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# EE-231 Electronics I

## Engr. Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher

Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, TOPI 23460

## February 13, 2018

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Overview

1 Diode applications
OR gate
AND gate
Rectification
Half wave rectifier
Full wave rectifier using bridge configuration
Full wave rectifier using center tapped transformer
Example 2.17
Clippers
Series clippers

2 Assignment 1

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Diode applications OR gate

OR gate
OR gate operation using diodes is shown in Fig. If one diode is ON then
the output voltage is 9.3V.
In this condition the output current is simply an application of ohm’s law.
If both the inputs are high still the output remains the same.

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Diode applications AND gate

AND gate
AND gate operation using diodes is shown in Fig. If one diode is ON then
the output voltage is 0.7V.
In this condition the output current is simply an application of ohm’s law.
If both the inputs are high only then the output is high.

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Diode applications Rectification

Rectifier

## A bipolar signal is converted into unipolar.

Usually the input is sinusoidal for a fixed DC value.
Rectifiers are the most widely used application of a diode.
The following kind of rectifiers will be studied.
Half wave rectifier
Full wave rectifier using bridge configuration
Full wave rectifier using center tapped transformer

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Diode applications Rectification

## This is the most basic kind of rectifier.

Works only for half cycle and hence called half wave rectifier.

## The conduction happens only during the positive half cycle.

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Diode applications Rectification

## Low component count with a poor average dc output.

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Diode applications Rectification

## Half wave rectifier

Low silicon diode the waveform is so called clipped along the x axis as
shown.

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Diode applications Rectification

Example 2.16

Vo

## Diode will conduct during negative

During positive half cycle the diode
half cycle.
blocks the voltage. Therefore PIV
rating should be greater than the Vm .
Vdc = −0.318Vm = −6.36V (1)
PIV ≥ Vm (2)

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Diode applications Rectification

## Full wave rectifier using bridge configuration

The process of rectification can be made efficient using full wave operation.
The component count is high but the conversion process is efficient.

## The output frequency is twice the input frequency.

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Diode applications Rectification

## Full wave rectifier using bridge configuration

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Diode applications Rectification

## Full wave rectifier using center tapped transformer

Also a full wave operation but requires a center tapped transformer.
The component count is moderate for the same efficiency. Results in a
bulky design but provides isolation.

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Diode applications Rectification

## Full wave rectifier using bridge configuration

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Diode applications Rectification

Example 2.17
Find Vo and the PIV of the diodes for the circuit shown. PIV=5V

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Diode applications Clippers

Clippers

Clippers are based on clipping phenomenon and are wave shaping circuits.
Depending on the orientation of the diode the portion of a waveform can
be clipped.
There are two kinds of clippers.
Series clippers — Diode in series with the load
Parallel clippers — Diode in shunt with the load

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Diode applications Clippers

Series clippers

Figure shows the results of the most basic series clipper against the set of
inputs.

## Isn’t this a half wave rectifier ??

With modifications the series clipper can do unique contouring of input
signals.

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Diode applications Clippers

Series clippers
Figure shows a biased series clipper. Note the dc voltage in addition to the
input waveform.

Carefully identify the points at which the output is required. In this circuit
it is across the resistance R.
To solve the circuit first establish the time in which the diode is reverse
biased.
For the rest of the time compute VD . Only for this particular circuit it is
vi -V.
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Diode applications Clippers

Example 2.18

Determine the output waveform for The input ac and the biasing supply
the sinusoidal input of Fig. are adding each other, therefore it
will be ON for entire +ve supply.
Note that the output voltage will be
sum of ac and dc. Therefore
Vo =25V.
For the negative half cycle the diode
Carefully identify the points at which will be reverse biased after the ac
the output is required. In this circuit waveform goes beyond -5V.
it is across the resistance R. Therefore 15V will be clipped.

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Diode applications Clippers

## The simulation results of this circuit are presented below.

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Diode applications Clippers

Example 2.19
For the circuit of example 2.18,
determine the output waveform if the
input is as shown in Fig.

## For 0<t< T2 the output voltage is the

sum of input square waveform and
the biasing supply.
For T2 <t<T the output voltage is
zero because the diode is reverse
biased.
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Diode applications Clippers

## The simulation of this circuit is presented below.

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Diode applications Clippers

Parallel clippers

Figure shows an unbiased parallel clipper. The output is taken across the
diode.

The procedure is similar to the series clipper however you should pay
particular attention to the diode because here the output will be available
only for the duration during which the diode is reverse biased.

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Diode applications Clippers

Example 2.20
During the positive half cycle the
For the circuit, determine the output diode is reverse biased after crossing
waveform if the input is as shown in the level of biasing supply. Therefore
Fig. the output voltage will be equal to
the input voltage minus the biasing
supply. During negative half cycle
diode will be forward biased and
hence the output is equal to the
biasing supply level.

## Note that this is a biased parallel

clipper and the output is across the
series combination of biasing supply
and diode.

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Diode applications Clippers

## The simulation of this circuit is presented below.

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Assignment 1

## Assignment 1: Deadline Feb 27, 2018

Simulation the following circuits using PSPICE.

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Assignment 1

## Assignment 1: Deadline Feb 27, 2018

Simulation the following circuits
using PSPICE.

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