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# CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

I. Issue Background
In general, the calculus is a branch of mathematics that studies the issues change. The
essence of the concept of this material is the change numbers that are used in
mathematical calculations. There are some great learning in this topic, namely the limit
function, differential (derivative), integral, and the area and volume of the object playlists.
The word 'calculus' is taken from the Latin word meaning small stone calculus. This is
because those who passed are still using small stones to do the math. This field was first
developed by two great scientist, Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz. Newton
developed differential calculus, while Leibniz developed calculus integrals.
This material is a material that is very important in science, especially mathematics. For
math, calculus could be a way out for you when you can not solve a mathematical
problem using algebraic formulas.

II. Purpose
1. To know the contents of the book can be used as study materials.
2. To determine the advantages and disadvantages of the contents of the book.
3. To help students to think critically and analyze the contents of the book.

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CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

III. SUMMARY

## N = set of natural numbers

= (1,2,3, ..., 10)
Z = set of integers
= (2,4,6,8, ...) Even
= (-1, -2.2 -, ...)

## Non-negative integers = (0,1,2,3, ...)

No positive integers = (0, -1, -2, -3, ...)
The set of rational numbers
(A / b, a, b E Z, (b less than zero))

Graph of the Cartesian coordinate plane X axis, Y-axis intersection point with the X-axis (0, a)
The intersection point with the Y axis (0.0)
Through the point of intersection of the line with the axis X then set Y = 0
Through the point of intersection of the line with the Y axis tetepkan X = 0

Definition
Suppose two points on the Cartesian coordinate plane P1 (x1, y1) and P2 (x2, y2) then the
M = y2-y1 / x2-x1
The vertical line has infinite slope

## PARALLEL LINES AND STRAIGHT LINE UPRIGHT

If L1 and L2 are the two sloped lines m1 and m2
The lines are parallel is m1 = m2
The lines are perpendicular is m1, m2 = -1

EQUATION OF LINE
The slope = m cut point p1 (x1, y2)
Equation 1: y-y1 = m (x-x1)
Through two points p1 (x1, y1) and p2 (x2, y2) Equality
y-y1 / y2-y1 = x-x1 / x2-x1

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FUNCTION and LIMIT FUNCTION
Let f ; A B , f say a function if every member of the domain A pair with exactly one member
kodomain B.
A B

X1 y1 Y1

X
X22 Y2y2

Operations on functions
Suppose two functions f (x) and g (x) then apply
1 (.f perpendicular g) (x) = f (x) perpendicular g (x)
2. (f.g) (x) = f (x) .g (x)
3. (f / g) (x) = f (x / g (x)

COMPOSITION OF FUNCTIONS
Operation composition formed by mensubtitusikan a function of the independent variables of other
functions.
example:
1. (fog) (x) = f (g (x)) = 2.g (x) = 2. (X) = 2x
2. (gof) (x) = g (f (x)) = f (x) = (2x)

DERIVATIVE

## Definition : F’(x)=lim f(x+h)-f(x)/h

ℎ→0

Called the derivative with respect to x of the function f if f '(x) exists for X = Xo then it can be said

## that f can be scaled at Xo (f has a derivative at Xo).

Techniques of Differentiation
𝑑
Let f (x), g (x) is a function of C ∈R then apply:𝑑𝑥 C = 0
𝑑 𝑑
1. (𝑐 𝑓(𝑥)) = 𝑐 (𝑓(𝑥))
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑑
2. (𝑋 𝑛 )= n.𝑥 𝑛−1 , n ∈ 𝑍
𝑑𝑥

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES

## Maximum and Minimum

definition:
Suppose S, place of origin f, loading point C, we say that:
1. f (c) is the maximum value of f on S if f (c) ≥f (x) for all x in S
2. f (c) is the minimum value of f on S if f (c) ≤f (x) for all x in S
3. f (c) is of extreme value f on S if it is the maximum value or

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minimum
Theorem A
(Existence theorem Max-Min). If f is continuous on a closed interval [a, b], then f reaches its
maximum value and minimum value.
Occurrence of Extreme Values:
Usually we want to maximize its functionality or Minimize will have an interval I as the region
of origin. But this interval may be arbitrary and nine types covered 1.3. some of these hose
loading titk endpoints; some do not. For example I = [a, b] contains the endpoints of both; (A, b)
only contains left end point; (A, b) does not contain any titk end. Extreme values of a function
defined on a closed interval yan often occur at the endpoints.
 If c a point at which f '(c) = 0 is called a stationary point c. At the stationary point, the
graph f flat for tangents horizontal. Extreme values occur at points stationary.
 If c is the point of I where f 'does not exist, so-called singular point c. Graph f has a sharp
angle, vertical tangent. Extreme values can occur at points perturbed.
Theorem B
(Critical point theorem). Suppose f is defined on an interval I containing the point c. If f (c) is the
extreme point, then c must be a critical point, namely in the form of one of the c:
i. I end points
ii. stationary point of f (f '(c) = 0)
iii. singular point of f (f '(c) does not exist)
Given theorems A and B, to calculate the maximum or minimum value of a continuous function f
on a closed interval I.
Step 1: Find the critical points of f on I
Step 2: compute f at every critical point, the largest and the smallest maximum value is the
minimum value.
The Monotony and Concavity
Definition:
Suppose f defined on the interval I (open, closed, or none). We say that:
i. f is riding on I if for each pair of numbers in the first x1 and x2, x1 <x2 → f (x1) <f (x2)
ii. f is down on I if for each pair of numbers in the first x1 and x2, x1> x2 → f (x1)> f (x2)
iii. f monotonous purely on first if he ascends to I or down on the I
theorem A
(Theorem monotony). Suppose f is continuous on the interval I and can dideferensialkan at any point
inside of the I
i. If f '(x)> 0 for all points in x of I, then f ride on the I
ii. If f '(x) <0 for all points in x of I, then f down on the I
First Derivatives and Monotony
Recall that the first derivative f '(x) gives us the slope of the tangent line f dititik x, then if f' (x)> 0,
the tangent line rises to the right, a similar, if f '(x) <0, the tangent fall to the right. (Figure A)
Second Derivative and Concavity
Definition:
Suppose f terdeferensial on an open interval I = (a, b). if f 'ride on I, f (and graphics) concave up
there; if f 'down in the first, fcekung down on I.
theorem B
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(Theorem concavity). Suppose f terdeferensial twice on the open interval (a, b).
i. If f '(x)> 0 for all x in (a, b) then f is concave upward on (a, b)
ii. If f '(x) <0 for all x in (a, b) then f is concave downward on (a, b)
Turning Point
Suppose f is continuous at c, we call (c, f (c)) a turning point of the graph of f if f is concave upward
on one side and concave down on the other side of the c. the graph in Figure C shows a number of
possibilities.

## SYSTEM OF REAL NUMBERS

numbers imaginer

complex number

Real numbers: - irrational numbers
- Rational numbers
Real numbers, numbers whose value can be known and used in the calculation of daily
* Writing real numbers can be done in three ways:
1. Using the notation set
2. Use the line set
3. Infrimum and suprimum

## * The properties of real numbers

1. Trichotomy: if X and Y are numbers, then one of them is always applicable, such as: X <Y or X =
Y or X> Y
2. Transitivity: X <Y and Y <Z then X <Z
3. Addition: X <Y and X + Z <Y + Z
4. Multiplication: if positive Z, X <Y then XZ <YZ
when the negative Z X <Y then XZ> YZ

## * The nature of the wonders of the real numbers:

1. The cumulative legal: X + Y = Y + X and XY = YX
2. associative law: X + (Y + Z) = (X + Y) + Z and X (YZ) = (XY) Z
3. distributive law: X (Y + Z) = XY + XZ
4. identity elements: -> identity sum = 0, X + 0 = X
-> Identity multiplication = 1, X. 1 = X
5. reversal (inverse): -> sum = inverse of X is -X
evidence = X + (-X) = identity (0)
-> Multiplication = inverse of X is X¯¹
Evidence = X. X¯¹ = identity (1)

1. Equation
* Equation is a mathematical sentence that has a variable with a hyphen "=", that require special
completion to find the value of the variable.
2. Linear Equations
 Definition pers.linier: open sentence contains links (relationships) is equal to.

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 The linear equation of one variable
The general form:
ax + b = 0 Note: a = coefficient x
x = variable
b = constants
a, b є R, a ≠ 0
3. Inequality
* Inequality is a mathematical sentence that has a variable by using a hyphen "<,>, ≤, ≥, ≠"
4. Linear Inequalities
5. Non Linear Inequalities
Example: x² - 5x + 6> 0
x² - 5x + 6 = 0
(X - 3) (x - 2)
x- 3 = 0 x - 2 = 0
x=3x=2
6. Inequalities Absolute Values
* The absolute value denoted by (x) is defined by | x | = X if x ≥ 0 and = -x if x <0
For example: | 5 | = 5, | -5 | = 5, | 0 | = 0
* The properties of the absolute value: 1. | ab | = | A | | B |
2. | A / B | = | A | / | b |
3. | a + b | = | A | + | B |
4. | a - b | = | A | - | B |

## LIMIT UP AND INFINITY

Calculus is generally developed by manipulating a number of very small quantities. This
object, which can be treated as a number, is very small. A number is infinitely small dx which
can be greater than 0, but smaller than any number in the sequence 1, ½, ⅓, ... and any
positive real number. Each multiplication with infinitely small (infinitesimal) remains
infinitely small, in other words infinitely small does not meet the "characteristics of
Archimedes". From this viewpoint, calculus is a set of techniques used to manipulate the
infinitely small.
In the 19th century, the concept of infinitely small was abandoned due to insufficient
carefully, otherwise it is replaced by the concept of limit. Limit explain the value of a
function at a certain input values with the results of input values nearby. From this viewpoint,
calculus is a set of techniques used to manipulate certain limits.

DERIVATIVE
Derivative of a function represents a very small change of the
function of the variable. The process of finding the derivative
of a function is called differentiation or differentiation.
Mathematically, the derivative function ƒ (x) to variable x is ƒ
'whose value at the point x is:

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,
on condition that these limits exist. If ƒ 'existed at a certain point x, we say that ƒ is
differentiable (has a derivative) at x, and if ƒ' existed at any point in the domain ƒ, we call ƒ
differentiable.
If z = x + h, h = z - x, and h close to 0 if and only if z approaches x, then the derivative

## definition above we can also write as:

Look at that the expression on the definition of derivative above is
the slope of the secant line passing through the point (x, ƒ (x)) and
(x + h, ƒ (x)) on the curve ƒ (x). If we take the limit h close to 0, then we will get the slope of
the tangent offending curve ƒ (x) at the point x. It also means that the tangent of a curve is
the limit of secant lines, thus pulanya derivative of a function ƒ (x) is the gradient of the
function. For example, to find the gradient of the function on point (3,9):

The study of the definition, properties, and applications of the derivative or slope of a graph called
differential calculus

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES

## Maximum and Minimum

Theorem A
(Existence theorem Max-Min). If f is continuous on a closed interval [a, b], then f reaches its
maximum value and minimum value.
Occurrence of Extreme Values:
Usually we want to maximize its functionality or Minimize will have an interval I as the region of
origin. But this interval may be arbitrary and nine types covered 1.3. some of these hose loading titk
endpoints; some do not. For example I = [a, b] contains the endpoints of both; (A, b) only contains

7
left end point; (A, b) does not contain any titk end. Extreme values of a function defined on a closed
interval yan often occur at the endpoints.
If c a point at which f '(c) = 0 is called a stationary point c. At the stationary point, the graph f flat for
tangents horizontal. Extreme values occur at points stationary.
If c is the point of I where f 'does not exist, so-called singular point c. Graph f has a sharp angle,
vertical tangent. Extreme values can occur at points perturbed.
Theorem B
(Critical point theorem). Suppose f is defined on an interval I containing the point c. If f (c) is the
extreme point, then c must be a critical point, namely in the form of one of the c:
i. I end points
ii. stationary point of f (f '(c) = 0)
iii. singular point of f (f '(c) does not exist)
The Monotony and Concavity
Definition:
Suppose f defined on the interval I (open, closed, or none). We say that:
i. f is riding on I if for each pair of numbers in the first x1 and x2, x1 <x2 → f (x1) <f (x2)
ii. f is down on I if for each pair of numbers in the first x1 and x2, x1> x2 → f (x1)> f (x2)
iii. f monotonous purely on first if he ascends to I or down on the I
Theorem A
(Theorem monotony). Suppose f is continuous on the interval I and can dideferensialkan at any point
inside of the I
i. If f '(x)> 0 for all points in x of I, then f turn up at I
ii. If f '(x) <0 for all points in x of I, then f turn down at I
Turning Point
Suppose f is continuous at c, we call (c, f (c)) a turning point of the graph of f if f is concave upward
on one side and concave down on the other side of the c.

8

## The Content Calculus Purcell Calculus Thomas

Quality of content The booklet is the calculus of The contents of this book has
the most concise than books not been quick, Many
like, but the major topics have explanations are outlined in too
been presented. deep.
Appearance Good and already attractive and For the cover I found quite
available in the form of interesting. But unfortunately
textbooks not widely available in the form
of textbooks.
Elements/display structure The author uses the application, Likewise with this book, the
graphics and computer author uses the application,
technologies effectively; Ideal graphics and computer
for professors who want precise technology effectively. And
and concise discussion. presented a lot of interesting
color image
Language Because it is a book translation, Even using the English
language spoken a bit difficult language, in fact this book I can
to understand. still understand. And I think it
also applies to other students
Benefits for reader There are many benefits from Likewise with this book, of
this book, but the most course, as a teaching material in
important is as a teaching the lecture bench
material in the lecture bench

9
CHAPTER III
CLOSING

V. KNOT
Based on the above paper writing, it can be concluded that the calculus is the study of the
changes, as geometry is the study of the shape and algebra is the study of the works to
solve equations and their applications. Calculus has wide applications in the fields of
science, economics, and engineering; and can solve many problems that can not be solved
by elementary algebra.
Calculus has two main branches, differential calculus and integral calculus are
interconnected via the fundamental theorem of calculus. But in this moment I was
specifically in real of system number, limit, diferential, and diferential application.
Lesson calculus is a gateway to learning more higher mathematics, specifically studying
the functions and limits, broadly called mathematical analysis.