately that no coor-
dinate system is privilegedb above any other by them, so that one is
forced to the conclusion tllat each physical theory can be brought into
accord with every arbitrary relativity postulate, including the most gen-
eral, without alteration of the theory's. freely chosen and observation-
ally testable content, by a means associated at worst with mathematical
difficulties: a purely mathematical transformation of the representing
equations.c (Kretschmann 1917, pp. 575-576)

that
298 John Norton

(PC) the physical of a space-time theory is fully exhausted by


thecatall!g Dflts space-time coincidences,

physically nothing other than the totality of space-time point


coincidences. for .example, alll1hysical occurrences were constructed
from the motion· of material points alone, then the meetings of the
points, the intersections of their world lines, would be the only
i.e., that which is in principle observable. (Speziali 1972, p. 64)

arl1~urrlen.t, 16

Naturally, these intersection points are preserved under an transforma..


tions(and new is added), as long as certain uniqueness condi-
tions remain true. Therefore it is most natural to require of the laws
that they do not determine any more than the totality of time-space
coincidences. According to what I have said above, this has already
achieved generally covariant equations_.
The Physical Content of General Covariance 299

of general covariarlce. Einstein's put)!i.SJl1ed JI."'';:'UV.lilJl.C»'''' tl31nSlJeln


K.netS(~nIl[1aIJm. is clearest

Principle of relativity: The laws of nature are only assertions about


time-space coincidences; therefore, they find their only natural expres-
sion in generally covariant equations.

general

H6n1l'"llH6aC~Cllll"\\.n is
H6n1r'llH6aG~C!lll",n is Iffi]ne<11at.ely exr.laJlJtled

OF RELATIVITY IIJln\1l'1Il.Tr't1l'1I"'Il.1l'
300 John Norton

group of the theory's answer gave


results he derived tum out to be characteristic of much
In he 'I1"'t:lb~n1nfl,1nfl,.a1nrll£:l>rIl

covariant space-time and


ies SOllle of extension of the rpU·::lltll't,r'llt"
The Physical Content of General Covariance 301

known that these hopes were never 1t111tl!le~d


years. story is in
194-202.

What

more
1I1r'lIIf"1lrllal£'\ of

on the IDaJOlt()10,

cO()rdJlnale Ij"JlMll..II.~:»Jl.V.Il.JI..Il..II.I"U'J'JI..Il.O "'ll.f"'lt1nlToPilll"tl or


1\1I111\1I·_f'£~lIn~rollrll,~1I1\f"'Pl aJ~2Ulme]lts, and
COlnpJ,ete CAB1''IIf1"llfIl1l1\ to
302 John Norton

ds 2 = Edu 2 + 2F du dv + G dv 2

The mathematical aids necessary for the general theory of relativity lay
. ready made the "absolute differential calculus," which rests on the
The Physical Content of General Covariance 303

research of Gauss, Riemann, and Christoffel on non-Euclidean mani-


folds and had been brought into a system by Ricci and Levi-Civita and
already applied. to the problems of theoretical physics. (Einstein 1916a,
p.769)
was from

Grass-
concepts were
aPI)!lCaU4)nS in physics. (For
analysis entered
theory
rIlPOIf""llrlltl.rIl to use vector

01Drlen.Slonal vec-
304 John Norton

of tour-C1:1m(~nS:lonal

space-time vectors are


p. 749; .....,'U'JUI..lI.JI.Jl.JI.'I",IJl..JL'I",IJI.""""

(A2)

SIJ41'C~-'UIII~ c.~JOI·mIlatt~S x, y, Z, t+ This em-


the

i k
9ikdx dx ·
The Physical Content of General Covariance 305

were already \"IVJl.Jl."""""',,,,",,U

on the CJlIt'\(~nlllllt~ rlI'II ......A.,....antl~lld"llB CaICUJlUS.

However, the vector analysis of Euclidean space related to arbitrary


curvilinear coordinates is formally identical to the vector analysis of an
arbitrary manifold given through its line element Therefore, there are
no difficulties in extending the vector analytic conceptual syst.em, as it
had been developed in recent years by Minkowski, Sommerfeld, Laue,
and others for relativity theory, to the general theory of Einstein given
here.
The general vector analysis, which one then recovers, proves with
some practice to be just as simple to manage as the special vector
analysis of three- or four-dimensional Euclidean spaces;... (Einstein
and Grossmann 1913, p. 23; Grossmann's emphasis)
306 John Norton

VA",,'I\.4U1vA US-
<fJlh':!i"'\I'I'lt~ (htteren111al CaJlCuiuS as a tensor
O&:ll1tllA1:"'lIlI~llri'~rll vector
The Physical Content of Covariance 307

vector <!In ".:11 h.,e'll C

Tensors,,"
Call now tum to
to the Ilature of their 'Itlrl4)I1l'1tll"llcnl""'!l,,,

... a manifold ~
is defined intrinsically in its metrical properties by n
Ina.ep(~noent and by all of a class of quadratic forms of the
VlULlL.lI..lU. . . J.lI..'.......

differentials of these variables, such that any two of them are trans-
formable from one to the other by a point transformation. (Ricci and
Levi-Civita 1901, p. 482)
308 John Norton

it a

Dre~Ce(len'ts gave
marul:Ol(lS in their Q"'1l~.n.""11l1hilJf:"l\'I!YIICl
The Physical Content of General Covariance 309

matical techniques needed for new' if


n.ot given there, should it not be. given elsewhere in
of the theory? A simple answer is
eral relativity began presmn.p ti on
the [OUlr-(]llm.en:Sl01nal il'"n1l"1nr1I1l,IB4Jt1fllnn

writings
already in
J1.JI.lLUJlJUl..Il'VlLU

Einstein's discussion in
Meaning of Relativity,
ele~mf~nt4lfV 1l-'Jl."-'Il-'VJl.lI..ll.'lo,",O for space, he wrote:
... it is easy to say what we mean by the three dimensionality of space;
to each point three numbers, Xl, X2, and X3 (coordinates), may be
associated in such a way that this association is uniquely reciprocal
and that Xl, X2, and X3 vary continuously when the point describes a
continuous series of points (a line). (Einstein 1922, pp. 3-4)
In n
11 1nt1r'nt111l 1 £'I111n

gave us a expressing tnore precisely


of a nn"VS1Cal one represents space
structure nu]no(~r 1nf'kn1l"ll~dilh""Il.Ulrtl R 3 •21

The quantities of the first rank then are vectors, the symmetric, sec-
ond rank quantities are. the tensors, those of the third rank Voigt calls
trivectors [Trivektoren]; those of the fourth rank bitenso~s [Bitensoren].
A sentence usage
310 John Norton

of Grossmann:
Recently, Mr. Grossmann (see bibliography) has proposed a still further
reaching generalization. He denotes quantities of arbitrary tank as "ten-
sors," so that vectors, trivectors, and bitensors are also subsumed by the
term "tensor"; the generalization consists in extending his definitions
to structures of nth rank in m-dimensional space.

only by in
Grossmann: Entwurf einer verallgemeinerten Keltal~~VllalS'lnt.~on~e
" generalized use of term tensor
was novel at least to who was ~1111Hhl"·llAn,tl'T
mCjlm(~matl~cal av,ulable in
Bda,-r.rllt'R'II-r.o. to write a
tnree ·al1m.e:nSlon:al tensors.
a

NOTES

1,See, also, for example, Einstein 1916, p. 776 and Einstein 1917, pp. 97-98.
2 Of course, ithas proven possible to find reinterpretations of Einstein's ideas
that do make sense to modern readers. The most successful of these attempts is
based on the notions of absolute and dynamic objects, best known from the work
of Anderson (1967), and explored most recently by (1986).
3 For elaboration on the difference between these active versions of the
requirements and the corresponding passive versions, see Norton 1987 or Norton
1989.
4 Imagine, for example, a space-time theory that requires two manifolds with
disjoint point sets to-represent two different space-times, even though the models
that host the manifolds may be diffeomorphic. For a concrete example, take a
Euclidean three space and foliate it into a family of two-dimensional hyper-
surfaces Si, with i a real valued index. We can model each hypersurface by the
unique manifold-metric pair (Ni , h~il), where by stipulation, two diffeomorphic
models (Ni , h~2) and (Nj, h~2) differ only by having disjoint point sets.
5 A major deficiency of the tradition was that· spaces that were not topolog-
ically R;n could only be represented in a patchwise fashion.
6 I translate Minkowski's "Mannigfaltigkeit" as "manifold" where the stan-
dard translation·(Minkowski 1908a, p. 76) has "multiplicity."
7 I adopt the following convention. Indices a, b, C, ..• are to be read
according to the abstract index notation (Wald 1984, Section 2.4), so that gab is
a second rank covariant tensor, Le., a bilinear map from the tangent space of the
manifold to the reals. Indices i, k, l, ... take real values 1, 2, 3, 4 so that gik
represents a 4 x 4 matrix of reals, which could be, for example, the components
of gab in some coordinate chart.
S This procedure recapitulates Einstein's historical pathway to general rela-
tiv~ty. This fascinating story can be found in Stachel 1980.
The Physical Content of General Covariance 311

9 For further discussion of this problem of the. modern reading, see Norton
1989.
10 The most important exception arises in the context of the Cauchy problem
in which these mathenlatical properties engender 'a gauge freedom that threatens
the determinism of the space-time theory.
11 For an extensive survey of Einstein's statements of the principle and its
role in relativity theory, see Norton 1985.
12 Kretschmann's mathematical methods also lie within the number manifold
tradition of Klein and MinkowskL This fact is expressed neatly in Kretsch..
mann's use of the term "coordinate manifold" (see, for example, Kretschmann
1917, pp. 581-82, p. 583). In 1915, he was even more explicit. He announced
that he would "conceive of the space-time reference system of physics as a
four-dimensional manifold of pure numbers" (Kretschmann 1915, p. 917) and
he devoted considerable analysis to the "representation postulates" of physical
theories, which "relate empirical space and empirical time with the spaces and
time coordinates of theoretical physics" (Kretschmann 1915, p. 979).
13 For example, guarantee the presence of the string E = me! by defining
m = E / e!, where E is the kinetic energy of a body with inertial mass rni and
velocity v; m then enters the physically contingent law m = miv2 / 22. I thank
Cory Juhl for discussion.
14 At the point marked by my superscript letters a, b, and c, Kretschmann's
text has footnote references: (a) Einstein 1916a, p. 766; (b) for details, Kretsch-
mann (1915,p. 914-924); (cl compare Ricci and Levi-Civita (1901, p. 125).
In the place cited in (b) and pages 924-26 fonowing, Kretschmann argued at
length for what is essentially just Ule point-coincidence argument: observation
provides only "topological" results, such as the coincidence of parts ofmeasuring
instruments and subjects, so that the choice between coordinate systems is made
by convention and arbitrary stipulation. Kretschmann's paper was submitted
on October 21, 1915, two months before the point-eoincidence argument even
appeared in Einstein's correspondence. This fact leaves room for speculation on
the priority and circumstances surrounding its discovery.
15 For a· more detailed treatment of Einstein's formulations of the point-
coincidence argument and its role in his work on general relativity, see Norton
1987.
16 For example, Einstein 1916a, p. 776 or Einstein to P. Ehrenfest, December
26, 1915, in Norton 1987, pp. 168-169.
17 This is not the place to analyze the ambiguity lurking in the notion of
"space-tilne coincidence." view is that, in the lasranalysis, the assumption
(PC) can only made precise by replacing it by nothing less than the requirement
of general covariancelLeibniz equivalence.
18 He only then turned to the remark best known from his reply. Even if,
he said, all empirical laws can take on generally-covariant fOnDS, his relativity
principle still has heuristic power because for two empirically equivalent theo-
ries, we should prefer the one whose generally-covariant formulation (absolute
312 John Norton

differential calculus) is simpler and more transparent.


19 This name appears here for the first time and the formulation' given begins
with the now familiar words "The G-field is determined without residue by the
masses of bodies.. .. "
20 While Grossmann gave no definition of a manifold in Einstein and Gross-
mann 1913, this Ricci-Levi-Civita definition is clearly the one he had in mind
when he wrote of "the vector analysis of an arbitrary manifold given through its
line element" (p. 23) and again in a similar remark on p. 31.
21 I believe that Minkowski also found the point too elementary to bear
sustained discussion. His technical exposition (Minkowski 1907) does not contain
the definition of "the world" quoted in Section 3. He limited himself to the remark
that "a single system of values x, y, z, t or Xl, X2, X3, X4, is to be called a space-
time point" (p. 57, Minkowski's emphasis), with the more elementary discussion
of "the world" delegated to his popular lecture (Minkowsld 1908).

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Conrad Muller, eds. Lepzig: B.G.Teubner, pp. 3-47.
Abraham, Max and Foppl~ August (1904). Einfiihrung in die MaxwelischeTheorie
fffjoHrB!7l1tiit 2nd rev ed. Leipzig: B.G. Teubner.

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- - (1913). "Zum gegenwartigen Stande des Gravitationsproblems." Physika-
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-'- - (1915). "Zur aHgemeinen Relativitatstheorie." Koniglich Preussische Aka-
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- - (1920). "Grundgedanken und Methoden der RelativiHitstheorie in ihrer
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- - (1922). The Meaning of Relativity: Four Lectures Delivered at Princeton
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--.- . ' (1949). Autobiographical Notes. Open Court, 1979.
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314 John Norton

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set
"-'.II..II.~vv..V.ll.J1.V~.. 1H1l11IQrp1gn

to Inc:lucle
ii"'OI.r\lf"1I'1r,,1If"'lr7

reference systems.
Qjrtf'IAltJ''II'''QjI"1Inn master stroke
was to eOlllV:ilellce between of gravitation

1.
320 I. Miller

=
Albert Einstein's 1907 11l1IlYArrrU'orn 321

where the vector is the external field~ the scalar quan-


tity E is the body's energy Ineasured in K, p is charge distribution in
K, and dV is a volume element of the body measured in K. A A-.I.....,JL_Jl..JlI.'i!.-L.l

t .... ~1n~it"n ....rll1l4)jtllnn into the body's rest system k

(3)

where T is CO()rOllnalre in k to
also refer, effect over
along k's x-axis.
El(e vanishes in k where body is in eCHJil1ltlntlffi, it need not vanish in
to of
'Il'"ol."... 'Il1\Y'Il ...1\Y limits

(4)

energy is .I..lI.Jl.V.JLV"I~V'Ulo an amount

(5)

the force to
considered
1I11'1l1h~1l"'1Iynl

e
are rIlll ....~~,,--lt.'l\l
l1nlst{~ln, because

if we subject a rigid body, on which originally no forces acted, to the


influence of forces that impart no acceleration to the body, these forces
perform--from the viewpoint of a coordinate system moving relatively
to the body-a work ilE upon the body, which depends on the force's
distribution over the body and the velocity v. According to the energy
principle, the kinetic energy of a rigid body acted on by an external
force is flE greater than the same kinetic energy of a fast-moving body
that is acted on by no force. (Einstein 1907b, pp. 376-377)

self-electromagnetic forces
energy

KT = Ko + (E e - Eo), (6)

E€ is body's self-electromagne-
static or rest energy. (6) on
322 Arthur I. Miller

the body's V.Il.J1....,/JlLJlLl&.4ll>lI.Jl.v.Il..s.,

calculate the
no force." In

(7)

is version of for charged extension: 4


electrostatically charged body possesses an mass exceeds
of uncharged body by the electrostatic energy divided by
square of the velocity had not yet realized why
gravlt~lU()lnal mass. V\rent on to
Albert Einstein's 1907 Iflfl.1l111'hiJP!AJ Paper 323

section in he widened the principle of 1I"'PU'alf1"'\\'lf"'\\,

ated reference systems. Einstein's review of


a critical ·analysis of Walter K.aulnl1anm were at
variance with the Lorentz-Einstein theory of electron. This issue has
explored in some elsewhere. 7 ,

3.1 THE MAss-ENERGY EQUIVALENCE AS AN

New results for of relativity .r.l1t"\1l"',\PI)\'!r'P.rII

Mass on Energy," in which 1H1n<::tfp'lIn 11111l"1l1"\1I"'I"\''Ue:..rII

the mass-energy pnlJ1I1,,·~lplI"'ilr"p


_.a._~"''''.II. body ~. system
..u,.a._-.

impenetrable to .II.1I.4'1.&..II.II.4\1..II,,,,,,.a..II..

new results
of moving systenls. results may have
"unknown Qualitat," llJln1tO"llrl,ll'Id't"h

Jahrbuch 8 because
to the of

forces do not act


...... "'7'11- ....... ......,.,.,.1 "'1I111";('lllrlIO

they vanish at the temporal boundaries to


force EKe also vanishes in 9

dE = 'YdE', (8)

energy of a unifonnly moving system can be a


two variables, the relative velocity v and energy
content Eo, relative to rest system k. (8), we

(9)

intensive purposes acts


as if it were a V_~d'1l1l-0'_I'lIR mass:

M = mo + Eo/C. (10)

immediately to develop
1nIft"r"",.o,orlla~rlI generalize the 1t"\h,<{TC'1£1>4.l1

(10), is independent:
theoretical importance because a physical system's
nft"rllll1l'"ll''llft'''ltl mass
energy content appear to behave same is, mass
is energy, which is the general meaning of the mass-energy
equivalence he sought since 1905.
324 Arthur I. Miller

aV~Ula[He in
purposes it was beside in
mass variation is me:aSlrreC]'!I means
used to generalize ............".,...... IiYJl,q..v,.a. mass" to
its gravitational mass.
In the p(eceding, we have assumed implicitly that such a measurement
of mass variation can be carried out with the usually employed in-
strument, the scale; therefore, tbe relation [ Eq. (10)] holds not only
for the inertial mass, but also for the gravitational mass or, in other
words, inertia and gravity'[Schwere] are under all circumstances exactly
proportional.... The proportionality between inertial and gravitational
masses is 'valid ,universally for bodies with an accuracy as precisely
as can currently be determined; so that unless proven otherwise, we
must accept it as universally valid. 1907c)

3.2 GEDANKEN EXPERIMENT


Albert Einstein's 1907 Inlflrrh'Jrh 325

phenomenon of electromagnetic induction


published manuscript of 1919 [brought to
Einstein recalled this work: "difference ha1l-'1l:'ll'7.l:lian

magnet on the not be in


conviction, a in
of an
a"'U'llo1l"a1l"llftla
a
aIDilftl1l"...... £'4
one, aet)enaml2
IWI..II.VJl.V.JI.'\JJl.V

state of motion of coordinate system being used." He con..


to Jl.V"-'VlI...iI.VVlIv

At this point, there occurred to me the happiest thought of my life.


Just as is the case with. the electric field produced by electromagnetic
induction, the gravitational field has similarly only a relative eXistence.
For if one considers an observer in free fall, e.g., from the roof of a
house, there exists for him during this fall no gravitational field--at
least not in his immediate .vacinity [italics in original]. Indeed, if the
observer drops some bodies, then these remain relative to him in a state
of rest or in uniform motion, independent of their particular chemical
or physical nature (in this consideration the air resistance is, of course,
neglected). The observer therefore has the right to interpret his state
as 'at rest'.... The experimentally known matter independence of the
acceleration of fall is therefore a powerful argument for the fact that
the relativity postulate has to be extended to coordinate systems that,
relative to each other, are in nonuniform motion. (Einstein 1919, in
Holton 1971)
326 Arthur I. Miller

masses are ex.actly


it to acceleration
freely from carries a retlerelnce
on has a reIlerelnce
aligned. Let
1Ylt\P,£'IhO::.ll1l1lll/~Q can be used.

observer is

a is t' = t.

(13)

at rest
me'Cn31111C:S, even

of
O.rll1l19"ll11l1t"1I:T

we know 1H11l1lQ1fP1Dn

and Hypothesis (1902).


potheses in SC1~entlnc resear'cn.
Albert Einstein's 1907 IInl1,rh"lJrlh Paper 327

way in which we measure the masses of HD.Hll:liI.UHILJ1L.,

Newton's vve measure in


the mass in the ratio of force to it is the n.~~,,·n."""~lIl_nr

It is not of a it is
out ~n.,Jth'ino- rlIll1l"'JO\,('ll't111l.1 lInDllclt

from
use Newton's 2ra,vit;iti()~nal
2ravlt,lti()~na1 and inertial masses of
stein, as we seen, ext~en(le(j aSS'Uffi'Dti()n to
1I111l,UVVILJIl.-Rg a UJ\..IUI...ILVJl.JIl..II.Jil 2JraVJLtatJLon:a.l ODltlOslteJlv directed constant
accelerationo

303 AND '-"'-""'-J"J!.'Ilo...ll.JJL.A.'1.L lLJ2.Jl...I TRANSFORMATIONS


328 Arthur I. Miller

a new ~V.ll.lUI..IllI·".Il.VJl..Il. strrlult.ant:~itv in a 'I'Il1Ml1I"l"rMiI"'1Ml"llB1I7 4'Jlt"'£'4AIA1l"'''J11"ll'lMln reference·


system :E.
Albert Einstein's InIh1rh"Jrh Paper 329

(15)

X2 -
.
Xl =x2 -
I
Xl
I
=~2 -
'.. C
~1,

(17)

(18)

(19)

(20)

the eQIlatll()nS

(21)
330 Arthur L Miller

means light rays not prc)pa:galln,g in


by gravitational by the amount
a
¢, (22)

or
promised "new argument
energy eOlllVdale][lCe
a IVVUIJl. ...JI."-',JI.JI.

to

+ -~) - . 0
pi]- EdV +,- = (23)
c2 OT

(24)
Albert Einstein's 1907 Jahrbuch Paper 331

where ~Tl-tl/ contains as many stress-energy tensors as is necessary to


"close" system. 10
about the problem of motion of bodies? cor-
respondence in the Einstein Archives, (1980) has shown
I>J'lI.-_",,,,.I1.JL_JI.

in his paper "Einstein and the ..Il.'V'","lJll.J1.11.~ beginning in 1908,


II-UnIQfP1Sn became I".n..1tlll",o,'II"'1l"'Il£Jhrll
paradoxes of rotating
rigid bodies, of geome-
try in rotating retlere][lCe the .nr~'Il''lI~'lI"''nn 1 71111-, r/:.11 4]\tll"ll: 1

theory.
In I".n..'lI''1lf''.1l1l':'~'fIr'''1I1I

of 1907
.a.,,--n,ar1l1!l'1r"'l.a.1I1I1t'

of -n1l'"1l'nf1Oll-nRa

Quantrum during 1908-

Einstein's persistence
11i'1ltn"rll1t1~n toward theory's final achievement. As
'rU"'il1\1nr"~.a.r1'·J3Irf1 on October 29, 1912, "Compared to
the is pl3:y.,,12

NOTES
1 This important phase in the history of physics during the first decade of
the 20th century has been analyzed in some depth. I take the liberty to
cite only my 1981 book, in which the interested reader can find an extensive
bibliography to the secondary literature.
2 As Einstein wrote to Conrad Habicht sometime after submitting the 1905
paper to the Annalen, "However, a consequence of the work in electrodynamics
has suddenly occurred to me ... the mass of a body is a direct measure of its
energy content" (see Miller 1981, p. 353).
3 In 1905b, Einstein considered the case of a moving body that emits radi-
ation pulses back to back with respect to the laboratory reference system. Using
the transformation equations for the energy of a light pulse, Einstein showed that
to order (v / C)2 if the body emitted an amount of railiation energy E its mass
diminishes by E 2 • In 1906, Einstein demonstrated that to order (v/ c) the validity
of the principle of conservation of the center of mass motion depends on the
mass-energy equivalence.
4 See Miller 1981 for analyses of Einstein's derivation of Eq. (7) and on the
possibility that Einstein attempted a variant of this analysis toward clarification
within the relativity theory of the stress hypothesized by Henri Poincare for the
332 Arthur I. Miller

purpose of rendering stable Lorentz's deformable electron. The interesting point


is that if Einstein had actually tried to do this (and he very probably did) then
he would have obtained the wrong answer because it turned out that Einstein's
formalism for how bodies are stressed in their rest system is not always covariant,
as von Laue showed in 1911.
5 In order to pursue this point further, he went on to explore a second, less
model-dependent example that cut right to the core of the previous calculation,
serving also to critique the concept .of the rigid body. Consider a rigid rod
of length l (as measured in its rest system k) moving along the x axis of a
reference system K. Along the rod's axis, let equal and opposite impulses be
exerted simultaneously relative to k. Relative to K, however, the impulses are
not simultaneous; rather, the impulse striking A at time t A acts first, and then at
a later time tB, the impulse at B acts, where

Since the impulse applied at A is not compensated instantaneously by the impulse


applied at B, the impulse at A does work on the rod, thereby increasing the rod's
energy during interval Llt = tB - tA. the observer in K registers no
change in the rod's velocity, which apparently violates the principle of conser-
vation of energy. A proposal that offered for removing this difficulty is
that there arises in rod an "unknown " that propagates with a
velocity" along the rod, causing the acceleration for compensating
force at A, maintaining the rod's relative toK.
6 Besides the fact that Einstein was indeed an expert on the Relativitlits-
theorie, according to (1966) what may also have led Stark to solicit an
article from him is that earlier Einstein had of Stark's research
on canal rays in a to Stark dated 13, 1907, and again in an Annalen
paper, in whi.ch proposed an empirical test of principle of relativity
based on the shifted spectra of canal rays (Einstein 1907a)..
September and October 1907, some correspondence followed between them that
is of interest mainly for noting what scientific literature Einstein claimed was
available to him while he worked in the patent office in Berne.
7 See Miller 1981 for details and references to the secondary literature.
Suffice it to say that after finding nothing glaringly wrong with Kaufmann's
data, except perhaps for some unknown and thus far unnoticed systematic errors,
Einstein echoed· Planck's published reservations and him in for
more data. then offered his own critical opinion that these data
theories of Bucherer's and Al?raham's) that have a
r@:ther"small probability because ... these theoretical systems [do not] embrace
a greater complex of phenomena."
8 From correspondence between Stark and Einstein, during September and
October 1907, we know that in September 1908 was unaware of Planck's
paper "On the Dynamics of Systems" (Planck 1907), in which he essen-
tially put the finishing touches on a relativistic thermodynamics. For example,
Albert Einstein's 1907 lahrbuch Paper 333

from the principle of least action in conjunction with the principles of energy
conservation and relativity, Planck deduced a new transformation equation for
the force that was independent of any model, such as a rigid body:

Fx = Fe + v Id' (VI dpol dt l


+ T 1 dSI dt l ) ,

where Fe is the component of the net force along k's ~ axis; primed quantities
refer to the body's instantaneous rest system k, so T I is the temperature and VI
is the volume; S is the Lorentz invariant entropy; and Po is the Lorentz invariant
pressure exerted on the body. Planck did not explore the physical content of
the force transformation equation that, in fact, cont~ns Einstein's "remarkable
result": even if no net forces act in a body's rest system, a change in the body's
internal state leads to a measurable force in K. There are no rigid bodies.
9 In the lahrbuch paper, Einstein went on to treat the more general case in
which forces continually operate in order to ensure the system's equilibrium in
K. Then, ~~ K e = -Po VI, where Po is a hydrostatic-like pressure that acts on the
membrane in order to maintain the system's equilibrium. It is the
1l't'n1l"'\Pt"'t'np'Qhlp

same sort of pressure as Poincare's unknown pressure that ensures the stability
of Lorentz's electron. It was along these lines that Einstein made contact with
some of Planck's results in relativistic thermodynamics.
10 Von Laue's work depended. on Abraham's 1902 results (the possible non-
colinearity of velocity and momentum), Planck's 1908 results (extension of the
mass-energy equivalence to the flow of any sort of energy momentum), and
Hermann Minkowski's 1908 four-vector formalism. Minkowski showed that the
Lorentz force and the energy conservation law can be expressed as

jp. = (A)

where fp. is a four-vector with components (7, if· vi c), and Tp.v is a traceless
antisymmetric tensor that can be represented as a 4 x 4 matrix whose spatial
components are the Maxwell stress tensor and the mixed space-time components,
the momentum density and Poynting vector. From the Lorentz covariance of
Eq. (A), if fp. =0 in one inertial reference system, then it is zero in every inertial
reference system that is, equilibrium cannot be Lorentz-transformed away. Von
Laue generalized this result in the sharpest possible. manner, that is, one based on
the axiomatic stature of Einstein's principle of relativity, namely, Eq. (24). See
Miller 1981, Chapter 12.
11 See Pais 1982 for a discussion of Einstein's research during 1911-1915
toward the general theory of relativity.
12 From Pais 1982, p. 216.
334 Arthur I. Miller

REFERENCES

Einstein, Albert (1905a). "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Korper.',' Annalen der


Physik 17: 891-921. Translated in Miller 1981, pp. 392-415.
- - '- (1905b). "1st die Tragheit eines Korpers von seinem Energieinhalt abhan-
gig?" Annalen der Physik 18: 639-641. English translation in Lorentz,
et aL 1923, pp. 69-71. Volume number is stated incorrectly and title
misspelled in reprint volume.
- - (1906). "Das Prinzip von der Erhaltung der Schwerpunktsbewegung und
die Tragheitder Energie." Annalen der Physik 20: 627-633.
- - (1907a). Uber die Moglichkeit einer neuen Priifung des Relativitatsprin-
zips." Annalen der Physik 23: 197-198.
- - - (1907b). "Uber die vom RelativiHitsprinzip geforderte Tragheit Ener-
gie." Annalen'der Physik 23: 371-384.
- '- (1907c). "Uber'das RelativiHitsprinzip und die aus demselben gezogenen
Folgerungen." Jahrbuch der Radioaktivitat und Elektronik 4: 411-462.
- - (1911). "Uber den Einfluss der Schwerkraft auf die Ausbreitung des
Lichtes."Annalen der 35: 898- 908. English translation in Lorentz,
et al. 1923, pp. 99-108.
- - (1912). "Lichtgeschwindigkeit und Statik des Gravitationsfeldes." Annalen
der 38: 355-369.
Hermann, Armin (1966). "Albert Einstein und Johannes Briefwechsel und
Verhaltnis der beiden Nobelpreistriiger." Sudhoffs Archiv fiir Geschichte
deT und der NatuIWissenschaften, und der Math-
.ematik 50: 267:-285.
Gerald (1971). Trying tO~Understand Scientific Genius." The Amer-
ican Scholar 41: 95-110.
Kaufmann, Walter (1906). "Uber die Konstitution des Elektrons." Annalen der
19: 487-553.
L·aue, von (1911). Die Relativitatstheorie. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg
und Sohn.
Lorentz, Antoon (1892). "La theorie electromagnetique de Maxwell et
son application aux corps mouvants." Archives Neerlandaises des Sciences
Physiques et Naturelles 25: 363.
--,- (1895). Versuch einer Theorie deT electrischen und optischen Erscheinun-
gen in bewegten Leiden: E.J. BrilL
"Electromagnetic Phenomena in a System Moving with any Veloc-
ity that of Light." Akademie van te
Amsterdam. Section of Sciences. Proceedings 6: B09-831. in
part in Lorentz, et al. 1923, pp. 11-34.
Lorentz, Hendrik Antoon, Einstein, and Her-
mann (1923). The of Relativity: A Collection of Original Mem-
oirs on the Special and General Theory ofRelativity. Arnold Sommerfeld,
ed. W. Perrett and G. B. Jeffery, trans. London: Methuen. New
York: Dover, 1952.
Albert Einstein's 1907 Jahrbuch Paper 335

Miller, Arthur L (1981). Albert Einstein's Special Theory ofRelativity: Emergence


(1905) and Early Interpretation (1905-1911). Reading, Massachusetts:
Addison-Wesley.
Pais, Abraham (1982). USubtle is the Lord . .. ": The Science and Life of Albert
Einstein. London and New York: Oxford University Press.
Planck, Max (1906). "Die Kaufmanpschen Messungen der Ablenkbarkeit der.{3-
Strahlen in ihrer Bedeutung fur die Dynamik der Elektronen." Physikali-
sche Zeitschrift 7: 753-761.
- - (1907). "Zur Dynamik bewegter Systeme." Koniglich Preussische Akad-
ernie der Wissenschaften (Berlin). Sitzungsberichte: 542-570.
Poincare, Henri· (1902). La science et l' hypothese. P~is: Flammarion.
Stachel, John (1980). "Einstein and the Rigidly Rotating Disk." In General Rel-
and Gravitation One Hundred Years After the Birth of Albert Ein-
stein.Vol. I. Alan Held, ed. New York: Plenum, pp. 1-15.
t

was eXl)reSSe~a

Mathematics is that study that knows of observation, nothing


of experiment, nothing of induction, nothing of causation. 1
Origin of the Concept of an Einstein Space 337

How is it possible that mathematics, which after all is a product of


human thought; independent of all experience, is so admirably adapted
to real objects? (Einstein 1921, p. 124)2

From this view, it makes sense to


effectiveness of ,,3
of that this of connections
tween concepts, created with a view only to inner beauty
and consistency, can serve as an for and
scientists.

K1t~m,mnlan geometry and

spaces.
1!J"V''-J'U.ll.IlJ,Il.V

I would like to concentrate on the general


U"""V""'.lI.~U'VJl..lI.Jl.V.lI.,Jl.\L. of geometry, an effect was

Through Albert Einstein's theory of gravitation has the long neglected


geometry of Riemann... again come to the fore. 4
it come that Einstein's f'l1l"'tJ1n'ftllf'\),1l"'lI

K1t~m~mnlan geometry? In it is,


theorizing ImluenCt~S mLamlem.aU(:s
1U'.lI..lI. l' O.ll.VU.lI.
338 Gunnar Berg

alS~taI1Ce measure-
constant
varying

All these difficulties are but consequences of our refusal to see that
mathematics cannotbe defined without acknowledging its most obvious
feature, namely, that it is interesting. (Polanyi 1958, p. 188)

KeJLate~(l to

experience leaves us· a free choice, but it guides us by us to


pe~ceive the most convenient route. (Poincare 1902, p. 3)5

physics does not only give us the opportunity to solve problems; it


helps us to find the means and in two ways. It us to anticipate
the solutions; it suggests arguments. (Poincare 1898, p. ~9)6

1882).

a K1t~m~mnlan .ll..ll..ll.lI.lU.JUI..IIL"'.ll..l.-II-~ are essentlalJly curva-


ture:
1.

2. curvature or
tensor),
Origin of the Concept of an Einstein Space 339

3. scalar curvature (given


tensor).
these objects, one
the It is directly

1.

2. ar-

is

3. con..;.
ImlDl1(~S

constant
340 Gunnar Berg

,.......,...,.. . _...,.. . 1980), whereas the story, as it


1987).

so it is nr&J.£'IlI~&J\I·u
This is in contrast to
blfllsrelln in
Origin of the Concept of an Einstein Space 341

followed naullfallv
U'I/41l"nlT.1l'''lrtld"b1l''1I11''1\

to by the former ma.tne:rn~Luc:aj lVl~V..II."l!.~JL '\.';\l,.IlJl.JI,U to


UVA.IL'L.nY·I\..VAJI. I\. UV.IL·J1.VUl\..~io.'Jl.JI. 1921).

Apparently there is no singularity-free space-time continuum with an


everywhere vanishing energy tensor for matter? (Einstein 1918)
342 Gunnar Berg

Noms
1 Quoted by James J. Sylvester in an address to the Briti~hAssociation,
1869 (see Newman 1956, p. 1759).
2 "Wie ist es moglich, dass die Mathematik, die doch ein von aller Erfahrung
unabhangiges Produkt des menschlichen Denkens ist, auf die GegensHinde der
Wirklichkeit so vortrefflich passt?"
3 Part of the title of a paper by Wigner 1960.
4 "Durch Albert Einsteins Theorie der Schwere ist die lang vernachHissigte
Geometrie Riemanns... wieder in den Vordergrund geriickt worden." (From the
review by Blaschke of a paper by T. Levi-Cevita in Jahrbuch iiber die Fortschritte
Mathematik 46 (1916-1918): 1125. This is the important paper in which
Levi-Cevita introduced parallel transport as a metric-independent procedure. It
be noted that this work, in the introduction of which Levi-Cevita explic-
itly mentioned general relativity as motivating his work, was the first paper on
Riemannian geometry by hini since 1900.) .
5 "L' experienc~nous laisse notre libre choix, mais elle Ie guide en nous
aidant adiscerner Ie chemin Ie plus commode."
6 "La physique ne .nous donne pas seulement l'occasion de resoudre des
probl~mes; elle nous aide a en trouver les moyens, et de deux manieres.
nous fait pressentir la solution; elle nous suggere des raisonnements."
7 "Ein singularitatenfreies nlit iiberall v,erschwinden-
dem Energietensor der Materie scheint es... nicht zu " This quotation
seems to be enough .to go counter to the claim by Pais concerning this
problem (Pais 1982, p. 287).

Berger, (1980). sur les varietes d'Einstein. 80: 5-19.


Besse, Arthur L. (1987). Einstein Spaces. Berlin and New York: Springer-Verlag.
Brinkmann, H. W. (1924). "Riemannian Spaces Conformal to Einstein Spaces."
Mathematische Annalen 91: 269-278.
Ehlers, Jiirgen, Felix and Schild, Adolf (1972). "The"'-.IIV'I,J.a..a.Jl.",'l,.JI.

and Light Propagation." In General Lochlainn


ed. London and New York: Oxford Press (Clarendon), pp. 63-
84.
'Einstein, (1917). "Kosmologische Betrachtungen Zllr allgemeinen Rela-
tivitiitstheorie." Preussische Akademie der Wtj~sel'lSclhaften
Sitzungsberichte: 142-152.
- - - (1918). zur allgemeinen Relativitatstheorie." Annalen der
Physik 55: 241-244.
- - .- (1919). "Spielen Gravitationsfelderim Autbau der materiellen Elemen-
tarteilchen eine wesentliche Rolle?" Koniglich Preussische Akademie der
Wissenschaften (Berlin). Sitzungsberichte: 349-356.
Origin of the Concept of an Einstein- Space 343

- - (1921). "Geometrie und Erfahrung." Koniglich Preussische Akademie der


Wissenschaften .(Berlin). Sitzungsberichte: 123-130.
Eisenhart, Luther P. (1926): Riemannian Geometry. Ptinceton, New Jersey:
Princeton University Press.
Herglotz, Gustav (1916). "Zur Einsteinschen Gravitationstheorie." Koniglich
Sachsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig. Mathematisch-
physische Klasse. Berichte aber die Verhandlungen 68: 199-203.
Kasner, Edward (1921a). "Einstein's Theory of Gravitation: Determination of the
Field by Light Signals." American Journal ofMathematics 43: 20-28.
- - (1921b). "Geometrical Theorems on Einstein's Cosmological Equations."
American Journal ofMathematics 43: 217-221.
- - (1922). "The Solar Gravitational Field Completely Determined by Its Light
Rays." Mathematische Annalen 85:-·227-236.
Felix (1882). Uber Riemanns Theorie der a1gebraischen Functionen und
ihrer Integrale. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner.
Newman, James R. (1956). The World of Mathematics. New York: Simon and
Schuster.
Pais, Abraham (1982). "Subtle is the Lord . .. ": The Science and the Life of
Albert Einstein. London and New York: Oxford University Press.
Poincare, Henri (1898). "Sur les rapports de l'analyse pure et de la physique
mathematique." In Verhandlungen des ersten internationalen Mathemati-
kerkongresses. Ferdinand Rudio, ed. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, pp. 81-90.
- - (1902). La science et ['hypothese. Paris: Flammarion.
Polanyi, (1958). Personal Knowledge. Chicago, Illinois: Univ. of
Chicago Press.
Schouten, Jan A. (1921). "Uber die.konforme Abbildung n-Dimensionaler Man-
nigfaltigkeiten mit quadratischer Massbestimmung auf eine Mannigfal-
tigkeit mit euklidischer Massbestimmung." Mathematische Zeitschrift 11:
58-88.
Weyl, Hermann (1918). "Reine Infinitesimalgeometrie." Mathematische Zeit-
schrift 2: 384-411.
- - - (1921). "Zur Infinitesimalgeometrie: Einordnung der projektiven und kon-
formen Auffassung." Konigliche der Wissenschaften zu Got-
tingen. Nachrichten: 99-112.
Wigner, Eugene P. (1960). "The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in
the Natural Sciences." Communications on Pure UUi,f,fiJ'I.J1I.ntc;u Matnema;tlcs
13: 1-14.
Lorentz's Formulation of 345
346 Michel Janssen

the start In 3

In such a geometric treatment the introduction of coordinates will be


of secondary importance;... In the discussion of the general principles
coordinates play no part; and it is thus seen that the formulation of
these principles can take place in the same way whatever be our choice
of coordinates. So we are sure beforehand of the general covariancy of
the equations that was postulated by Einstein. 3 (Lorentz 1937, p. 248)

so strongly
seems to be nnl"ll"llt'f11l1IR

As a matter

Now Einstein has made the striking remar12) the only thing we
can .learn from our observations and with which our tlIeories are essen-
tially concerned, is the existence of these coincidences.4 (Lorentz 1937,
p.247)
Lorentz's Fonnulation of .General KeJatrlntv 347

to
coincidences does' not r1llAlI";:::ll.'lI'1lr1ll

possible to ..IL'lJ.lLJL..II...lI.W.JL_\\."",
348 Michel Janssen
Lorentz's Formulation of General Relativity 349

(cf., e.g.,
1984, p. 285).
It is somewhm ~~nn~~~_1~~~1~~~

in
JI..II..lil.1I",.II.Jl.V"ILJil..lil.L'Il.. no

;;;""""-".lil.Jl.A'.;UJl.VUJiL meaning
np,tr'~1"ll'lJ,:l~t1l"'\l:T in his
350 Michel Janssen
Lorentz's Formulation of General Relativity 351

K1t~m~mnian cur-
1l'YII0l1Il"Mlir.. n..lrfl to a sum of
From
352 Michel Janssen

Ua'l!"'nrB,f"'A'Il-", went on to show


Ii-UnCTP1In tensor can written as

R = R pO'I-t1/9·PJ.L 9 0"1/ ,
curvature
If"In'll1dll1t"1!dlln1l"

metric tensor
vectors
(4)

a=O (5)
a = 1, 2, 3

to in

RI p = R
PO'j.LV
Ip e~15 e~ eb8eb • (6)
a b
a,b

thr~ee-lt11nlenSl0:nal JL.4U.1\"'.ILJLUIV~.IL space


at some ~1lJ~LlWI.--'
u-.a..ill._""_

curvatures of
S«i-('::tlllU~(1 -n.i1l"11n~llnd)jD

to of
1UIll(1mneIltal forms of the surface
curva-
curva-
tW()-a]lme~nSllOn:al 1flrL.JlJf'\\.rll,a.f''ll£ll h'11',\p'II"'c;:!'Il11l""1rgr-I:JlII;:! we have
Lorentz's Fonnulation of General KeJ.att,ntv 355

hypersurface
mann . . . . coc.rOlnatles
'-'JI. ............-...,

of

d j.t d2 j.t
X
/-L( )
S = x (0) + ds
I-L x I8=0 S + 21 dsX2 I8=0 S2 + ....

to eV31u31te (d2x /-L /ds 2 )fs=o, we to


1!"'oll'1J\1t1IIf"'~n flo"t..t311l"'«'II'1.aan xp u i is

X
p -- c/-L i _
- ~i U
!2 rJ.-tpO' IP CPca' i j
~i ~j U U + ....

(13)

now ~'antto V'-J'.lI.JL.lI.V.lI..lI..lI.V

to show curvature scalar at some GlJ\1!"'h,.t1!"'GIJ\11"''tiT


356 Michel Janssen

be oOt:atnf~a as a sum
vve to close one more little

(15)

using (12), (2), (5), we can easily


obtains:

(16)

(17)

is for K(12)lp is true K(ab)/p as so,

· I e~e!:
K( a b)1 p= RpO"f.tv PTT+ eb"e;; (18)

(18) (6), we ConCIU(Je

Rip = K(ab)lp+
a:/=b
Lorentz's Fonnulation of General Relativity 357

curvature scalar: curvature scalar can be -r~rlIl1l1rat:~rlI to a sum of lialUSSian


curvatures.

Now, the -rJ:l&rlIll11rat"lln1nl

sense if

Gaussian curvature was "lt1l1lll"1l'""."r1111'11t"1lt:lrlrll

the two so-called ft1l'"1l1!r'llt"llllfl,4flIB

respect.
to generalize a "A",,'V.&. ""JL.II.A

dit1:ere:nce is
lialLlSSlan curvature K of

e
Ii = ~. (20)

203-

tlhA:lil,n1l"'A:lil'nn to hypersurfaces in space-


between \space-
tanJ~e]lt vectors. JIL..4'U'JL_.AJL'\\,1U

for inner

9ILv erer = 1~11 le21 cos a12, (21)


the angle al2
\JiLJ'U'JL_JLJLIVIU 1937, p. 251). It can easily be
a geodetic in
in b,uCjllde~an n-rrll"lt1nld'llllMT

9 U_"'''JiI.'U'JiI..I!..

excess e, satisfying
4flInc"1I1l1"J111t'" e = K~
by space-like geodesics
'IWi. .... _ ........t-,.... 'VlU' .... "U' ..................., , _

Gauss's for geodetic involving


IHIII~-lllK.~ geodesics, wrote: proof can
The
""MJlI.""U!-JII'll.lIo"JL'VJl.JL. necessary for this . + •
358 Michel Janssen

be in a later I
mentioned, Lorentz never wrote
In on 1l"'pl·:lt'll't,r'llt"
set as an exercise· for the reader
tio11 suggested by Fokker is
we in our rla'lt"1l"l[T~'111t'llf1.1l1l
£'I£'\.1I"1I01t1l"1I'II£'I1t1l£'\.n geodetic
hypersurface by the Kit~m,mn coc~ralnatc~s u 1
2
u . we have to the ui(s) for geodesics on
geodetic hypersurface intersecting near P to
geodetic enclosing
[dui(s)jds] at of the to
taD11;eIlt vectors to geodesics at
ner of vectors we
(21), we can
excess.

ext)re~;Slc.n for 9i j ,
xl-t co()rOlnales
r~O"lp O. =
xl-t coordinates
Jl.V.JiI.!lJII,U'U'.JiI..JiI. up to
to we

x fL = er u ~ tr~O",;lp-~~ ere~ uku1u


i m
+ . ... (22)
(22) .into we
9ij = 'fJij+1RpO"/-Lvlperejeketukul = 'fJij + 1R ikljlpU kU l , (23)
last we (9).
sum of the in a nran,rla1t'll1l" 1t'll"'1lo1l1lnrl.a
Lorentz's Formulation of General Relativity 359

to
n4)l"~d}R g,'PJ.1 tll'·4.ln4~1I"\d"\lnp'rI vector
an~~WQlf excess of the
terms

It must be expressly remarked that if an equation... in which we are


concerned with the composition of vectors at [Lorentz's ital-
ics points of the have a definite meaning we
must which components are to be considered as having the same
direction, so that they can be added. This has been determined by the
introduction of coordinates. ls (Lorentz 1937, p. 259)
360 Michel Janssen

cast general relativity in a C04Jralm,lteaatrt:~e O"JOln1l"no1trllflla"llB form was rllnr"1I"nt:l!..rfI

from the outset.

NOTES
1 This paper is a condensed version of part of the thesis I submitted to obtain
a master's degree in theoretical physics from the University of Amsterdam. I
would like to thank A.J. Kox, Gerard Bauerle, Jon Dorling, Xaveer Leijtens,
Hadass Eviatar, Giel Halberstadt, and John Culler for their helpful comments on
the manuscript of my master's thesis and on earlier drafts of the present paper.
2 .These papers appeared in the 1915-1916 and 1916-1917 volumes of the
Dutch version of the Academy's proceedings (Lorentz 1916a) and in the 1916-
1917 and 1917-1918 volumes of the English version (Lorenti 1916b). The page
references to the Dutch version of the paper are to the four communications
as they appeared. in the .proceedings. The communication being referred to is
denoted by R9man numerals. For the English version, refer to the reprint of the
paper in Vol. 5 of ·Lorentz's collected papers (Lorentz 1937). Presumably, this
version will be more widely available than the original.
3 zulk een meetkundige beschouwingswijze zal de invoering van co-
ordinaten van. ondergeschikt belang zijn;... In de uiteenzetting der algemeene
grondbeginselen spelen zij geen rol; daarin ligt onmiddellijk de waarborg ervoor
dat de formuleering. dezer beginselen op een kan geschieden, die
wll.1ekeur12e keus der coordinaten dezelfde is, d.w.z. de waarborg voor de door
Einstein gewenschte en tenslotte ook bereikte algemeene covariantie der verge-
lijldngen." (Lorentz 1916a, I, p. 1392). A literal translation of "gewenscht en
tenslotte ook be "desired and in the end " which is not
really matched by "postulated."
4 "Einstein heeft nu 3) de treffende opmerking gemaakt, dat het eenige waar-
over onze waarnemingen ons uitsluitsel geven en waarmede in den grond der
zaak ODze theorieen zich hebben bezig te houden, het bestaan dezer coincidenties
is" (Lorentz 1916a, I, 1390).
5 "In een briefwisseling" (Lorentz 1916a, I, p. 1390).
6 We may safely assume that the remark Lorentz is referring to in the passage
quoted above comes from this letter of Einstein to Eh~enfest. It is tempting to cite
the absence of the explicit "I had with him" in the Dutch version of the footnote
belonging to this passage as further evidence for this assumption, although think
this is really just a coincidence.
7 "Over Einstein's theorie der zwaartekracht" (Lorentz 1916a). Cf. note 2.
8 " ... door de beschollwing van oneindig kleine vari~ties van de indicatrices,
__waardoor de getalwaarden van aile met van die gemeten
grootheden zullen veranderen" (Lorentz 1916a, I, p. 1402).
9 As Lorentz stated in a footnote at the beginning of the third part of his
article, he rewrote the original version of the part, a process that took him
several months. Going by just the submission dates, one would expect a dis-
c<?ntinuity, if any, between the third and the fourth parLThe submission dates
Lorentz's Formulation of General Relativity 361

on the first three communications are February 26, March 25, and April 28,
respectively. The submission date on the fourth communication is. October 28
(Lorentz 1916a). To the submission date on the third communication, however,
the following footnote was added: "Published September 1916, a revision having
been found desirable" (Lorentz 1916b, p. 2). similar footnote occurs in
the Dutch version of the paper: "Na ·dien tijd kwam mij eene omwerking wen-
schelijk voor, waarmede ik eerst thans, September· 1916, gereed ben gekomen"
(Lorentz 1916a, p. 468).] This footnote was omitted in the reprint of the
article in Lorentz's collected papers (Lorentz 1937). Given this footnote, it need
not surprise us that we find a discontinuity between the second and third com-
munications.
10 Weyl made some important contri~utions to the development of the con-
cept of parallel displacement (cf. Pauli 1958, p. 37).
11 Herglotz took it on the authority of Bianchi that the Gaussian curvature
e e
of the (ab) geodetic hypersurfaces is given by (Rpop,v e~ be~ b)/(8a Db), and he
then showed that when we sum over a and b we obtain the curvature scalar. So,
.&.&"".... basically went through Eqs. (1) through (6) in reversed order (Herglotz
I00.. ......., ... L.l

1916, pp. 199-201).


12 Since the derivation of Eq. (7), like the derivation of Eq. (8), involves
the embedding of the surface in three-dimensional Euclidean space, the question
arises whether we can the result to hypersurfaces in space-time that are
made up of both time-like and space-like geodesics and that therefore do not
have a definite metric. Lorentz had no trouble doing this since he introduced
imaginary space-like coordinates, in which case definiteness of the metric is at
least formally retained.
13 Bianchi derived this relation for an n-dimensional Riemannian manifold
rather than for a four-dimensional semi-Riemannian manifold, but nothing in his
derivation depends on definiteness of the metric.
14 As Bianchi explained in the preface to Bianchi (1899), the original 1886
Italian edition of his book only dealt with the theory of surfaces. To the German
edition, he added two chapters on n-dimensional manifolds. It is in one of these
later chapters that Bianchi derived the relation that we win be looking at here
between the curvature tensor of an n-dimensional manifold. and the curvature
tensor of two-dimensional submanifolds made up of geodesics. The geometrical
meaning of the curvature tensor R I2I2 for a two-dimensional manifold is explained
earlier in Bianchi's book (Bianchi 1899, p. 52, p. 105). In these earlier parts, it is
shown that R I2I2 is essentially equal to the Gaussian curvature [cf. our equations
(7) and (8)].
15 Eqs. (9) through (14) would still be valid if instead of taking the subset (u I ,
u ) of the Riemann normal coordinates we were to take the full set (UO, u I , u 2 , u 3 ),
2

Le., if the Latin indices were to run from 0 to 3 just like the Greek ones. In that
case, Eq. (9) would foHow from the fact that, according to Eq. (12), (8xIJ. /8u i )lp =
er. At first sight, this seems to turn Bianchi's derivation of Eq. (9) into an
unnecessarily cumbersome detour. Notice, however, that with the Latin indices
362 Michel Janssen

running from 0 to 3, R 1212 in Eq.(9) refers to the curvature tensor of the four-
dimensional manifold rather than to the curvature tensor of the two-dimensional
submanifold. What Bianchi's derivation in conjunction with the more trivial result
I just mentioned, in fact, shows is that when we use Riemann normal coordinates
the curvature tensor of the two-dimensional (ab) geodetic hypersurface is· equal to
the (abab) component of the curvature tensor of the four-dimensional space-time
manifold.
16 "kan men het bewijs door rechtstreeksche berekening geven. Deze bereke-
ning... hoop ik elders mede te deelen" (Lorentz 1916a, I, p. 1397).
17 "met een enkele uitzondering (§ 13) doep zij slechts dienst· voor kleine
tusschenberekeningen... " (Lorentz 1916a, I, p. 1392).
18 "Hierbij moet worden opgemerkt dat een vergelijking... waarin van de
samenstelling van vectoren in verschillende punten sprake is, eerst dan zin heeft
als men weet welke'.componenten als 'gelijk gericht' beschouwd zullen VV'IJ~L1Uj.""";II.J1 ..

en dus bij elkaar- zuBen worden opgeteld. Dit hebben wij door de invoering van
coordinaten vastgesteld" (Lorentz 1916a, I, p.

Bianchi, Luigi (1899). Vorlesungen fiber Differentialgeometrie. Leipzig: B.G.


Teubner.
Dorling, Jon (1968). "Length Contraction and Clock the Em-
hOl111v:aleltlCe of the Einsteinian and Lorentzian Theories." British
the Philosophy of Science 19: 67-69.
and Grossmann, MarceT(1913). verallgemeinerten
Relativitiitstheorie und einer Theorie der Gravitation. Leipzig: Teubner.
(The paper, with some additional remarks, subsequently appeared in Zeit-
schrift fiir Mathematik und 62: 225-261.)
Luther P. (1925). Riemannian New Jersey:
Princeton University
Fokker, (1929). Relativiteitstheorie. Groningen: Noordhoff.
Haantjes, J. (1954). tot de dif/erentiaal-meetkunde. Groningen and
karta: Noordhoff.
Herglotz, Gustav (1916). "Zur Einsteinschen Gravitationstheorie." Sitzungsbe-
richte der Gesellschaft Leipzig. Martne'ma.tlsc·n-lJ~nVj~l­
kalische Klasse 69: 199-203. (Reprinted in G. Herglotz, Gesammelte
1,r:nrlnt.~n. pp. 356-360. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & 1979.)
Kox, J. (1988). "Hendrik Antoon Lorentz, the Ether, and the General Theory
of Archive for the of Exact Sciences 38: 67-78.
Lanczos, Cornelius (1970). the Ages: The Evolution ofGeometrical
Ideas from Pythagoras to Hilbert and Einstein~ San Diego, California:
Academic Press.
Levi...Civita, Tullio (1917). "Nozione' di parallelismo in una varieta qualunque."
Rendiconti del Circolo Matematicodi Palermo 42: .173-205.
Lorentz's Formulation of General Relativity 363

Lorentz, Hendrik A. (1909). The Theory ofElectrons. Leipzig: B.G. Teubner.


-~-- (1916a). "Over Einstein's theorie der zwaartekracht, I-I'l." Koninklijke
Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam. Verslagen van de Gewone
Vergaderingen der Wis- en Natuurkundige Ajdeeling 24: 1389-1402,
1759-1774; 25: 468-486, 1380--1396. English translation: Lorentz
(1916b).
- - (1916b). "On Einstein's Theory of Gravitation, I-I'l." Koninklijke Akade-
mie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam. Proceedings ofthe Section of Sci-
ences 19: 1341-1354, 1354--1369; 20: 2-19,20-34. Translation of Lorentz
(1916a). Reprinted as Lorentz (1937).
- - (1937). "On Einstein's Theory of Gravitation." In Collected Papers, Vol. 5.
The Hague: Nijhoff, pp. 246-313. Reprint of Lorentz 1916b.
Norton, John (1984). "How Einstein found his Field Equations: 1912-1915."
Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences 14: 253-316.
Pais, Abraham (1982). ('Subtle is the Lord . ... ": the Science and the Life of
Albert Einstein. London and New York: Oxford University Press.
Wolfgang (1958). Oxford: Pergamon. (Original Ger-
man edition: "Relativitatstheorie." In: Encyklopadie der mathematischen
Wis~se"zscI1al1:en, mit Einschluss ihrer Anwendungen, Vol. 5, Part
2. Arnold Sommerfeld, ed. Leipzig: Teubner, 1904-1922, pp. 539-775.)
Roberto (1978). Philosophy of Geometry from Riemann to Poincare.
Dordrecht and London: Reidel.
Hermann (1918). Zeit, Materie: Vorlesungen tiber allgemeine Rela..
tivitatstheorie. Berlin: Springer (1st ed.).
Quantization of the Gravitational Field 365

hands in success
was closed more than
1972).
canonical of O,QI.·n-",QI.'Il""t1lD rflll~tll'l'lll1'"

classical basis. It did not mean


within easy reach.
the "gauge"
the fusion of
generate coordinate IWlWLJl.;)Jl.'V.l1..l1.JlJlULJl.VJlJlC).
tf"\I.rrltllr11"lnln of
so
...... " '................... _ ............. """'9

was ",",VJL.l.tUlJL'l..Jj.VJl..'-''''''''' .ll.JL.ll.tUlVllU.V.ll.V

to to the 'll"lnl1t11"'tf"\l.r1I'lI'Il£1'1t'lltf"\l."lnl

structures
1988).

REFERENCES

Ashtekar, Abhay (1987). "New Hamiltonian Formulation of General Relativity."


Physical Review D 36: 1587-1602.
Abhay,
lJI...:).Ul¥.",A4;.u., and Charles G. (1987). "B. R. S. T. Struc-
ture of General Relativity in Terms of New Variables." Physical
D 36: 2955-2962.
Bergmann, Peter Schiller, and Zatzkis, (1950).
"The Hamiltonian of the General Theory of Relativity with Electromag-
netic " Physical Review 80: 81-88.
Bergmann, G. and Komar, Arthur (1972). "The Coordinate Group Symme-
tries of General Relativity." International Journal of Theoretical Physics
5: 15-28.
Bohr, Niels and Rosenfeld, Leon (1933). "ZurFrage der Messbarkeit der elektro-
magnetischen Feldgrossen." Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabemes Sel-
skab. Matematisk-Fysiske Meddelelser 12, No.8, pp. 65.
Dirac, Paul A. M. (1950). "Generalized Hamiltonian Dynamics." Canadian Jour-
nal ofMathematics 2: 129-148.
- - (1951). "The Hamiltonian Form of Field Dynamics." Canadian Journal
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Goldberg, Joshua N. (1988). "Triad Approach to the Hamiltonian of General
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366 Peter G. Bergmann

Pauli, Wolfgang, and Fierz, Markus E. (1939). "Ober relativistische Feldglei-


chungen von Teilchen mit beliebigen Spin im elektromagnetischen Feld."
Helvetica Physica Acta 12: 297-304.
Pirani, Felix A. and Schild, Adolf (1950). the Quantization of Einstein's
Gravitational Field Equations." Physical Review D 79: 986-991.
Rosenfeld, Leon (1930). "Zur Quantelung der Wellenfelder." Annalen der Physik
5: 113-152.
- - (1932). "La theorie quantique des champs." lnstitut Henri Poincare. An-
nales 2: 25-51.
h
368 Gennady E. Gorelik

1.

units of length, mass, time, and temperature that


of special bodies and substances, necessarily
all times and even extraterrestrial ones, and
which may therefore be designated as natural units of measure. (Planck
1899, pp.

These new are chosen in a


JL.I1Ji\.""Ji\..I1W'V.l1Ji\.\lo.f~ constant (c, G,

[PI:: (hG/c 3 )1/2 :: 10- 33 em


mpl :: (hc/G)1/2 == g
tPl :: (hG / c5)1/2 := S

1l1Ir"lf"l~d1lAll'"n notation In 'cosmology, a


d1lA1i'1lC!llll"'T is now
Quantization of the Gravitational Field 369

last section connection


to the rest, it is strongly COlme:cte~a
of physics, in v-...ll-J', .....-..lLll>4... lIt

the scientific
physics (Goldberg 1976).
att~emDte~d. to uncover a thAn'll"'tl.t'll~dJ1lg QlIOn111h1~'l'Jl'lnj('!lA

may

Because. of the intra-atomic movement of electrons, the atom must


radiate not only electromagnetic but also gravitational energy, if only
in minute amounts. Since, in reality, this cannot be the case in nature,
then it appears that the theory must modify not only Maxwell's
electrodynamics but also the new theory of gravitation. (Einstein 1916,
p.696).
370 Gennady E. Gorelik

magnitude. It is interesting to compare


time, more alttltllGe
lL-VJl.ll,,,.JI.UJl.J1.lL-

.blDlstelln IlJ~VJl.J1.J1.lL-""""
out the necessity of a
a few subject

were were too I C!lI111l'",a'll'""lHflOlI 01

aSS11m~~a too strong an analogy gravity


eX,lffii>le, after discussing a general scheme
Qu~mtizatlon in wrote:
One should mention that a quantization of the gravitational field, which
appears to be necessary for physical reasons, may carried out without
any new difficu.lties by means of a formalism wholly analogous to that
applied here. (Heisenberg and Pauli 1929, p. 3)

was
it is to
curvature of s.n:rfl(:e-IHIB~.
an analysis rev'eatlng
electrodynamics a Qu.mtlLUn
Quantization of the Gravitational Field 371

concepts of
lormUllatlon of a COIlsistent
analysis to
cGh-values).

3.
372 Gennady E. Gorelik

played by h, on COf-
(11tterlent 1tnorb.il"'1l.o.o 811n'll1lil"'II.il"'1l'IM,.nr some of
contains
a _.. . . . . .
I!J' ............ VJlL.II.Q.,.II.fd.,.. Il.V"-Jl to
Cosmological
following scheme:

I-------------L--------------------------~,
I I

---------: ch :
I I
I
-------------r----------------------------
I
I

I
I
I
I ~ __ L
I _

-----1 of QU4mtlum
: the ele;ctJ~on[la~~ne~tlc
I

:
I
cGh
-------------r-------------------------------
I
I
I
1

I------------- L--------------
I

I
I
I
I
I
1 ----------------------
Quantization of the Gravitational Field 373

concentrating on QU4mtlUffi

Qf3,vlt:at1C)n as a t""nll'lC'An'll'll~:J!l1l1llJf".ao of
374 Gennady E. Gorelik

Ohik = K,(7ik - !8i k T ),


K, = 16rrG/ 2. In

W~A1IK-U~lln u..iJV.ll.V..t't...II.AJLJL~."AVJI1.JL'.I the of a geO(leS1C


dx2 1
dx i
dx k

ds2 dsds = 0
can "'VI Jll.Jil.lI.,ll-_Jil.J4.. as = x)
d2 x _ r _ 8hOl _ ! 8hoo
c2 dt 2 - 1,00 -- cat 2 ax .
(2)
Quantization of the Gravitational Field 375

To measure r1,OO _.,,,.. . . a._&... _'h.Ilo over the volume time


one measure momentum Px of a test
unh'll1'll'\p V at of T:

r _ d2 x _ Px(t + T) - Px(t)
1,00 -- c2 dt2 - c2pVT
If the measurement of the

(3)

tum melchanlCal

If a measurement of momentum
l1t( «: T), in hot, conlllec:tea
lInrlp1t.Po11l"'''iI''n'lln cl)l£"T

in
1'lI'\1lnlcl)l""'''u V x ~ Llx/l1t, is of
"II:7Pftj('\".,.1I1t"ll:1

(flpx) = (flPx)l + (flPx)2 ~ Ii / flx c2 Kp2 V ~xflt

is mUJlinuzea by
(5)

(6)
376 Gennady E. Gorelik

conditions .rllall-a1"'1il"Y&'l1"11"'l>a

measurement momentum.
order for to
get
(7)

(8)

(9)

fi,zKC) 1/3
( pV2 '

in formal electrodynamics, does not take into consider-


ation the structure of the charge, is no consideration
increase of density p. With sufficiently high charge den-
sity the test body, the measurement of the electrical field may be
arbitrarily In nature, there are probably limits to density of
the electrical charge... but fonnal quantum electrodynamics does not
take these limits into account. ... The quantum, theory of gravitation
represents a quite different case: it has. to take into account· the fact
that the gravitational radius of the test body (~pV) must be less than
Quantization of the Gravitational· Field 377

its linear dimensions


~pV < V 1/ 3 • (12)
(Bronsteyn 1936b, p. 217)
It follows (10) gives minimum for

(!i
>c T V
2 2
_1_
2
C) 1/3 K
4/ 3 .
(13)

understood that
U1I"''''','ll1Io1l-,a''ll7'ln

the weak-field it"r.r:llllll"'1l.a"I'II7ArlllT\

be valid also in a more exact


as
",",'U'.l!L.1I.",",.1I.U.OJl.'U'.1I..1I. U'll y .. U'll Y "'.",-

The elimination of the logical inconsistencies connected with this re-


quires a radical reconstruction' of tbe theory, and in particular, the re-
jection of a Riemannian geometry dealing, as we see here, with values
unobservable in principle, and perhaps also the rejection of our ordinary
concepts of space and modifying them by some much and
nonevident concepts. Wer~ nicht glaubt, bezahlt einen Taler. (Bron-
1936b, p.218)

Bronsteyn~'s ~n'!:llhl~ll~

peared in .Jil...PJI. ..... IJl.J1..... I"'.....

ffi1Jlll~raIJn.' ,
It is not rII"IIiHhli1lll'll1t in order to
1I'"ad"lIOrlr..1i1"'ll1l1l1l,tnf

one tries to
DO:SSIIDle in a as
exampJ.e, the

=1PI/cT.
378 Gennady E. Gorelik
Quantization of the Gravitational Field 379

when £, f'.J 100 lo = (Glij c3)1/2 """'1I"'IiI"'AC'I'lIl',n'lll'1l.rIIC'I to quan-


tum limits of general relativity. is the became
most nn1t"\1'1ll dJl1l'"

The term

not

This is known as the Planck mass, after Max· Planck, who noted in
1900 that some such mass would appear naturally in any attempt to
combine his quantum theory with the theory of gravitation. The Planck
mass is roughly the energy at which the gravitational force between
particles beconles stronger than the electroweak or the strong forces.
In order to avoid an inconsistency between quantum mechanics and
general relativity, some new features must enter physics at some energy
at orbelow 1019 proton masses. (Weinberg 1981, p. 71).

"'~d.)r·hl11"'I!::lIIQ must enter


mass may
IIJV.II..I\..II.l\,,-f'IUl. out AV1l"\Ofl.r1Ifli"U'1
380 Gennady E. Gorelik

Theoretical physicists are now ......,V.ll...Il..Il..Il.Y·......,.Il..Il.\l..

values in cosmology,
emerge from' a
scales E'1h~]j1r4'JI.("'1t.t:ll1l'''1l'7.a.
e come
historical 1I1l"ll1t11""If"lIrIl'll'll d""1f'il If"lI1l"ll

for it is 1"I>1I1111""ll"01l'1,1tB1I"7 1l1l"lr'1l11~AClClllhB.a. Small-Scale


Structure of Space-Time.

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384 S. Kichenassamy
Dirac Equations in Space-Time 385

those to
ear group. This impossibility,
of view was .... ot::..nnll~t'!l ... "..bIr)II.'T

disagreeable.. " stressed these OUjnClJUUt~S


This stems from the fact that the spinors provide a linear representation
of the orthogonal group but not a linear representation of the general
linear group; moreover, one can justify this impossibility with purely
topological reasons. (Cartan 1974, p. 112)1

If

is
matter '¢ as Ind.ep(~naent
expressed in terms of {e a }
of
ories (for eX(Ulll)le, """""'JlJl'U'W.",,,,,.aA 1933b) or in
386 S. Kichenassamy
Dirac Equations in Curved 387

ing connection to
10 matter of
COlme~ctlc.n lbc'
20 aet~en(lS on 'bc as a CO][lSe:au~en(:e
nnlnmat \';~U'UII-JlJI.JUUl~ Bk
lf1r'tJilnUdJlf'\ltJil Dk in

30 Lagra021atl ael>en.aml2 on 'bc


COl1lStr~Wlt lea(lm2 to Be-
tensofo
388 S. Kichenassamy

NOTES
1 "Cela tient a ce que les spineurs fournissent une representation lineaire du
groupe des rotations euclidiennes, mais ne peuvent fournir aucune representation
lineaire du groupe des rotations affines; on peut du reste justifier cette impossi-
bilite par des raisons purement topologiques."

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case..
394 T6 Damour and G 6Schafer

on his and an 1I1l"ll£ll,n1l"'l"'Q£1l'lr

correct one; p =rntm2/(mt + m2)2,


In
the·· correct result In
Levi-Civita and the Relativistic Problem of Motion 395

correctly derived by
cal~CUlcltlo,nalor me~tn()aOllO~~lC(U.
not give ""J1.J1.'JlIY-~,J1.J1. one to trace
d,lttenent results, one .must
tthtJI,1l"'tJl1t,f"1l"'J:JI use of

matter.

was a
way9
a
correct
eallate~d, to

In
rep'laC:ffi2 fj2 or (n . iJ)2
n1l"'nlnn11'"ll"11rl,ncr:llft to
396 T. Damour and G. Schafer

Dcorrect =

where II is given in
(VI. 42) in his
the absence of. any
s ·sing result
nt31f"tlll1l~trn11l advance in

t3A111l1Ill111t"1l.r-..n above
flln<Wllt1l"'lIhll"il1ro to
Levi-Civita and the Relativistic Il-P1r'nhUp.·rn of Motion 397

this a incompressible fluid . . . . . . . ' V' _ _ Jl,/o

for the correct


n n ,n1l'"ll 11-\\7 of the 1l'"A."1lt1l··U'll~h,('ll n.QI.ll....·"1l(~t1l'"rMn "1l,''1'7SJlnr-A

aos~en(;e of of
of a binary system belongs to lt~aaln.2;ton
Jl\.'I>.",rur_.ll.,v.-u'V'AA

five mc~nU1S
at>Slen<;e of Q!1f'1"ARAP1r4Jl,tllrt,n

NOTES
1 In the 1930s, these works were considered the standard approach to the
relativistic problem ofmotion and were, e.g., discussed in detail in Chazy (Chazy
1930). The fact that (because of an error that originated in Droste 1916) they
lead to incorrect equations of motion was apparently first noted by Eddington
and Clark (Eddington and Clark 1938). The early correct treatment of ./J-J"-'JL'V.IL&!L.LA

and Droste in 1917 was forgotten in the literature until· much later.
2 In all previous applications, one had considered only the "restricted" rela-
tivistic two-body (or n-body) problem, i.e., the case where one of the masses is
much bigger than the other one(s).
3 Apart from some misprints, Levi-Civita 1964 is, as we have checked, a
mere translation of Levi-Civita 1950.
4 The completion of this book took place between 1939 (last quoted refer-
ence) and 1941 (Levi-Civita's death).
5 In effect, the method used by Einstein, and Hoffmann was logically
flawed. In subsequent publications, Einstein and Infeld admitted this an~lmore or
less corrected the method, but introduced, so doing, a technical mistake. In fact,
it is only through the recent research on the motion of strongly self-gravitating
bodies that the justification and realm of applicability of the Einstein-Infeld-
Hoffmann approach have been clarified (see Damour 1987 and references therein).
6 Both in his first article and in Chapter V, Section.4 (in particular, . . . "",,,.... ,rn_
esis of his book, Levi-Civita assumed an internal structure for his bodies that
he could never dynamically realize within his dust model.
7 The work by Petrova was published only much later (Petrova 1949).
8 On the other hand, his treatment of the ilj acceleration term (of the other
body) as constant is correct because, at this stage, he dealt with the geodesic
Lagrangian of a test particle in the field of the other body.
398 T. Damour and G. Schafer

9 In his book, Levi-Civita said (Chapter Section 2.2) that unfortunately


he did not otherwise "succeed."
10 Lorentz and Droste did not try to make contact with the previous (incom-
patible) results of Droste and De nor did they discuss the difference in one
coefficient of 944 between Droste 1916a and Droste 1916b.
11 Written in July 1990.

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Levi-Civita and the Relativistic Problem of Motion 399

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de deux masses finies." llcadimie des Sciences (Moscou). Comptes Ren-
dus (Doklady) 32: 25-27.
Levi-Civita, Tullio (1937a). "The Relativistic Problem of Several Bodies." Amer-
ican Journal of Mathematics 59: 9-22.
- - (1937b). "Astronomical Consequences of the Relativistic Two-Body Prob-
lem." American Journal ofMathematics 59: 225-234.
- - (1950). Le probleme des n corps en relativite generaIe. Memorial des Sci-
ences Mathematiques, No. 116. Paris: Gauthier-Villars. English translation
The n-Body Problem in General Relativity. Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1964.
Lorentz, Hendrik and Droste, Johannes (1917). "De beweging van een stelsel
lichamen onder den invloed van hunne onderHnge aantrekking, behandeld
I

volgens de theorie van Einstein I, II." Koninklijke Akademie van Weten-


schappen te Amsterdam. Wis- en Natuurkundige Afdeeiing. Verslagen van
de Gewone Vergaderingen 26 (1917-1918): 392-403; 649-660. English
translation in Lorentz 1934-1939, Vol. 5, pp. 330-355.
./L.J'-J"',~""IiIlL.""') Hendrik A. (1934-1939). Collected Papers. 9 vols. The Hague: Nijhoff.
Petrova, N. M. (1940). "On the Equations of Motion and the Mass Tensor for
Systems of Finite Masses in the General Theory of Relativity." PhD dis-
sertation, .L.J'W~'IiI""&A1"'''''
'-'lo'ldo.

- - (1949). "Ob uravnenii dvizheniya i tenzore materii dlya sistemy konech-


mass v obshchey teorii otnositel'nosti." ["On the Equations of Mo-
tion and the Mass Tensor for Systems of Finite Masses in the General
of Zhurnal i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki
19: 989-999.
Robertson, Howard P. (1938). "Note on the Preceding Two-Body
Problem in General Relativity." Annals ofMathematics 39: 101-104.
calculations for the construction of
lV!~ltrulSS()nQOltaltle~a his was
Mathisson's and Weyssenhoff's Work on Motion in Relativity 401

first atte:ffiot too C!itfl1I1lnA"nit a~;SUJnptlon of


symmetry of
oresented. in his most
1\1II~,,('lIh.r)l'nll,,,,('t of
with a
Matlllsson COIlSl(1lere:(1l the

9aj3 = g~j3 + 'Yaj31 a, {3 = 0, 1,2, 3.

ent;f1rV-flrlOIUeIltul[Il tensor T Ol j3 satllStI(~S

Of,

forin
(1)

us sun~oulldiru! the ~1l"'1I1nnOill'"1ll.7


US '\.IV.ll.JlCll.ll.U'V.ll. free 1l-'--.IWl.'totf.a._, assuming
402 Bronislaw Sredniawa

T Ot f3 = 0 outside this in tube a nlfllll~-"IIlK.~ L,


we regard as

(2)

Ir;U_-II~1B BU side

way VVMlaWtlSS0n'

(3)

in CO()rd.llna1te system, ui =0 (i,j, ... = 1,2,3), we


m a (3 =. f. T a (3 d3 x,
1'£(T)

dix (3 = f x i T a (3 d3 x, d?Ot(3 =0, ...


J'£(T)

ap1J~rO~~lm;auon., we get (3),

as

for system
its mass rno, moment n A •
Mathisson's and Weyssenhoff's Work on Motion in h!'pIQt1'71lt'T 403

masses

(5)

(6)

non-
oDt;atne~a in an
ra-

Weyssenhoff (1889-1972),
1tha"''Il''£l~1tll,reOiI njnV~&lCS at l4':llnj~R Rr",n1l.-:nn

1938). weyssennott 1939),


theOlll'llltti\n1il"'Cl tOfjmU.late~a theorem
'ft1il"'1lll"'Il,rell1nIOIl
404 Bronislaw Sredniawa

. . . . . . . . . . . ., .. " O f l L . l on

momentum vector

Go. :=: mou Ot + SOi(3U(j. (7)


Mathisson's and Weyssenhoff's Work on Motion in Relativity 405

Weyssenhoff
microscopic size.
to

I. In momentum G i is not D~at.·a.ltel to

2.

\iW1..........'....,JiL ..... ~ ..... " an~~Ul~ll" momentum is not a constant

Zitterbewegung.
5. of
ton wavelen~~m.

6.

VIl>4Il.Il.-AIVA'VO were , '-' 6""-

£'Id""II.msot""d""II.'II'"drJI1tn'rCl in J!L"'-.'UL"...."•. 'vw_

REFERENCES

tlle.lec.liU') Adam, Mathisson, and Weyssenhoff"Jan (1939). "Sur un theo-


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curvilignes dans l' espace de Riemann." Academie Polonaise des Sciences.
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Einstein, Albert, and Gronuner, Jakob. (1927). "Allgemeine RelativiHitstheorie
und Bewegungsgesetz." Preussische Akademie derWissenschaften (Ber-
lin). .Physikalisch-Mathematische Klasse. Sitzungsberichte: 2-13.
406 Bronislaw Sredniawa

Havas, Peter (1986). "The of the 'Problem of Motion' in General


Relativity." In Einstein and the i~/lf K.etaiflVtl~ Don Howard
"'-JItL.-.'IIIll.-H

and John eds. Boston: pp.234-276.


Josef (1937). "Neue
.Il....4UQJ'411.11,r.:JIJj.1>.Il.') materieUer Systeme in der
Minkowsldscher Welt." Acta Polonica 6: 356-370.
Mathisson, Myron (1931a). "Die' Beharrungsgesetze in der allgemeinen Rela-
tivitatstheorie." 67: 270-277.
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tivitatstheorie." 67: 826-844.
- - (1937a). "NeueMechanikmaterieller Systeme." Acta Polonica 6:
163-200.
- - (1937b). Zitternde Elektron und Seine )yn~:umk." Acta
Polonica 6: 218-227.
"The Varlatllon:a1 Jtj,QU4it1C~n of Relativistic VVXlanJtlCS.
I!;U,lOSl")lJnj~cat Society~ Proceedings 36: 331-350.
.... ~A::hB"JItl"ll.TlIl[;!t1Iro VV1rlannCS of a Spjlnnlin~ MalRn(~t1C Particle." Cam-

ff'htllOS(rDnl~cat Society. Proceedings 38: 40--60.


~re;(1nl.awa, Bronislav "Relativistic Equations of Motion of Parti-
cles' ." In Cosmology and l(o,tatJ:Oflt and Su-
jjeI'~mann and Venzo de ~Qlfl"'IIl!"!IQl'fl"Ql eds. }\~ew York and

London: Plenum Press, pp. 423-434.


- - (1982).
- - (1985).
kow'in the of XXth
Naukowe un~~we,rSV1:etu Ja~~lellOflIS"l(~f(O Prace Fizyczne 24. Warsaw and
Krakow: Scientific pp. 165-166, 198-201.
Weyssenhoff, Jan W. (1938). "A Motion of a ~pl1nnU:l~ Electron."
Nature 141: 328.
- - (1947). "On Two Relativistic Models of Dirac's Electron." Acta
Polonica 9:
Weyssenhoff, Jan
Fluids and
1.
408 John Stachel

review some
on the
on the work
The Cauchy Problem in General Relativity 409
410 John Stachel

3.
The Cauchy Problem in General KeJiatl'~vitv 411

Let the physical quantities and their time derivatives be known at


the time: then an assertion will only have physical
meaning if it is invariant with to all those [coordinate] transfor-
maltl0n.S, for which the coordinates used for the time
remain unchanged; I maintain that assertions of this are nnllnUlp.hT
determined for the that principle of causality holds in
this formulation: From of the 14 physical [Le., metric and
ele·ctrCJmagrleucl potentials. .. at the present time, all assertions about
necessarily and insofar as have
DnVj~lCal me('lnln~f(. \..lI..IiUA.Jl.llJ"-""''''' 1917, p. 61)
412 John Stachel

As far. as it goes, ..IiL..IiLJl..JLllJ"-".ILIL-


A1Il1iClf'lIl1c.~iCl1lr\\n is fine. He 'Il"'.CIl<l1lh,."t:lIr!I
need to
the statement.
..."..."..".rIl<l-ll·"tt7 for
f'i'll1il'llC'4i'lllhlh.7 ""'01t'llO'lll"""'llUI"tt7 ·,....,r-... "tt7n'lll"'1ln1n1l-

theories since must


as nh1v~u.~3.IJlv
JL""';;;,IUWl. .......""'....... p.~nl1l'l!l1"U.a:llpnt also that use of
Ualllssjlan~ or geodesic Jl..J1.'-JJJ.J1.J1.JI..'-'IIoA, ClOOI'alIlau~s gives one a normal system
.CIlnll·lli'lltll,r\\n~ for the he ne-
The Cauchy Problem in General Relativity 413

nUInO(~r of while
v..n..a,..Vll.Jl.",,Il.O it in a few respects-
414 John Stachel
The Cauchy Problem in General Relativity 415

conditions of
hypersurfaces, can always
co()rO:lnales on the second 01l'll'll"'il"<flli"'Lh

of ualUSSlan JI..IL'-'~LJI..IL~UI4.B. C~OOI'alIlat(~s rIl.Q;1I"rf"1l'\tU::lilO

together" the on
does constitute a
£'1"'\11lC1t1l"'d:l1l1l1lt '!l"'.QIo1t1ll"1ltf... 1t1lr1~n
416 John Stachel

to the
01l"ll1l",01il"'1lJi""'\I.1!'"

that lies on and within

1 This neglect seems to be connected, with a misunderstanding of the role


of the contracted he allowed the COInpJ,ete
elimination of four equations.
2 called isothermal coordinates and harmonic coordinates. For
a of their use, with historical see Arzelies 1961, pp. 274-
279.

Arz:elle~s,
Henri (1961). Relativite generalisee. Gravitation. Part 1,
OPrAlJ?r(}'~l1r: ea1A~anlons
d'Einstein. et optique. Reperages non
einsteiniens. Rabat: Travaux de l'Institut Serie Sci-
ences 7. Paris: Gauthier-Villars.
Peter (1957). "Topics in the
Hp,1?"'C'lr1t'll1lIJlnn of General Upl-.:\tn.Tl1hT In Bran-
deis Summer Institute
pp.l-44.
(1962). An Introduction
Research. Louis ed. New York: pp. 130-168.
Cauchy, (1842). "Memoire sur dn calcnl des limites dans
l'inregration des aux derivees " Academie des Sci-
ences (Paris). Rendus 15: 44-59.
Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne, and James (1980). "The Cauchy llJ'r'l1ihBp,tn " In
General Relativity and Gravitation: One Hundred the Birth of
Albert VoL 1. Alan ed. New York: pp.99-172.
The Cauchy Problem in General Relativity 417

Darmois, Georges (1923a). "Sur l'integration locale des equations d'Einstein."


Academie des Sciences (Paris). Comptes Rendus 176:646-648.
_.- - (1923b)."Integration locale des equations d'Einstein (probleme interieur)."
Acadimie des Sciences (Paris). Comptes Rendus 176: 731-733.
- - .(1924). "Elements de geometrie des espaces. Introduction aux theories de
la relativite generale." de 1: 5-87.
- - (1927). Lesequations de la gravitation einsteinienne. Memorial des Sci-
ences Mathematiques No. 25. Paris: Gauthier-Villars.
Einstein, Albert (1914). "Die formale Grundlage der allgemeinen RelativiHits-
theorie." Koniglich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften (Berlin).
Sitzungsberichte: 1030--1085.
Fisher, Arthur E. , Jerrold E. (1979). "The Initial Value Problem and
the Dynamical Formulation of General Relativity." In Generpl Relativity.
An Einstein Centenary Survey. Stephen W. Hawking and Werner Israel,
eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 138-211.
and Hans (1928). "Uber die Eindeutigkeit und das Abhan-
gigkeitsgebiet der Losungen beim Anfangswertproblem !inearer hyper-
boUscher Differentialgleichungen." Mathematische Annalen 98: 192-204.
tla Oat1narlO.,
I (1903). Le(:ons sur la propagation
J4:Jl.II.t\,fIUIV..::t ondes et les equations
de Paris, Hermann.
- - (1923). Lectures on Cauchy~ Problem in Linear Partial Differential Equa-
tions. New Haven: Yale University Press. Second ed.: Le probleme de
Cauchy et les equations aux derivees partielles lineaires hyperboliques.
Paris: 1932.
- - (1964). La theorie des equations awe dirivees partielles lineaires hyperbo-
liques. Language Press.
- - (1968). Oeuvres. Paris: Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Sci-
entitlQlue, vol. 3.
David (1915). "Die Gmndlagen der (Erste Mitteilung)." Konig-
liche der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen. MGltn~~mtltlSCn~:pn·VS1"
kalische Nachrichten: 395-407.
- - (1917). "Die der Physik. (Zweite " Konigliche
Gesellschaft der zu (j(jlr:unJ'len. M().~tht.~murtlS~':h-j'f)n)'Slklall"
sche Klasse. Nachrichten : 55-76.
Maurice (1927). us systemes awe derivees Memo-
rial des Sciences Mathematiques No. 21. Paris: Gauthier-Villars.
Kovalevskaia, Sofia Sophie (1875). "Zur Theorie der par-
Differentialgleichungen." Journal die reine: und angewandte
MalnelrlaljrK 80: 1-32.
Lanczos, Cornelius (1932). "Zur Frage der regularen Losungen der Einsteinschen
Gravitationsgleichungen." Annalen der Physik 13: 621-635.
Levi-Civita, Tullio (1917). "Sulla espressione analitica spettante al tensore gravi-
tazionale nena teoria di Einstein." Accademia dei Lincei. Rendiconti 26:
381-391.
418 John Stachel

Lichnerowicz, Andre (1939). Sur certains problemes globaux relatifs au systeme


des equations d'Einstein. Paris: Hermann. Also issued as Problemes glo-
baux en mecanique relativiste. Actualites Scientifiques et Industrielles
No. 833. Paris: 1939.
- _ . (1944). "L'integration des equations de la gravitation relativiste et Ie
probleme des n corps." Journal des Mathematiques Pures et Appliquees
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Sachs, Rainer K. (1962). "On the Characteristic Initial Value Problem in Gravi-
tational Theory." Journal ofMathematical Physics 3: 908-914.
Stachel, John (1989). "Einstein's Search for General Covariance, 1912-1915."
In Einstein and of General Relativity. Don Howard and John
Stachel, eds. Boston: Birkhaiiser, pp. 63-100.
~te:HrrlaCjtler., Karl (1938). "Zum Anfangswertprobleln der Gravitationsgleichun-
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349-351.
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New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 83-126.
420 Christiane Vilain

same topology of
ogy

to
it is nevertheless a
coc.r<1t:nat(~s may

2.

If we deform the jelly in any way, the intersections will still occur in the
same order along each world line, and·no additional intersections will
Spherical Coordinates in General Relativity 421

be created. . .. Suppose now we introduce space and time partitions,


which we might do by drawing rectangular meshes in the jelly. We
have now two ways of locating the world lines and events in space
and time, both on the same absolute footing. clearly it makes no
difference in the result of the location whether we first deform the jelly
and then introduce regular meshes, or whether we introduce irregular
meshes in the underfonned jelly. So, all the mesh systems are on the
same footing. (Eddington 1920, p.88)

Extension is now fundamental; and the location of an object is a com-


putational result summarizing the physical fact that it is at certain in-
tervals from other objects in the world. Any idea contained in the
concept location that is not expressible by reference to distances from
other objects must be dismissed from our minds. To put the conclusion
rather crudely, space is not a lot of points close together, it is a lot of
distances interlocked. (Eddington 1923, p.9)

to be

now state
422 Christiane Vilain

into two ~Jl."'UVCJ4

3.1. PROPER COORDINAlES


.g.lil.gW.'~"lil..J~ Qd"f--r,..ll"',rII'1l'ln,n to JjO,OlIU!t~~n,
_ as
.........7...,A .............· _

ones:
This system of coordinates (isotropic) is naturally arrived at when we
partition space by rigid scales or by light triangulations in a small re-
gion, e.g., in terrestrial measurements. Since the ultimate measurements
involved in any· observation are carried out in a terrestrial laboratory,
we ought, strictly speaking, always to employ the isotropic system that
conforms to assumptions made in those measurements. (Eddington
1923, p.93)
Spherical Coordinates in General KeJlat1~V1tv 423

FIGURE 1

3.2.
424 Christiane Vilain

time of F"l!..nE'_1l.DII... t-1I .....~1t'lI

Three atoms
are by

Xo = !(t~ + t~),
Xl = !(t1 - t~),
X2 = !(t'iJ - t'n),
_ I (til
X 3-2 c- t'c·
)

p.234):
Xo = '21 (tilA +
Xl = !(t" - t~),
X2 = (),
X3 = 1.

ds 2 = - a/r) dt 2 - dr 2 /(1 - a/r)

a- --2-.
C

geodesics are

ds 2 = 0 ~ dt = ± .
1 - a/r
Spherical Coordinates in 425

E ------- t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
r A

FIGURE 2

one

t'A - t =tf(r A) -f(r),


t - t~ = f(r A) - fer)

= a [(r/a + - 1)].

Xo = t,
Xl = f(r) - !(rA) =g(r).
Let us 110W at new
ds 2 = -a/r)dt'dt",
ds 2 = (1 - a/r}(dx~ - dxI).

by
426 Christiane Vilain

tw =t - a - a).
Spherical Coordinates in ""-""-'JU'''-''''' ,,,1.1, Relativity 427

r=t+ p=r+~[(f(r)+t)],

fer) = 2r + In [(r 1/ 2 - 1)/(r 1/ 2 + 1)].

U'U'Jl.ll..II.lWl.'-YJUI. was J. hlSt~nst~aeat

00ltalIlea a

u2 = ±(r - a).

'U'U,f.,ll.JiI,Jl..Iil..Iil.V'l".ll. a space

series
1t"tI.n.IR'tl7ll'1ilA1nf'&1l0l1

was no 1'll'llClhh,(llllJlt'snn

annOWlcement:
I have removed the Schwarzschild singularity in a different way...
[from .Lemaitre (1933) and Robertson (1939), according to his lecture
in Toronto]. (Synge 1950)
428 Christiane Vilain

ditter~en(~e was eXl)reSSe~a as w".,,_

The singularity r = 0 in Lemaitre's work in a single space-like curve,


each part of which is of infinite length, and at each point on it there
is but one null direction. In my work, the singularity r= 0 consists
of an infinite set of space-like curves, each having the properties men-
tioned above for the Lemaltre singularity•... As was pointed out by
Robertson, a time-like geodesic reaches r = a in a finite proper time
and without becoming tangent to a null line. Thus, the geodesic may
be continued. That is in fact what has been done by Lemattre and me,
but we have made different continuations of space-time. (Synge 1950)

e2 = z for Z > 0 or u 2 - v 2 > 0,


2
u - v
2
=a[1] + COS (1])] Z <0 or 2
u - v
2
< o.

r = a cosh2(e),
r = a' cos 2(e),

one

one
eleJme][lt can

u = R cosh(t/2a),
v=R
for u - v < 0,
u=
v =R cosh(t/2a).
Spherical Coordinates in General Relativity 429

It is thus ascertained that the new line ele:me][lt is a C'I"",B,... 4-41r,,_ of


equations for Q,rnrl1l1l1l,f:at'll"'U
U!V'.ll..IL.......JJL.ll. _ _A

next
new
lWI.JUl. ~U'u.c;;~.lI.JI. the first r = a,
go r =0: .
The test particle acquires the velocity of light at r = o. The question
may now be raised: is it conceivable that a test particle should travel
right through the singularity r = O? ... We may say that in our repre-
sentation of the field of a gravity particle, the passage of a test particle
through the singularity r = 0 may be uniquely defined. (Synge 1950)

dr 2
dR=----
- air)'
=±a[arccos(rla)+(rla)(l- rla)J,
'U = sinh(tI2a),
v R(r) cosh(tI2a).

> a,
dr 2
=+ ,
(1 - air)
=±a{ln[(rI a) + (ria - 1)J + (rl a)(rI a - 1)},
u= cosh(t/2a),
v = sinh(tI2a).

we r < a,
dR dr
=----
- air)'
R(r) oc - rla)e r / 2a ,
u == ±R(r) sinh(tI2a),
v =±R(r) cosh(tI2a).
430 Christiane Vilain

For r > a,
dR dr
=---
- air)'
oc (ria - 1)e r / 2a ,
u = ±R(r) cosh(tI2a),
v = ±R(r) sinh(tI2a).

A test particle may enter the sphere r = a and oscillate often


inside it, or it may be emitted from the after an infinite number
of oscillations inside. (Synge 1950)
Spherical Coordinates in General Relativity 431

FIGURE 3 Synge's proper spatial distance.

FIGURE 4 Kruskal's time along a null geodesic.


432 Christiane Vilain

r=O

I
I
I
I

- - - - nu II geodesics
L.""'::'-~'''.= geodesics

FIGURE 5

FIGURE 6
Spherical Coordinates in General II<' p:1~th.,1t" 433

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434 Christiane Vilain

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(

1.
438 Odon Godart

ds 2 =- c2 - R1:[dX2 +

ds 2 =c2 cos 2 X dt 2 - R~[dx2 +


Contributions of Lemaitre to General Relativity 439

(3)

Rs
t=r-- cos X, (4)
c

the use of a new

(5)

In
a extent
fI>olW\.J1~~'-"J1"""LJI' since the
440 Odon Godart
Contributions of Lemaitre to General KeJ"ati,ntv 441

3
3 + R2 =A 81lp,

R R2 +-
2-+
1
:::A- (8)
R2

dp
-+3-(p+ =0. (9)
dt R
we must at our an

p = p(p).

a ::: we

mass. t can noV\'

t=

A =3R s 2
, ::: o.
442 Odon Godart

can in

can

( ~)+
I-x ( ~X-I)
~x+l
+

= -00 is
as t mClrea~seso
lOreOlcteO ex-

r
-=
=RE~

na-
aSSJlImJlate it
Contributions of Lemaitre to 443

statement was in
wrote at once to I11-4rilr!lll1l'1lll"lr1tn1l'1l

n1il"nh~t:Il>·11'1J'l and
444 Odon Godart
Contributions of Lemattre to General lhf'pDQf-i,rihr 445

find it in cosmic rays.


were carried out in £'If"\.WD4'JII!"l',,",,1l'""':ll1fllJf"1~'Ii"'II
the Massachusetts !nS1t1tu'te
restricted to
work
be~:mnl1ng of 1933, LeIJnaltre was in
in
"Oll.Jl.VJl.lI.~VJl.lI.J1.'VJl....." n4'JI'll"1I"1I£'I'II'II D0\1I'"

and lJIll'lld~Cta.11 B· alscus~s10~n with 1H1ln,Q.TP,an in t'as,aOt~na.


This me etlIlg 1

was very Ske~Dtl,cal


of

expressed
a re-

ds2 = ar dxr + a~ dx~ + a~ dx~ + a~ dx~. (18)


In case a uni verse
X4 =t we .a._VII.II.A'''''''''

ds 2 = -bI dxr - b~ dx~ - b~ dx~ + dx~.


,..."''U .....,'lMltl-<tilhrr bi ~b3 = R3 measures

(20)

T 1 + T22 + T3 - T 44 )
3
3- =-2K (1 - -31 [2 • (21)
R
446 Odon Godart

::: a~, c2 ::: a~ are 1Hil'll1l'11"''!t''\iI,n.'Iil''!l1:'!

::: -p (Drt:~ssure

a polren1tlal m can we

20r 8m
41rpr - : : : - - . (25)
at ot
Contributions of Lemaitre to General 447

=0 can as

(27)

tne~Dreltn 1,£1 = 0
T,v gives

8p 2 ar 1 Be
- + - -(p - r) + - - = (28)
aX r ax c ax
eQU11111).nUln, p r can
reouce~otoeo a ofU~~~~hl~

we
1 ar
--=!<X), (29)
a8x

(30)

r is a 1I"1I1In.n1l"1I£",n
X

In
zero" It reOlaU1S

.Il.JI..II.V'IWLJI.'U""-Ilo9 we
units G :: CO = 1" In we assume
JL.I""~Jl.JI.'U\o"l"'~.II.C) f(x) :: 1, m a constant in vacuum"
448 Odon Godart

(32)

ar/at = -(ar/ax),

r =0.. If we r as a coo:rC1iIllate.,
a as to exp:ress

_rr V~
dr ,
we

1/2

VfmlT
= 1 ~ (2m/r)
one

2
2 dr 2 2
ds =- 1 _ (2m/r) - r (dt
Contributions of Lemaitre to General Relativity 449

(37)

which is not for r < 2m.


Cn'll'll'll'"'Unll·'IIC' Sln2111a1:lty r = 2m is exy:~ressea
(32). In
sin!mlarttv of

"
450 Odon Godart

As far as I can see, such. a remains outside any meta-


·physical or religious It leaves the materialist free to deny
any transcendental For the origin of space-time, he may
the same attitude of mind he has been able to adopt for events occur-
ring in nonsingular places in space-time. For the believer, it removes
any attempt at with God, such as Laplace's . . ctnQl1enlau~jen
or Jeans' finger. It is consonant with the words of Isaiah when he
spoke of the "I-lidden " hidden even in the beginning of creation.
1958)
\.L.JVJI'.IL.lLUJl.II..ILV
Contributions of Lemaitre to General Relativity

systems or It"I\Qt"'Jf"'-1nr'"'IlQ .tiI<f"llnIl'IrQ1I'"JI"'-1l1l£'l ideologies. 2

NOTES

1 Archives Lemattre~ Institut d.'Astronomic etde Geophysique~ Universite


Catholique de Louvain.
2 For more details, see Godart 1984 and Godart and Heller 1979a, 1979b.

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- - (1925). "Note on De Sitter's Universe." Publication du Laboratoire
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Sc.hrodinger and Cosmology 455

electron in
he COIlSl()lere~a
a view into the future: for reasons
as far as nAlC'IC'lIhM,o

the

11"'1>.011"'11"1161111.00 in
be men-
Im~121Ile a removal of lIYOll"'1lAlI'IlO
456 Helmuth Urbantke

salis": see also a letter to ~l1n01t£ll'dn


universal connection between
been at
His was not.
Schrodingerand Cosmology 457

ex-
UJl..l!.~IIlo"IV"IV'l.....l!."IV.D.."\\.""'U

discovery aside,
to 1Mld"'\\1l'1I01l1MlOO'l!'"

even .l!.Jl.JI."lVJ!I.Jlll.JI.'lJ'JI.JI.
458 Helmuth Urbantke

hint as to

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"Virtual Particles as Sources of the Gravitational Field."
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Review Letters 21: 562-564.
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1hf1l"'o,1l"lIlt'r'l,1l"lI of Mass."
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on Mechanics and TIme Structure." Studies in and
Philosophy of Science 18:
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Gravitationsgleichungen." 19: 20-22.
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- - (1922). "Uher eine bemerkenswerte Eigenschaft der Quantenbahnen eines


einzelnen Elektrons." Zeitschrift flir 12: 13-23.
- - (1926a). "Quantisierung als Eigenwertproblem.Zweite Mitteilung." An-
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- - (1926b). "Quantisierung als Eigenwertproblem. Vierte Mitteilung." An-
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- - (1932). "Dirasches Elektron in 1." Koniglich Preussiche Aka-
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- - (1937). "World Structure." Nature 140: 742-744.
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- - (1939). "The Vibrations of the Expanding Universe." Physica 6:
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Roman U., and Urbantke, Helmuth K. (1969). "Production of Particles by
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et
IU''\.J'A..1l. VI IUl.ll.ll.L

1MI1JO.n,1t'n1Y'Ilrll de la structure n1Kl..t'l.",1Iil-"1Irn"'......

vrallment a creer un

Inl1luellce de la theorie la r~1 O'P1'llpr~ 'fJlf"lI"\1 ll1f"A Ip

geometrie Olrjten~nt]lellleC)
~n1Y'Il~~1~t d'espace

7YV1I11l1l1/1l101~J!J'7VilT en

generale
n. __ on s'interesse en
1I''''¥~·'lT1l1Ml''lln.i-·s~1Ml DO~it-rleV\{tO]nlenn~e;

particulier aux questions de l'avance et 1'acceleration


centre de masse, travaux montrer de contradictions 1I1'1l't.{::!>rt1lt:3:lC'

remarquableso
Summaries 461

UI"'"i~JIl.UI"'JL"-!l UI-'~UI con- ,

\.ue:majgne entre 1908


est Inl1luellce

A.lllem:af!nle a cette

des ,,,.~
, !hi 1 C!1t-ru ,ra> Tn, Da>1I11'1I"C'

JIl.Jl_I&-Il.6Jl_,IiI.Jl_U C, G et he
nll1l"1l1l"'ll1tllnllllL.~o!" a
rfl~ronllll"a>1iI"1hp>C' des 1935
462 French Summaries
French Summaries 463

aux
panorama de la Jl.VV'VIlJ ....II.VJl.Jl.

rpR~::IItl"'ltP. ,gellerale aux Pays-Bas ainsi

les annees 1937-19550 II ses nn1l11l£'l'lI'n"ll1l1lV -t."...t'll'lt,Ulall1l"IT

1"pl·~t1I"lItp et analyses concernant les pf(>pa,gat:eUJrs


Ie contexte

la relativite tnrj:lilnj:lilr".lH~
"""lln,nll1lll'lln1I".o sont discuteso
464 French Summaries

au renouveau
Ce texte est a la fois une rlle:aC'll""rtI1ntlllf''I\1l'''I\

Int~ernatHJn2LleS surla rp.~~tn.11ltp


et un de

vue
ll.A\..11. .II.1b4Jl..II.""""" ,gjen~~raJle est ana-

I""A1I"'Iltrllhll1ltllAn des nrll'nl""l'it'\"-lll"OV nh'i.TC'lI1"'lI,pnCO

anglais est expose et ~n,!:'R'H~P


Summaries 465

sur

_lI'VlllC>1l"'1r43C" sont exposees et analyseeso


mouvement en

en

a
9O..... n.ndh."v1l1l-A tnr.o.lI"1l.o.1l"naO et a travers
Qu(mtlQU(~S concernant
Contributors 467

South Ne'Wln.szton. W'r:llnli"\\'Il1l9""ilJ' Oxon OX1S


Great Britain
Il,a.v"l\dJlrtn"ilt:!l1nt of Mathematics, Uppsala University, Thunbergsvagen

3, S-75238 Uppsala, Sweden


It:!ln~rt·im,p.,nt of Physics, l\lew York University, 4 Washing.;.
NY USA
Universidad Nova de Lisboa, Faculdad· de Ciencias e
·Jl.ec~nOj,ogla, 2825 Monte da Caparica, 1I..JI.n1l"+nn'ol

des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, 91149 Bures-sur-


France and Department d'Astrophysique Relativiste etde Cos-
mologie, Observatoire de Paris, 92195 Meudon Cedex, France
Institut d'Astrophysique et de Geophysique Georges Lemaitre,
Universite Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, Lou-
Belgium
II-IIwolJ-!>.nl1J01Jo F. Institut fiir Theoretische Universitat Gottingen,
Bunsenstrasse 9, 3400 Gottingen, Germany
v.,(lllnnArJl7rO Department of Physics, Syracuse University, 201 Physics
HUll<Un,.sz. ~'{faC"use. NY 13244, USA
f.ie,nnllav Eo Institute of of Science, Academy of Sciences
USSR, Staropansky pero 1/5, Moscow 103012, USSR
UelJart,meJnt of Philosophy, University of Kentucky, Lexington,
USA
Institute of Isotopes, The .&...lLY.AAJ'i'lQ.4JLJll.l.lI.JLA Academy of Sciences, H-1525
ltSUClapest. Hungary
... v.a.I!f"'UI!f~""1!f Jlum~'~'ejn,
Department of History and Philosophy of Science, 1017 Cathe-
dral of Learning, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
So KljChl~nC4~Sllm·y, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Institut Henri Poincare,
Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
468 Contributors

&.JIYiI'lIoNVV '~D'" Kostro, Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Gdansk, UL .


Wita Stowosza 57, 80-952 Gdansk, Poland
J. Kox, Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Val..
ckenierstraat65, 1018 XE Amsterdam, The Netherlands and The Col..
lected Papers of Albert Einstein, Boston University, 745 Commonwealth
Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Andre Lichnerowicz, College de France, 6, Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75231
Paris Cedex 05, France
Lopes Gagean, Gabinete de Filosofia do Conhecimento, Rua Virginia
Vitorino no9 5 1600 Lisbon, Portugal
fur Theoretische Physik, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012
Switzerland
I. Department of History and Philosophy of Science, University
College London, Gower Street, London WCIE
. Norton, Department of History and Philosophy of Science, 1017 ""ML.JI.J1."-''-UMJI..

of Learning, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA


L)anCJ1eZ:-J'{lon, Departamento de Ffsica Teorica Universidad Auto-
..LV.Jl..4!,4l.~ ... ,... , Canto Blanco, 28049 . . . JiL0b4............. _ .

Planck Institut fUr Physik und Astrophysik, Institut far


Astrophysik, Karl Schwarzschild Strasse 1, 8046 bei MUnchen,

tJrlJnllSfa~w ~·l"ea}'1lalwa .. Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, Reymonta 4,


30-318 Cracow, Poland
'-YIl-"~""
Ulf,W·IVII5-Il., .... of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth
\\.oJI. .... JlYJLA'"

Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA


fUr Theoretische Physik, Universitat Boltz-
manngasse 5, A-I090 Austria
Departement d'Astrophysique Relativiste et de Cosmologie,
Observatoire de 92195 Meudon Cedex, France