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Definite integrals

Definite integrals

b
a f ( x )dx  area between the graph function f (x) and axis OX.

Figure 1

137
Definite integrals

b

a
f ( x)dx  F ( x) / ba  F (b)  F (a)
ba  ba
A1  f a  
n  n 
ba  ba
A2  f a  2 ...
n  n 
ba  b  a
An  f a  n  1
n  n 
lim
At  ( A1  A2  ...  An ) 
n
ba
lim  ba b  a
  ...  f a  (n  1)
b
  f (a)  f  a    a f ( x)dx.
n n   n  n 
1) Submitting to calculate integral:
2

(
1
x  3 x  16 x  1)dx

2 2 2
It   x dx   3
x dx   (16 x  1)dx 
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1
x  116 1
1
2 3 2 2 2 1
x 2 x 2 x2 2
 1
 1
 1
;  x dx   x dx  2
1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 3 16 1 2

1
1 1
x3
 x dx   x dx 
3 3
1
1
3
1 17
1
( x  1)
1 16 16 17
t 16
 x  1   t dt  1 1  17  ( x  1) 16
16 6

16
17
16
3 2 4 2 17
2 3 16 2
I t  x 2  x 3  ( x  1) 16  1,3
3 1 4 1 17 1

138
Definite integrals

2) Submitting to calculate integral:


5 dx
4 x( x  1)( x  2)( x  3)
1 A B C D
   
x( x  1)( x  2)( x  3) x x  1 x  2 x  3
1  A( x  1)( x  2)( x  3)  Bx( x  2)( x  3)  C ( x  1) x( x  3) 
 Dx ( x  1)( x  2); x  C ; relation (1) :
x( x  1)( x  2)( x  3)  0; pt.x1  0; x 2  1; x3  2; x 4  3;
for : .x  0; in relation (1) :
1
1  A(0  1)(0  2)(0  3); 1  6 A; A  
6
for :.x  1; in relation (1) :
1
1  B(1  2)(1  3); 1  B(1)(2); B 
2
for : x  2; in relation (1) :
1
1  C (2  1)2(2  3); 1  C  2(1); C  
2
for : .x  3; in relation (1) :
1
1  3D(2  1)(2  3); 1  3D  1(1); D  
3
1 1 1 1 1
   
x( x  1)( x  2)( x  3) 6 x 2x  1 2x  2 3( x  3)
dx 1 dx 1 dx 1 dx 1 dx
 x( x  1)( x  2)( x  3)   6  x  2  x  1  2  x  2  3  x  3 
1 1 1 1
  ln x  ln( x  1)  ln( x  2)  ln( x  3)  C
6 2 2 3
5 dx
4 x( x  1)( x  2)( x  3) 
  ln( x)  ln( x  1)  ln( x  2)  ln( x  3)
1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5

6 4 2 4 2 4 3 4

139
Definite integrals

It  
1
ln 5  ln 4  1 ln 4  ln 3  1 ln 3  ln 2  1 ln 2  ln 1 .
6 2 2 3
3) Area to be a right triangle OAB:
h
tg  ; right OB equation passing through origin:y=mx,
b
m=tg.
h
y( x)  f ( x)  x
b

Figure 1
Area OAB=
b b hx h x 2 b h 2 hb
0 f ( x ) dx  0 dx  0 b 
b b 2 2b 2
hb
Aria OAB 
2

Note:
The equation of a line (D) passing through the origin and has
slope m is known:
y  mx

140
Definite integrals

y
tg  m 
x
y  mx.
4) To be some area of a triangle OAB:
h
tg 1 
b1

Figure 2
Right equation (D1): y1(x)=m1x
h
y1 ( x )  x
b1
b1 b1 hx h x 2 b1 hb1
A1  0 y1 ( x )dx  0 dx  
b1 b1 2 0 2
hb1
A1 
2
Note:
The equation of a line passing through two known points
M1( x1, y1) and
M2 ( x2 , y2 ) is:

141
Definite integrals

x  x1 y  y1
 
x2  x1 y2  y1
în  M1 M2N

Figure 3
y  y1
tg  2
x2  x1
in  M1 MQ
y  y1
tg 
x  x1
tg  tg
y2  y1 y  y1

x2  x1 x  x1
x  x1 y  y1
 
x2  x1 y2  y1

142
Definite integrals

the equation right wing wanted. Point M (x, y) is a variable point


on the right (D). Right equation (D) is the connection between
various lines point M (x, y).
Right equation AB is:
A(b1 ,h) ; B(b1  b2 ,0)
( x1 ; y1 ) ( x2 ; y 2 )
x  x1 y  y1

x2  x1 y2  y1
x  b1 yh

b1  b2  b1 0  h
x  b1 y  h
 0
b2 h
y x  b1 y x  b1
1 0 1
h b2 h b2
h
yh ( x  b1 )
b2
h
y2 ( x )  y  h  ( x  b1 )
b2
   h x  b1  
2
b1  b2 b1  b2 h
A2   y 2 ( x)dx    h  ( x  b1 
) dx 2   hx  
b1  b2
b1
b1 b1
 b2   b2 2 
A2  h(b1  b2 )  b1  
h
2b2

b1  b2  b1 2  b1  b1 2 
A2  hb2 
h 2
2b2
  hb
b2  hb2  2
2
hb2
A2 
2
Total area is:
A=A1+A2

143
Definite integrals

hb1 hb2 h
A   (b1  b2 )
2 2 2
Area of a triangle is the base multiplied by height divided by
two.

5) area of a circle of radius r:


A   r2
The equation of the arc with center origin and radius r is:
x2  y2  r 2
The Pythagorean theorem applies OMN: y 2  x 2  r 2 ,
equation of the circle is centered on the origin and radius r.
Equation of the circle is given the link between a variable
point circle coordinates M (x, y). From symmetry it follows that
A1 = A2 = A3 = A4, then the area:
A = A1+A2+A3+A4 .
A=4A1
x2  y2  r 2
y2  r 2  x2 y   r 2  x2
y1 ( x)  r 2  x 2
r 2  x 2 dx; x  r sin t; dx  d (r sin t )  r sin t  dt
r
A1  
'
0

dx  r cos tdt

 r 2  x 2 dx   r 2  r 2 sin 2 t (r cos t )dt 


1  cos 2t
  (r cos t ) 2 dt  r 2  cos 2 t dt ; cos 2 t 
2

144
Definite integrals

Figure 4
1  cos 2t
  (r cos t ) 2 dt  r 2  cos 2 t dt ; cos 2 t 
2
 
r
2
1  cos 2t r 2
 sin 2t  2
A1   r 2  x 2 dx  r 2  dt  t  2  0 ;
0
0
2 2

dn 1
 cos 2t dt   cos n2 2
 sin n; 2t  n; d (2t )  d n; (2t ) ' dt  dn;

dn x x
2dt  dn; dt  ; x  r sin t; sin t  ; arcsinsin t  arcsin ;
2 r r
x 0
t  arcsin ; t1  arcsin  arcsin 0  0; sin 0  0; arcsinsin 0  arcsin 0
r r
  
0  arcsin 0; t 2  arcsin 1  ; sin  1; arcsinsin
 arcsin 1;
2 2 2
 r 2   sin    r 2 r
 arcsin 1; A1      ; A1  At  4 A1 
2 2 2 2  4 4
r2
4   r2; Acercului   r 2
4

145
Definite integrals

 d2
Circle area =
4

Figure 5

6) Square area:
A= aa=a2
f(x) = y =a , right equation (QN).

Figure 6

146
Definite integrals

a a a
Square area = 
0
f ( x)dx   adx  a  x  a  a  a 2 ; A  a 2 .
0 0

7) Area of the rectangle:

Figure 7

A  bh

y  f ( x)  h;
right equation DC.
A  0b y ( x )dx  0b hdx  hx b0  hb A  hb .

7) Parallelogram area:
A=bh
Aria=A1+ A2+ A3
OS  QS OS  h
A1  
2 2
A3  SM  h; iar A1  A3
OS  h
Aria = 2 A1  A2  2  SM  h  h(OS  SM )
2
OS  SM  b
Aria=bh

147
Definite integrals

Figure 8

dd
9) Rhomb area: A  1 2 , diagonals: PM= d1 NQ= d2.
2
A1=A2=A3=A4
Aria A1+A2+A3+A4= 4A1
d1 d 2
 d d d d
A1  2 2  d1d 2 Aria = 4 1 2 = 1 2
2 8 8 2

Figure 9

148
Definite integrals

10) Trapeze area:

Figure 10
h
A  ( B  b) ; Aria = A1+A2+A3
2
h  OM NP  h
A1  ; A2  MN  h; A3 
2 2
h  OM NP  h h
Aria   MN  h   OM  2MN  NP ; MN  SQ  b
2 2 2
Aria  (OM  MN  MP)  SQ 
h
2
OM  MN  NP  B
h
SQ  MN  b; Aria  ( B  b).
2

149
Definite integrals

11) Submitting to calculate:

 
1
dx 1
A 
2
4
 1  tg 2
x dx; cos x 
0
cos x  1  tg 2 x
1 1
cos 4 x  
 1  tg x  2
4
1  tg x  2 2

    1  tg x  dx;
t
2 2
tgx  t ; arctgx  arctgt

dx  arctgt   arctgt ' dt ; dx 


1
dt
1 t 2


t   1 t 2  
2 dt
1 t 2 
  t3

t  1 dt   t  c; t  tgx
2

3
15

10

f ( x)

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
x

Figure 11

150
Definite integrals

t [
tgx 
3
 tgx ]
1
 2,817
3 0

1
f ( x) 
4
( cos ( x) )
x  0  0.09 1 .
12) Submitting to calculus:
2
1
1 sin 6 xdx

3
2.817

2.5

f (x) 2

1.5

1 1
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
1 x 1.999
Figure 12

151
Definite integrals

1
f ( x) 
6
( sin ( x) )
x  1  1.009 2
tgx
sin x 
 1  tg 2 x
6
 tgx  tg 6 x
sin x 
6   
 1  tg 2 x 
  1  tg 2 x  3

t  
1  tg x  dx
2 3

tg 6 x
tgx  t ; arctgx  arctgt ; x  arctgt ; dx  d arctgt 

dx  arctgt ' dt 
dt dt
; dx 
1 t2 1 t2

t  
1  t 2 3
dt t2 1  2
t 4  2t 2  1
t 1  t6
 2  dt   dt 
t6 t6
dt dt dt t 21 t 41 t 61
  2  2 4   6  2  c
t t t  2 1  4 1  6 1
1 2 1
t    3  5  c ; t  tgx
t 3t 5t
1 2 1 2
 t  [   ]  1,366
tgx 3tgx  5tgx 5
3 1

13) Submitting to compute definite


integrals:

152
Definite integrals

1
cos 2 x
 sin 6 x dx
0.5

1
cos x 
 1  tg 2 x
tgx
sin x 
 1  tg 2 x
2
 
 1  1
2


cos x  1  tg x 
2 


1  tg 2 x

1


1  tg 2 x 
3


sin 6 x  
6
tg 6
x 1  tg 2
x tg 6 x
 tgx 
 1  tg 2 x  1  tg 2 x3

 


1  tg x 
2 2

tg 6 x

t  
1  tg x
2 2

dx; tgx  t ; arctgx arctgt


tg 6 x

x  arctgt ; dx  d arctgt ; dx 
1
dt
1 t 2

t  
1  t 
2 2
dt t 2 1 dt dt t 41 t 61
t 1  t 6
 2  dt   4   6  
t6 t t  4 1  6 1
1 1 1 1 1
 t   3  5  c; t  tgx;  t  [  ] 
3t 5t 
3 tgx 3

5 tgx 5 0 .5

 6,045

153
Definite integrals

2
( cos ( x) )
f ( x) 
6
( sin ( x) )
x  0.5  0.5007 1

80
63.423

60

f ( x) 40

20

0.823 0
0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
0.5 x 1
Figure 13
14) Submitting to compute definite integrals:
1
dx dx
0 4  9 cos x  0,088 ;  4  9 cos x
x
1  tg 2
cos x  2
x
1  tg 2
2

154
Definite integrals

 x x x
1  tg  4  4tg 2   9  9tg 2
2

4  9 cos x  4  9  
2 2 2

x x
1  tg 2 1  tg 2
2 2
x
13  5tg 2
2; x 2
  arctgt ; x  2arctgt ; dx  dt
1  tg 2
x 2 1 t 2
2

1 t 2 2 dt
t    dt  2  2 
13  5t 1  t
2 2
5t  13
13
t
2 dt 2 dt 2 1 5 c
 
5 t 2  13
 
5   13 
2
 
5

13
ln
13
t 2
   2 t
5  5  5 5
 
x 13
 tg 1
x 1 5
t  tg ( );  t   ln 2 5  0,088
2 5 13 x 13 0
tg 
2 5

1
f ( x) 
4  9 cos ( x)

x  0  0.0087 1

155
Definite integrals

0.12
0.112
0.11

0.1
f ( x)
0.09

0.08
0.0770.07
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
0 x 0.992
Figure 14

15) Submitting to compute definite integrals:


2
dx dx
0 5  4 sin x  0,263;  5  4 sin x
x
2tg
sin x  2
x
1  tg 2
2
x x x
5  5tg 2  8tg
2tg
5  4 sin x  5  4  2  2 2
x x
1  tg 2 1  tg 2
2 2

156
Definite integrals

0.2
0.2

f (x) 0.15

0.111 0.1
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0 x 2
Figura 15
1
f ( x)  x  0  0.00076 2
5  4 sin ( x)

157
Definite integrals

x
1  tg 2
x x
t   2 dx; tg  t ; arctgtg  arctgt ;
x x 2 2
5tg 2  8tg  5
2 2
 arctgt ; x  2arctgt ; dx  d 2arctgt   2arctgt ' dt ; dx 
x 2
dx
2 1 t 2
1 t 2 2
 dt dt
 t   5t  8t  5 1  t 2 ;  t  2  2
2
; 5t 2  8t  5  0
5t  8t  5

 4  16  25
t1, 2  complexe
5
dt 2 dt
 t  2   
 2 8  5 2 4 4 4
2 2
5 t  t  1 t  2  t       1
 5  5 5 5

4
t
2 dt 2 dt 2 1
5 4 
    arctg 5
2 2 2
16 5  4 3 5 3 3
t   1 t      5 5
 5 25  5 5
x
5tg  4
2 5t  4 x 2 2
 t  arctg  c; t  tg ;  t  arctg 2
0.
3 3 2 3 3

16) Submitting to compute definite integrals:


cos xdx
 1  sin x ; 1  sin x  t
3
cos x
0 1  sin x dx  0,132 ;

158
Definite integrals

d 1  sin x   dx ; 1  sin x ' dx  dt ;


cos xdx dt
cos xdx  dt     ln t  C  ln 1  sin x 0  0,132
3

1  sin x t

1
1

0.5

f (x) 0

0.5

 0.861 1
0 1 2 3
0 x 2.993
Figure 16

x  0  0.0087 3
cos ( x)
f ( x) 
1  sin ( x)

159
Definite integrals

17) Submitting to compute definite integrals:


4
cos 3x
 7  sin 3x dx  0,0332
1

0.2
0.144
0.1

f (x) 0

0.1

 0.144 0.2
1 2 3 4
1 x 4

Figure 17
cos ( 3x)
f ( x)  x  1  1.00087 4
7  sin ( 3x)

160
Definite integrals

dt
cos 3 xdx 3 1
 7  sin 3x   t  3 ln t  C; 7  sin 3x  t
1 7  sin 12
4
1
 t  ln 7  sin 3 x  ln  0,0332
3 1
3 7  sin 3
d 7  sin 3 x   dt ; 7  sin 3x   dt ; 7  sin 3x ' dx  dt
sin u '  u ' cos u; sin 3x '  3x ' cos 3x  3 cos 3x
dt
3 cos 3 xdx  dt ; cos 3 xdx  .
3
18) Submitting to compute definite integrals:
1
dx dx
 8  5 sin x  9 cos x  0,078
0
 8  5 sin x  9 cos x
x  2 x
2tg 1  tg 
8  5 sin x  9 cos x  8  5  2 9 2

2 x 2 x
1  tg 1  tg
2 2
x x x x x
8  8tg 2  10tg  9  9tg 2  tg 2  10tg  17
2 2 2 2 2
x x
1  tg 2 1  tg 2
2 2
x x
2tg 1  tg 2
sin x  2 cos x  2 x
; ;  arctgt
2 x 2 x
1  tg 1  tg  2
2 2

161
Definite integrals

 2 x
1  tg 
t    2 x x
dx; tg  t ; arctgtg  arctgt
 x x  2 2
  tg 2  10tg  17 
 2 2 

1
f ( x) 
8  5 sin ( x)  9 cos ( x)
x  0  0.0000876 1

0.12
0.116
0.1

f (x) 0.08

0.06

0.0590.04
0 0.5 1
0 x 1
Figure 18

162
Definite integrals

x  2arctgt
dx  d 2arctgt   2arctg ' dt
2
dx  dt
1 t2
1 t2 2
 t   2  dt
t  10t  17 1  t 2
dt
 t  2  2
t  10t  17
t 2  10t  17  0
t1, 2  5  25  17  5  42
t1  5  42
t 2  5  42
 
t 2  10t  17  t  5  42 t  5  42 
1 A B
 
t  10t  17 t  5  42 t  5  42
2

  
1  A t  5  42  B t  5  42 t  R 
For: t  5  42


1  A  5  42  5  42 
1
A
2 42

For: t  5  42

163
Definite integrals


1  A  0  B  5  42  5  42 
1  2 B 42
1
B
2 42
 1 dt 1 dt 
 t  2     
 2 42 t  5  42 2 42 t  5  42 
1 t  5  42
t   ln c
42 t  5  42
x
tg t
2
x
 5  42
tg 1
1 2
t  ln  0,078 .
42 tg x  5  42 0
2

19) Submitting to compute definite integrals:


1
dx dx
 cos x  4 sin x  5  0,404;
1
 cos x  4 sin x  5
x x
1  tg 2 2tg
cos x  2 sin x  2
x; x
1  tg 2 1  tg 2
2 2

164
Definite integrals

x x
1  tg 2 2tg
cos x  4 sin x  5  2  4 2 5
x x
1  tg 2 1  tg 2
2 2
x x x x x
1  tg 2  8tg  5  5tg 2 4tg 2  8tg  6
 2 2 2  2 2
x x
1  tg 2 1  tg 2
2 2
1
f ( x) 
cos ( x)  4 sin ( x)  5
x  1  0.99742 1

0.6
0.46

0.4
f ( x)
0.2

0.112 0
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
1 x 1
Figure 19

165
Definite integrals

x
1  tg 2
t   2 dx ;
 x x 
2 2tg 2  4tg  3 
 2 2 
x x x
tg  t ; arctgtg  arctgt ;  arctgt ; x  2arctgt
2 2 2
dx  d 2arctgt   2arctgt ' dt
2
dx  dt
1 t2

1 t2 2 dt
t   dt ;  t   2 ;2t 2  4t  3  0
2

2 2t  4t  3 1  t 2
 2t  4t  3
2 46 1 dt
t1, 2  ; radacini complexe .;  t  
2 2 t 2  2t  3
2
t 2  2t   t 2  2t  1  1   t  1   1  t  1  
3 3 2 3 2 1
2 2 2 2
2

t  1   1 
2

 2
 
 
1 dt 1 1  t 1
2
t    arctg c
2
1  1 
t  12   1  2
  
 2 2  2

166
Definite integrals

x
t  tg
2
1  x  1
t  [arctg  tg  1 2 ]  0,404.
2  2  1

20) Submitting to compute definite integrals:


5 sin x  8 cos x
0.3

 2 sin x  9 cos x dx  0,282


0

5 sin x  8 cos x
 2 sin x  9 cos x dx
tgx 1
sin x  ; cos x 
 1  tg 2 x  1  tg 2 x

5tgx 8

5 sin x  8 cos x 1  tg 2 x 1  tg 2 x
  5tgx  8
2 sin x  9 cos x 2 tgx  9 2tgx  9
1  tg x
2
1  tg x
2

5tgx  8
 2tgx  9 dx
tgx  t
arctgtgx  arctgt
x  arctgt ; dx  d arctgt 

dx  arctgt ' dt 
dt
t2 1

167
Definite integrals

( 5 sin ( x)  8 cos ( x) )
f ( x) 
2 sin ( x)  9 cos ( x)
x  0  0.00987 1

1.4
1.301

1.2
f ( x)
1

0.889 0.8
0 0.5 1
0 x 0.997
Figure 20
5t  8 dt
t   
2t  9 t 2  1
5t  8 A Bt  C
 
 
2t  9 t 2  1 2t  9 t 2  1
 
5t  8  A t 2  1  Bt  C 2t  9 ; t  C ; relatia (1)

2t  9t 2  1  0; t   9
2

168
Definite integrals

In equation (1) is replaced with the value of variable t , -9 / 2:


9
t
2

9  9  2 
 5  8  A    1
2  2  
16  45 A81  4

2 4
216  45  58
A  A
85 85
In equation (1) is replaced by the variable t with zero ( t = 0 ):
 58 2
50  8 
85
 
0  1  B  0  C   2  0  9

 58 58 735 738
8  9C; 9C  8  ; 9C  C 
85 85 85 765
In equation (1) is replaced with the value of a variable t
(t=1):
 58 2
5 1  8   

1 1   B 
738 
2  1  9   13  
116
 11B 
85  765  85
8118 116 8118 765  13  9  116  8118
  11B  13    11B  
765 85 765 765
9945  1044  8118 2871
 11B  B
765 8415

169
Definite integrals

58 dt 2871 t 738 dt
t     
85 2t  9 8415 t  1
2
dt  
765 t  1
2

dt
 2t  9
2t  9  u
d 2t  9  du

2t  9' dt  du
du
2dt  du  dt 
2
du
dt 2  1 ln u   1 ln 2t  9
 2t  9  4 2

2
dv
tdt 2  1 ln v   1 ln t 2  1
 t 2 1  v 2

2
 
t 2 1  v

 
d t 2  1  dv; t 2

 1 dt  dv; 2tdt  dv  tdt 
dv
2

 t  [
29
85
ln 2t  9  
2871 1

 ln t 2  1 
8415 2
738
765

arctgt ]  C

t  tgx

 
0,3
29 2871 1 738
 t  [ ln 2tgx  9   ln tg 2 x  1  x]  0,282
85 8415 2 765 0

170
Definite integrals

21) Submitting to calculate definite integrals:


0,1
cos x
 sin
0
2
x  5 sin x  1
dx  0,137

cos x dx
 sin 2 x  5 sin x  1
sin x  t
d sin x   dt
sin x '  dt
cos xdx  dt
dt
t   2 ; t 2  5t  1  0
t  5t  1
5  25  4 5  21
t1, 2  
2 2
5  21 5  21
t1  ; t2 
2 2
 5  21  5  21 
t 2  5t  1   t   t 


 2  2 
1 A B
 
t  5t  1
2
5  21  5  21 
t t   

2  2 
  5  21    5  21 
1  At     B t  


 2 t  C
  2    

171
Definite integrals

cos ( x)
f ( x) 
2
( sin ( x) )  5 sin ( x)  1
x  0  0.00000786 0.1

2
1.948

f ( x) 1.5

1 1
0 0.05 0.1
0 x 0.1
Figure 21

5  21
For: t1 
2
 5  21  5  21 
1  A   

 2  2 

1
A
2
 
5  21  5  21  1  21  A  A 
1
21

5  21
For: t 2 
2

172
Definite integrals

 5  21  5  21 
1  A  0  B  
B
  1  5  21  5  21 
  
 2  2  2
2 1
1  21  B  B  
2 21

1 dt 1 dt
t 
21
  5  21 

21
  5  21 

t   
 t   

 2   2 
 5  21 
t   
1  2 
 ln  C ; t  sin x
21  5  21 
t   

 2 
 5  21 
sin x   
1  2  0 ,1
t  ln  0,137
21  5  21  0
sin x   

 2 
22) Submitting to calculate definite integrals:
1
dx dx dx
2 e  3e x  7,278 ;
2x e 2x
 3e x
 x x
e e 3  
 
e x  t ; d e x  dx; e ' dx  dt; e dx  dt ;
x x
dx 
dt
t

173
Definite integrals

dt
dt
t   t  2
t t  3 t t  3
1 A B C
  
t 2 t  3 t t 2 t  3
1  At t  3  Bt  3  Ct 2t  C
t 2 t  3  0
t1  0 
 
t 2  3

0
 0.444

1
f ( x)
2

 2.579 3
2 1 0 1
2 x 1
Figure 22

1
f ( x)  x  2  1.999876 1
2x x
e  3e

174
Definite integrals

For: t = 0

1  B0  3  B  
1
3
For : t = 3
1
1  C  32  C 
9
For: t = 1

1  A 11  3 
1  3  1 12  1  2 A  2  1  2 A  2  1  1
1
3 9 3 9 3 9
6 1 9 2 1
 2A   2A    A  
9 9 9
1 1 1
A   ; B   ;C 
9 3 9
1 1 1 1
   2
t t  3
2
9t 9t  3 3t
1 t 21
ln t  3  C
dt 1 1
 t 2 t  3 9
  ln t  
3  2  1 9
t  ex

 
1
1 1 1
 t  [ ln e x  x  ln e x  3 ]  7,278
9 3e 9 2

23) Submitting to calculate integral:


3
dx dx
6 2  3 sin 2 x  2,774 ;  2  3 sin 2
x

175
Definite integrals

tgx
sin x 
 1  tg 2 x

tg 2 x 2  2tg 2 x  3tg 2 x 5tg 2 x  2


2  3 sin x  2  3 
2
 
1  tg 2 x tg 2 x  1 tg 2 x  1
1  tg 2 x
 5tg 2 x  2 dx
tgx  t; arctgtgx arctgt; x  arctgt

0.6
0.5

f (x) 0.4

0.2 0.2
6 4 2 0 2 4
6 x 2.999
Figure 23
1
f ( x)  x  6  5.9987642 3
2
2  3 ( sin ( x) )

176
Definite integrals

   
   
arctg   C; t  tgx;   arctg 
1 1 t 1 tgx 3
t   
5 2  2  t
10  2 6
   
5  5  5
 2,774.

24) Submitting to calculate definite integrals:


1
2x
5 8  4 x dx  0,444 ;
2 x dx 2 x dx
 8  4 x   8  2 x 2 ; 4 x  22 x  2 x  ; 2 x  t; d 2 x   dt ;
2

 
0.6
0.5

0.4

f ( x)

0.2

3
3.90710 0
6 4 2 0 2
5 x 1
Figure 24

177
Definite integrals

2 ' dx  dt;
x
2 x ln 2dx  dt; 2 x dx 
dt
ln 2
dt
1 dt 1 1 t 2 2
 t   ln 22  
ln 2  t 2  2 2
 
 
ln
8t 2
ln 2 2  2 2 t  2 2

1 2x  2 2 1
t    ln x  0,444 .
4 2 ln 2 2 2 2 5

25) Submitting to calculate definite integrals:


4


4
e x  1 dx  18,02 ;  e x  1dx


e x  1  t 2 ; e x  t 2  1; d e x  1  dt 2 ;  e x
  
 1 ' dx  t 2 ' dt
e x dx  2t dt
2t
dx  dt
t 1
2

2t t2 t 2 1 1  
 e  1dx   t  2 dt  2 2 dt  2 2 dt 
x 2

t 1 t 1 t 1
dt 1 t 1
 2  dt  2   2t  2  ln C
t 2 1 2 t 1
t  ex 1
ex 1
4
 t  [2 e  1  ln
x
]  18,02.
e 1 1
x
4

178
Definite integrals

x
f ( x)  e  1
x  4  3.9996543 4

8
7.456
6

f ( x) 4

1.009 0
4 2 0 2 4
4 x 4
Figure 25
26) Submitting to calculate definite integrals:
2

 cos(ln x) dx  1,445 ;  cosln x dx


0, 4

 f x g ' x dx  fg   f ' gdx; f x   cosln x 


f x '  ln x ' sin ln x 
f ( x)  cos( ln( x) )
x  0.4  0.41234657 2

179
Definite integrals

f ( x) 0.8

0.609 0.6
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0.4 x 1.993
Figure 26

f '  x    sin ln x ; g ' x dx  dx;  g ' x dx   dx; g x   x


1
x

 cosln x dx  x  cosln x    x  x sin ln x dx


1

 cosln x dx  x cosln x    sin ln x dx;  sin ln x dx


 fg' dx  fg   f ' gdx
f  x   sin ln x ; f '  x   ln x ' cosln x ; f ' x   cosln x 
1
x
g '  x dx  dx;  g ' x dx   dx; g x   x

180
Definite integrals

 sin ln x   x sin ln x    x. x . cosln x dx


1

 sin ln x dx  x sin ln x   cosln x dx


 cosln x dx  x cosln x    sin ln x dx
 cosln x dx  x cosln x   x sin ln x   cosln x dx
2  cosln x dx  xcosln x   sin ln x 
2
x
 t  [cos(ln x)  sin(ln x)]  1,445 .
2 0, 4

27) Submitting to calculate definite integrals:

 x 
5
 8x cos 5xdx  0,798 ;  x  8 x cos 5 xdx
2 2

 fg' x dx  fg   f ' gdx; f  x   x 2  8 x; f ' x   2 x  8

g ' x dx  cos 5 xdx;  g ' x dx   cos 5xdx; g x  


sin 5 x
5
5 x  t ; d 5 x   dt ; 5 x ' dx  dt ; 5dx  dt  dx 
dt
5

2 
f ( x)  x  8x cos ( 5x)
x  0  0.56432 5

181
Definite integrals

20
13.148

10
f (x)
0

 9.924 10
0 1 2 3 4 5
0 x 4.515
Figure 27
dt 1 1
 cos 5 xdx   cos t 5 5
 sin t  sin 5 x
5
x 2  8x
sin 5 x   2 x  8sin 5 xdx
1
t 
5 5

182
Definite integrals

 2 x  8sin 5 xdx;  fg' dx  fg   f ' gdx; f x   2 x  8

f '  x   2;  g ' dx   sin 5 xdx; g x   


cos 5 x
g ' dx  sin 5 xdx;
5

cos 5 x  2 x  8  2
 2 x  8sin 5xdx   5 5
cos 5 xdx 


2 x  8 cos 5 x  2 sin 5 x
5 5 5

x 2  8x 1  2 x  8 
5
2
t  { sin 5 x   cos 5 x  sin 5 x }  0,798 .
5 5 5 25  0

28) Submitting to calculate definite integrals:


1

 (arcsin
0
x ) dx  0,785 ;  arcsin x dx

f  x   arcsin x ; f ' x  
 x '
 fg' dx  fg   f ' gdx; 1 x

g x   x
1

2 x 1 x
; g ' dx  dx;  g ' dx   dx;
x
 arcsin xdx  x arcsin x   2 xx
dx

1 x x
2
 t  x arcsin x  dx;  t2
1 x 1 x

183
Definite integrals

x  t 1  x ; x  t  xt ;
2 2 2

x 1 t  t ;
2
 2
x 2
t2
t 1
 t2   t2 
dx  d  2    2 ' d
 t  1   t  1 

 2 '  
 
 t 2  2t t 2  1  2t  t 2 2t t 2  1  t 2

2t  
 t 1 t2 1
2

t2 1
2
 t2 1
2
   
2t
dx  dt

t2 1
2

x 2t t2
1   dx   t 
2
dt  2  dt 
1 x t2 1
2
t2 1
2
   
 2
t  1  1 dt
2

t  1 2 2

dt dt dt
1  2
t2 1  t2 1 2  t2 1 2
 2    2 arctgt  2
1
   
 t 2  1  arctgt   fg' t dt  fg   f ' gdt
dt

f x  
1
t 1 2

f ' t   
2t
t2 1
2
 
g ' t dt  dt

184
Definite integrals

 g ' t dt   dt
g t   t
dt t t t
 t 2 1  arctgt 
t 2 1  t 2 1 2
 2 dt
 
t t 2 1 1  
t 1  t 2 1 2
arctgt  2 2 dt
 
t dt dt
arctgt  2  2 2  2
t 1 t 1 t 2 1
2
 
dt t
2  2arctgt  arctgt 
t 2
1  2
t 1
2

dt arctgt t
 t 2
 1
2

2
 2
2t  1

 arctgt t  t
1  2arctgt  2  2  2arctgt  arctgt  2
 2

2 t 1   t 1   
x
t
x
; 1  arctg
x
 1 x
1 x 1 x  x 
2

  1
 1  x 

f ( x)  asin  x
x  0  0.0000654 1

185
Definite integrals

2
1.565

f ( x) 1

0 0
0 0.5 1
0 x 1
Figure 28
 x 
1 x 1  x
 1

 t  {x arcsin x  arctg  }  0,785
2 1 x
 1 0
x
 1 x 

29) Submitting to calculate definite integrals:

ex e x dx e x dx
 e 2 x  5e x  9   e x 2  5e x  9
10
1 e 2 x  5e x  9 dx  1,496 ;  
 
e x  t; d e x  dt; e ' dx  dt;
x
e x dx  dt
dt
t   ; t 2  5t  9  0; t1, 2  5  25  36
t  5t  9
2

186
Definite integrals

2 2 2
5 5 5  5 25
t  5t  9  t  2  t        9   t    9 
2 2

2 2 2  2 4
2
 5  11
 t   
 2 4
5
t
dt 1
t   2
 arctg 2
 5   11 
2
11 11
t    
 2   2  2 2

t  ex
2e x  5
10
2
t  arctg  1,496
11 11 1

1
1

f ( x) 0.5

5
4.54510 0
5 0 5 10
1 x 9.999

Figure 29

187
Definite integrals

30) Submitting to calculate definite integrals:

tg 3x  ctg 3x tg 3x  ctg 3x
1


0, 6
sin 3 x
dx  1,346 ;  sin 3x
dx

sin 3x cos 3x

tg 3x  ctg 3 x cos 3 x sin 3 x

sin 3x sin 3 x
 tan ( 3x)  1 
 
 tan ( 3x) 
f ( x) 
sin ( 3x)
x  0.6  0.61229786 1

40

20
f (x)
0

20
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
x
Figure 30

188
Definite integrals


tg 3x  ctg3x sin 2 3x  cos 2 3x sin 2 3x  cos 2 3x cos 3x
 

sin 3x cos 3x sin 2 3x cos 2 3x sin 2 3x

t  
sin 
3 x  cos 2 3 x cos 3 xdx
2

cos 2 3 x sin 2 3 x
cos 2 3 x  1  sin 2 3 x

t  
2 sin 3x  1
2

 
1  sin 2 3 x sin 2 3 x
cos 3 xdx

sin 3 x  t
d sin 3 x   dt ; sin 3 x ' dx  dt
3x ' cos 3xdx  dt
3 cos 3 xdx  dt
dt
cos 3 xdx 
3
2t 2  1 dt 1 2t 2  1
t  
1  t 2  t 2  3   t   3  t 2  1 t 2 dt
2t 2  1 A B C D
  2 
t  1 t t t t  1 t  1
2 2

   
2t 2  1  At t 2  1  B t 2  1  Ct 2 t  1  Dt 2 t  1
t  R ,relation (1);
t  1t 2  0
2

t1  t2  0; t3  1; t4  1

189
Definite integrals

Is replaced in equation (1) the variable t with zero, [ t = 0 ]:


 
2  0 2  1  B 0 2  1  1  B  B  1
Is replaced in equation (1) with a variable t,
[ t = 1 ]:

2  12  1  C  12 1  1  1  2C  C 
1
2
Is replaced in equation (1) minus one variable t, [ t = -1 ]:

2 1  1  D 1  1  1  1  2 D  D  
2 2 1
2
1 1
B  1; C  ;D  
2 2
Is replaced in equation (1) the variable t with two,
[ t =2]:

  
2  22  1  2 A 22  1  2 22  1    2 2  1   2 2 2  1
1 2
2
1
2
7  6A  3  6  2  7  6A  7  6A  0  A  0
1 1
A  0; B  1; C  ; D  
2 2
2t 2  1 0 1 1 1
   
t 2  1t 2 t t 2 2t  1 2t  1
2t 2  1 dt 1 dt 1 dt t 21 1  t 1 
 t 2  1t 2 dt   t 2  2  t  1  2  t  1   2  1  2 ln  t  1  

190
Definite integrals

1 1  t 1
 C    ln  C
t 2  t 1

1  1 1 t 1 
 t     ln C
3  t 2 t  1 
t  sin 3x
1 1 sin 3x  1 
1
1
 t     ln  1,346.
3  sin 3x 2 sin 3x  1  0,6

31) Submitting to calculate definite integrals:


23

 sin (ln x)dx  8,969 ;  sin ln x dx


2 2

0, 4

1  cos2 ln x 
sin 2 ln x   ;    1  cos2 ln x dx
1
2 2
x   cos2 ln x dx; 1   cos2 ln x dx
1 1
t 
2 2

 fg' dx  fg   f ' gdx


f x   cos2 ln x 

f ' x   2 ln x ' sin 2 ln x    sin 2 ln x 


2
x
2
f ( x)  ( sin ( ln ( x) ) )
x  0.4  0.7689 23

191
Definite integrals

1
1

f (x) 0.5

4
1.06710 0
0 10 20 30
0.4 x 22.903
Figure 31
f ' x    sin 2 ln x 
2
x
g ' dx  dx;

 g ' dx   dx
g x   x

 1   cos2 ln x dx  x cos2 ln x   2  x sin 2 ln x dx


1
x

192
Definite integrals

1  x cos2 ln x   2 sin 2 ln x dx


1   cos2 ln x dx  x cos2 ln x   2 sin 2 ln x dx

 sin 2 ln x dx   fg' dx  fg   f ' gdx


f x   sin 2 ln x 

f ' x   2 ln x ' cos2 ln x   cos2 ln x 


2
x
g x    dx  x

 sin 2 ln x dx  x sin 2 ln x    x x cos2 ln x dx


2

 sin 2 ln x dx  x sin 2 ln x   2 cos2 ln x dx


 cos2 ln x dx  x cos2 ln x   2 x sin 2 ln x   4 cos2 ln x dx
5 cos2 ln x dx  xcos2 ln x   2 sin 2 ln x 

 cos2 ln x dx  5 cos2 ln x   2 sin 2 ln x 


x

 cos2 ln x dx
x 1
2 2
t 

 t  {   cos2 ln x   2 sin 2 ln x }


x 1 x 23
 8,969.
2 2 5 0, 4

32) Submitting to calculate definite integrals:


10cos2 x cos 2 x
6 e x  e x dx   e cos xdx
x
dx  192,464 ; 2

193
Definite integrals

1  cos 2 x
cos 2 x 
2
t   ex
1  cos 2 x  dx  1 e  x dx  1 e  x cos 2 xdx
2 2 2
 e dx;  x  t; d  x   dt ;  x ' dx  dt
x

 dx  dt ; dx  dt

e
x
dx   e t  dt   e t  e  x  C

2
( cos ( x) )
f ( x) 
x
e
x  6  5.89765 10

400
371.932

f ( x) 200

7
5.43110 0
10 0 10
6 x 9.967
Figure 22

194
Definite integrals

g x  
sin 2 x
2
1 
sin 2 x  x
2
e 
sin 2 x
2

 e  x dx 
sin 2 x 1 1
t  e   sin 2 xe  x dx
2 2

 2   e  x sin 2 xdx

 fg' dx  fg   f ' gdx

f x  e x ; f ' x  e x


g ' dx  sin 2 xdx

 g ' dx   sin 2 xdx


g x   
cos 2 x
2
cos 2 x 1
 2  e  x   cos 2 x  e  x dx
2 2
sin 2 x  x 1   x cos 2 x 1 
1   e  x cos 2 xdx   e   e   cos 2 xe  x dx 
2 2 2 2 

5 x sin 2 x  x e  x
4
e cos 2 xdx  e  cos 2 x  C
2 4
5  x  sin 2 x cos 2 x 
 e cos 2 xdx  4 e  2  4   C
x

195
Definite integrals

e  x 1 5  x  sin 2 x cos 2 x 
t     e   C
2 2 4  2 4 
e  x 5  x  sin 2 x cos 2 x 
10
 t  [  e   ]  192,464.
2 8  2 4  6

196
Definite integrals

Areas
33) Submitting to calculate areas: A1, A2, A3, A4.

Figure 33
0
A1   sin xdx   cos x 0  cos 0  cos  


cos    cos   1 , function appear;


cos 0  1
A1  1   1  2 , area must be positive.

So: A1   2  2

197
Definite integrals



A2   sin xdx   cos x  2; A2  A1  2
0
0
2
2
A3   sin xdx   cos x  2; A3   2  2

34) Finding the area between the graph function f (x) and the
axis OY:
ba
A1  xa 
n
ba   b  a 
A2   x a  
n   n 
.
.
.

An 
ba 
x a 
n  1 b  a 
n  n 

The area between the graph of the function and axis Oy:
b lim
 x y dy  ( A1  A2 ..... An )  Atotal area
a n 

b  a   b  a   b  a 
b

 x( y)dy  lim  xa   x a    ..  x a  n  1 


a n n   n   n  

198
Definite integrals

Figure 34
35) Curvilinear triangle to calculate areas and DOBD DOCB
Figure 35:

Figure 35

199
Definite integrals


2 
Area A2   sin xdx   cos x 2 1
0
0


cos 0
2
cos 0  1
1 1
Area A1   x y dy   arcsin ydy
0 0

y  sin x
arcsin y  arcsin sin x  x
x y   arcsin y
1
A1   arcsin ydy
0

 fg' dy  fy   f ' gdy


f  y   arcsin y

f 'y 
1
1 y2
dy  g ' dy

 dy   g ' dy
gy  y
y
 arcsin ydy  y arcsin y   1 y2
dy

200
Definite integrals

Variable is changing:
1 y2  t 2
Differentiate:

d 1  y 2  dt 2 
1  y ' dy  t dt
2 2

 2 ydy  2tdt
ydy  tdt
ydy tdt
 1 y2
 
t
 t   1  y 2

 arcsin ydy  y arcsin y  1 y2  C


A1  y arcsin y  1  y 2  1
0 

 1
2
sin 0  0
arcsin sin 0  arcsin 0; 0  arcsin 0

sin 1
2

arcsin sin  arcsin 1
2

 arcsin 1
2

A1  1
2

201
Definite integrals

Method II
From the drawing shows that:
 
A1  A2  1 
2 2
A2  1


 A1   1 , direct answer is not definite integral.
2
36) Submitting to calculate areas A1 and A2 in Figure 36.

Figure 36

2 1

the drawing shows that: A1   f x dx   x y dy


0 0

202
Definite integrals


2 
A1   cos xdx  sin x 2 1
0
0


sin 1
2
sin 0  0
A1  1
y  cos x
arccos y  arccos cos x  x 
x  arccos y
x y   arccos y
1
A1   arccos ydy
0

 fg'  dy  fg   f ' gdy


f  y   arccos y

f 'y  
1
1 y2
g ' dy  dy

 g ' dy   dy
gy  y

y
 arccos ydy  y arccos y   1 y 2
dy

Variable is changing:

203
Definite integrals

1 y2  t2
d 1  y 2   dt 2
1  y dy  t ' dt
2 2

 2 ydy  2tdt
ydy  tdt
ydy tdt
 1  y 2  t  t   1  y
  2

 arccos ydy  y arccos y  1 y2  C

 
1
A1   arccos ydy  y arccos y  1  y 2 1
0 1
0

cos 0  1
arccoscos 0  arccos1; 0  arccos1
arccos1  0
A1  0  0  1  1
A1   1  1

To calculate the curvilinear triangle area DBCD apply two


methods:
First Method
 
A1  A2  1 
2 2

A1  1; A2  1
2

204
Definite integrals

Method II

Figure 37

 
1 1
A2   g  y dy     x y dy
0 
0
2

x y   arccos y
   
1 1 1
A2     arccos y dy   dy   arccos ydy   1
0 
2 20 0
2

Areas are calculated only with graphs. Area by definition have a


positive result.

205
Definite integrals

37) Calculate the area of the trapeze curvilinear ODCB


Figure38:

Figure 38
Calculate the area of the trapeze ODCB curvilinear:
A1  1 1  1
1 1
A1  A2  A   y ( x)dx   e x dx  e x 1
0  e 1
0 0

A1  A2  e  1
A1  1
1  A2  e  1
A2  e  2
Calculate the area A3 = ?

206
Definite integrals

y  ex
ln y  ln e x  x ln e
ln e  ln e e  1
x y   ln y
e e
A3   x y dy   ln ydy  ( y ln y  y ) 1e  1
1 1

 A3   y ln y  y  1e  1

A3=1 ; A = A1 + A2
A  A3  e 1  1  e ,
rectangle area OECB = 1 .
e = A + A3
A  e 1
e  1  A3  e
A3  1
A3 can be checked and appropriate manner.

38) Submitting to calculate areas A1 and A2 in Figure 39:


yx   x 4 ;
4 y  4 x; x y   4 y
Inverse function is: x(y) .

207
Definite integrals

Figure 39
1 1
x5
A1   y  x dx   x dx 
1
4 1
0 
0 0
5 5
1
1 1 1 1
4
A2   x y dy   4 y dy 
y 4 1 4
1 0 5 y 0  5

0 0 1
4
1 4 1 4
A1  ; A2  ; A1  A2  1 1  1; A2  1  A1  1  
5 5 5 5
4
A2 
5

208
Definite integrals

39) Submitting to calculate the area A:

Figure 40
yx   6 x  8  f x 
f x   Ox
y = o , equation is the axis Ox;
6x  8  0
4
x
3

209
Definite integrals

 4 
B  ;0 ; f x   0 y
 3 
x = 0 , equation is the axis Oy;
y  x   f  x   6 x  8; f  x   6  0  8  8, C (0;8)
The area to be A = ?
4
8
3 4 16
A  4 
2 3 3
Metoda aII-a
0 0
 x2 
A   f  x dx   6 x  8dx   6  8 x  04 
4 4  2  3
3 3

02   4 2 4 16 32 16
 6   8  0  3    8    3   
2   3  3  9 3 3

Figure 41

210
Definite integrals

III method for calculating the area A :


y  6 x  8; 6 x  y  8
y 8
x( y ) 
6

 y 8 1  y2 8
8 8
A   x y dy   
32
dy    8 y  0  
0
0
6  6 2  6

1  64  32 16 16 16
      ; A   .
6 2  6 3 3 3
b) BC length to be:
2
 4 16
BC      8 2   64
 3 9
BC  8,109
0
l BC   1   f '  x  dx
2

4

3

f x   6 x  8
f ' x   6
0
4
l BC   4
1  6 2 dx  37 x 04 
3
3
37  8,110

3

40) Submitting to calculate areas: A1; A2;A3; A4 ;

211
Definite integrals


2 
cos 2 x
A1  A3   sin 2 xdx   2 1
0
2 0


2 
cos 2 x 1
A1   sin 2 xdx   2
0 
0
2 2

Figure 42
1
A1  A3 
2
 
A1  A2  1 
4 4
  1  2
A2   A1   
4 4 2 4
 2
A2 
4

212
Definite integrals

Method II for calculating the area A2:


1
A2   x y dy; y  sin 2 x; arcsin y  arcsin sin 2 x  2 x
0

x y  
arcsin y
2

 
1 1
arcsin y 1 1
A2   dy   arcsin ydy  y arcsin y  1  y 2 1
0 
0
2 20 2


1
2
  1 

  
1arcsin 1  1  12  0  1  0 2    1  
2 2  4 2
2

 2
4

cos 2 x 
A4   sin 2 xdx     1
 2 2
2

A4   1  1
 

0 sin 2 xdx   2 0   2 cos 2  cos 0   2  0  0


cos 2 x 1 1

This does not mean calculation of the area, so without a graphic


we can’t calculate the area.

40) Submitting to calculate areas: A1 şi A2.


 
4 4
sin x
A1   tgxdx   dx
0 0
cos x

213
Definite integrals

cos x  t ; cos x ' dx  dt ; d cos x   dt ;


sin xdx  dt ; t  cos x
 2
t1  cos 0  1; t 2  cos 
4 2
2
2
dt
2
 2   2
A1  
1
   ln t
t 1
2   ln
 2
 ln 1   ln 
  2



2
A1  ln  ln 2 ; A1  ln 2 ; ln 1  0; log e 1  0; e 0  1;
2

Figure 43

214
Definite integrals

arctgy  arctgtgx  x
x y   arctgy
1 1
A2   x y dy   arctgydy
0 0

 fg' dy  fg   f ' gdy; f  y   arctgy ; f '  y   1  y


1
2

g ' dy  dy;  y ' dy   dy; g  y   y


y
 arctgydy  yarctgy   1 y2
dy

 
1  y 2  t ; d 1  y 2  dt
1  y ' dy  dt
2

2 ydy  dt
dt
ydy 
2
dt
ydy 2  1 ln t  1 ln y 2  1
1 y  t 2
2

2
 

 arctgydy  yarctgy 
1
2

ln y 2  1  C 
 
A2   yarctgy  ln  y 2  1
 1  1 1
  ln 2; tg  1
 2  0 4 2 4
 
arctgtg  arctg 1; arctg 1 
4 4

215
Definite integrals

 1
A2   ln 2
4 2
ln 1  0; log e 1  0
e0  1
  
1
1
A2   ln 2   ln 2 2   ln 2
4 2 4 4
  
A2   ln 2 ; A1  A2  1 
4 4 4
 
A2   A1   ln 2
4 4
41) Calculate the area between parable crowd of equation (P) ,
y (x) = x2 + 1 and the right of equation , y = 7x (D) .

Figure 44

216
Definite integrals

 7  45   7  45 
C  ;0 ; D ;0 
 2   2 
P   D 
 y  x 2  1
 
y  7x 
x2  7x  1  0
7  49  4 7  45
x1, 2  
2 2
7  45
x1 
2
7  45
x2 
2
 x1  6,854 
 
 y1  47,978
 x2  0,146 
 
 y 2  1,022 
M 2 6,854;47,978; M 1 0,146;1,022 

 x 
6,854

Aria C M1 N M2 D =
2
 1 dx  A1
0,146

6,854

Aria C M1 Q M2D =  7 xdx  A


0,146
2

217
Definite integrals

 x 
6,854 6 ,854
 1 dx   7 xdx 
2
Aria Q M2 N M1 =A1 –A2 =
0,146 0 ,146

6 ,854
   f x   g x dx
0 ,146

g x   7 x
f x   x 2  1

 x3 7x2  6,854
Aria Q M2 N M1 =   x   50,31
3 2  0,146

Aria =107,326 + 6,708 – 164,344 = -50,31

Aria =  50,31  50,31

42) Calculate the area of crowd semiplan  x; y  / y  0


between the hyperbole of equation (M) , xy = 4 and lines of
equations:
 y  x; ( D1) 
 
 y  4 x; ( D 2)
( D 2)  ( M )

 4 
y   4
x ; 4 x  4;4 x  ; x  1; x  1
2 2

 x
 y  4 x

218
Definite integrals

Figure 45
D1  M
 4
y  
 x
 y  x 
4
x
x
x 4
2

x  2
Area O M1 M2 =
1 2 2
4 x2 1 x2
2 2
0 4 xdx  1 x dx  0 xdx  4 2 0
 4 ln x 
1 2 0
 4 ln 2

219
Definite integrals

Area = 2  4 ln 2  2  4 ln 2
Area = ln16
Method II

1 4  11  1
2

  1  21   dx    4 ln x 
4 3 3 2
Area =  
2  2  2 1
x 2 2 1

 4 ln 2  ln 16 .

43) Submitting to know the area extending from the first leap
and circle (C) , centered on the origin , of radius r = 2, the
first quadrant.
M = (D)(C)
 yx
 2
x  y  2
2 2

2 2
x 2  x 2  4; 2 x 2  4; x 2  2; x   2 ; M ( 2 , 2 ); A1  1
2
2
A1   xdx 
x2 2

 2 2

 1;
0
2 0 2
2
A2   4  x 2 dx; x  2 sin t ;
2

dx  d (2 sin t )  (2 sin t ) ' dt


x
dx  2 cos tdt ; sin t  ;
2
x x
arcsin sin t  arcsin ; t  arcsin ;
2 2
2   2  2  2
t1  arcsin  ; sin  arcsin sin  arcsin ;  arcsin
2 4 4 2 4 2 4 2

220
Definite integrals

Figure 46

2   
t 2  arcsin  1  ; sin  1; arcsin sin  arcsin 1;
2 2 2 2

arcsin 1  ; 4  x 2  4  (2 sin t ) 2  4(1  cos t )  2 cos t
2
 
2 2
A2   2 cos t 2 cos tdt  4  cos 2 tdt
 
4 4

1  cos 2t
cos 2 t 
2
  
2
1  cos 2t 2
 sin 2t  2
A2  4  dt A2  2  1  cos 2t dt  2 t 
 2   2  
4 4 4

221
Definite integrals

dv 1 1
 cos 2t dt   cos v  sin v  sin 2t
2 2 2
dv
2t  v; d (2t )  dv; (2t )dt  dv; 2dt  dv; dt 
2
    1      1  
A2  2     sin   sin   2     1
 2 4  2  2   4 2 2
 
At  A1  A2  11 
2 2

44) To calculate areas A1 and A2;

A2 is the area between:


 x0

 y  6 , ( D1) , a parallel with a horizontal axis OX;
y  x2

M  D1  P
 y6
 2
y  x
6  x2 x 6 M ( 6 ,6)

6 x3 6 6
A2   x 2 dx  0
6
 2 6
0 3 3
A1  A2  6  6; A2  2 6 ;
A1  2 6  6 6 ; A1  6 6  2 6
A1  4 6

222
Definite integrals

Figure 47

45) Submitting to calculate the area of an ellipse (E) of


equation:
x2 y2
  1  0 A  ab
a2 b2
A1  A2  A3  A4
A  A1  A2  A3  A4  4 A1
The total area of the ellipse is decomposed into several areas:A1,
A2, A3 şi A4 ;
a x2 y2 y2 x2 b2 2
A1   y ( x)dx; 2  2  1  0; 2  1  2 ; y  2 (a  x 2 );
2
0 a b b a a
b
y a2  x2
a
ab
A1   a 2  x 2 dx; x  a sin t dx  d (a sin t )  (a cos t )dt ;
0 a

a 2  x 2  a 2  a 2 sin 2 t  a cos t

223
Definite integrals

Figure 48

b a 2 b2
A1      (a cos t ) 2 dt; t1  arcsin 0  0
2
a x dx
a 0 a0

t 2  arcsin 1 
2
 
b 2 1  cos 2t ba  sin 2t  2 ba   ab
A1  a 2  dt  t   
a 0 2 2  2  0 2 2 4

 ab  ab
A1  ; At  4 A1  4   ab
4 4

Area of an ellipse : Ae   ab

224
Definite integrals

46) To be the area between the circle : x 2  y 2  16 (C) and


y2
ellipse: x 2   1  0 (E):
2
Area = Area of the circle-area ellipse
Circle area =r2=42=16
r=4
Ellipse area = ab    1  2  2
Area= 16  2   (16  2 )

.
Figure 49

225
Definite integrals

47) To be the area between lines:


y1 = x ; y2= - 4x şi x =4.

Figure 50
2 4 2
4 x 4
A1   xdx   8
0 2 0 2
4 x2 4
A2    (4 x)dx  4  2  42  32
0 2 0
A  A1  A2  8  32  40
4
A2   y 2( x) dx
0
Area must be positive.

48) To be the area between the two functions: ( A1


and A2 );

226
Definite integrals

Figure 51

M1 , M 2  ( P)  (C )

y  x
4

 2 x 4  x 2  4; x4  x2  4  0

x  y  4
2

 1  1  16  1  17
x 2  t ; t 2  t  4  0; t1, 2  
2 2
 1  17 17  1 17  1
x2  ; x ; x1    1,249;
2 2 2
17  1
x2    1,249; y  x4
2
4
 17  1   17  1 
2
17  1  2 17
y1      
 ;
 2   4  16
 
18  2 17 9  17
y1  y 2  
16 8

227
Definite integrals

17 1 17 1
2
x5 2 1 9  17  17  1 17  1 
A3  A4   x dx  5     
4

17 1 
17 1 5 8  2 2 

 2
2

9  17 17  1 9  17 17  1
 2   1,216
40 2 20 2
1 17

 4  x dx  A
2
A1  A2  A3  A4  
2
t
1 17

2

 4  x 2 dx   2 cos t  2 cos tdt x  2 sin t


dx  d (2 sin t )  (2 sin t ) ' dt dx  2 cos tdt
4  x 2  4  2 sin t   4  4 sin 2 t 
2

1  cos 2t 1  cos 2t
 4  x 2 dx  4  cos 2 tdt  4 
2
dt ; cos 2 t 
2
 sin 2t  x x
I  2 t  ;  sin t ; t  arcsin
 2  2 2
17 1
 x 1  x  2
At  2arcsin  sin  2 arcsin   4,649
 2 2  2  17 1

2

A1  A2  At  ( A3  A4 )  3,433
is the area required

49) Calculate the area between ellipse, straight (D1) and axis
OX , for x  0 ( A1 and A2 );

228
Definite integrals

Figure 52
5
y1  5 x; ( D1); y 2 ( x)  
4  x 2 (E)
2
 x2 y2

y  5 x; ( D1); M  E  ( D);  4  25  1  0
 y  5 x
x 2 25 x 2 5 4 2 2 5
  1  0; x 2   1; x 2  ; x   ; x
4 25 4 5 5 5
2 5 
M ;2 5 ;M 0,894; 4,472 
 5 
y M  2 5

OQ  MQ
2 5
5
2 5  5 2 5
A1     2
2 2 5 1
A1  2
Area must be positive.

229
Definite integrals

x2 y2
4 25
 1  0
y2
25
x2
 1 y2 
4
25
4
4  x2  
5
y 4  x2
2
5
y 2 ( x)   4  x2
2
2 2 2
5 5
A2   y 2 ( x) dx    4  x 2 dx   4  x 2 dx
2 5 2 5
2 22 5
5 5 5

Variable is changing:
x=2 sin t
dx  d (2 sin t )  (2 sin t ) ' dt
dx  2 cos tdt
4  x 2  4  2 sin t   4  4 sin 2 t  2 cos t
2

1  sin 2 t  cos 2 t
x x x
sin t  ;arcsinsin t  arcsin ;t  arcsin
2 2 2
2 5 5 1
t1  arcsin  arcsin  arcsin  0,463
2.5 5 5
2 
t 2  arcsin  arcsin 1 
2 2
  
sin  1; arcsin sin  arcsin 1;  arcsin 1
2 2 2
 

5 2
1  cos 2t 2
1  cos 2t
I  2 cos t  2 cos t dt ; cos t  ; I  A2  2.5 
2
dt
2 0, 463 2 0 , 463
2
 
 sin 2t  2
2
A2  5  1  cos 2t dt  5t 
0 , 463  2  0, 463

230
Definite integrals

 
A2  5  0,463  sin   sin 2  0,463 
1
2 2 
 sin 0,926 
A2  51,1077    3,538
 2
At  A1  A2  2  3,538  5,538
The total area is: A= 5,538 .

50) This is calculate the area between circles: (C1) and(C2).

Figure 53

C1 , has equation :x2 + y2 = 4


y 2  4  x 2 ; y   4  x 2 ; y1 ( x)  4  x 2 ; y 2 ( x)   4  x 2
(C2 )

231
Definite integrals

( x  4) 2  y 2  3 2 x 2  8 x  16  y 2  9 x 2  8 x  y 2  9  16
x 2  8 x  y 2  7 y 2  7  x 2  8 x; y 2  7  x 2  8 x
y 3, 4   8 x  7  x 2
y 3 ( x)   7  8 x  x 2   7  8 x  x 2
y 4 ( x)    7  8 x  x 2    7  8 x  x 2
Tell intersection circles C1 şi C2.
C1 C2 M1, M2
 x 2  y 2  4 (C1 )
 2
 x  8 x  y  7 (C 2 )
2

11
4  8 x  7; 8 x  11; x  1,375; x 2  y 2  4; 1,375 2  y 2  4
8
y 2  4  1,375 2  2,109; y   2,109  1,452
M 1 (1,375;1,452)

M 2 (1,375;1,452)
Note:
The equation of a circle with center C (a, b) and radius r
In ΔCMQ apply the Pythagorean theorem
( x  a) 2  ( y  b) 2  r 2 This is the equation of a circle of radius
r and center C (a, b). Equation of the circle is the connection
between y and x coordinates of the point variable M (x, y) of the
circle.
Or circle equation held.
x 2

 2ax  a 2  ( y 2  2by  b 2 )  r 2
x 2  y 2  2ax  2by  (a 2  b 2  r 2 )  0
, circle equation.
2 2
A2  2  y1 ( x )dx  2  4  x 2 dx
1,375 1,375
variable is changing: x = 2 sint

232
Definite integrals

Figure 54
dx  d (2 sin t )  (2 sin t ) dt '

dx  2 cos tdt
4  x 2  4  (2 sin t ) 2  4  4 sin 2 t  2 cos t ;
x
sin t  ;
2
x x 1,375
arcsinsin t  arcsin ; t  arcsin ; t1  arcsin  arcsin 0,687 
2 2 2
2 
 0,758; t 2  arcsin  arcsin 1   1,570
2 2

2
A2  2 
0 , 758
2 cos t  2 cos t dt

  
2
1  cos 2t
2 2
A2  8  cos t dt  8  2
dt  4  (1  cos 2t )dt 
0 , 758 0 , 758
2 0 , 758

233
Definite integrals

dx  d (2 sin t )  (2 sin t ) ' dt


dx  2 cos tdt
4  x 2  4  (2 sin t ) 2  4  4 sin 2 t  2 cos t ;
x
sin t  ;
2
x x
arcsinsin t  arcsin ; t  arcsin ;
2 2
1,375
t1  arcsin  arcsin 0,687 
2
2 
 0,758; t 2  arcsin  arcsin 1   1,570
2 2

2
A2  2 
0 , 758
2 cos t  2 cos t dt

  
2
1  cos 2t
2 2
A2  8  cos 2 t dt  8  dt  4  (1  cos 2t )dt 
0 , 758 0 , 758
2 0 , 758

 sin 2 t  2  1 
A2  4t   ; A2  41,57  0,758  (sin   sin 2  0,758)
 2  0, 758  2 

A2  40,812  0,499   1,251; A2  1,251;


1, 375
A  A1  A2 ; A1  2  y ( x)dx
1
3

1, 375
y 3 ( x)  8 x  x 2  7 ; A1  2 
1
8 x  x 2  7 dx; x 2  8 x  7  0

x  7
x1, 2  4  16  7  4  3;  1
 x2  1
2
8x  x  7  ( x  7)( x  1)
variable is changing:

234
Definite integrals

8 x  x 2  7  t ( x  1);
8 x  x 2  7  t 2 ( x  1) 2
 ( x  7)( x  1)  t 2 ( x  1) 2
 x  7  t 2 ( x  1) 7  t 2  x(t 2  1)
'
t2  7 t2  7  t2  7 
x 2 dx dx  d  2    2  dt
t 1  t  1   t  1 
'
 t 2  7  2t (t 2  1)  2t (t 2  7) 2t (t 2  1  t 2  7)
 2    
 t 1  (t 2  1) 2 (t 2  1) 2
2t (6) 12t
 2  2
(t  1) 2
(t  1) 2
12t
dx   2 dt
(t  1) 2
 t 2  7   t 2  7  t 2 1 6t
8 x  x 2  7  t ( x  1)  t  2  1 t    2
 t 1   t 1  t 1
2

t2  7
x 2
t 1
8x  x 2  7
8 x  x 2  7  t ( x  1)  t 
x 1
8 1 7
t1 
11
no sense.
Therefore to switch II of the first variable that gives
indeterminacy. To switch variable II.

235
Definite integrals

8 x  x 2  7  t ( x  7)
2
 8 x  x 2  7   t ( x  7) 2
   
 ( x  1)( x  7)  t 2 ( x  7) 2
 x  1  t 2 ( x  7)
2 2 1  7t 2
1  7t  x (t  1) x
t2  1
'
d (1  7t )  1  7t 2 
2
dx     dt

2 2
t 1  t 1 


' 2 2
 1  7t 2  7  2t (t  1)  1  7t  2t
  
 
 2 
 
2
 t 1  2
t 1



2t 7t 2  7  1  7t 2   12t
  t  1
2 2
t2  1 2

12t
dx  dt
t  12 2

236
Definite integrals

 1  7t 2 
8 x  x  7  t ( x  7)  
2
 7  
 1  t 2

 1  7t 2  7  7t 2   6t
 t   
 1 t2  1 t
2
 
8x  x 2  7  ( x  1)( x  7)
t 
x7  x  7 2
 ( x  1)  (1,375  1) 0,375
t t  0t 2   t 2  0,25
x  7  1 1,375  17 5,625
 6t
0 , 25
12t
A1  2 
0 1 t 2

t 1
2 2

dt

0 , 25
t2 t  1  1
0 , 25 2 0 , 25
dt
A1  144  t
0
2
1 
3
dt  144  t  1 dt  144  t
0
2 3
0
2
1 
2

0 , 25
dt
 144  t
0
2
1 3

dt
I1    arctgt  C1
t 1 2

dt dt
I2   ;I3  

t 1
2 2

t 1
2 3
 
dt 1 t t2
I1  
t2 1  t2 1 t2 1  t2 1 2
  dt   2 dt
 
1  2t
 f (t ) g ' (t )dt  f (t ) g (t )   f ' (t )dt f (t )  2
t 1
; f ' (t ) 
t 1
2 2
 
g (t )dt  dt ;  g (t )dt   dt ; g (t )  t
' '

t (t 2  1)  1
t 2  1  (t 2  1) 2
I1   2 dt

t dt dt
I1  2  2 2  2
t 1 t 1 t2 1
2
 
237
Definite integrals

t
2I 2  2I1  I1 
t 1
2

t
2I 2  I1 
t 1 2

I1 t
I2   2
2 2 t 1  
dt arctgt t
I2     2

t 2 1
2
2 
2 t 1  
dt 1
I2    dt
t 2
1 
2
t 2
1  2

 fg dt  fg   f
' '
gdt

f (t ) 
t 2
1
1  2
; f ' (t )  t 2  1  
2 '
  2t 2

'
1 t 2 1  3

4t
f'  g ' dt  dt ; g (t )  t ;  g dt  g (t )   dt  t
'
;
t 2
1  3

A1 = 0,736; Total area = A1 +A2 = 1,251 + 0,736 = 1,987 .

238
Definite integrals

Schedule length of a continuous derivative functions


derivative
b
Lt   1   f ' x  dx
2

51) Submitting to calculate arc length AB:

f x   x ; x  1;2

Figure 55

f ' x  
1
2 x

239
Definite integrals

2
 1 
2 2
4
l A, B   1    dx   1  dx
1 2 x  1
x
4 x
2
l A, B   dx
1
x
Variable is changing:
4 x 2
t
x
4  x  x t2
 
x 1  t 2  4
4
x
t 1 2

 4   4 
dx  d  2    2 ' dt
 t 1   t 1 
 1  1' t  1  2t
 2 ' 
2
 
 2t
 t 1  t 2 1
2
 
t 2 1
2
 
8t
dx   dt
t 1
2
2

4 x  8t  t2
 dx   t dt  8
2
dt
x t 1
2 2
  t 1
2 2
 

240
Definite integrals

4 x
t
x
4 1
t1   5
1
42
t2   3
2
3
t2
l AB  8  dt
5 t 2
1 
2

t2 t2 A B C D
    
t 2 1
2
 t  1 t  1 t  1 t  1 t  1 t  12
2 2 2

t 2  At  1t  1  Bt  1  Ct  1 t  1  Dt  1


2 2 2 2

t  C
For t =1 :
1
12 = B(1 + 1)2  1  4 B  B 
4
For t = -1:
1
1 = D(-1-1)2  D 
4
1 1
B  ;D 
4 4
For t = 0:

241
Definite integrals

0  A0  10  1 
0  12  C 0  12 0  1  1 0  12
1 2

4 4
1 1 1
0  A C  ; AC 
4 4 2
For t = 2 :

4  A2  12  1  2  12  C 2  12 2  1  1 2  12


2 1
4 4
9 1 3
4  9A   3C  ; 9 A  C  4 
4 4 2
3 1
9A  C  ; A  C  ; 10 A   ; 10A = 2  A 
1 1 3
2 2 2 2 5
1 1 1 1 3
C   C    C  
5 2 5 2 10
1 1 3 1
A  ; B  ;C   ; D 
5 4 10 4
t2 1 1 3 1
   
t  12 t  12 5t  1 4t  12 10t  1 4t  12
t2 1 1 3 1
 t  12 t  12 5
dt  ln t  1  
4t  1 10
ln t  1  C
t  1 1
1 1 3 1  3
L AB  8 ln t  1   ln t  1  
5 4t  1 10 4t  1 5
 1  3  1  1 1 1 3 3 1 1  1 1  
 8 ln         
 
 5  5  1  4 3  1 4 5  1 10  ln 
5 1 4  3 1 5  1  

242
Definite integrals

Length of curve arcs


ds  dx 2  dy 2 , spring element;
  22
 
2
ds  dx 2 1      1  f ' x dx
dy
  dx  
 

 
2
ds  1  f ' x dx
(l )
0
ds = s ; arc length of curve.

Figure 56
52) Calculate the length circle: l  2 r
l = l1+ l2+ l3+ l4 l1= l2= l3= l4 l = 4 l1

243
Definite integrals

r (r 2  x 2 ) ' x
l1   1  ( f x) dx; y  r  x ; y 
' 2 2 2 '

0
2 r x
2 2
r  x2
2

2
 x  x2 r 2  x2  x2
1  ( f x)  1   
' 2
  1 2
 
 r  x2
2
 r  x2 r 2  x2
r
1  ( f ' x) 2 
r 2  x2
r r
l1   dx
0
r 2  x2

Figure 57
Variable is changing:

244
Definite integrals

x  r sin t ; dx  d (r sin t )  (r sin t ) ' dt ; dx  r cos tdt


r 2  x 2  r 2  r 2 sin 2 t  r 2 (1  sin 2 t )  r cos t ; 1  sin 2 t  cos 2 t
x x x
sin t  ; arcsinsin t  arcsin ; t  arcsin
r 2 2
0
t1  arcsin  arcsin 0  0; t1  0; sin 0  0; arcsinsin 0  arcsin 0;
r
r 
0  arcsin 0; t 2  arcsin  arcsin 1 
1 2
  
sin  1; arcsinsin  arcsin 1;  arcsin 1
2 2 2
 
2
r 2  r
l1   r (cos t ) dt  r t  r ; lt  4l1  4  2 r lt  2 r
0
r (cos t ) 0 2 2

is the length of the circle.

52) Parable of the arc length AB (P):


f ( x)  y ( x)  x 2

l
2

2
 
1  f ' x dx
2

1  2 x  dx  
2 2
l 1  4 x 2 dx
2
2 2

1 t2
1  4 x  2 x  t ; 1  4 x  4 x  4tx  t ;
2 2 2 2
x
4t
'
1 t 2 1 t 2 
dx     dt
4t  4t 
'
1 t 2   2t  t  (1  t 2 )  t 2  1
   
 t  t2 t2

245
Definite integrals

(t 2  1)
dx   dt
4t 2
1  t 2 3t 2  1
1  4x 2  2x  t  t  
4t 4t
17  4 (3t  1) (t  1)
2 2
2
l 1  4 x 2 dx    dt
2 4  17 4t 4t 2
t  1  4 x 2  2 x; t1  1  4 2   2(2)  4  17
2

t 2  1  42   2  2  17  4
2

l 

1 17  4 3t 2  1 (t 2  1) 
dt  
1 17  4 3t 4  4t 2  1
dt
16 17  4 t3 16 17  4 t3
 
3t 2  1 (t 2  1)  3t 4  t 2  3t 2  1  3t 4  4t 2  1
1 17  4  4 1
l 
16 17  4 
 3t   3 dt
t t 
1  3t 2 t 31  17  4
l   4 ln( t )  
16  2  3  1 17  4

l
1 3  2
  17  4 
16  2 
   17  4   4 ln
2 17  4

17  4

1  1   1
2

2
 
      
2  17  4   17  4   

1 3 8,123 1  1 
l 
 8,123  0,123  4 ln
2 2

  2

1

16  2 0,123 2  8,123 0,123 2 
1
l  (98,451  16,761  33,325); l  9,294
16

246
Definite integrals

Figure 58

247
Definite integrals

The volume of bodies of rotation


b
vol    f 2 x dx
a

54) Submitting to calculate the volume obtained by curve’s


rotation around the axis OX , OAC:
f x   6 x  x 2

Figure 59
f  x   OX
y  0 , OX axis equation;

248
Definite integrals

y x   6 x  x 2  x6  x   0
 x1  0 
 
 x 2  6
y' x   6  2 x  0
x3
f ' ' x   2  0
y max  y 3  6  3  3 2  18  9  9

Figure 60
 x3 x 4 x5 
 
6
6
vol    6 x  x 2 x
dx  vol   36  12   
0  3 4 5  0

 vol  259,19

249
Definite integrals

55) Submitting to calculate the rotation curve obtained


y (x) = sin 6x around axis OX:
 
y  x   sin 6 x ; x  0; 
 6

Figure 61

250
Definite integrals


6
val    sin 2 6 xdx
0

1  cos12 x
sin 2 6 x 
2
 6  
    sin 12 x 
val    1  cos12 x dx    x  6 
2 0 2 12  0
 
   sin 2  
2
    0  sin 0  ;
2 6 12  12

 cos12 xdx
Variable is changing:
12x = t
d 12 x   dt
12 x ' dx  dt
12 dx  dt
dt
dx 
12
dt 1 1
 cos12dx   cos t  sin t  C1  sin 12 x  C1
12 12 12
sin 0  0; sin 2  0 .
56) Submitting to calculate the rotation curve obtained
y (x) = arcsin2x the axis OX: f  x   arcsin 2 x

251
Definite integrals

 1
x  0; 
 2

Figure 62
1
2
vol    arcsin 2 x  dx
2

 f x   g ' x dx  fg   f ' gdx

252
Definite integrals

f  x   arcsin 2 x 
2

f '  x   2arcsin 2 x ' arcsin 2 x

arcsin u '  u'


1 u 2
arcsin 2 x '  2 x ' 
2
1  2 x  1 4x2
2

f x  
4
arcsin 2 x
1 4x2
g ' dx  dx

 g ' dx   dx
g x   x

1   arcsin 2 x   xarcsin 2 x   
2 2 4x
arcsin 2 xdx
1  4x 2

 xdx 
1  xarcsin 2 x   4 arcsin 2 x  
2

 1  4x 
2

 
 arcsin 2 x 
xdx
   fg' dx  fg   f ' gdx
 1  9x 
2

f  x   arcsin 2 x

253
Definite integrals

f ' x  
2
1  4x 2
xdx
g ' dx 
1  4x 2
xdx
 f ' dx   1  4x 2
g x   
xdx
1  4x 2
1  4x 2  t 2
 
d 1  4 x 2  dt 2
1  4 x ' dx  t dt
2 2

 8 xdx  2tdt
tdt
xdx  
4
 tdt
g 4   1 t   1 1  4x 2
t 4 4
1  4x 2
g x   
4
x arcsin 2 x dx 1  4x 2 1 2
 1  4x 2 
4
arcsin 2 x   1  4 x 2 
4 1  4x 2
dx 

1 1
  1  4 x 2 arcsin 2 x  x
4 2

254
Definite integrals

 1 x
1  xarcsin 2 x   4 1  4 x 2 arcsin 2 x    C1
2

 4 2
1  xarcsin 2 x   1  4 x 2 arcsin 2 x  2 x  C1
2

 
1
vol   xarcsin 2 x   1  4 x arcsin 2 x  2 x
2 2 2
0


 1 1 

vol    arcsin1  1  4 arcsin1  2   0  0  0
2 1

 2 4 2 

1   2 
vol       1
 2  2  
 2 
vol     1
 8 
57) Submitting to calculate the rotation curve obtained

f x  
1 3
x  x 4 , the axis OX:
4

f x  
1 3
x  x4
4
x  0;1
1 1
vol    f 2
x dx    x 1  x dx
1 3
0 0
16

f x   x 1  x 
1 3
4

255
Definite integrals

  x4
x5  1  1 1  
vol     ; vol     
16  4 5  0 16  4 5  16  20 320
x -∞ 0 1 +∞
x3 - - - - - - 0+ + + + + + + +
1-x + + + + + + 0 - - - - - - -
x3(1-x) - - - - - - 0 + 0 - - - - - - -

f ' x   

1 x3  x 4
;
  u '  u'
4 2 x3  x 4 2 u
 3
f ' x  

1 3x 2  4 x 3
x 2 3  4 x   x1  
 0;  4
4 2 x3  x 2 x x
3 2
 x2  0 

Figure 63

256
Definite integrals

x3  x4
y(x)=
4
58) Submitting to calculate the rotation curve obtained

f x   1  3 x 2 , the axis OX:

f x   1  3 x 2

1  3 x 2  0 , condition of existence of the function;

1  x 1  x   0
3 3

x -∞ -1 1 +∞
1 3 x2 - - - - 0+ + + + + + 0- - - - - -

x   1;1

f ' x  
1  x '
3 2

2 1 3 x2

 
3
 23  2 23 1 2  13
x '   x '  x  x  3
2 2
  3 3 3 x

f ' x  
2
3x 3 1  3 x 2

257
Definite integrals

Figure 64

 
1 1 2 1
vol    f  x dx     1  3 x 2  dx    1  3 x 2 dx 
2

0 0  0

 2
1

 x 
3 1 2 2
  x     vol 
 2 5 5
 1
0

 3 
59) Obtained by submitting to calculate the rotation curve,

xx  3
f x   , the axis OX:
x4

258
Definite integrals

xx  3
f x  
x4
x  0;2
 x  x  3 
  0 , conditions of existence function;
 x4 
 x  4  0 

x -∞ 0 3 4 +∞
x(x-3) +++++0- - - 0 + + + + + + +
x-4 - - - - - - - - - - 0+ + + +
x  x  3 - - - 0+ + +0- - - - /+ + + +
x4

x  0;3
Scope of definition of function. The domain of integration must
be included in the definition of function.
f 0  0
22  3 2 1
f 2    1 1
24 2

259
Definite integrals

Figure 65

 xx  3  xx  3
2
2 2 2
vol    f x dx    
2
 dx   
 dx
0 0
x  4  0
x  4

x2 – 3x x–4
-x2 + 4x x+1
x
-x + 4
4 rest

260
Definite integrals

x 2  3x
x  3x  x  4x  1  4;
4
2
 x 1
x4 x4
2
 4   x2 
dx    x  4 ln x  4
2
vol     x  1   4
0
x4 2  0

2   
t 2  arcsin  1  ; sin  1; arcsin sin  arcsin 1;
2 2 2 2

arcsin 1  ; 4  x 2  4  (2 sin t ) 2  4(1  cos t )  2 cos t
2
 
2 2
A2   2 cos t 2 cos tdt  4  cos 2 tdt
 
4 4

1  cos 2t
cos 2 t 
2
  
2
1  cos 2t 2
 sin 2t  2
A2  4  dt A2  2  1  cos 2t dt  2 t 
 2   2  
4 4 4

dv 1 1
 cos 2t dt   cos v  sin v  sin 2t
2 2 2
dv
2t  v; d (2t )  dv; (2t )dt  dv; 2dt  dv; dt 
2
    1      1  
A2  2      sin   sin   2     1
 2 4  2  2   4 2 2
 
At  A1  A2  11 
2 2
Note:

261
Definite integrals

Figure 66
dv   r dx   f ( x) dx; volumul inf init mic , cu
2 2
r  f ( x);
b
b 

 dv  V    f ( x)
2
dx
a a

So the volum:
b
V    f ( x ) 2 dx
a
60) Calculate the volume of a cylinder of radius r and length
h:
f ( x)  r
Vol   0hr 2 dx  r 2 x h0   r 2 h

Vol   r 2 h

262
Definite integrals

Figure 67
61) Calculate the volume of a cone of radius r and length h:
r
tg  m
h
r
(OB ); y ( x)  mx  x
h
r
y ( x)  x
h
2
h  rx 
h
Vol    y ( x) dx      dx
2
0 0
h
r h2
Vol 
3

263
Definite integrals

Figure 68
62) Calculate the volume of a truncated
cone:Vol  0h f ( x ) 2 dx

Figure 69

264
Definite integrals

Right equation (AB):


x  x1 y  y1
   ( D)
x 2  x1 y 2  y1
A(0, r ); B (h, R )
M 1( x1 , y1 ); M 2( x 2 , y 2 )
x0 yr x x
 ; yr  ( R  r ); y ( x)  r  (R  r)
h0 Rr h h
2
 x h 
Vol    r  ( R  r ) dx 
0
 h 
h  x x2 
   r 2  2r ( R  r )  2
( R  r ) 2  dx 
0
 h h 
 2r x 2 (R  r) 2 x 3  h
  r 2 x  ( R  r )   
 h 2 h2 3 0
h 2
 h 2
  r 2 h  rh ( R  r )  R  r     
3r  3rR  3r 2  R 2  2 Rr  r 2 
 3  3
h
 ( R2  r 2  Rr )
3
h
Vol  ( R 2  r 2  Rr )
3
Torso volume con.

63) Body volume to be resulted from the rotation equation


f (x) = e4x after OX axis, the length x = 1m:

265
Definite integrals

1m
Vl    f ( x) 2 dx    e 4 x dx
0
1

0
  2

1  1 
Vol    e 8 x dx  e8x  (e 8  1)
0 8 0 8
e0  1

Vol  (e 8  1)  1,17 * 10 3
8
dt 1 t 1 8 x
e dx   e t  e  e
8x

8 8 8
dt
8 x  t ;d (8 x)  dt ;8dx  dt ;dx 
8

Figure 70

64) calculate body volume resulting rotation function f (x)


after OX axis between x = 1 and x = 4:

266
Definite integrals

x 1
y( x) 
x 1
 x  1
 x 1 0
 x  1  0
Living conditions of the radical function.
x - -1 0 1 
x 1 ------ ------ ---- - - 0++ ++++
x 1 --- ----0+++ +++ +++ +++
x 1 +++ ++/-- ---- - - 0++ ++++
x4
x  (,1)  [1, )

Figure 71

267
Definite integrals

 x  1  x  1  ( x  1)
'
2
   
 x 1 ( x  1) ( x  1) 2
2

2 1 x 1 1 x 1
y ' ( x)  
( x  1) 2 2 x  1 ( x  1) 2 x 1
x 1
y( x) 
x 1
2
4 4  x 1 
Vol    y ( x) dx    2
 
 x  1  dx
 
1 1

4 x 1 4 ( x  1)  2  4 4
Vol    dx    dx    x  2 ln x  1  
1 x 1 1 x 1  1 1

 5
  4  1  2(ln 5  ln 2); Vol    3  2 ln   3,668.
 2

65) Calculate the volume of a sphere of radius R:


Vol   
R

R
R 2
 2  x3  R  1 
 x 2 dx    R 2 x      R 2 ( R  R)  ( R 3  R 3 ) 
 
 3  R 3
 2  1  4 R
3
  R 3  2    2 R 3 1   
 3  3 3
4 R 3
Vol 
3

sphere volume.

268
Definite integrals

Figure 72

269
Definite integrals

A surface area of rotation


dAl  2 R( x)G; R  f ( x); G ( x)  ds  dx 2  dy 2
2
 dy 
dAl  2f ( x) 1    dx;
b b

Al   dAe  2  f ( x) 1  f ' ( x) dx 
2

 dx  a a

Figure 72 b

66) Area of a sphere:


2
R  x 
A  2  R x2 2
1    dx

R
 R x 
2 2

y 
'
R 2
x 2
2
' R 2
 x2 
'


 2x
 y ' ( x) 
x
R2  x2 2 R2  x2 R2  x2
2
 x  x2 R2  x2  x2 R
1  ( y )  1  
' 2
  1 2
 
 R x
2 2
 R  x2 R2  x2 R2  x2

270
Definite integrals

R R R
A  2  R2  x2  dx  2  Rx 
R
R2  x2 R

2R( R  R)  4R 2
A  4 R 2

Figure 73

67) Area of a spherical areas:

271
Definite integrals

h 2 h
2
 x  2
A  2  R 2  x 2  1    dx  2 Rx 

 R x 
2 2 h

h 
2 2

h h
 2R  ; A  2 Rh
2 2

Figure 74

68) A spherical area:

272
Definite integrals

h
A  2  f ( x) 1  f ' ( x) 2 dx
0
2
h
 x  h
A  2  R  x  1  
2 2
 dx  2 Rx 

 R x 
2 2 0
0

 2Rh; A  2 Rh

Figure 75
69) Lateral area of a cylinder:
A  2 RG
Al  2 0G f ( x ) 1  f ' ( x ) 2 dx

f ' ( x )   R  0
'
f ( x )  y1  R
Al  2 0G Rdx  2R 0G  2 RG

273
Definite integrals

is the lateral area of the cylinder.

Figure 76
70) Lateral area of cone:

Figure 77

274
Definite integrals

R
Al   RG ; tg 
h
OB is the generating equation y  mx ;
R R R Rx
m  tg   y1 ( x)  x 
h h h h
h

Al  2  f ( x) 1  f ' ( x ) dx
o

2

'
R  R R
y1 ( x)   x   
'

h  h h


1  f ' ( x) 
2
 1
R2
h2

R2  h2 G
h

h
R2  h2  G 2
h Rx G RG x 2 h RG
Al  2  dx  2 2   h 2  RG
0 h h h 2 o R2
Al   RG
is the lateral area of cone.

71) Side of the trunk area of cone


Al   G( R  r )
BC=G= Generators;

 
2
Al  oh2 f ( x ) 1  f ' ( x ) dx

B ( o, r ) C ( h, R )
Right Equation (BC) is:

275
Definite integrals

Figure 78

x  x1 y  y1
 
x 2  x1 y 2  y1
x0 yr Rr
 yr  x
ho Rr h
Rr Rr
y1  x  r ; y '1 
h h
Rr h 2  (R  r) 2 G
2

1 (y 1)  1 
' 2
  
 h  h h
BC= G = generatrix;
( BC) 2  h2  ( R  r ) 2  G 2 , generatrix.

276
Definite integrals

h Rr G
Al  2   x  r  dx
o
 h h
G  R  r x2  h 2 G  R  r h 2  2 Gh  R  r 
 2   rx     rh     r 
h h 2 o h  h 2  h  2 
2 Gh  R  r 
   r
h  2 
Al   G ( R  r )
Con side of the trunk area.

277