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Table of Contents

Table of Contents............................................................................................ 1
Lecture 1: 07-12-2014 .................................................................................... 3
Switchgear ....................................................................................................................... 3
Lecture 2: 08-12-2014 .................................................................................... 4
How to minimize the fault? ......................................................................................... 4
Fault .................................................................................................................................. 4
Causes of Fault................................................................................................................ 4
Lecture 3: 15-12-2014 .................................................................................... 6
Protective Zone .............................................................................................................. 6
Primary Protection ........................................................................................................ 7
Backup Protection .......................................................................................................... 7
Backup protection by time grading ........................................................................... 7
Why backup Protection is necessary? ....................................................................... 8
Protective Relays ........................................................................................................... 8
Types of relay.................................................................................................................. 9
According to construction and principle of operation.............................................................. 9
1) Electromagnetic attraction type relays ..................................................................................... 9
2) Electromagnetic induction type relays ...................................................................................... 9
3) Electrodynamics type .................................................................................................................... 9
According to application ................................................................................................................. 9
According to time characteristics ................................................................................................. 9
Lecture 4: 28-12-2014 .................................................................................. 10
Desirable qualities for protective relays ................................................................. 10
Reliability of Protective System ............................................................................... 11
Some terms of protective relaying ........................................................................... 12
Some important terms................................................................................................. 12
Lecture 5: 29-12-2014 .................................................................................. 13
Attracted armature type relay................................................................................... 13
Characteristics of Attracted armature type relay .................................................................... 13
Applications of Attracted armature type relay ........................................................................ 13
Solenoid type relay....................................................................................................... 14
Balanced beam type relay ........................................................................................... 14
Lecture 6: 05-01-2015 .................................................................................. 15
Induction relay .............................................................................................................. 15
Types of induction relay ................................................................................................................ 16
Shaded-pole structure relay ................................................................................................................ 17
Watt-hour meter structure relay ...................................................................................................... 17
Induction cup structure ........................................................................................................................ 18
Characteristics of induction relay............................................................................. 19

1
Important terms ........................................................................................................... 19
1. Pick-up current ...................................................................................................................... 19
2. Current setting ...................................................................................................................... 19
3. Plug-setting multiplier ........................................................................................................ 19
4. Time-setting multiplier ....................................................................................................... 20
Time/P.S.M. Curve ..................................................................................................... 20
Lecture 7: ........................................................................................................ 21

2
Lecture 1: 07-12-2014

 Circuit Breaker (SUY)


 Relay (RI2)

Switchgear
The apparatus used for switching, controlling and protecting the electrical circuits and
equipment is known as switchgear.

3
Lecture 2: 08-12-2014
The scheme which sense the abnormal conditions in a part of the power system and gives an
alarm or isolates that part from the healthy system is known as protective relaying.
The functions of protective relaying include the following:
1. To sound an alarm on to close the trip circuit of CB so as to disconnect a component
during an abnormal condition in the component which includes over-voltage, under-
voltage, temperature rise, unbalanced load, reverse power, under frequency, short
circuit etc.
Normal condition: Predetermined condition to run the system properly
Abnormal condition: Anything which is not normal
2. To disconnect the abnormally operating part as to prevent the subsequent faults, over
load protection of a machine to protect the machine and prevent the insulation failure.
3. To disconnect the faulty part quickly so as to minimize the damage to the faulty part:
If a machine disconnect immediately after a winding fault, only a few coils may need
replacement, otherwise the entire winding will be damaged.
4. To localize the effect of fault by disconnecting the faulty part from the healthy part
causing least disturbance to the healthy system.
5. To disconnect the faulty part quickly so as to improve the system stability service
continuously and system performance.
Fault cannot be avoided completely but they can be minimized. Protective relaying pays an
important role in minimizing the fault and also in minimizing the damage in the equipment.

How to minimize the fault?


Fault can be minimized to some extent by taking the following precautions:
1. Improvement in the quality of machines, equipment, installation etc. by improving in
design, manufacturing techniques, material quality, control, testing, research &
development.
2. Improvement in system design, connect layout choice of equipment.
3. Adequate and reliable protective system.
4. Regular and detailed maintenance by trained personnel.
5. Trained personnel for operation and management of electrical plant.

Fault
Fault is a defect in its electrical circuit due to which the flow of current is diverted from the
intended path.

Causes of Fault
1) Overhead Line: Lightening-stroke, storms, earthquakes, icing, birds, trees, kites,
airplanes, internal overvoltage etc.
2) Underground Cables: Damage due to digging, insulation failure due to temperature
rise, failure of joints etc.
3) Alternators: Stator faults, rotor faults, abnormal conditions, associated equipment,
protective system etc.

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4) Transformer: Insulation, tap-change fault, fault in bushing, fault in protection circuit,
overhead lines, overvoltage etc.
5) CT & PT: Overvoltage, insulation fault, breaking of conductors, wrong connection etc.
6) Switchgear: Insulation, mechanical defect, leakage of air/gas/oil, lack of maintenance
etc.

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Lecture 3: 15-12-2014
Table 1-1: Fault statistics (Ref: Ojha)
Element Error Percentage (%)
Overhead transmission line 45-55
Underground cable 8-12
Switchgear 13-17
Power transformer 10-14
CT & PT 1-3
Control circuit equipment 2-4
miscellaneous 7-9

Table 1-2: Statistics of fault on overhead line (Ref: Ojha)

Protective Zone
In order to provide selectivity to the system, it is a usual practice to divide the entire system
into several protection zones. When a fault occurs in a given zone, then only the circuit breakers
within that zone will be opened. This will isolate only the faulty circuit or apparatus, leaving
the healthy circuits intact. The system can be divided into the following protection zones:
(a) Generators, (b) Low-tension switchgear, (c) Transformers,
(d) High-tension switchgear, (e) transmission lines.
A part of the system protected by a certain protective scheme is called a protective zone.

Figure: Different protective zone with Circuit Breakers (CB).

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Primary Protection
It is the protection scheme which is designed to protect the component parts of the power
system. If a fault occurs on any line, it will be cleared by its relay and circuit breaker. This
forms the primary or main protection and serves as the first line of defense. The service record
of primary relaying is very high with well over ninety percent of all operations being correct.

Backup Protection
It is the second line of defense in case of failure of the primary protection. It is designed to
operate with sufficient time delay so that primary relaying will be given enough time to
function if it is able to.
1) Relay Backup: Same breaker is used by both main and backup protection but the
protective systems are different. Separate coils may be provided for the same breaker.
2) Breaker Backup: Different breaker is provided for main and backup protection, both
breakers being in the same station.
3) Remote Backup: The main backup protection is provided of different stations and are
completely independent.
4) Centrally Co-ordinated Backup: The main backup protection is provided and
controlled centrally.

Backup protection by time grading


0.6 sec 0.1 sec
1 sec

7
Why backup Protection is necessary?
Answer:
This protection is necessary when the primary protection fails to operate the failure
of which may be to any of the following reasons:
1. The DC supply of the tripping circuit.
2. The tripping mechanism of CB fails.
3. The current on voltage supply to the relay.
4. The CB fails to operate.
5. The primary protective relay fails.

Protective Relays
A protective relay is a device that detects the
fault and initiates the operation of the circuit
breaker to isolate the defective element from the
rest of the system.
A typical relay circuit is shown in Figure. This
diagram shows one phase of 3-phase system for
simplicity. The relay circuit connections can be
divided into three parts:
i) First part is the primary winding of a
current transformer (C.T.) which is connected in
series with the line to be protected.
ii) Second part consists of secondary
winding of C.T. and the relay operating coil.
iii) Third part is the tripping circuit which
may be either AC or DC. It consists of a source
of supply, the trip coil of the circuit breaker and
the relay stationary contacts.
When a short circuit occurs at point F on the transmission line, the current flowing in the line
increases to an enormous value.
This results in a heavy current flow through the relay coil, causing the relay to operate by
closing its contacts. This in turn closes the trip circuit of the breaker, making the circuit breaker
open and isolating the faulty section from the rest of the system. In this way, the relay ensures
the safety of the circuit equipment from damage and normal working of the healthy portion of
the system.

8
Types of relay
According to construction and principle of operation
1) Electromagnetic attraction type relays
(a) Attracted armature type relay,
(b) Solenoid type relay,
(c) Balanced beam type relay.
2) Electromagnetic induction type relays
(a) Shaded-pole structure relay,
(b) Watt-hour meter or double winding structure relay,
(c) Induction cup structure relay.
3) Electrodynamics type
(a) Moving coil type,
(b) Moving iron type,
(c) Thermal type.
According to application
i) Overvoltage on overcurrent on overpower relay,
ii) Under voltage on under current on under power relay,
iii) Directional on reuse current relay,
iv) Directional on reuse power relay,
v) Differential relay (Current & Voltage),
vi) Distance relay (Impedance, reactance & Mho),
vii) Gas protected relay,
viii) Rectifier relay,
ix) Static relay.
According to time characteristics
i) Instantaneous relay,
ii) Definite time lag relay,
iii) Inverse time relay,
iv) Inverse definite minimum time relay.

9
Lecture 4: 28-12-2014
Desirable qualities for protective relays
In order that protective relay system may perform its function satisfactorily, it should have the
following qualities:
1) Selectivity
2) Discrimination
3) Speed
4) Time
5) Sensitivity
6) Power consumption
7) Stability
8) Reliability
9) Simplicity
10) Economy
11) Adequateness.
These are described below:
1) Selectivity: It is the ability of the protective system to select correctly that part of the system
in trouble and disconnect the faulty part without disturbing the rest of the system.
2) Discrimination: It is the act discriminating or distinguishing the difference between
“normal condition” and “abnormal condition” within the protective zone or elsewhere.
3) Speed: The relay system should disconnect the faulty section as fast as possible for the
following reasons :
(a) Electrical apparatus may be damaged if they are made to carry the fault currents for a
long time.
(b) A failure on the system leads to a great reduction in the system voltage. If the faulty
section is not disconnected quickly, then the low voltage created by the fault may shut down
consumers’ motors and the generators on the system may become unstable.
(c) The high speed relay system decreases the possibility of development of one type of
fault into the other more severe type.
4) Time: Fault clearing time is the time between the instant of fault and instant of final arc
interruption.

𝐹𝑎𝑢𝑙𝑡 𝑐𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 = 𝑅𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑦 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 + 𝐶𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑖𝑡 𝑏𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑟 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒.

5) Sensitivity: It is the ability of the relay system to operate with low value of actuating
quantity.
𝐼𝑆
𝐾𝑆 =
𝐼𝑂
Here,
KS = Sensitivity factor,
IS = Minimum short circuit current in the zone,
IO = Minimum operating current of protection.
The sensitivity should be increased to such a level that the system stability is not
hampered.
6) Power consumption: The relay should be operated at least power as possible.

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7) Stability: It is defined as the quality of protective system by the virtue of which the
protective system remains in operating and stable under certain specified condition such as
system disturbance, through faults, transient etc.
8) Reliability: It is the ability of the relay system to operate under the pre-determined
conditions. Without reliability, the protection would be rendered largely ineffective and
could even become a liability.
9) Simplicity: The relaying system should be simple so that it can be easily maintained.
Reliability is closely related to simplicity. The simpler the protection scheme, the greater
will be its reliability.
10) Economy: The most important factor in the choice of a particular protection scheme is the
economic aspect. Sometimes it is economically unjustified to use an ideal scheme of
protection and a compromise method has to be adopted. As a rule, the protective gear
should not cost more than 5% of total cost. However, when the apparatus to be protected is
of utmost importance (e.g. generator, main transmission line etc.), economic considerations
are often subordinated to reliability.
11) Adequateness: There can be many abnormal conditions & providing protection against
every absence condition is economically impossible.
However the protection provided for any machine should be adequate:
(a) Rating of the protected machine,
(b) Location of the protected machine,
(c) Probability of abnormal condition due to internal & external causes
(d) Cost of the machine,
(e) Continuity of supply as affected by failure of machine.
Reliability of Protective System

Reliability of Protective System

Quality of Choice & Design of Internal &


Maintenance
Componenet Protective System External Stresses

Co-Operation System Designer

Manufacturer of
Protective Co-Operation User
Equipment

11
Some terms of protective relaying
→ Actual quantity of current & voltage
→ Magnitude
→ Phase angle
→ Frequency
→ Rate of chance
→ Wave shape
→ Duration time
→ Direction

Some important terms


→ IDMT
→ SCADA
→ Auto re-closer ACR, OCR
→ PLC
→ REACH (under REACH, over REACH)

12
Lecture 5: 29-12-2014
Attracted armature type relay
It consists of a laminated electromagnet M carrying a
coil C and a pivoted laminated armature. The
armature is balanced by a counterweight and carries a
pair of spring contact fingers at its free end.
Under normal operating conditions, the current
through the relay coil C is such that counterweight
holds the armature in the position shown.
However, when a short-circuit occurs the current
through the relay coil increases sufficiently and the
relay armature is attracted upwards. The contacts on the relay armature bridge a pair of
stationary contacts attached to the relay frame. This completes the trip circuit which results in
the opening of the circuit breaker and, therefore, in the disconnection of the faulty circuit.
Characteristics of Attracted armature type relay
1. Responses both DC & AC because torque is proportional to I2.
2. These relays are fast relays, because small length of travel and…….
3. May be instantaneous, does operating (0.1s) and resetting time (0.5s).
4. Also very high speed operating are possible modern 0.5.
5. The time vs current characteristic is---
Time (t)

Current (I)

6. Do not have directional figure.


7. Transient effected.
8. VA burden depends on construction setting. For a typical relay it is of the order of
0.2VA to 0.6VA for current 0.1A to 0.4A.
9. Modern relay are compact and reliable
Restoring force
𝐹 = 𝑘1 𝐼 2 − 𝑘2
including friction.
𝑘2
⟹𝐼=√
𝑘1

Applications of Attracted armature type relay


Used as over current relay, definite time lag relay, differential relay, auxiliary relay etc.

13
Solenoid type relay
It consists of a solenoid and movable iron plunger
arranged as shown.
Under normal operating conditions, the current
through the relay coil C is such that it holds the
plunger by gravity or spring in the position shown.
However, on the occurrence of a fault, the current
through the relay coil becomes more than the pickup
value, causing the plunger to be attracted to the
solenoid. The upward movement of the plunger
closes the trip circuit, thus opening the circuit
breaker and disconnecting the faulty circuit.

Balanced beam type relay


It consists of an iron armature fastened to a balance
beam.
Under normal operating conditions, the current
through the relay coil is such that the beam is held
in the horizontal position by the spring.
However, when a fault occurs, the current through
the relay coil becomes greater than the pickup value
and the beam is attracted to close the trip circuit.
This causes the opening of the circuit breaker to
isolate the faulty circuit.
The beam remains in horizontal position till operating force become more than restoring force.
When operating torque increases, the beam shakes & the contact closes.
The net torque,
𝑇 = 𝑘1 𝐼12 − 𝑘2 𝐼22

𝐼1 𝑘2
At the __________ of operation T=0. So, =√ = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝐼2 𝑘1
𝐼1

Ideal
Characteristics
Effect of spling

𝐼2

14
Lecture 6: 05-01-2015
Induction relay
Electromagnetic induction relays operate on the principle of induction motor and are widely
used for protective relaying purposes involving only AC quantities.

In the first figure, two AC fluxes 𝜙2 and 𝜙1 differing in phase by an angle 𝛼 induce emfs’ in
the disc and cause the circulation of eddy currents 𝑖2 and 𝑖1 respectively. These currents lag
behind their respective fluxes by90° .
In the second figure, the two AC fluxes and induced currents are shown separately. Let,
𝜙1 = 𝜙1𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡
𝜙2 = 𝜙2𝑚 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛼 )
Where 𝜙1 and 𝜙2 are the instantaneous values of fluxes and 𝜙2 leads 𝜙1 by an angle 𝛼.
Assuming that the paths in which the rotor currents flow have negligible self-inductance, the
rotor currents will be in phase with their voltages.
𝑑𝜙1 𝑑
∴ 𝑒1 = = (𝜙1𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡) = 𝜔𝜙1𝑚 cos 𝜔𝑡
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝜙2 𝑑
𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑒2 = = [𝜙2𝑚 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛼 )] = 𝜔𝜙2𝑚 cos(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛼)
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
So,
𝑒1 𝜔𝜙1𝑚 cos 𝜔𝑡
𝑖1 = =
𝑅 𝑅
𝑒2 𝜔𝜙2𝑚 cos(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛼)
𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑖2 = =
𝑅 𝑅
Where, R is the resistance of the angular ring.
Now,
𝐹1 ∝ 𝜙2 𝑖1
𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐹2 ∝ 𝜙1 𝑖2

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From the second figure, the two forces are in opposition. So, net force F at the instant
considered is,
𝐹 = 𝐹2 − 𝐹1
= 𝑘𝜙2 𝑖1 − 𝑘𝜙1 𝑖2
𝜙1𝑚 cos 𝜔𝑡 𝜙2𝑚 cos(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛼)
= 𝑘𝜔𝜙2𝑚 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛼 ) − 𝑘𝜔𝜙1𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡
𝑅 𝑅
𝑘𝜔
= 𝜙 𝜙 [sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛼) cos 𝜔𝑡 − sin 𝜔𝑡 cos(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛼 )]
𝑅 1𝑚 2𝑚
𝑘𝜔
= 𝜙 𝜙 sin 𝛼
𝑅 1𝑚 2𝑚
Where and 𝜙1𝑚 and 𝜙2𝑚 are the rms values of the fluxes.
Now, if r is the effective radius, the net torque will be,
𝑇 =𝐹×𝑟
𝑘𝜔
= 𝜙 𝜙 sin 𝛼 × 𝑟
𝑅 1𝑚 2𝑚
𝑘𝜔𝑟
= 𝜙 𝜙 sin 𝛼
𝑅 1𝑚 2𝑚
1
∴𝑇∝ sin 𝛼 ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ (𝑖)
𝑅

The following points may be noted from equation (i):


1. The greater the phase angle α between the fluxes, the greater is the net torque applied
to the disc. Obviously, the maximum torque will be produced when the two fluxes are
90° out of phase.
2. The net torque is the same at every instant. This fact does not depend upon the
assumptions made in arriving at equation (i).
3. The direction of net torque and hence the direction of motion of the disc depends upon
which flux is leading.
4. The torque will be more if resistance R is low. For this the disc must have low resistive
value such as Al, Cu etc.
Types of induction relay
The following three types of structures are commonly used for obtaining the phase difference
in the fluxes and hence the operating torque in induction relays:

16
Shaded-pole structure relay
It consists of a pivoted Al disc
free to rotate in the air-gap of an
electromagnet. One half of each
pole of the magnet is surrounded
by a copper band known as
shading ring. The alternating
flux 𝜙𝑠 in the shaded portion of
the poles will, owing to the
reaction of the current induced in
the ring, lag behind the flux 𝜙𝑢
in the unshaded portion by an
angle α. These two AC fluxes differing in phase will produce the necessary torque to rotate the
disc. As proved earlier, the driving torque T is given by,
𝑇 ∝ 𝜙𝑠 𝜙𝑢 sin 𝛼
Assuming the fluxes 𝜙𝑠 and 𝜙𝑢 to be proportional to the current I in the relay coil,
𝑇 ∝ 𝐼 2 sin 𝛼
= 𝑘1 𝐼 2 sin 𝛼 − 𝑘2
Where,
T = Net torque,
k1 = Proportional constant,
I = Current in the relay coil,
k2 = Restoring torque including friction.
This shows that driving torque is proportional to the square of current in the relay coil.
Watt-hour meter structure relay
This structure gets its name from the fact that
it is used in watt-hour meters. It consists of a
pivoted Al disc arranged to rotate freely
between the poles of two electromagnets. The
upper electromagnet carries two windings; the
primary and the secondary. The primary
winding carries the relay current 𝑰𝟏 while the
secondary winding is connected to the
winding of the lower magnet. The primary
current induces emf in the secondary and so
circulates a current 𝑰𝟐 in it. The flux 𝝓𝟐
induced in the lower magnet by the current in
the secondary winding of the upper magnet
will lag behind 𝝓𝟏 by an angle 𝜶. The two fluxes 𝝓𝟏 and 𝝓𝟐 differing in phase by 𝛼 will
produce a driving torque on the disc proportional to 𝑰𝟐 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜶.

17
An important feature of this type of relay is that its operation can be controlled by opening or
closing the secondary winding circuit. If this circuit is opened, no flux can be set by the lower
magnet however great the value of current in the primary winding may be and consequently no
torque will be produced. Therefore, the relay can be made inoperative by opening its secondary
winding circuit.
The net torque is given by,
𝑇 = 𝑘1 𝐼 2 sin 𝛼 − 𝑘2
Where,
T = Net torque,
k1 = Proportional constant,
I = Current in the relay coil,
k2 = Restoring torque including friction.
Induction cup structure
It most closely resembles an induction
motor, except that the rotor iron is
stationary, only the rotor conductor
portion being free to rotate.
The moving element is a hollow
cylindrical rotor which turns on its axis.
The rotating field is produced by two
pairs of coils wound on four poles as
shown.
The rotating field induces currents in the
cup to provide the necessary driving
torque. If 𝝓𝟏 and 𝝓𝟐 represent the fluxes
produced by the respective pairs of poles,
then torque produced is proportional to 𝑰𝟐 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜶 where, 𝜶 is the phase difference between the
two fluxes. A control spring and the back stop for closing of the contacts carried on an arm are
attached to the spindle of the cup to prevent the continuous rotation.
Induction cup structures are more efficient torque producers than either the shaded-pole or the
watt-hour meter structures. Therefore, this type of relay has very high speed and may have an
operating time less than 0·1 second.

18
Characteristics of induction relay
1. The operation of induction relay can be controlled by opening secondary coil as opening
of this coil makes relay inoperative.
2. The time vs current characteristics is---

Time (t)

Current (I)

3. The current setting can be changed by taking suitable number of turns. The time setting
can be obtained by changing the relative position of the contact.

Important terms
1. Pick-up current
It is the minimum current in the relay coil at which the relay starts to operate. So long as the
current in the relay is less than the pick-up value, the relay does not operate and the breaker
controlled by it remains in the closed position. However, when the relay coil current is equal
to or greater than the pickup value, the relay operates to energize the trip coil which opens the
circuit breaker.
𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 ≥ 𝑃𝑖𝑐𝑘 − 𝑢𝑝 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡
2. Current setting
It is often desirable to adjust the pick-up current to any required value.
This is known as current setting and is usually achieved by the use of
tapings on the relay operating coil.
So,
𝑃𝑖𝑐𝑘 − 𝑢𝑝 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑦 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐶𝑇 × 𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑠𝑒𝑡𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔
For example, in an over current relay current setting is 75% connected to a CT of 100/5A. Then
the pick-up value =5 × 75⁄100 = 3.75𝐴.
Relay will start to operate.
3. Plug-setting multiplier
It is the ratio of fault current in relay coil to the pick-up current.
𝐹𝑎𝑢𝑙𝑡 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙
𝑃. 𝑆. 𝑀. =
𝑃𝑖𝑐𝑘 − 𝑢𝑝 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡
𝐹𝑎𝑢𝑙𝑡 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙
=
𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑦 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐶𝑇 × 𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑠𝑒𝑡𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔

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For example, suppose that a relay is connected to a 400/5 current transformer and set at 150%.
With a primary fault current of 2400 A, the plug-setting multiplier can be calculated as under:
𝑃𝑖𝑐𝑘 − 𝑢𝑝 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑦 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐶𝑇 × 𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑠𝑒𝑡𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔
150
= (5 × )𝐴
100
= 7.5𝐴
5
𝐹𝑎𝑢𝑙𝑡 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙 = (2400 × )𝐴
400
= 30𝐴
30
∴ 𝑃. 𝑆. 𝑀. = =4
7.5
4. Time-setting multiplier
A relay is generally provided with control to adjust the
time of operation. This adjustment is known as time-
setting multiplier. In the figure, a time-setting dial is
calibrated from 0 to 1 in steps of 0.05 sec. These figures
are multipliers to be used to convert the time derived
from time/P.S.M. curve into the actual operating time.
Thus, if the time setting is 0·1 and the time obtained from
the time/P.S.M. curve is 3 seconds, then actual relay
operating time = 𝟑 × 𝟎. 𝟏 = 𝟎. 𝟑 𝒔𝒆𝒄. For instance, in an
induction relay, the time of operation is controlled by
adjusting the amount of travel of the disc from its reset
position to its pickup position.
The actual time of operation is calculated by multiplying the time-setting multiplier with the
time obtained from time/P.S.M. curve of the relay.

Time/P.S.M. Curve
The horizontal scale is marked in terms of plug-setting
multiplier and represents the number of times the relay
current is in excess of the current setting. The vertical scale
is marked in terms of the time required for relay operation. If
the P.S.M. is 10, then the time of operation (from the curve)
is 3 seconds.
The actual time of operation is obtained by multiplying this
time by the time-setting multiplier.
It is evident from the figure that for lower values of
overcurrent, time of operation varies inversely with the
current but as the current approaches 20 times full-load value, the operating time of relay tends
to become constant. This feature is necessary in order to ensure discrimination on very heavy
fault currents flowing through sound feeders.

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Lecture 7:

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