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ME1202 Introduction to Thermodynamics

Basic Concepts

Dr N S Senanayake
Learning Outcomes
You will
1. Explain the meaning of substances and their role in thermodynamic
applications
2. Define the Extensive and Intensive properties of substances
3. Explain the terms, state, process, cycle, open systems, closed systems
and control volume
4. Identify closed and open systems in practice
5. Explain the terms internal energy and enthalpy
6. Describe the phase changes of substances with the aid of T – v and P –
v diagrams and identify different regions with critical point and triple
line
7. Explain what is meant by quality or dryness of vapour in a mixture
liquid and vapor
Content

 Pure substances and phase changes


 Analysis of substances
 Property
 State
 Cycle
 Process
 System, boundary and surrounding
 Open and closed systems
 Control volume
 Internal energy and enthalpy
 Phases of substances
 T – v and P – v diagrams, Quality of vapour
Pure Substances

Substance – generally refers to pure substances and it is a matter


that has a specific composition and specific properties
Examples: water (H2O), methane (CH4), Iron (Fe), Oxygen (O2)
Examples for non-substances: a mixture of several substances
such as air, petrol
Why is it important to thermodynamics?
In many applications of thermodynamics pure substances or
mixture of substances act as a medium of transporting heat, and
facilitating transfer of heat and work.
Working substance

 This is the substance that facilitate the work and


heat transfer in a thermodynamic system
 Working substances are in general fluids that are
capable of changing its physical shape
 This could be pure substances or a mixture of
substances
Analysis of substances

 The analysis of a substance by its properties is called


macroscopic analysis.
 The analysis done on the behavior of the individual
atoms and molecules of a substance is called
microscopic analysis.

In Engineering Thermodynamics we mainly focus on


Macroscopic Analysis.
Property

 A property of a system is any quantity that helps to


defines a unique position (state) of a substance.
 Thermodynamic properties are classifies as:
 Intensive properties
 Independent of the mass of the substance
 Ex: pressure, temperature, density

 Extensive properties
 Dependent on the mass of the system
 Ex: Volume, Enthalpy, Internal Energy
State

 State is the condition of existence of the substance


or a system
 Knowledge of thermodynamic properties of a
substance defines the “State”
 At a particular state a substance has certain
properties that are functions of that state, and
certain relations exist between the properties.
Process
 Process is an operation that changes the state of a substance.

Constant
pressure
process
Constant
Polytrophic volume
process process
Cycle

The thermodynamic cycle consists of a series of


operations carried out on a substance (fluid) after
which it returns to its original state.
System, boundary and surrounding

 A thermodynamic system is
defined as a volume in
space or a well defined set
of materials separated from
surrounding.
 The imaginary outer edge of
the system is called
its boundary.
 The boundary can be fixed
or moving.
Open and Closed systems

 A system in which no  A system in which matter


matter enters or leaves crosses the boundary is
(i.e. crosses the boundary) called an open system.
is called a closed system  Mass changes in the
 Mass remains constant in process
the process
Examples for closed and Open Systems

Closed
system Closed
system

Open
system

Hydrological cycle
Examples for closed and Open Systems

Open Open
system system

Steam power plant Closed


system
Control volume

 A volume of a system demarcated for the purpose of


study is called control volume.
Temperature

 Temperature is one
of the most used
intensive properties
of a substance

A measure proportional to
the kinetic
energy associated with the
disordered microscopic
motion of atoms and
molecules.
Internal Energy (U)

 The store of energy is the sum of kinetic energy (which results


from the motion of atoms and molecules) and potential energy
(which results due to molecular attractive forces) of a substance.
This is referred to as internal energy.
 Symbol U is used to give the internal Energy
Work from heat

When heat Q is added

Internal energy of air increases


form U1 to U2

For energy balance

Q = U2 – U1 + work done

Q = U2 – U1+ pA(L2 – L1)

Q = (U2 + pV2) – (U1 + pV1)

Q = H2 – H1

Change in Enthalpy

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Enthalpy (H)

 Enthalpy is a measure of the total energy of


a thermodynamic system
 It includes
 the internal energy (the energy required to create a system), and
 the amount of energy required to make space for it by displacing
its surrounding and establishing its volume and pressure

H  U  pV
Phases of substances
Phases of Pure substances

Phase - having a distinct


molecular arrangement
that is homogeneous
throughout and separate
from the others by easily
identifiable boundary.

Vapour- molecules are


Liquid - molecules has far apart and do not have
Solid -
no fixed position, and any order
molecules
loosely packed
are closely
packed
Physics of Phase Changes

Consider water at 20 °C temperature and 1 atm pressure inside piston


cylinder.
not about to
vaporise
about to
vaporise
Heating

compressed liquid
or sub-cooled liquid

saturated liquid
Physics of Phase Changes (cont..)

boiling starts
Temperature remains constant
Volume increases Vapor heats up
as a gas and
volume rises
All liquid
liquid and vaporized
vapour phases
coexist in
“thermal superheated
equilibrium” vapour
saturated
vapour
Physics of Phase Changes (Cont..)

Graphical representation of phase change


Saturation Temperature (Tsat):
At a given pressure, the
temperature at which a pure
substance changes phase

Saturation pressure (Psat):


At a given temperature, the
pressure at which a pure
substance changes phase

Latent heat :
The amount of heat absorbed
during phase change process.
T-v Diagram

horizontal lines
indicate the path of
phase change process

Critical Point:
The point at which the
saturated liquid and
saturated valour states
are identical.

T-v diagram for constant pressure phase change processes of water


T-v Diagram cont..

In water, the critical point


occurs at
around 647K and 22.064 Mpa

T-v diagram of a pure substance


P-v Diagram

If phase change is
observed keeping the
temperature constant, the
variation of volume with
pressure is shown by the
dotted line.

Only difference:
constant temperature
lines have downward
trends.

P-v diagram of a pure substance


P-v Diagram with all three phases

Triple line

The line on which all three


phases are in equilibrium.

P-v diagram of a pure substance

Sublimation
phase change process of solid to vapor
is termed as sublimation.
P-T Diagram

 P – T diagram clearly shows


three phases with three
phase change process lines:
 sublimation,
 melting, and
 vaporization

 all the three phase


coexist in equilibrium
at triple point

 vaporization line ends


at critical point
P-T diagram of a pure substance
The triple point of pure water occurs at
0.01°C and 611.2Pa
P – v- T Three Dimensional Diagram
Projection on P-T surface

Critical Point

• Triple point
Pressure


Projection on P-v surface

Pressure
Projection on P-v surface


Property Tables

Relations between thermodynamic


properties are very complex properties are
presented in
Need to use those relations in Tables
thermodynamic analysis
Saturated liquid and saturated vapour

For the saturated states the property is indicated


with following subscript;

Saturated liquid by f
Saturated vapour by g

difference between the saturated liquid and saturated vapor by


fg
vfg = vg -vf

 for saturated liquid and saturated vapour mixture, a new property


quality, x.

x changes between 0 and 1.


Superheated vapour

 only one phase exist


Compressed liquid

 Variation of properties with pressure is very slight

 approximate as saturated liquid at the given temperature

Where y = v, u, or h
END