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Differential Equations

Differential Equations
dx dy
g ( y)dx  f ( x)dy;  ; int egrates;
f ( x) g ( y )
dx dy
 f ( x) 

g ( y)
; rezulting solution.

1) Submitting to solve the differential equation:


dx
ydy 
x  29
2

dx dx
It integrates : ydy 
x  29
2
; and results:  ydy   x 2
 29
;

dx
y2
2
 2
dx
x  29
; x 2
 29
a 2  b 2  a  b a  b 
x 2  29  x 2   29   x 
2

29 x  29 
1 A B
 
x  29 x  29 x  29
2

1


A x  29  Bx  29  
x 2  29 x 2  29
   
1  A x  29  B x  29 ; x  R; relatin (1).

For x   29 in relation (1):

278
Differential Equations

 
1  A  0  B  29  29 ; 1  2 29 B  B  
1
2 29

For x  29 in relation (1):

 
1  A 29  29  B  0  1  2 29 A  A 
1
2 29
1 1 1 1 1
 
x 2  29 2 29 x  29 2 29 x  29
dx 1 dx 1 dx
x 2

 29 2 29  x 29

2

29 x  29
x  29  t; d x  29  dt  
x  
29 ' dx  dt ; dx  dt

 ln t   ln x  29 ;
dx dt dx
 x 29

t  x 29
; x  29  u


d x  29  du ;  x  
29 dx  du ; dx  du
dx du
 x  29  u  ln u  ln x  29

1 1
t  ln x  29  ln x  29  C
2 29 2 29
y2 1 x  29
 ln  C ; is the differential equation solution .
2 2 29 x  29

279
Differential Equations

2) Submitting to solve the differential equation:


dx
dy ( x  100) x( x  30)  dx ; dy  , integrates :
x( x  100)( x  30)
dx dx
 dy  
x( x  100)( x  30)
; y
x( x  100)( x  30)
;

dx
 xx  100 x  30
1 A B C
  
xx  100 x  30  x x  100 x  30
1 Ax  30 x  100   Bxx  30   Cxx  100 

xx  100 x  30  xx  100 x  30 
1  Ax  30 x  100   Bxx  30   Cxx  100 x  R; relation (1)
For x = 0 in relation (1)
1  A0  30 0  100 
1
1  3000 A  A  
3000
For x = 100 in relation (1)
1  A  0  100 B100  30   C  0
1
1  100  130  B  B 
13000

280
Differential Equations

For x = -30 in relation (1)


1  A  0  B  0  30C  30  100   1  30C  130
1
C
3900
1 1 1 1 1 1
  
xx  100 x  30  3000 x 13000 x  100 3900 x  30 
dx 1 dx 1 dx 1 dx
 xx  100 x  30    3000  x  13000  x  100  3900  x  30

1 1 1
y ln x  ln x  100  ln x  30  C ;
3000 13000 3900
differential equation solution.
3) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
dx dx
sin y dy 
( x  6)( x  2) 2
;  sin y dy  
( x  6)( x  2) 2
;

dx
 cos y  
( x  6)( x  2) 2
dx
 x  6x  2 2

281
Differential Equations

1 A B C
  
x  6x  2 x  6 x  2 x  22
2

Ax  2  Bx  6x  2  C x  6


2
1

x  6x  22 x  6x  22
1  Ax  2  Bx  6x  2  C x  6  R; relation (1)
2

For x = -2 in relation (1)


1  A  0  B  0  C  2  6  1  C  4  1  4C 
1
C 
4
For x = - 6 in relation (1)

1  A 6  2  B  0  C  0  1  16 A  A 
2 1
16
For x = 0 in relation (1)

1
1
0  22  B0  60  2  6   1  7  12 B  1  7  12 B 
16 4 4 4
7 3 1
 12 B  1   12 B    B  
4 4 16

282
Differential Equations

1 1 1 1 1 1 1
   
x  6x  2 16 x  6 16 x  2 4 x  22
2

dx 1 1 1 dx
 x  6x  22 16
 ln x  6 
16
ln x  2 
4   x  2 2
dx
1  
x  22
x2u
d  x  2   du
x  2dx  du
dx  du
dx du u 21 1
1    2   C1    C1
x  22
u  2 1 u
1
1    C1
x2
u  x2
1 1 1 1 
 cos y  ln x  6  ln x  2    C1  C ,
16 16 4 x2 
differential equation solution.

4) Submitting to solve the differential equation:


x( x  1)(x  2) 3 dy  ydx ;

283
Differential Equations

1 1 1 1
y
dy 
xx  1x  2
3
dx ; it integrates :  y
dy  
xx  1x  2
3
dx ;

1
ln y   dx
xx  1x  2
3

dx
 xx  1x  2 3

1 A B C D E
    
xx  1x  2 x x  1 x  2 x  2 x  23
3 2

1  Ax  1x  2  Bxx  2  Cx x  1x  2  Dx x  1x  2 


3 3 2

 E x  1x; x  C , relation (1);

xx  1x  2  0
3

x1  0
x2  1
x3  x4  x5  2
In a relationship (1) where x is replaced by zero ( x = 0), rezult :

1  A0  10  2
3

1
1  8A  A 
8
In a relationship (1) if one replaces x ( x = 1):
1  A  0  B  11  2  1  B  B  1
3

284
Differential Equations

In equation (1) if x is replaced with two ( x = 2):

1  A  0  B  0  2C 2  1  0  D  0  2 E 2  1  1  2 E  E 
1
2
1 1
But A  ; B  1; E  ;
8 2
To find other constants must give two values for x.
x  0,1,2
In equation (1) -1 if x is replaced ( x = -1):

1
1
 1  1 1  23  1 1  23  C  1 1  1 1  22 
8
 D 1  1 1  2    1  1
1
2
1   27   27  2C  9  D  6  1  27 *  18C  6 D  
1 3 81
4 4 4
27
 18C  6 D / : 3   6C  2 D
4
In equation (1) whether the replace x with 3 ( x = 3):

1
1
3  13  23  33  23  3C 3  13  22  3D3  13  2  3 3  1
8 2
1
1   3  6C  6 D  3
4

285
Differential Equations

1 3 3 1`
6C  6 D  1   6C  6 D   6C  6 D   2C  2 D 
4 4 4 4
 1   1 
C  D  8 / 2  2C  2 D  4 
 ;  
27
6C  2 D   6C  2 D   27
 4   4 
C =1/2 ; D = -3/8 ;
1 1 3 1
Deci A  ; B  1; C  ; D   ; E 
8 2 8 2
1 1 1 1 3 1
    
xx  1x  2
3
8 x x  1 2x  2 8x  22
2x  2
3

dx 1 1 3 1 1
 ln x  ln x  1  ln x  2   
ln y   xx  1x  2 8 2 8 x  2 4x  22
 C2

x  a  t ; d x  a   dt ; x  a ' dx  dt ;
dx
 x  a; dx  dt

dx dt dx
 xa   t
 ln t  ln x  a  C1;  2  
 x  2 2
x  2  t ; d x  2  dt ; x  2' dx  dt dx  dt
dx dt t  21 1 1
2      t 2
dt     C2
 x  2 2 t 2
 2 1 t x  2
dx dt t 31 t 2 1 1
3      t 3
dt  ;    2   C 3.
x  23 t 3
 3 1
3
2 2t 2 x  2
2

286
Differential Equations

5) Submitting to solve the differential equation:


x 4 arctgx dx
cos ydy  ; it integrates:
1 x2
x 4 arctgx dx x 4 arctgx dx
 cos ydy  
1 x2
; sin y  
1 x2

arctgx x 4 dx
 x 1  x 2 dx   arctgx x 2  1
4

 fg' x dx  f x g x    f ' g x dx


f  x   arctgx

f ' x  
1
x2 1
x 4 dx
g '  x dx  2
x 1
x 4 dx
 g ' x dx   x 2  1
x 4 dx
g x    2
x 1
x4 x2 + 1
-x4 – x2 x2 – 1
-x2
x2 + 1

287
Differential Equations

1 rest

x4  x2 1 x2 1 1  
x4

x 2  1x 2  1  1 x 2  1x 2  1
  2
1

x 1
2
x 1
2
x 1
2
x 1
1
 x2 1 2
x 1
x3
g ( x)   x  arctgx
3
arctgx  x3   x3  dx
 x 1  x 2 dx   3  x  arctgxarctgx   3  x  arctgx 1  x 2
4

x3 x2 + 1
-x3 – x x
-x

x3  x x 2  1  x 
x3


x x2 1  x x x2 1


x  x 

x
x2 1 x2 1 x2 1 x2 1 x2 1
 x  xdx x2 1
A  x  2 dx   xdx   2  A  ln x 2  1  C1
 x  1 x 1 2 2

288
Differential Equations

x
xdx
2
1
   
; x 2  1  u; d x 2  1  du; u 2  1 ' dx  du ; 2 xdx  du

du
du
xdx  ;  2
2
xdx
x 1
 2  
u
1 du 1
2 u 2
 ln u   ln x 2  1
1
2
 
 1  x 2 dx; arctgx  v; d arctgx   dv; arctgx ' dx  dv
arctgx

dx
 dv
1 x2
v 2 arctgx 
2
dx
 arctgx 1  x 2   vdv  2  2  C 2
1  x2 1  1
 2    ln x  1  ln x  1 
2 2 arctgx 
2
 C2
3 2 2  2 2
 x3 
sin y    x  arctgx arctgx   ln x 2  1  ln x 2  1 
x2 1 1
 3  6 6 2


arctgx 
2
 C; result .
2
6 ) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
x 1  x  x 2 dy  y 3 dx;

dy dx dy dx
y 3

x 1 x  x2
, integrate and obtain:  y 3

x 1 x  x2
;

289
Differential Equations

y 31 dx 1 dx
;  C ; 2   C ;
 3 1 x 1 x  x 2 2 y x 1  x  x 2

dx
x 1 x  x2
Variable is changing:

x 2  x  1  tx  1; c  1  0
the square:

x 2

 x  1  tx  1 ; x 2  x  1  t 2 x 2  2tx  1
2
2

x 2  x  t 2 x 2  2tx / : x  x  1  t 2 x  2t
1  2t
 
x t 2  1  1  2t  x  2
t 1
 1  2t   1  2t 
dx  d  2  2 ' dt
 t 1  t 1

 2 ' 
 

 1  2t   2 t  1  1  2t 2t  2 t  1  t  2t
2 2 2

 
 t 1 t2 1
2
 
t2 1
2
 

   2t
 2  t2  t 1 2
 t 1 
t  1
2 2
t 2
1  2

dx  2
t  t  1 dt
2

t  1 2 2

290
Differential Equations

x 2
 x  1  tx  1  t
1  2t 
1 
t  2t 2  t 2  1

t 2  t 1
t 2 1 t 2 1 t 2 1
2
 x 1  
t 2
 t 1 
x

t 2 1 
1  2t
x
t 2 1

2 t2  t 1  dt
dx 1 t 2

t2  t 1
2
t 2 1  
2

 x 1  x  x 2   t 2  t  1 1  2t  2 t 2  1 2  t 2  t  1 2t  1 dt 
     
 

t 2 1 t 2 1 
dt
 2
2t  1
2t  1  u
d 2t  1  du
2t  1' dt  du
2dt  du
du
dt 
2
du
dt du
 t  2  2 2    ln u  ln 2t  1  C
2t  1 u u
x 2  x  1  tx  1  tx  x 2  x  1  1
x2  x 1 1
t
x

291
Differential Equations

1
 ln

2
x 2

 x 1 1 
 1  C ; differential equation solution.
2y2  x 
7 ) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
dy dx
(1  1  2 x  x 2 dy  (ctgy ) dx ;  ; it
ctgy 1  1  2 x  x 2

dy dx
integrates:  ctgy

1  1  2x  x 2
;

dx
 ln cos y = 1 1  2x  x 2
+C;

c  1  0; 1  2 x  x 2  tx  1
Amounts to the square:
1  2 x  x 2  t 2 x 2  2tx  1;  2 x  x 2  t 2 x 2  2tx / : x
 2  x  t 2 x  2t

 
x t 2  1  21  t ; x  2
t  1
t 2 1
 t  1  t 1 
dx  d  2 2  2 2 ' dt
 t  1   t  1

292
Differential Equations

 t  1  t  1  2t t  1 t  1  2t  2t  t  2t  1
2 2 2 2
 2 '    
 t  1   
t 1
2 2
t 1
2 2
t 1
2
2
  

t  2t  1
2

t  1
2 2

dx  2
t  2t  1 dt
2

t  1 2 2

x  2
t  1
t2 1
 2t t  1  2t 2  2t  t 2  1
1  2 x  x  tx  1 
2
1  
t2 1 t2 1
 t 2  2t  1

t2 1

1  2x  x  
2 t 2  2t  1 
t2 1
t 2  2t  1 2t 2  2t 2t t  1
1  1  2x  x  1 
2
 2  2
t2 1 t 1 t 1
2t t  1
1  1  2x  x 2  2
t 1

2
2

t  2t  1
dt

t  
t 1
2
 2

2t t  1
t2 1

293
Differential Equations

t  

2 t 2  2t  1  t 2 1
dt  
t 2  2t  1
t 2
1 2
2t t  1 t t  1 t 2  1
dt
 
t 2  2t  1 A B Ct  D
  
 
t t  1 t 2  1 t t  1 t 2  1
   
t 2  2t  1  At  1 t 2  1  Bt t 2  1  Ct  D t t  1; t  C
 
relation (1); t t  1 t 2  1  0 , t1  0, t 2  1.
In equation (1) is replaced t with zero ( t = 0):

0 2  2  0  1  A0  1 0 2  1  1  A  A  1 
In equation (1) t is replaced with a value less ( t = -1):
 12  2  1  A  0  B 12  1 C 1  D 0  2  2B  B  1
In equation (1) t is replaced with a value ( t = 1):
12  2 1  1  122  1 2  C  D   2  2  4  2  2C  D  
 4  2C  D   C  D  2
In equation (1) t is replaced with two value ( t = 2):
   
2 2  2  2  1  12  1 2 2  1  2 2 2  1  2C  D   2  2  1 
 7  15  10  62C  D   12  62C  D 
2C  D  2
  /1
C  D  2 

294
Differential Equations

 2C  D  2
CD2
C  0; D  2; A  1; B  1; C  0; D  2
t 2  2t  1 1 1 0.t  2
   2

t t  1 t  1
2
 t t 1 t 1
t 2  2t  1
t   dt   ln t  ln t  1  2arctgt  C
 
t t  1 t 2  1
t 1
 t  ln  2arctgt  C
t

1  2 x  x 2  tx  1
1  2x  x 2  1
t
x

1  2x  x2  1
1  1  2x  x2  1 
 ln cos y  ln x  2arctg  C
1  2x  x  1
2  x 
 
x

differential equation solution.

8 ) Submitting to solve the differential equation:

295
Differential Equations

dx dx
 y 5 dy  ; it integrates ,   y 5 dy   ;
4  cos x 4  cos x

y 51 dx y6 dx
  ;   C
5 1 4  cos x 6 4  cos x
dx dx
 4  cos x  4  cos x
x x
1  tg 2 2tg
cos x  2 ; sin x  2
x x
1  tg 2 1  tg 2
2 2
x x x x
1  tg 2 4  4tg 2  1  tg 2 3tg 2  5
4  cos x  4  2 2 2 2
x x x
1  tg 2 1  tg 2 tg 2  1
2 2 2
x
1  tg 2
dx
 4  cos x   2 x 2 dx
3tg  5
2
To switch:

296
Differential Equations

x
tg t
2
x
arctgtg  arctgt
2
x
 arctgt
2
x  2arctgt
dx  d 2arctgt   2arctgt ' dt
2
dx  dt
1 t 2
1 t 2 2 dt dt
t   2  dt  2  3t 2  5   2 5  
 2
3t  5 1  t 2
3 t  
 3
2 dt 2 1 t
  2
  arctg
3  5 3 5 5
t 2   
 3 3
 3
 y6 2 3  3 x
 arctg  tg   C ; is the differential
6 3 5  5 2
x
equation solution . t  tg  .
2

297
Differential Equations

9 ) Submitting to solve the differential equation:

sin x  3 cos x  7dy  dx ;


y
dx dx
ydy 
sin x  3 cos x  7
;  ydy  
sin x  3 cos x  7
;

dx
y2
2 

dx
sin x  3 cos x  7 
;  sin x  3 cos x  7
x x
2tg 1  tg 2
sin x  2 ; cos x  2
x x
1  tg 2 1  tg 2
2 2
x  2 x
2tg 1  tg 
sin x  3 cos x  7  2 3 2
7 
2 x 2 x
1  tg 1  tg
2 2
x x x x x
2tg  3  3tg 2  7  7tg 2 10tg 2  2tg  4
 2 2 2 2 2 
2 x 2 x
1  tg 1  tg
2 2
 x x 
2 5tg 2  tg  2 
 2 2 
x
1  tg 2
2

298
Differential Equations

x
1  tg 2
t   2 dx
 2x x 
2 5tg  tg  2 
 2 2 
x
tg  t
2
x
arctgtg  arctgt
2
x
 arctgt
2
x  2arctgt

dx  d 2arctgt   2arctgt ' dt 


2
dt
1 t2
2
dx  dt
1 t2

1 t2 2dt
t    2
 
2 5t  t  2 t  1
2

dt dt
t   2 
5t  t  2  t 2
5 t 2   
 5 5
1 dt
t  
5 2 t 2
t  
5 5

299
Differential Equations

5t 2  t  2  0
 1  1  40
t1, 2 
10
2 2 2
t 2 1 1 1 2  1
t    t 2  2   t         t   
2

5 5 10  10   10  5  10 
2
1   39 
2 2
2 1  1 39 
   t     t     
5 100  10  100  10   10 
1 dt
t   2
5  1   39 
2

 t     
 10   10 
1
t 4
10
 1
d  t    du
 10 
 1
 t  ' dt  du
 10 
1 du 1 1 u 2 10  1
5
t    arctg  arctg t    C
39  10 
2
 39  5 39 39 39
u 2   
 10 10
 10 

x
t  tg
2
y2 2 10  x 1 
 arctg tg   C ; result.
2 39 39  2 10 

300
Differential Equations

10) Submitting to solve the differential equation:


1  cos x  dy  y 2 dx;
sin x
dy (sin x)dx dy (sin x)dx  1 (sin x)dx
 ; 2   ;  C ;
y 2
1  cos x y 1  cos x y 1  cos x

sin xdx
 1  cos x
x
1  cos x  2 cos 2
2
x x
sin x  2 sin cos
2 2
x x x
2 sin cos sin
sin x 2 2  2

1  cos x x x
2 cos 2 cos
2 2
x
sin
t   2 dx
x
cos
2
 x  x
 t ;  cos ' dx  dt ; d  cos   dt ; cos u '  u ' sin u
x
cos
2  2  2
 x  x x 1 x
 cos '   ' sin   sin
 2 2 2 2 2

301
Differential Equations

1 x
 sin dx  dt
2 2
x
sin dx  2dt
2
2dt 1 x
t     2 ln t   2 ln cos  C
t y 2
solution .
11) Submitting to solve the differential equation:

dy dx
 ;
y cos x sin 2 x
4

dy dx dx
  ; ln y   ;
y cos x sin 2 x
4
cos x sin 2 x
4

dx
 cos 4
x sin 2 x
tgx 1
sin x  ; cos x 
 1  tg 2 x  1  tg 2 x
4 2
   tgx 
cos 4 x  sin 2 x     
1
 1  tg 2 x   1  tg 2 x 
   

302
Differential Equations

tg 2 x
1 tg 2 x
cos x  sin x 
4 2
 
1  tg x
2 2
 1  tg2
x 1  tg 2 x  
3

t  
1  tg x 
2 3

dx
tg 2 x
tgx  t
arctgtgx arctgt
x  arctgt
dx  d arctgt   arctgt ' dt
1
dx  dt
1 t 2

t  
1  t 
2 3
dt 
1 t 2 2
t 4  2t 2  1
1 t 2  t 2
  dt   dt 
t2 t2
 1 t3 t 21
   t 2  2  2 dt   2t  C
 t  3  2  1
3
t 1
 t   2t   C
3 t
ln y  tgx   2tgx 
1 1
C
3

3 tgx
differential equation solution.
12) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
y10 dy  x 2 x 2  4 dx ;

303
Differential Equations

y 11
 y 10 dy   x 2 x 2  4 dx ;   x 2 x 2  4 dx ;
11

x x 2  4dx
2

x2  4  x 1  t
x 2  4  x 2  2tx  t 2
4 t2
4  2tx  t  x  2

2t
 4t2 
dx   ' dt
 2t 
 4  t 2   2t  4  t 2
 '  
 
 2t 2  4  t 2 t2  4
 2
 t  t2 t2 t

dx  
t 2
4
dt

2t 2
4t2 4t2
x2  4  x  t  t 
2t 2t
4t2
x
2t
 4t2  4 t2  t2  4
2
 
x x  4dx       dt 
2 2

 2t  2t 2t 2
1 4t2 t2  4
  dt
  
2

16 t5

304
Differential Equations

4  t  4  t 
2 2

2 2
256  32t 4  t 8 256 32 3
 5  t
t5 t5 t t
1  dt dt 
 t   256  5  32    t 3 dt 
16  t t 
1  t 51 t 31 
 t   256  3 ln t  C
16   5 1 3  1
1  256 1 t4 
 t      3 ln t    C
16  4 t 4 4

t  x2  4  x

y11
4
1

3
ln x 2  4  x 
1
x 
4
4  x C
x 
2
4
11 2
4x 16 64

solution.
13) Submitting to solve the differential equation:

dx dx y6 dx
6 
y 5 dy  ;  y 5 dy   ; 
x x 3
x x 3
x 3 x

dx
 x 3 x

305
Differential Equations

x  t6
   
dx  d t 6  t 6 ' dt
dx  6t 5 dt
dx 6t 5 dt t 5 dt t 5 dt
 x 3 x

t  t
6 3 6
 6 3 2  6 2
t  t t  t  1

t 3 dt
  t  6
t 1

t3 t+1
-t3-t2 t2-t+1
-t2
t2+t
t
-t-1
-1

 
t 3  t  1 t 2  t  1  1

306
Differential Equations

t3 t  1t 2  t  1  1 t 2  t  1 1
  t  1  
t 1 t 1 t 1 t 1
1
 t 2  t 1
t 1
 dt 
 t  6  t 2 dt   tdt   dt  
 t  1
t 3 t 2 
 t  6   t  ln t  1   C
3 2 
t6 x
y6 6 x
 6
  3


16 2 6 
x  x  ln x  1   C
6
6  3 2 

solution.

14) Submitting to solve the differential equation:


dx
3 y dy 
3x  2  4 3x  2
dx
 3 y dy  
3x  2  4 3x  2
;

307
Differential Equations

dx
 3x  2  4 3x  2
1 4
1 1
3 3
y y 3 dx
y 3
dy 
1

4
 y3 y  
4 3x  2  4 3x  2
1
3 3

 
3x  2  t 4 ; d 3x  2  dt 4  3x  2' dx  t 4 ' dt
4
3dx  4t 3 dt ; dx  t 3 dt
3
4 3
t dt
dx 4 t 3 dt 4 t 2 dt
 3x  2  4 3x  2  t 4  4 t 3  t 2  t 3  t  1
 3  

t2 t-1
-t2+t t+1
t
-t+1
1
t 2  t  1t  1  1

308
Differential Equations

t2

t  1t  1  1  t  1t  1  1  t  1  1
t 1 t 1 t 1 t 1 t 1
4 t 2 
 t    t  ln t  1   C
32 
t  4 3x  2
3 y 3 y 4  3x  2 4 
   3x  2  ln 4 3x  2  1   C; solution .
4 3 2 

15) Submitting to solve the differential equation:

 y  1dy    y  1dy  
dx dx
; ;
x 5
x 1
2
x 5
x2 1

y2 dx
y ;
2 x5 x 2 1

dx xdx xdx
x 5
x2 1

x6 x2 1

x 
2 3
x2 1

     
x 2 1  t 2 ; d x 2 1  dt 2 ; x 2 1 ' dx  t 2 ' dt; 2xdx  2tdt; xdx  tdt

xdx tdt dt
x 2  t 2  1;  x  2 3
x 12

t 2
 1 t
3

t 2
 1
3
 3

309
Differential Equations

dt 1 1
t 2
1
  2 dt   2
t 1 t 1
dt relation (a )

 f (t )g (t )dt   f (t ) g (t )   f ' (t )g (t )dt ; relation (b)


'

by identifing the relation (a ) with (b)


1
; f (t )  2
t 1
2t
f ' (t )  
t 2 1
2
 
dg  dt g ' (t )  dt ; it int egrates :

 dg   dt; g (t )  t
1 t 2t 2
 t 2  1 dt  t 2  1   t 2  1 2 dt  
arctgt 
t
 2
t 1 1  2
; arctgt  2
t  2 2
dt
 2
dt
t 1 2
t 2 1
2
 t 1 t 1 t 2 1
2
 
dt t
2  2  arctgt  2artgt  C
t 2  1 t  1
2

t
2I 2   arctg t  C
t 1 2

t 1
I2  2  arctg t  C 2
2t  1 2

310
Differential Equations

dt 1
I2    2 dt relation (c)
(t  1) 2
2
(t  1) 2

 f (t )g (t )dt   f (t ) g (t )   f
' '
(t )g (t )dt ; relation (d )
by identifyng the relation (c) with (d );
1
f (t )  2
(t  1) 2
4t
f ' (t )  
t 2
1 3

dg  dt g ' (t )  dt ; int egrates ; :

 dg   dt; g (t )  t
1 t 4t 2
I2  
(t 2  1) 2  t 2  1 3
dt   dt
(t 2  1) 2  
t (t 2  1  1)dt t
I2 
(t  1)
2 2
 4  (t  1)
2 3

t 1
2 2
 4I 2  4I 3
 
t (t 2  1  1)dt t
I2 
(t  1)
2 2
 4  (t  1)
2 3

t 2 1
2
 4I 2  4I 3
 
3 t
I3  I2  C
4 4 t 1
2 2
 
3 t
I3  I2   C;
4 4 t 1
2 2
 
3t 3 t
I3  2  arctgt 

8 t 1 8 
4 t2 1
2
 

311
Differential Equations

3t 3 t
I3   arctgt 

8 t 1 8
2
 4 t 2 1
2
;
 
y2 3 x2 1 3 x2 1
y 2
 arctg x 2  1  C
2 8x 8 4x 4
solution.
16) Submitting to solve the differential equation:

y 2

 y  1 dy 
dx
7  3 cos x  4 sin x
;

   dx
y 2  y  1 dy   ;
7  3 cos x  4 sin x
dx
y3 y2
3

2
y
dx
7  3 cos x  4 sin x
;  7  3 cos x  4 sin x
x x
1  tg 2 2tg
cos x  2 ; sin x  2
x x
1  tg 2 1  tg 2
2 2
 x x
31  tg 2  8tg
7  3 cos x  4 sin x  7  
2 2 

x x
1  tg 2 1  tg 2
2 2
x x x x x
7  7tg 2  3  3tg 2  8tg 4tg 2  8tg  10
 2 2 2  2 2
x x
1  tg 2 1  tg 2
2 2

312
Differential Equations

x
1  tg 2
x x
t   2 dx; tg  t ; arctgtg  arctgt
 x x  2 2
2 2tg 2  4tg  5 
 2 2 
 arctgt ; x  2arctgt ; dx  d 2arctgt   2arctgt ' dt
x
2
2 1 t 2 2 dt
dx 
1 t 2
dt ;  t   2 2t 2  4t  5 1  t 2
 
 dt ;  t   2t 2  4t  5
 2  4  10
2t 2  4t  5  0; t1, 2  ; complex roots .
2
 5  5
2t 2  4t  5  2 t 2  2t    2 t 2  2t  1  1   
 2  2
 5   3
 2 t  1   1  2 t  1  
2 2

 2   2
1 dt 1 1 t 1 x
t   2
  arctg ; t  tg
2   2 3 3 2
t  12   3  2 2
 2
y3 y2 1 2  x  2
 y arctg  tg  1  C ; solution .
3 2 2 3  2  3
dx 1 xa
 x  a 2  b 2 b
 arctg
b
C

x  a  u; d  x  a   du ; x  a ' dx  du ; dx  du

313
Differential Equations

dx du 1 u 1 x  a   C
 x  a  2
b 2

u b22
 arctg  arctg
b b b b
.

17) Submitting to solve the differential equation:

sin y  y  1dy 
dx
3
;  sin y  y  1dy  
dx
;
cos x cos 3 x
y2 dx
 cos y  y ;
2 cos3 x

dx dx cos xdx cos xdx cos xdx


 cos3 x ;  cos 3
x
 4
cos x
 
cos 2 x  1  sin 2 x 2
2

cos 2 x  1  sin 2 x
sin x  t
d sin x   dt
sin x ' dx  dt
cos xdx  dt
dt 1 A B C D
t       

1 t 2
2
 1  t  1  t  1  t 1  t  1  t 1  t 2
2 2 2

1  A1  t 1  t   B1  t   C 1  t  1  t   D1  t  ; t  C


2 2 2 2

relatia (1).
1  t 2  0; t  1

314
Differential Equations

In equation (1) is replaced with a value of t ( t =1):

1  B1  1  B 
2 1
4
In equation (1) is replaced by a minus value of t ( t =-1):

1  D1  1  D 
2 1
4
1 1
Deci B  şi D 
4 4
In equation (1) is replaced with a zero value of t ( t =0):

1  A1  01  0 
0  12  C 1  02 1  0  1 1  02
1 2

4 4
1 1 1
1  A   C   A  C  1
4 4 2
In equation (1) is replaced by the value of t with two ( t =2):

1  A1  21  2  1  22  C 1  22 1  2  1 1  22


12

4 4
9 1 5 3
1   A  9   3C   1   3C  9 A    9 A  3C
4 4 2 2

315
Differential Equations

 1
 3 A  C 
2 
 
A  C  1 
 2 
1
4A = 1  A 
4
1 1 1 1
C   C 
2 4 4 4
1
ABC D
4
1 1 1 1 1
   

1 t2
2
41  t  41  t  2
41  t  41  t 2

1 dt 1 dt 1 dt 1 dt
t     
4 t  1 4 t  1 2
   
4 t  1 4 t  12
1 1 1 1
 t   ln t  1   ln t  1  C
4 4t  1 4 4t  1
t  sin x
y2 1 1 1
 cos y   y   ln sin x  1   ln sin x  1 
2 4 4 sin x  1 4
1
  C; solution.
4 sin x  1

316
Differential Equations

; t  1  4; d t  1  du; t  1' dt  du; dt  du


dt
 t  1 2

dt du u 21 1 1
 t  1  u  2  1 u t  1
2
 2
    

18) Submitting to solve the differential equation:

 y  ctgy  dy  cos x cos x dx ;


6 8

y2
  y  ctgy  dy  
x x x x
cos cos dx ;  ln sin y   cos cos dx
6 8 2 6 8
x x
 6 8 dx
cos cos

cos     cos   
cos cos  
2
 x x  x x
cos    cos  
x
cos cos 
x 6 8 6 8 
6 8 2
1 1 1 1
cos x    cos x  
 6 8 6 8
2

317
Differential Equations

1  x 7  1 x 1 7
2  2 2
t   cos  cos x  dx  cos dx  cos xdx
24 24  24 24

 cos axdx ; ax  t ; d ax   dt ; ax ' dx  dt ; adx  dt ; dx 


dt
a
dt 1 1 1
 cos axdx   cos t 
a a
 cos tdt 
a
sin t 
a
sin ax  C

 

1 1 x 1 7x 
t   sin  sin 
2 1 24 7 24 
 
 24 24 
y 2
1 x 24 7x 
 ln sin y  24 sin  sin   C
2 2 24 7 24 
solution.
19) Submitting to solve the differential equation:

y 3
 4 y 2  3 dy 
1
dx ;
x  1x 2  x  12
y 31 y 21
  y4 4y3
 y  4 y  3 dy  3  1  4 2  1  3 y  4  3  3 y 
3 2

1
 dx

x  1 x  x  1 2
2

dx
 x  1x 2
 x  1
2

318
Differential Equations

1 A Bx  C Dx  E
  2 
x  1x 2  x  1 2
x  1 x  x  1 x 2  x  12

   
1  A x 2  x  1  Bx  C  x 2  x  1 x  1  Dx  E x  1
2

a  b  c 2  a 2  b 2  c 2  2ab  2ac  2bc


x 2
 2
 x  1  x 4  x 2  1  2x3  2x 2  2x
x  x  1 x  1  x  x  x  x  x  1  x  2 x  2 x  1
2 3 2 2 3 2

1  Ax  2 x  3 x  2 x  1  Bx  C x  2 x  2 x  1 


4 3 2 3 2

 Dx  E  x  1

0  x 4  0  x 3  0  x 2  0  x  1  A x 4  2 x 3  3x 2  2 x  1  
  
B x 4  2x3  2x 2  x  C x3  2x 2  2x  1  D x 2  x    
 E  x  1
0  x 4  0  x 3  0  x 2  0  x  1  x 4  A  B   x 3 2 A  2 B  C  
 x 2 3 A  2 B  2C  D   x2 A  B  2C  D  E    A  C  E 

A  B  0 
2 A  2 B  C  0 
 
3 A  2 B  2C  D  0 
2 A  B  2C  D  E  0
 
 A  C  E  1 

For x = -1

319
Differential Equations


1  A  1  1  1  0
2

2

1 A  A 1
B  1
C 0
1 0  E  1  E  0
A  1; B  1; C  0; E  0
3 A  2 B  2C  D  0
3 1  2 1  2  0  D  0  3  2  D  0  D  1
A  1; B  1; C  0 : D  1; E  0
1 1 x0 x0 1
  2   
x  1x 2  x  1 2
x  1 x  x  1 x 2  x  12
x 1
x x
 
x  x  1 x 2  x  12
2

dx xdx xdx
t    2 
x 1 x  x 1 
x2  x 1
2

xdx xdx
 t  ln x  1   2 
x  x 1 x2  x 1 2

xdx
E1  
x  x 1
2

320
Differential Equations

x2  x 1  t
x 2

 x  1 ' dx  dt
2 x  1dx  dt
1 2 xdx 1 2 x  1  1 1 2 x  1dx 1 dx
E1     2
2 x  x 1 2 x  x 1
2
dx   2
  2
2 x  x 1 2 x  x 1  

1 dt 1
    2
2 t 2 x  x 1 2
dx
 ln t    2
1 1 dx
2 x  x 1 2
1

 ln x 2  x  1  
1 dx
  2
2 x  x 1
1 1 dx
E1  ln x 2  x  1   2
2 2 x  x 1
dx
 x2  x 1
2 2 2 2
1 1 1  1 1  1 3
x  x 1  x  2  x       1   x   1   x   
2 2

2 2 2  2 4  2 4

1
x
dx dx 1 2  2 arctg 2 x  1
x 2
 x 1

2
 
2

3
arctg
3 3 3
 1 3
 x     
 2 2
 2   2 
xdx 1 1 2x  1
E1    ln x 2  x  1  arctg  C1
x  x 1 2
2
3 3
1 1  2x  1  xdx
 t  ln x  1  ln x 2  x  1  arctg   
2 3  3  x2  x 1 
2

321
Differential Equations

x2  x 1  u

d x 2  x  1  du 
x 2

 x  1 ' dx  du
2 x  1dx  du
xdx 1 2 xdx 1 2 x  1  1
E2     
 dx 
x2  x 1  2
2 x2  x 1 2

2 x2  x 1 2   
1 2 x  1dx  1 dx 1 du 1 dx
2 
   2  
 x  x 1
2 2
2  x  x 1
2 2
2 u 
2 x  x 1
2 2
  
1 u 21 1 dx 1 1 dx
 
2u 2  x 2  x  1 2
    
2  2 1 2 x2  x 1 2    
1 1 dx
2 x2  x 1 2  x2  x 1 2
 
   
1 1 dx
E2    

2 x  x 1 2 x2  x 1 2
2
  
dx 2 2x 1
1   2  arctg C
x  x 1 3 3
Integration by parts is:

322
Differential Equations

 fg' dx  fg   f ' gdx


f x  
1
x  x 1
2

f ' x  
 
1' x 2  x  1  12 x  1

2 x  1
x 2
 x 1 2
x 2
 x 1 
2

g ' dx  dx

 g ' x dx   dx
g x   x

1  
1
dx  2
x

2 x  1x dx
x  x 1
2
x  x 1 x2  x 1
2
 
x 2x2  x x x2
x2  x 1  x2  x 1 2 x2  x 1  x2  x 1 2
1   dx   2 dx 
   
dx x x 2  x  1  ( x  1) xdx
 x2  x 1 2 x2  x 1  x2  x 1 2
x



 2 dx
 x2  x 1 2   
x
 2 2
dx
 2
x  1dx  xdx
1  2
x  x 1 x  x 1 x2  x 1
2   x2  x 1
2
  

323
Differential Equations

 2 1    x  2 
x dx
1 
x  x 1
2
x2  x  1
2
 
x xdx dx
 1  2   2
x x2 x2  x  1
2
 x2  x  1
2
  
dx x xdx
2 
 1 

x2  x  1 
x  x 1
2

x2  x  1
22
  
xdx 1 1
E2     2

x2  x  1
2

2 x  x 1 2
2
 
x 1 1
2 2  1  2   2
x  x 1 2 x  x 1 2
2
 
2   2  2  1  x

1
x  x 1 2 x  x 1
2 2
 
2 x 1 
2  1  2 

3 x  x  1 2 x  x  1 
2
 
2  2x  1 
1  arctg    C1
3  3 
dx 2 2 2x  1 x 1 
2       C2
x 2
 x 1 
2
3  3
arctg
3 x 2  x  1 2 x 2  x  1   

324
Differential Equations

 2x 1 
y4 4 y3

1

 3 y  ln x  1  ln x 2  x  1 
1
arctg   
4 3 2 3  3 
1 1 2x 1 1 x 1
  arctg    C ; solution .

2 x  x 1 3
2
 3 3 x  x 1 6 x  x 1
2 2
 
1 1
E2    2

2 x  x 1 2
2

1 1 2 2 2x  1 x 1 
E2      arctg  2 

2 x  x 1 2 3  3
2
 3 x  x  1 2 x  x  1 
2
.
 
20) Submitting to solve the differential equation:

 y  1 dy  sin 3x cos 3x dx ;
8 4

y2
  y  1 dy  
3x 3x 3x 3x
sin cos dx ;  y   sin cos dx ;
8 4 2 8 4
3x 3x
 sin 8
cos dx
4
sin      sin    
sin  cos  
2

325
Differential Equations

 3x 3x   3x 3x  3 3 3 3
sin     sin    sin x    sin x  
3x
sin cos 
3x  8 4  8 4
 8 4 8 4 
8 4 2 2
9  3
sin x  sin    x

8  8
x
3x 3x 1  9 x 3x   3x  3x
sin cos  sin  sin ; sin      sin ; odd function.
8 4 2 8 8  8  8

1 9x 3x 
t  
2  sin
8
dx   sin dx
8 

 sin bxdx; bx  t; differentiate : d bx  dt; bx' dx  dt


dt
bdx  dt; dx  .
b
dt 1 1
 sin bxdx   sin t b
  cos t   cos bx  C
b b
 
1 1 9x 1 3x 
 t   cos  cos 
2 9 8 3 8
 8 8 
1 8 9x 8 3x 
 t   cos  cos   C
2 9 8 3 8
y2 4 9x 4 3x
 y   cos  cos  C ; solution .
2 9 8 3 8

326
Differential Equations

21) Submitting to solve the differential equation:

y  e  dy 
y 1
dx ;
x  1 3x  82
2

 y  e  dy   x  1 3x  8
1 y2 1
y
dx;  ey   dx;
2 2
2 x  1 3x  82
2

dx
 x  1 3x  8
2 2

1 A B C D
   
x  12 3x  82 x  1 x  12 3x  8 3x  82
1  Ax  13x  8  B3x  8  C x  1 3x  8  Dx  1 ; x  C
2 2 2 2

relation (1)

Matchingdenomin ator of zero : x  12 3x  82  0; x1  1; x2   8


3
In equation (1) is replaced with a value of x ( x =1):

1  B3  1  8  B 
2 1
121
In equation (1) is replaced by the value of x to -8 / 3 ( x =-8/3):
2
 8 
1  D   1
 3 
2
 11  9
1  D   D 
3 121

327
Differential Equations

1 9
B ;D 
121 121
In equation (1) is replaced by the value of x to zero ( x =0):

1  A0  13  0  8  3  0  82  C 0  12 3  0  8 


2 1
121

9
0  12
121
64 9
1  64 A   8C 
121 121
73 48 6
64 A  8C   1  64 A  8C    8A  C  
121 121 121
In equation (1) is replaced by the value of x minus one ( x =-1):

1  A 2 3  8   3  82  C  1  12  3  8  9  1  12


2 1
121 121
25 36
1  2  25 A   20C 
121 121
61 60
50 A  20C   1  50 A  20C   ;
121 121
 6 
5 A  2C   121 
 
8 A  C   6
 /  2
121 

328
Differential Equations

6 12 6 6
 5 A  2C   ;  16 A  2C  ;  11A  ; A
121 121 121 1331
6 6 30 6
5  2C    2C    
1331 121 1331 121
 30  66 18
 2C  C 
1331 1331
6 1 18 9
A ;B  ;C  ;D 
1331 121 1331 121
1 6 1 18 1
    
x  12 3x  82 1331x  1 121x  12 1331 3x  8
9

1213 x  8
2

y2 6 1 18
 ey   ln x  1   ln 3x  8 
2 1331 121x  1 1331  3
9
  C ; solution .
121  33 x  8
dt

 3x  8   t  3 ln t   3 ln 3x  8  C
dx 3 1 1

3x  8  t;
d 3x  8  dt

3dx  dt ; 3x  8' dx  dt ; dx 


dt
3

329
Differential Equations

dt
dx 1 t  21 1 1
 3x  8  2 
3  
33x  8
.
2
t 3  2 1 3t
22) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
 1
 cos y   dy  1  x 2 dx ;
 y

 1
  cos y 

 dy  
y 
1  x 2 dx;

 1 dy
  cos y 

 dy   cos ydy  
y y
 sin y  ln y   1  x 2 dx;

 1  x 2 dx

x  sin t
dx  d sin t   sin t ' dt
dx  cos tdt
1  x 2  1  sin t   cos t
2

 t   cos t cos tdt   cos 2 tdt

1  cos 2t
cos 2 
2
t 
1
 1  cos 2t dt  1 t  sin 2t   C
2 2 2 

330
Differential Equations

 cos 2tdt
2t  u
d 2t   du
2t ' dt  du
2dt  du
du
dt 
2
du 1 1
 cos 2tdt   cos u  sin u  sin 2t  C1
2 2 2
t sin 2t
t   C
2 4
x  sin t
arcsin x  arcsin sin t  t
t  arcsin x

 sin 2 arcsin x   C ;
arcsin x 1
sin y  ln y 
2 4
Differential equation solution.

23) Submitting to solve the differential equation:


ln x ln x
ln y dy  dx ;  ln y dy   dx ;  ln y dy  y ln y  y;
x x

331
Differential Equations

Apply integration by parts formula:


ln x
y ln y  y   dx ;
x

ln x dx
 x
dx   ln x
x

d ln x   dt ; ln x ' dx  dt ; dx


ln x  t ;  dt
x
1 3
1
2 2
t t 2 3 2
 t   t dt    t  t t  C ; t  ln x
1 3 3 3
1
2 2
2
y ln y  y  (ln x)( ln x )  C ;
3
Differential equation solution.
24) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
2x 2x
arctgy dy 
1 4 x
dx;  arctgy dy  
1 4 x
dx;

y 1
 arctgy dy  yarctgy  
1 y 2
dy  yarctgy  ln 1  y 2 ;
2

Apply integration by parts formula:


1 2x
y arctgy  ln 1  y 2   dx;
2 1 4x

332
Differential Equations

2 x dx
 1 4x

   
4 x  22 x  22
x
 4 x  22x

t  
2 x dx
 
; 2 x  t ; d 2 x  dt; 2 ' dx  dt;2
x x
ln 2dx  dt
1 2  x 2

dt
dt 1 dt
2 x dx  ;  t   ln 2   ; t  sin u
ln 2 1 t 2 ln 2 1 t 2

dt  d sin u   sin u ' du; dt  cos udu

1  t 2  1  sin 2 u  cos u
1 cos u u
ln 2  cos u
t  du  C
ln 2
t  sin u
arcsin t  arcsin sin u  u
1
u  arcsin t ;  t  arcsin t   C; t  2 x ;
ln 2
1
y arctgy  ln 1  y 2 
2
1
ln 2
  
arcsin 2 x  C ; solution .

333
Differential Equations

25) Apply integration by parts formula:

 
a  6 y dy  x
y ex

dx;  a  6 y dy   x
y ex
dx;
e 9 e 9

 a 
y
 6 y dy   ay
dy  6  ydy 
ay
ln a
 6
y2

ex
2  ex  9
dx;

e x dx
 ex  9

ex  9  t

d e x  9  dt 
e x

 9 ' dx  dt
e x dx  dt
e x dx
   ln t 
dt
t   x
e 9 t
ay
 3 y 2  ln e x  9  C ;
ln a
Differential equation solution.
26) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
e2x e2x
 y  2 dy  dx;   y  2 dy   dx;
4e x  8 4e x  8
y2 e2x
 2y   dx;
2 4e x  8

334
Differential Equations

e 2 x dx
 4e x  8
e2x  e x  e x
e x e x dx
t  
4e x  8

4e x  8  t 2

d 4  e x  8  dt 2
4e x
  
 8 ' dx  t 2 dt
'

4e x dx  2tdt
t
e x dx  dt
2
4e x  8  t 2
4e x  t 2  8
t2 8
ex 
4

335
Differential Equations

t2 8 t
e x dx
dt
1 t 3  8t  
e   
x 4 2 dt
4e x  8 t2 8 t

t 
1 2
8

t  8 dt 
1 t 3 
 t    8t   C
83 
4e x  8  t 2
t  4e x  8
y2
2
 2y 
1
24
 4e  8    4e  8  C
x
3
x

differential equation solution.


27) Submitting to solve the differential equation:

 y sin y  dy  1  x  dx;   y sin y  dy   1  x  dx;


1 x 1 x
  y sin y  dy  y  cos y    cos ydy   y cos y  sin y

 y cos y  sin y  
1  x  dx;
1 x

1 x
 1 x
dx

336
Differential Equations

x  t2
   
dx  d t 2  t 2 ' dt
dx  2tdt
1 x 1 t2 t3  t
 1  x dx   1  t 2tdt  2 t  1 dt
t3  t t+1
-t3-t2 t2-t+2
-t2+t
t2+t
2t
-2t-2
-2 rest

t 3  t  t  1 t 2  t  2  2 
t3  t t  1t 2
 t  2  2 2
 t 2
t 2
t 1 t 1 t 1
t 3 t 2 
 t  2   2t  2 ln t  1   C
3 2 

337
Differential Equations

t x
 x
 y cos y  sin y  2
  3
x
  2 x  2 ln  

x 1   C ;
 3 3 

differential equation solution.

28) Submitting to solve the differential equation:


 y cos y dy  x 3e 2 x dx;   y cos y  dy   x 3 e 2 x dx;
  y cos y  dy  y sin y   sin ydy  y sin y  cos y;
y sin y  cos y   x 3 e 2 x dx;

x e
3 2x
dx

 f x g ' x dx  f x g x    f ' x g x dx; f x   x 3 ;


e2x
f ' x   3 x ; g ' x dx  e dx;  g ' x dx   e dx; g  x  
2 2x 2x

2
2 x  t ; d 2 x   dt ; 2 x ' dx  dt ; 2dx  dt  dx 
dt
2
dt 1 t 1 2 x
e dx   e x  e  e  C1
2x

2 2 2

338
Differential Equations

x 3e 2 x e2x 2
 x e dx  2   2 3x dx
3 2x

x 3e 2 x 3 2 2 x
t    x e dx
2 2
 x e dx
2 2x

 f x g ' x dx  fg   f ' gdx


f x   x 2
f ' x   2 x
e 2 x dx  f '  x dx

e
2x
dx   g '  x dx  g  x 
e2x e2x
g x   
2 2
e2x e2x x 2 2x
 x e dx  x 2   2  2 xdx  2 e   xe dx
2 2x 2 2x

x 3e 2 x 3 2 2 x 3
t   x e   xe2 x dx  C
2 4 2

 xe
2x
dx

 fg' dx  fg   f ' gdx

339
Differential Equations

f x   x
f ' x   1
g ' dx  e 2 x dx

 g ' dx   e
2x
dx
e2x
g x  
2
xe 2 x e2x xe 2 x e 2 x
 xe dx  2   2 dx  2  4  C1
2x

x 3e 2 x 3x 2 2 x 3  xe2 x e 2 x 
y sin y  cos y   e      C ; differential
2 4 2 2 4 
equation solution.

29) Submitting to solve the differential equation:


ln 3 x ln 3 x y2 ln 3 x
y dy 
x2
dx;  y dy  
x2
dx;
2

x2
dx;

ln 3 xdx dx
 x  
3
2
ln x
x2

340
Differential Equations

 fg' dx  fg   f ' gdx; ln x  ln x 


3 3

f '  x   3ln x ' ln x   f '  x   ln 2 x; g ' dx  2 ;  g ' dx   2


31 3 dx dx
x x x
x 21
g x     ; g x   
1 1
 2 1 x x

 3 dx 1
  13 2 ln x 
3
dx
    xx     
3 2
ln x ln x ln xdx ; t 3 ln x
x2 x x x2
1   ln 2 x 2 ;  fg' dx  fg   f ' gdx; f  x   ln x 
dx 2

x
f ' x   ln x; y ' dx  2 ; g x   
2 dx 1
x x x

 ln x  2 dx
2
1
 ln x 2   1 2 ln x dx
x x x x
dx ln x 
2
dx
     x2
2
ln x 2 ln x
x2 x
dx
 ln x x2
 fg' dx  fg   f ' gdx
f x   ln x

f ' x  
1
x

341
Differential Equations

dx
g ' dx 
x2
dx
 g ' dx   x2
g x   
1
x
dx 1 1 1 1
 ln x x 2
  ln x   2 dx   ln x 
x x x x
dx ln x  2 2
2
 ln x x 2   x  x ln x  x  C1
2

y2

ln x 
3
3
ln x  6 ln x 6
2
  C
2 x x x x
differential equation solution.

30) Submitting to solve the differential equation:


y2
 y  8 dy  1
dx;   y  8 dy  
1
dx ;  8y   x
1
dx;
2 8
x
2 8
x
2 2 8
dx
2 x
8
, variable is changing: 2  8  t
x

342
Differential Equations


d 2 x  8  dt 
2 x

 8 ' dx  dt
2 x ln 2dx  dt
2x  t  8
dt
dx 
ln 2t  8
dt
dx t  8 ln 2  1 dt
 2x  8  t
ln 2  t t  8
1 dt
t  
ln 2 t t  8
1 A B
 
t t  8 t t  8
At  8  Bt  1; t  C ; relation (1).
t1  0 
t t  8  0;  
2
t  8 
In equation (1) is replaced with a zero value of t ( t = 0):

A0  8  1  A  
1
8
In equation (1) is replaced by the value of t with eight ( t = 8):

343
Differential Equations

1
B 8  1  B 
8
1 1
A  B
8 8
1 1 1
 
t t  8 8t 8t  8
1 ln t 1
t    ln t  8  C
8 ln 2 8 ln 2
2x  8  t
1 2x  8  8
t  ln C
8 ln 2 2x  8
y2 1 2x
8y  ln x C
2 8 ln 2 2  8
solution.
31) Submitting to solve the differential equation:

y n

 6 dy  cos
x
dx;  y
n

 6 dy   cos
x
dx;
3 3

y n 1 x
 6 y   cos dx;
n 1 3

x
 cos 3
dx

344
Differential Equations

x
t
3
 x 
d    dt
 3

 x 
 ' dx  dt
 3 
1
dx  dt
3
dx  3dt
cos x x
 3 dx   cos t 3dt  3 sin t  3 sin
3
C

y n1 x
 6 y  3 sin  C ; solution.
n 1 3
32) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
y 4

 96 dy  sin 2 x dx;  y
4
 96  dy   sin 2 x dx;

y5
 96 y   sin 2 x dx;
5
1  cos 2 x
 sin xdx  
2
dx
2

345
Differential Equations

1  cos 2 x y5 1  sin 2 x 
sin x 
2
;  96 y   x   C; solution.
2 5 2 2 

 cos 2 xdx; 2 x  t ; d 2 x   dt; 2 x ' dx  dt;2dx  dt


dt
dx 
2
dt 1 1
 cos 2 xdx   cos t  sin t  sin 2 x  C .
2 2 2
33) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
y 45

 23 y dy  cos 2 x dx;

 y  23 y  dy  
y 46 y2
45 2
cos x dx;  23   cos 2 x dx;
46 2

 cos
2
xdx

1  cos 2 x
cos 2 x 
2
y 46
y 2
1  cos 2 x 1  sin 2 x 
 23  dx   x  C
46 2 2 2 2 
solution.

34) Submitting to solve the differential equation:

346
Differential Equations

y 31

 26 y dy 
1
x
dx;  y
31

 26 y dy  
1
x
dx;
sin sin
8 8

y 32 1
 13 y 2   dx;
32 x
sin
8

dx
 x , variable is changing:
sin
8

 t ; x  8t ; dx  d 8t   8t ' dt  dx  8dt ;  t  


x 8dt dt
 8
8 sin t sin t
t t
2tg 1  tg 2

sin t  2 ;  4 2 dt
t
t t
1  tg 2 tg
2 2
t t t
tg  u; arctgtg  arctgu ;  arctgu ; t  2arctgu
2 2 2
dt  d 2arctgu   2arctgu ' du ; dt 
2
du
1 u 2
1 u2 2 du
 t  4  du  8  u  8 ln u  C 
u 1 u2
t x y 32   x 
 8 ln tg  C ; t  ;  13 y 2  8 ln tg    C ; solution .
2 8 32   16 
35) Submitting to solve the differential equation:

347
Differential Equations

 dy   x 9 x dx; y   x 9 x dx;
2 2
dy  x 9 x dx;
2

 x9 dx   9 xdx ;
2 2
x x

 
x 2  t ; d x 2  dt ; x ' dx  dt ;
2
2 xdx  dt ; xdx 
dt
2
dt 1 9 t 1 x2 ax
t   9 t
 C  9  C;  a dx  ln a  C
x

2 2 ln 9 2 ln 9
2
9x
y  C; solution.
2 ln 9
36) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
x x
(e y  3)dy 
6 x  11
2
dx;  (e y  3)dy  
6 x  112
dx;

x
e y  3y   dx;
6 x  11
2

xdx
 6x2
 11

6 x 2  11  t ; d 6 x 2  11  dt ; 6 x 2

 11 ' dx  dt ; 12 xdx  dt
dt
xdx 
12

348
Differential Equations

dt
1 1
 t   12  ln t ; e y  3 y  ln 6 x 2  11  C; solution .
t 12 12
37) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
x x
(4e y  sin y )dy 
x 62
dx;  (4e y  sin y )dy  
x 6
2
dx;

x
4e y  cos y   dx;
x 6
2

xdx
x 2
6


x 2  6  t ; d x 2  6  dt ;  x 2

 6 ' dx  dt ; 2 xdx  dt ; xdx 
dt
2
dt
xdx 2  1 ln t ; 4e y  cos y  1 ln x 2  6  C ; solution .
 x 6  t 2
2

2
38) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
x5 x5
( y 3  1)dy 
x2 1
dx;  ( y 3  1)dy  
x2 1
dx;

y4 x5
y dx;
4 x2 1

x5 xdx dx
 x2 1
dx  
x2 1
 5
x2 1

349
Differential Equations

xdx
 x 2 1

x2  1  t 2
 
d x 2  1  dt 2
x   
 1 '  t 2 ' dt
2

2 xdx  2tdt
xdx  tdt
xdx tdt
 x2  1

t
 t  x2  1

xdx
 x 1
2
 x 2  1  C1

dx
 x a
2 2
 ln x  x 2  a 2  C1

dx
 x2  1
 ln x  x 2  1  C1

y4
 y  x 2  1  5 ln x  x 2  1  C ; solution .
4
39) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
1 1
( y 3  1)dy 
x  x2 1
4
dx;  ( y 3  1)dy  
x  x2 1
4
dx;

y4 1
y dx;
4 x  x2 1
4

350
Differential Equations

dx
x 4
 x2 1

x 4  x 2  1  x 4  x 2  x 2  x 2  1  x 4  2x 2  1  x 2  

 x2 1  x2 
2

a 2  b 2  a  ba  b

x 2

2

1  x2  x2 1 x x2 1 x ;  x2  x 1  0
1 1 4 1 Ax  B Cx  D
x1, 2   2  2
2
;
  
x  x 1 x  x 1 x  x 1 x  x 1
2 2

1

  
Ax  B  x 2  x  1  Cx  D  x 2  x  1  
x4  x2 1 x4  x2 1
    
1  A x3  x 2  x  B x 2  x 1  C x3  x 2  x  D x 2  x 1   
1  0  x3  0  x 2  0  x 1
0  x3  0  x2  0  x 1  x3 A  C  
 x 2  A  B  C  D    x A  B  C  D   B  D ;
Matching the coefficients result:
A  C  0 
 A  B  C  D  0
 
 
 A  B  C  D  0 
 B  D  1 

351
Differential Equations

 B  D  0
 
B  D  1 
2B = 1
1 1
B ;D 
2 2
A  C  0 
 
 A  B  C  D  0
A  C  0 
 
 1 1 
 A   C   0 
2 2
A  C  0 
 
 A  C  1
2A = -1
1 1 1 1
A   ; B  ;C  ; D 
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
 x x
1
 22 2 2 2
x  x 1 x  x 1 x  x 1
4 2 2

352
Differential Equations

dx 1 xdx 1 dx 1 xdx
x  x 1
42
  2   2   2
2 x  x 1 2 x  x 1 2 x  x 1

1 dx dx
  2 ; 1   2
2 x  x 1 x  x 1
2 2 2
1 1 1  1 1
x  x 1  x  2  x       1   x   1 
2 2

2 2 2  2 4

1
2 x
 1 3 dx 1
  x    ; 1    arctg 2
 2 4 2
1  3
2
 3 3
 x     
 2   2  2 2
2 2x 1
1  arctg  C1
3 3
dx 1 x  a   C;
 x  a  
 b2 b
2
arctg
b
dx dx
2   2 
x  x 1  1  3
2 2

 x     
 2   2 
2 2 2
1 1 1  1 1
x  x 1  x  2  x       1   x   1 
2 2

2 2 2  2 4

353
Differential Equations

1

2

2 x
 1 3 1
  x      ; 2 
 arctg 2  C 2;
 2  2  3 3
2 2
2 2x  1
2  arctg  C 2;
3 3
1 xdx 1 2 2x  1 1 xdx
t  
2 x  x 1 2 3
2
  arctg
3
  2
2 x  x 1

1 2 2x  1
  arctg C
2 3 3
xdx
3  
x  x 1
2

   
x 2  x  1  t; d x 2  x  1  dt; x 2  x  1 ' dx  dt; 2 x  1dx  dt
1 2 xdx 1 2 x  1  1 1 dt 1 2 2x 1
2  x  x 1 2  x  x 1 2 t 2 3
3  2
 2
dx    arctg
3

1 1  2x 1 
 3  ln t  arctg    C3
2 3  3 
1 1 2x 1
 3  ln x 2  x  1  arctg  C3
2 3 3
4   2
xdx
x  x 1

; x 2  x  1  u; d x 2  x  1  du 
 
x  x  1 ' dx  du; 2 x  1dx  du
2

354
Differential Equations

1 2 xdx 1 2 x  1  1
4     2
2 x  x 1 2 x x 1
2
dx 

1 2 x  1dx 1 dx 1 du 1 2 2x 1
  2   2    arctg 
2 x  x 1 2 x  x 1 2 u 2 3 3
1 1 2x 1
 ln u  arctg  C4
2 3 3
1 1 2x 1
 4  ln x 2  x  1  arctg  C4
2 3 3
y4 1 1 1 2 x  1 1 2x 1
 y    ln x 2  x  1  arctg   arctg 
4 2 2 3 3  3 3
1 1 2x 1 1 2x 1
 ln x 2  x  1  arctg  arctg  C ; solution .
4 2 3 3 3 3
40) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
1 1 1 1
( y3  5
)dy  dx;  ( y 3  5 )dy   dx;
y 4
1 x4 y 4
1 x4
4 51 4
y y 1 y 1 1
  dx;  4  dx;
4  5 1 4
1 x4 4 4y 4
1 x4
dx
 4
1 x4
Variable is changed:

355
Differential Equations

x4 1 4 1 1 1 1
 t ; 1 4  t 4 ;  t 4  1; x4  ; x
x 4
x x 4
t 1
4 4
t 4 1
 1   1 
dx  d  
 4 4
' dt;
 u '  n  u'u
n n 1

 t 1   t 1 
4 4

 1   4  
      
1 1 5
1  1 1 
 '   t  1 4    t 4  1 ' t 4  1 4   4t 3 t 4  1 4 
4 4 
 t 1    4 4
t3

 
t 4 1 4 t 4 1

t3
dx   dt
t 4

1 4 t 4 1
4
 1  1 t4
1 x  1  
  1 t 4 1  t 4 1
4


4 4
t  1 
t
4
1 x4 
t 1
4 4

t3
 dt
dx t 1 t 1
4

4 4
 t 3 dt t 1
4 4

 4 1 x4   t
 
t 4 1 4 t 4 1  t 
t 1
4 4

356
Differential Equations

t 2 dt
 t   4
t 1
 
a 4  b 4  a  b a  b  a 2  b 2 ; t 4  1  t  1t  1 t 2  1  
t2 A B Ct  D
   2
t 1 t 1 t 1 t 1
4

   
t 2  At  1 t 2  1  Bt  1 t 2  1  Ct  D  t 2  1 ;  
t  C ; relation (1)

t 4 1  0; t 2
 
1 t 2  1  0; t 2 1  0; t  1
In equation (1) t is replaced with a value ( t =1):

 
12  A1  1 12  1  1  4 A  A 
1
4
In equation (1) t is replaced with a value less ( t = -1):

 12 
 A  0  B 1  1 1  1  1  4 B  B  
2
 1
4
In equation (1) is replaced t with zero ( t = 0):

02 
1
4
  
0  1 0 2  1  1 0  1 0 2  1  C  0  D  0 2  1
4
  
1 1 1
0  DD
4 4 2
1 1 1
A  ;B   ;D 
4 4 2

357
Differential Equations

In equation (1) t is replaced with two value ( t = 2):

22 
1
     
2  1 2 2  1  1 2  1 2 2  1   2C  1  2 2  1
4 4  2
15 5 3 10 3 5 3
4   6C   4    6C  4    6C 
4 4 2 4 2 2 2
 4  4  6C  C  0
1 1 1
Result : A  ; B   ; C  0; D 
4 4 2
1
2 0t 
t 1 1
   2 2
t  1 4t  1 4t  1
4
t 1
t2
 t 1 4
4
dt 
1
ln t  1 
1
ln t  1 
1
arctgt  C
4 2
 t   ln t  1  ln t  1  arctgt  C
1 1 1
4 4 2
x4  1 4 x4  1 4
x4  1
t ; t  4 
x4 x4 x
4
x4  1
1  4 x4  1 
y4 1 1 1
 4  ln x  arctg    C ; solution .
4 4y 4 4
x 1
4 2  x 
1 
x

358
Differential Equations

41) Submitting to solve the differential equation:


(4 y  8)dy  a  cx dx;  (4 y  8)dy   a  cx dx;
2y2  8y   a  cx dx;

 a  cx dx

a  cx  t 2 ; d a  cx   dt 2 ; a  cx ' dx  t 2 ' dt
2t
 cdx  2tdt  dx   dt
c
2 2t  2 2 2 t3
 a  cx dx   t   c dt   c  t dt   c 3  A
2
 t   t 3  A; t  a  cx ; 2 y 2  8 y  
3c
2
3c
3
a  cx  A  
A is some constant.
42) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
x x
( y 6  9)dy 
x2  6
dx;  ( y 6  9)dy  
x2  6
dx;

y7 x
 9y   dx;
7 x2  6
xdx
 x2  b
 t

 
x 2  6  t 2 ; d x 2  6  dt 2 ; x 2
  
 6 ' dx  t 2 ' dt; 2xdx  2tdt

359
Differential Equations

xdx tdt y7
xdx  tdt ;  x2  6

t
  dt  t;
7
 9 y  x2  6  C

solution.
43) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
1 1
(12  y )dy 
 
dx;  (12  y )dy  
 
dx;
11 cos 4 x   11 cos 4 x  
 4  4
y2 1
12 y   dx;
2  
11cos 4 x  
 4

dx 1 dx
 
 
  11  
11 cos 4 x   cos 4 x  
 4  4
Variable is changing:

4x  t
4
    dt
d  4 x    dt ;  4 x  ' dx  dt ; 4dx  dt ; dx 
 4  4 4
dt t
1  tg 2
1 1 dt
t   4   ; cos t  2
11 cos t 44 cos t t
1  tg 2
2

360
Differential Equations

t
1  tg 2
1 2 dt ; tg t  u; arctgtg t  arctgu ; t  arctgu
t  
44 1  tg 2 t 2 2 2
2
t  2arctgu ; dt  d 2arctgu   2arctgu ' du; dt 
2
du
1 u2
1 1  u 2 2du 1 du 1 1 u 1
t   
44 1  u 1  u
2 2
  2
22 u  1
 ln
22 2 u  1
C

t
1
tg
1 2 
 t   ln  C; t  4 x 
44 t 4
tg  1
2

  
 4x  
tg  4 
 2 
2  
  ln    1  C ; solution .
y 1
12 y 
2 44   
 4x  
tg  4 
 2 
 
 
44) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
sin x cos x
(e 2 y  1)dy  dx;
cos x  sin x
2 2

361
Differential Equations

sin x cos x e2 y sin x cos x


  1)dy   y
2y
(e dx; dx;
cos 2 x  sin 2 x 2 cos 2 x  sin 2 x
sin x cos xdx
 cos 2 x  sin 2 x
cos 2 x  1  sin 2 x; cos 2 x  sin 2 x  1  sin 2 x  sin 2 x  1  2 sin 2 x
sin x cos xdx
t  
1  2 sin 2 x
   
1  2 sin 2 x  t 2 ; d 1  2 sin 2 x  dt 2 ; 1  sin 2 x ' dx  t 2 ' dt  

 sin x  ' dx  2tdt ;
2
 u '  n  u'u
n n 1

sin x '  2sin x' sin x


2 21
 2 cos x sin x;  2 cos x sin xdx  2tdt
tdt
t       dt  t  C
t
e2 y
 y   1  2 sin 2 x  C ; solution .
2
45) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
1 1
(e  y  a 3 y )dy  3
dx;  (e  y  a 3 y )dy   dx;
x ln x x ln 3 x
a3y 1
 ey   dx;
3 ln a x ln 3 x
dx
 x ln 3 x

362
Differential Equations

Variable is changing:
ln x  t

d ln x   dt; ln x ' dx  dt;


1
dx  dt
x
1 dx 1 t 31 t 2 1
 ln x x  t
3
 3
dt  
 3 1  2
 
2t 2

y a3y 1
e    C ; solution.
2ln x 
2
3 ln a
46) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
1  sin x  dx; 1  sin x  dx; y2 1  sin x  dx;
ydy 
x  cos x  ydy  
x  cos x 2

x  cos x
1  sin x dx
 x  cos x
x  cos dx  t ; d  x  cos x   dt ; x  cos x ' dx  dt
1  sin x dx  dt
dt y2
t    ln t  C;  ln x  cos x  C ; solution.
t 2

363
Differential Equations

47) Submitting to solve the differential equation:

y  4 y 2

 6 cos y dy 
1
dx;  y  4 y
2

 6 cos y dy  
1
dx;
ex ex
y2 4y3 1
  6 sin y   dx;
2 3 ex
dx
 ex
    e ' dx  t ' dt;
ex  t 2; d ex  d t 2 ; x 2
e x dx  2tdt ; e x  t 2
2t 2
dx  2
dt  dx  dt
t t
dt
2
dx dt t 21 2 2
 e x   t  2 t 2  2  2  1   t   e x  C;
t

y2 4 y3 2
  6 sin y    C; solution.
2 3 ex
48) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
3 y  9dy  4 x cos x dx;  3 y  9dy   4 x cos x dx;
3y 2
 9 y   4 x cos x dx;
2

4
x
cos xdx

364
Differential Equations

 f xg ' xdx  f xg x   f ' xg xdx


 
f x   4 x ; f ' x   4 x ln 4; a x '  a x ln a
g ' x dx  cos xdx

 g ' x dx   cos xdx


g x   sin x

4 cos xdx  4 x sin x   4 x ln 4 sin xdx


x

 
1   4 x sin xdx  4 x cos x   cos x  4 x ln 4dx

 fg' dx  fg   f ' gdx


f x   4 x ; f ' x   4 x ln 4; g ' dx  sin xdx;  g ' dx   sin xdx
y x    cos x

4 sin xdx  4 x cos x  ln 4 4 x cos xdx


x


 t   4 x cos dx  4 x sin x  ln 4  4 x cos x  ln 4 4 x cos xdx 
1  ln 4 4
2 x
cos xdx  4 x sin x  4 x ln 4 cos x  C
4 x sin x  ln 4 cos x  3y2
 4 cos xdx     9 y ; solution .
x
C
1  ln 2 4 2

365
Differential Equations

49) Submitting to solve the differential equation:


 y  sin y dy  5 x sin x dx;   y  sin y dy   5 x sin x dx;
y2
 cos y   5 x sin x dx;
2

5
x
sin xdx

 fg' dx  f x g x    f ' x gdx


f x   5 x ; f ' x   5 x ln 5; g ' dx  sin xdx ;  g ' dx   sin xdx
g x    cos x

5 sin xdx  5 x cos x   5 x ln 5 cos xdx


x

 t   5 x sin xdx  5 x cos x  ln 5 5 x cos xdx

 5 cos xdx
x

 fg' dx  f x g x    f ' x g x dx


f x   5 x ; f ' x   5 x ln 5; g ' dx  cos dx;  g ' dx   cos xdx
g x   sin x

5 cos xdx  5 x sin x   5 x ln 5 sin xdx  5 x sin x  ln 5 5 x sin xdx


x

366
Differential Equations


 t   5 x sin xdx  5 x cos x  ln 5 5 x sin x  ln 5 5 x sin xdx  C 
1  ln 5  5 sin xdx  5  cos x  ln 5sin x C
2 x x

5x y2
 t   5 sin xdx 
x
 cos x  ln 5 sin x  C   cos y;
1  ln 5
2
2
solution.
50) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
 y  sin y dy  cos(ln x) dx;   y  sin y dy   cos(ln x) dx;
y2
 cos y   cos(ln x) dx;
2

 cosln x dx
 fg' dx  fg   f ' gdx
f x   cosln x ; f ' x   ln x ' sin ln x    sin ln x 
1
x
cos u '  u ' sin u; g ' dx  dx;  g ' dx   dx; g x   x

 cosln x dx  x cosln x    x sin ln x dx


x

 t   cosln x dx  x cosln x    sin ln x dx

367
Differential Equations

1   sin ln x dx

 fg' dx  fg   f ' gdx


f  x   sin ln x ; f '  x   ln x ' cosln x   cosln x ;
1
g ' dx  dx
x
 g ' dx   dx; g x   x

 sin ln x dx  x sin ln x    x cosln x dx  x sin ln x    cosln x dx
x

 cosln x dx  x cos ln x  x sin ln x    cosln x dx


y2
2  cosln x dx  xcosln x   sin ln x   C ;  cos y 
2
 cosln x   sin ln x   C ; solution .
x
2

51) Submitting to solve the differential equation:


dy  x 6 ln x dx;  dy   x 6 ln x dx; y   x 6 ln x dx;

x ln xdx   ln x  x 6 dx
6

 fg' dx  fg   f ' gdx

f  x   ln x; f '  x   ln x ' 


1
; g ' dx  x 6 dx;  g ' dx   x
6
dx
x

368
Differential Equations

x7
g x  
7
7
x x7 1 x7 1 6 x7 1 x7
t  ln x   dx  ln x   x dx;  t  ln x   C
7 7 x 7 7 7 7 7
x7 x7
y ln x   C; solution .
7 49
52) Submitting to solve the differential equation :

 sin ydy   x 4e x dx;


5
4  x5
sin ydy  x e dx;
 cos y   x 4e x dx;
5

 x e dx
4 x 5

 
 x 5  t ; d  x 5  dt;  x ' dx  dt;
5
 5 x 4 dx  dt 
dt  dt  1
x 4 dx   ;  t   e  x x 4 dx   et      et  C
5

5  5 5
1 5
 cos y   e  x  C ; solution.
5
53) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
12 
y  1 dy  x 2  6 x  8 ln x dx;

369
Differential Equations

 12 y  1 dy   x 2  6 x  8ln x dx;

 y  112
13

12
13

  x 2  6 x  8 ln x dx;
 x  
 6 x  8 ln xdx   ln x  x 2  6 x  8 dx 
2

 fg' dx  fg   f ' gdx

f  x   ln x; f '  x   ln x ' 


1
x


g ' dx  x 2  6 x  8 dx;   g ' dx   x
2

 6 x  8 dx
x3 6x2 x3
g x     8 x; g x    3x 2  8 x
3 2 3
x3
 3x 2  8 x
x 
 
3

 ln x  x 2
 6 x  8 dx  
 3  3 x 2
 8 x  ln x   3 dx
  x

 y  112
13
 x3  1 x 3 3x 2
12    3x  8x  ln x 
2
  8x  C; solution.
13  3  3 3 2

370
Differential Equations

54) Submitting to solve the differential equation:


2  x  dx ; 2  x  dx
y dy  x ln
2  x   y dy   x ln
2  x 
;

3
y2
  x ln
2  x  dx
3 2  x 
2

2 x
  2  x dx
x ln

  2  x 
 ln  2  x xdx    fg' dx  fg   f ' gdx
 2 x
 '
 2 x  2 x
f  x   ln  ; f '  x  
2 x 2 x
2 x
 2  x   2  x   2  x   2  x  2  x 4
 '    
2 x 2  x 2 2  x 2 2  x 2
4 2 x
f ' x    f ' x  
4 4
 ;
2  x  2  x 2  x 2  x 
2
x 4
2

x2
g ' dx  xdx;  g ' dx   xdx; g x  
2

371
Differential Equations

x2  2  x  x2 4
t  ln     2
 dx
2 2 x 2 x 4

x2  2  x  x2
2  2  x   x2  4
t  ln  2 dx

1   2
x 2 dx


x2  4  4  dx
x 4 x2  4
dx   dx  4  x 2  22 
1 x2
 x  4  ln C
2 x2

2 y y x2  2  x  x2
 ln    2 x  4 ln  C , solution .
3 2 2 x x2
55) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
ln ln x  ln ln x  ln ln x 
dy 
x
dx; ;  dy  
x
dx; y  
x
dx;

ln ln x 
dx   ln ln x 
dx
 x x

ln x  t ; d ln x   dt ;
1
dx  dt
x
 t   ln t  dt   f  x g ' t dt  f t g t    f ' t gdt

f t   ln t ; f ' t   ; g ' t dt  dt ;  g ' dt   dt ; g t   t


1
t

372
Differential Equations

t
 t   ln tdt  t ln t   dt  t ln t  t ; t  ln x
t
y  ln x ln ln x   ln x  C; solution .
56) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
 
( y  4)dy  x 2  6 arctg3x dx; ;  ( y  4)dy   x 2  6  arctg 3 x dx;

y2
2
 
 4 y   x 2  6 arctg3x dx;

 x
2
 6 arctg 3 xdx   arctg 3 x  x 2  6 dx  
 f x  f ' x dx  f x g x    f ' x g x dx
f  x   arctg 3 x; f ' x  
3x ' ; arctgu '  u '
1  3 x  1 u 2
2

f ' x  
3
1 9x2
; 
g ' dx  x 2  6 dx;   g ' dx   x
2

 6 dx

x3
g x    6x
3
 x3   x3  3
 arctg3 x  x 6 2
dx  

 3  6 x 
 arctg3 x    3
  6 x  dx
 1  9x
2
 

 x3 
 t    6 x arctg3x  
x x 2  18
dx
 
 3  1  9 x 2

373
Differential Equations

x3 + 18x 9x2 + 1
x 1
- x3 - x
9 9

 1  161x
x18     rest
 9 9

x 3  18 x x
 2x 161
x  18 x  9 x  1 
3

9 9
x;  
161x
9x  1 9 9 9x2  1
2
 
x 3  18 x 1 161 x
1  
9 9  9x2  1
dx  xdx  dx
9x2  1
1 x 2 161 xdx
9  9x2  1
1  
9 2

 
9 x 2  1  t ; d 9 x 2  1  dt ; 18 xdx  dt ; xdx 
dt
18
dt
xdx 18  1 ln t  1 ln 9 x 2  1
 9 x 2  1  t 18

18
x 2 161 1
1    ln 9 x 2  1
18 9 18
 x3 
 
2
y x 2 161
 4 y    6 x arctg 3x   ln 9 x 2  1  C ; solution .
2  3  18 162

374
Differential Equations

57) Submitting to solve the differential equation:


x2 x2
( y  24)dy  dx;  ( y  24)dy   dx;
16  x 2 16  x 2
y2 x2
 24 y   dx;
2 16  x 2

x 2 dx
 16  x 2
x  4 sin t ; dx  d 4 sin t ; dx  4 sin t ' dt ; dx  4 cos tdt
x 2 dx 4 sin t 2 4 cos tdt 16 4 cos tdt
   sin 
2
t
16  x 2 16  16 sin 2 t 4 cos t
1  cos 2t 1  cos 2t
 16  sin 2 tdt  16  dt ; sin 2 t 
2 2
 sin 2t 
 t  8t  C
 2 
x x x
x  4 sin t ; sin t  ; arcsin sin t  arcsin ; t  arcsin
4 4 4
y2  x 1  x 
 24 y  8arcsin  sin  2 arcsin   C; solution .
2  4 2  4 

375
Differential Equations

58) Submitting to solve the differential equation:


ln x
(3 y  26)dy  dx;
x 1  6 ln x  ln 2 x
ln x
 (3 y  26)dy   x 1  6 ln x  ln 2 x dx;
3y 2 ln x
 26 y   dx;
2 x 1  6 ln x  ln 2 x

ln xdx
x 1  6 ln x  ln 2 x

ln x  t; d ln x   dt; ln x ' dx  dt; dx


 dt
x
dt
t   t ; 1  6t  t 2  tu  1
1  6t  t 2
1  6t  t 2  t 2u 2  2tu  1;  6t  t 2  t 2u 2  2tu / : t

 u3 
 6  t  tu 2  2u  t u 2  1  6  2u; t  2 2 
 u 1
 u 3   u  3  u  1  2u u  3 1  u  6u
2 2
dt  2 2 ' du ;  2 '  
 u 1  u 1 u  1
2 2
u 2  12
du ; t  2 u  3
 u 2  6u  1 
dt  2
 u 2  12  u 2 1
 

376
Differential Equations

 2u u  3
1  6t  t 2  tu  1  1 
u2 1
 2u 2  6u  u 2  1 u 2  6u  1
 
u2 1 u2 1

1  6t  t  
2 u 2  6u  1  
u2 1
 2u  3 2 u 2  6u  1du

tdt u2 1 u 1
2 2
 
 1  6t  t 2

u  6u  1
2


u2 1

 4
u  3u 2  6u  1  u 2 1
du  4 
u  3du
u 2
1  3
u  6u  1
2
u 2 1
2
 
udu du
 t  4  12 
u 2
1  2
u 2
1  2

d u  u  dv
u 2  1  v; 2
 1  dv; 2
 1 ' du  dv; 2udu  dv; udu 
2
dv
udu 1 v 21 1 1
 u 2 1
2
 2  

v
2
2  2 1
 
2v 2 u 2 1  
2 1  6t  t 2  1
t      ; t  ln x

u 2 1
12

2 ; u
t

377
Differential Equations

3y2 2
 26 y   2
 12 2 ; solution.
2  1  6 ln x  ln 2 x  1 
  1
 ln x 
 
arctgu u
I2  
2 
2 1 u2 
 1  6 ln x  ln 2 
 1  6 ln x  ln x  1 2

1 x 1 1
arctg  ln x
I2 
2 
 ln x 

 2
1[
 1  6 ln x  ln x  1] 2
2
 C.

ln x

59) Submitting to solve the differential equation:


1 1 1
dy  dx;  dy   dx; y   dx;
3  x  1 x 3  x  1 x 3  x  1 x

dx
 3  x  1 x

1  x  t 2 ; d 1  x   dt 2 ; 1  x ' dx  t 2 ' dt
 dx  2tdt  dx  2tdt ; x  1  t 2 ; 3  x  3  1  t 2  2  t 2
dx  2tdt dt 1 t
 3  x  1  x  2  t 2 t  t 2  2
 
 2
  2 
2
arctg
2
C

 1 x 
t  1 x; y   2arctg    C ; solution .

 2 

378
Differential Equations

60) Submitting to solve the differential equation:


x x y2 x
ydy 
x  4
dx;  ydy  
x  4
dx;
2 

x  4
dx;

x
 x  4 dx ; variable is changing: x = t2 :
   
dx  d t 2  t 2 ' dt ; dx  2tdt
x t t2 t2  4  4  
 x  4  t2  4
dx  2tdt  2  t2  4 dt  2  t 2  4 dt
dt 1 t
 t  2 dt  8  2t  8 arctg    C ; t  x
t 2
2 2
2 2
y2  x
 2 x  4arctg    C ; solution .

2  2 
61) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
dy  sin 3 xdx;  dy   sin 3 xdx; y   sin 3 xdx ;

 sin xdx   sin 2 x sin xdx


3

379
Differential Equations


sin 2 x  1  cos 2 x;  t   1  cos 2 x sin xdx 
cos x  t ; d cos x   dt ; cos x ' dx  dt ;  sin xdx  dt
sin xdx  dt

  
 t   1  t 2  dt    t 2  1 dt   t3
3
 t  C;

y
cos x 
3
 cos x  C
3
solution.
62) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
7y2
7 y  9dy  cos5 xdx;  7 y  9dy   cos 5 xdx ;  9 y   cos5 xdx;
2

 cos xdx   cos 4 x cos xdx


5

cos 4 x  cos 2 x    1  sin x 


2 2 2

cos2 x  1  sin 2 x

 1  sin x 
2
t  2
cos xdx
sin x  t

380
Differential Equations

d sin x   dt ; sin x ' dx  dt ; cos xdx  dt


 t   1  t 2  dt   1  2t 2  t 4 dt
2

t3 t5
 t  t  2   C ; t  sin x;
3 5
7 y2
 9 y  sin x  sin x   sin x   C ; solution .
2 3 1 5

2 3 5
63) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
dy
 ex dy  e x dx
dx

x x
 dy   e dx  e  c
y( x)  e x  c
differential equation solution.
64) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
sin x
dy  dx
y
y2
ydy  sin x dx se int egreaza  ydy   sin xdx; 2
  cos x  C

differential equation solution.


65) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
x xdx
( x  1)dy  xdx; dy 
x 1
dx; se int egreza  dy   x  1
( x  1)  1
y ( x)   dx
( x  1)

381
Differential Equations

dx
y( x)   dx    x  ln x  1  C
x 1
y( x)  x  ln x  1  C.
66) Submitting to solve the differential equation:
dy dx dy dx
(tgx  1)dy  (sin y  1)dx;  ;   ;
sin y  1 tgx  1 sin y  1 tgx  1
y y y y
2tg 2tg tg 2  2tg  1
sin y  2 ; sin y  1  2 1  2 2
y y y
1  tg 2 1  tg 2 1  tg 2
2 2 2
y y
1  tg 2 1  tg 2
dx y
  y 2  1  tgx ;   y  2 dy; tg 2  t
2 dy  2

 tg  1  tg  1
 2   2 
y y
arctg tg  arctg t;  arctg t ; y  2arctg t ; dy  d (2arctg t )  (2arctg t ) ' dt
2 2
2
dy  dt
1 t2
y
1  tg 2
2 dy  1  t
2
2dt dt t  1
 2 1

  y 2  (t  1) 2 (t 2  1)  2 (t  1) 2  2  2  1 
 tg  1
 2 
2 2
 
(t  1)  y 
 tg  1
 2 

382
Differential Equations

y u  21
1  tg 2 dt dn 1 1
2     
  y 2  y  
2 dy   ; (t  1) 2
u 2
 2 1 u t 1
 tg  1  tg  1 t  1  u d (t  1)  du (t  1) ' dt  du dt  du
 2   2 
dx dv 1
 1  tgx   1  v 1  v 2 ; tgx  v ; arctg tg x  arctg v; x  actgv
1
dx  d (arctgv )  (arctgv ) , dv; dx  dv
1 v2
1 A Bv  c
  ; 1  A(1  v 2 )  ( Bv  c)(v  1); v  C
(1  v)(1  v ) 1  v 1  v
2 2

1
For v = -1: 1  A  2 A
2
For v = 0:
1 1 1 1
1  C.1; C  ; A ; C
2 2 2 2
For v = 1:
1  1
1  (1  12 )   B   (1  1)
2  2
1
1  1  2B  1 B  
2
1 1 1
A ; B ; C
2 2 2
1 1
 v
1 1
  2 2
(v  1)(v  1) 2(v  1)
2 2
v 1

383
Differential Equations

dv 1 dv 1 v 1 dv
 (v  1)(v  1)
2
    2 dv   2
2 v 1 2 v 1 2 v 1
dv
vdv 1 1
 v 2  1   q  2 ln q  2 ln v  1
2 2

dq
v 2  1  q; d (v 2  1)  dq; (v 2  1) ' dv  dq; 2vdv  dq; vdv 
2
dv 1 1 1
 (v  1)(v 2  1)  2 ln v  4 ln( v  1)  2 arctg v; v  tg x
2

dx 1 1 1
 1  tgx  2 ln( tgx)  4 ln( tg x  1)  2 x
2

2 1 1 x
  ln( tgx )  ln( tg 2 x  1)   C , solution .
y 2 4 2
tg  1
2

384
Differential Equations

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385