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Working with GeoMedia®

Working with GeoMedia


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Vista are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. MapInfo is a registered trademark of MapInfo
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The software discussed in this document is furnished under a license and may be used or copied only in
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from Intergraph Corporation.
Copyright for the Canadian National Transformation Version 2 Software: ©1995. Her Majesty the
Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Natural Resources. Produced under licence from
Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Natural Resources. Software
based on the National Transformation Version 2 developed by Geodetic Survey Division, Geomatics
Canada.
Copyright for Dynamap/2000 ©2002-2005 Tele Atlas North America, Inc. This product contains
proprietary and confidential property of Tele Atlas North America, Inc. Unauthorized use, including
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Table of Contents
Start Here .................................................................................................................................... 1-1
Looking at GeoMedia: An Overview.................................................................................... 1-1
What You Need to Know to Work......................................................................................... 1-2
Documents Provided .............................................................................................................. 1-2
Getting Started ....................................................................................................................... 1-6
Getting Around in the Software ............................................................................................. 1-6
Customizing the Menus and Toolbars.................................................................................... 1-7
The Product Workflow........................................................................................................... 1-9
What is a GIS? ....................................................................................................................... 1-9
Working with GeoWorkspaces................................................................................................. 2-1
Creating a GeoWorkspace...................................................................................................... 2-1
Opening a GeoWorkspace...................................................................................................... 2-2
Delaying Data Loading .......................................................................................................... 2-3
Automatically Backing Up GeoWorkspaces.......................................................................... 2-4
Saving, Closing, and Copying a GeoWorkspace ................................................................... 2-4
E-Mailing a GeoWorkspace................................................................................................... 2-5
Creating a GeoWorkspace Template...................................................................................... 2-6
Linking and Embedding a GeoWorkspace............................................................................. 2-7
Working with Coordinate Systems .......................................................................................... 3-1
Defining a Coordinate System for a GeoWorkspace ............................................................. 3-5
Defining a Coordinate System for a Feature Class ................................................................ 3-7
Matching GeoWorkspace and Default Warehouse Coordinate Systems ............................... 3-9
Getting Coordinate Readouts ............................................................................................... 3-11
Setting Units and Formats.................................................................................................... 3-12
Configuring for Datum Transformations ............................................................................. 3-14
Displaying Data That Has No Coordinate System Specified............................................... 3-15
Creating Coordinate-System Files from Design Files.......................................................... 3-19
Working with Warehouses........................................................................................................ 4-1
Creating a Read-Write Access Warehouse ............................................................................ 4-3
Defining a Coordinate System for a Warehouse.................................................................... 4-4
Preparing to Connect.............................................................................................................. 4-4
Working with Connections .................................................................................................. 4-14
Viewing Changes in a Multi-User Environment.................................................................. 4-18
Creating an Access Warehouse Template............................................................................ 4-19
Changing the Coordinate System of a New Access Warehouse Template .......................... 4-19
Configuring PickLists with Access Warehouses ................................................................. 4-20

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Working with Images ................................................................................................................. 5-1


Inserting Images into Warehouses ......................................................................................... 5-1
Managing Warehouse Images ................................................................................................ 5-8
Changing the Raster Image Display..................................................................................... 5-12
Creating Image Footprints.................................................................................................... 5-15
Displaying Selected Images ................................................................................................. 5-17
Working with Map Windows ................................................................................................... 6-1
Controlling the Map Window ................................................................................................ 6-2
Working with Styles............................................................................................................. 6-12
Working with Legends......................................................................................................... 6-36
Creating Additional Map Windows ..................................................................................... 6-65
Displaying CAD Files .......................................................................................................... 6-76
Working with Data Windows ................................................................................................... 7-1
Opening a New Data Window ............................................................................................... 7-1
Controlling the Data Window ................................................................................................ 7-3
Editing Cells in the Data Window ......................................................................................... 7-6
Taking a Snapshot of the Data Window................................................................................. 7-8
Working with Features ............................................................................................................. 8-1
Understanding Geometry Types ............................................................................................ 8-1
Working with Feature Classes ............................................................................................... 8-2
Outputting Feature Data to Warehouses .............................................................................. 8-10
Selecting Features in the Map Window ............................................................................... 8-17
Inserting Features into a Feature Class ................................................................................ 8-23
Inserting Text Features into a Feature Class ........................................................................ 8-25
Editing Text.......................................................................................................................... 8-27
Selecting and Searching for Text ......................................................................................... 8-30
Adding Hypertext to a Feature Class ................................................................................... 8-31
Adding Geometry................................................................................................................. 8-34
Changing Attribute Values of Features................................................................................ 8-35
Changing and Deleting Features .......................................................................................... 8-38
Working with Categories ..................................................................................................... 8-41
Working with Catalogs ............................................................................................................. 9-1
Catalog Features..................................................................................................................... 9-2
What Is Geospatial Metadata? ............................................................................................... 9-3
Updating Metadata Databases for GeoMedia 6.0 or Higher .................................................. 9-7
Creating a New Catalog ......................................................................................................... 9-7
Creating a New Catalog Connection...................................................................................... 9-9
Managing Catalog Connections ........................................................................................... 9-10
Importing Catalog Records .................................................................................................. 9-13
Exporting Catalog Records .................................................................................................. 9-15

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Associating Catalog Records ............................................................................................... 9-21


Exploring Catalogs............................................................................................................... 9-26
Sample Catalog Explorer Workflows .................................................................................. 9-37
Glossary of Catalog Terminology ........................................................................................ 9-38
Software Delivery ................................................................................................................ 9-39
Analyzing GeoMedia Data ...................................................................................................... 10-1
Working with Filter Queries ................................................................................................ 10-1
Working with Native Queries ............................................................................................ 10-18
Manipulating Queries......................................................................................................... 10-26
Working with Spatial Filters .............................................................................................. 10-30
Querying Graphics-Only Features in MGE and MGSM.................................................... 10-43
Working with Queued Edit ................................................................................................ 10-44
Working with Searches ...................................................................................................... 10-55
Working with Joins ............................................................................................................ 10-62
Analyzing Geometry .......................................................................................................... 10-65
Placing Buffer Zones Around Features.............................................................................. 10-70
Working with Functional Attributes .................................................................................. 10-72
Merging Feature Classes and Queries................................................................................ 10-83
Aggregating Data ............................................................................................................... 10-88
Generating Base Geometry ................................................................................................ 10-97
Selecting Attributes.......................................................................................................... 10-100
Combining Feature Classes and Queries.......................................................................... 10-103
Linear Referencing .................................................................................................................. 11-1
What is Linear Referencing?................................................................................................ 11-1
Linear Referencing and Geospatial Technology .................................................................. 11-2
LRS Linear Features and Event Data................................................................................... 11-4
Linear Referencing Commands............................................................................................ 11-6
Working with Labels ............................................................................................................... 12-1
Inserting Labels.................................................................................................................... 12-1
Inserting Leader Lines.......................................................................................................... 12-5
Resolving Text Conflicts...................................................................................................... 12-9
Geocoding ................................................................................................................................. 13-1
Geocoding and Finding Addresses....................................................................................... 13-1
Address Geocoding - User Concepts ................................................................................... 13-4
Finding an Address .............................................................................................................. 13-7
Geocoding Multiple Addresses .......................................................................................... 13-12
Defining Parsing Rules ...................................................................................................... 13-19
Geocoding Coordinates...................................................................................................... 13-23

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Working with Layout Windows .............................................................................................. 14-1


Layout Window Overview................................................................................................... 14-1
Starting the Layout Window ................................................................................................ 14-4
Inserting Layout Sheets........................................................................................................ 14-4
Importing Layout Sheets and Layout Templates ................................................................. 14-5
Exporting Layout Sheets and Templates.............................................................................. 14-9
Selecting and Manipulating Layout Sheets........................................................................ 14-12
Renaming Layout Sheets.................................................................................................... 14-12
Deleting Layout Sheets ...................................................................................................... 14-13
Viewing Background and Working Sheets ........................................................................ 14-13
Viewing Layout Window Properties.................................................................................. 14-14
Manipulating Layers .......................................................................................................... 14-15
Designing Map Layouts for Printing in the Layout Window .............................................. 15-1
Designing Map Layouts Overview ...................................................................................... 15-1
Map Window Considerations When Printing from the Layout Window............................. 15-1
Basic Map Layout Workflows ............................................................................................. 15-6
Components of the Map Layout........................................................................................... 15-8
Workflows for Placing Map Graphics Using Layout Frames............................................ 15-42
Workflows for Placing Map Graphics Without Using Layout Frames.............................. 15-48
Updating Map Graphics in Layout Sheets ......................................................................... 15-62
Modifying Map Graphics in Layout Sheets ....................................................................... 15-64
Inserting Cartographic Grids.............................................................................................. 15-78
Inserting Reference Grids and Indexes .............................................................................. 15-91
Inserting a Data Table ........................................................................................................ 15-97
Printing in GeoMedia .............................................................................................................. 16-1
Printing Overview ................................................................................................................ 16-1
Defining the Map Window Page Setup................................................................................ 16-1
Printing a Map Window ....................................................................................................... 16-3
Printing to a File................................................................................................................... 16-4
Defining the Data Window Page Setup................................................................................ 16-5
Printing a Data Window....................................................................................................... 16-7
Defining the Layout Window Page Setup............................................................................ 16-8
Printing Layout Sheets from the Layout Window ............................................................. 16-10
Plotting ............................................................................................................................... 16-15
Printing Transparent or Translucent Graphics ................................................................... 16-16
Outputting PDF from GeoMedia ....................................................................................... 16-17
Working with Libraries .......................................................................................................... 17-1
Creating a New Library........................................................................................................ 17-2
Creating a New Library Connection .................................................................................... 17-3
Managing Library Connections............................................................................................ 17-7
Organizing Libraries ............................................................................................................ 17-9
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Table of Contents

Exporting Data to Other Systems .......................................................................................... 18-1


Exporting to Shapefile.......................................................................................................... 18-1
Exporting to MapInfo Interchange Format .......................................................................... 18-5
Exporting to Design File ...................................................................................................... 18-8
Exporting to AutoCAD ...................................................................................................... 18-17
Exporting to GML.............................................................................................................. 18-21
How to Reach Intergraph ........................................................................................................ A-1
Electronic Self-Help Support ................................................................................................ A-1
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) .................................................................................... A-1
GeoMedia 6.1 Release Notes and Issues Resolved............................................................... A-1
Coordinate System Information...............................................................................................B-1
Projection Algorithms ............................................................................................................B-1
Datum Transformation Models ..............................................................................................B-1
Standard Geodetic Datums.....................................................................................................B-9
Named Geodetic Datums .....................................................................................................B-11
Vertical Datums ...................................................................................................................B-12
Ellipsoids..............................................................................................................................B-12
Units of Measure (UOM) .....................................................................................................B-14
State Plane Zone Codes—NAD27 and Old Island Datums .................................................B-16
State Plane Zone Codes—NAD83 Datum ...........................................................................B-17
UTM Zones ..........................................................................................................................B-20
GeoTIFF Capabilities...........................................................................................................B-21
Raster Information ................................................................................................................... C-1
Raster Formats Supported in GeoMedia ................................................................................C-1
Compression Techniques .......................................................................................................C-3
Tiling......................................................................................................................................C-4
Data Types .............................................................................................................................C-4
File Types and Categories Listed for Inserting a Georeferenced Image ................................C-5
Layout Window Graphics Commands ................................................................................... D-1

Conversion Tables .....................................................................................................................E-1


International System of Units to United States Customary System....................................... E-1
United States Customary System to International System of Units....................................... E-2
Catalogs: Installing, Setting Up, and Upgrading Oracle and MS-SQL Servers ................. F-1
Creating a Catalog Using Oracle............................................................................................ F-1
Server Database Upgrades ..................................................................................................... F-5
Creating a Catalog Using MS-SQL Server ............................................................................ F-7

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Working with GeoMedia

LRS Data Structures ................................................................................................................. G-1


Overview............................................................................................................................... G-1
Single-Level LRS Data Structures ........................................................................................ G-1
Event Data Structures.......................................................................................................... G-12
Supported SVG Element Types................................................................................................ H-1
Background ........................................................................................................................... H-1
Discussion ............................................................................................................................. H-1
Supported Types ................................................................................................................... H-2
Geometry Elements............................................................................................................... H-5
Common Attributes............................................................................................................. H-11
SVG Symbol Metadata XML Schema ................................................................................ H-15
Example .............................................................................................................................. H-20
Additional Geocoding Information ...........................................................................................I-1
Address Geocoding - Administrator Concepts and Workflows.............................................. I-1
Geocoding Models and Parsing Rules .................................................................................. I-15
Intersection Geocoding ......................................................................................................... I-24
Sound Like Algorithm........................................................................................................... I-26
File Types.................................................................................................................................... J-1

Index .......................................................................................................................................... IN-1

vi
Start Here
Welcome to GeoMedia®—the next generation in geographic-information systems (GIS).
Based on Jupiter technology from Intergraph Corporation, this product is an enterprise
GIS for the Windows® XP, Windows Vista®, or later operating systems.
As a viewing and analysis tool, this product allows you to combine geographic data from
different sources, in different formats, and with different map projections, all into a single
environment. Using this product, you can perform complex queries on spatial and
attribute data from various sources, and produce numerous views of highly sophisticated
maps in a single GeoWorkspace. Furthermore, this product gives you the capability of
printing those map views on a single sheet and adding borders, marginalia, and other
finishing touches.
++This product is also a software-development environment, and you can customize it
with standard Windows-development tools such as Microsoft® Visual Basic® and Visual
C®.

Looking at GeoMedia: An Overview


The first thing you do in this product is create a GeoWorkspace or open an existing one.
After you open a GeoWorkspace, you configure it to suit your needs. You can, for
example, change the coordinate-system properties or insert a map or raster image to use
as a backdrop for geographic data. Your configuration is saved when you save the
GeoWorkspace and restored when you reopen it.
The data you view is stored in warehouses, and you access data by creating connections
from the GeoWorkspace to one or more warehouses. The software presents a series of
dialog boxes necessary to create the connection. Because data are not stored in the
GeoWorkspace, all workflows require at least one warehouse connection.
A warehouse stores both geometric (graphic) and attribute (nongraphic) information. For
example, a parcel might be represented by an area geometry and defined by attribute
information such as the owner’s name and the date it was purchased.
Once you connect to at least one warehouse, you can display and analyze data from it.
The software allows you to view multiple data sets from different warehouses in various
formats in a single GeoWorkspace. This means you can perform spatial analyses on data
from different sources in different formats using buffer zones, spatial queries, and
thematic displays.

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Working with GeoMedia

In this product, features are contained in feature classes, and the word feature refers to
each instance of a feature within a feature class. Feature classes, images, query results,
and thematic displays in the map window are collectively referred to as either features or
map objects.
Features are represented in the map window by geometry and in the data window by
attributes. You can display any number of map and data windows simultaneously or
separately. They are linked so that changes made in one window are automatically
reflected in the other.
You display features in a map window by adding entries to the legend. The legend is the
control center for the map window. Through the legend, you populate the contents of the
map window and control the display characteristics of the features, including their style
and display priority.
To perform certain tasks, such as inserting images or buffer zones, you must have a
read/write Access warehouse connection open. As with any other warehouse type, data
written to a read/write warehouse can be viewed along with other data sets in a single
GeoWorkspace.
Results of your analyses can be customized in the map window, printed, and saved for
future use, all without altering the original data.

What You Need to Know to Work


The documentation and learning tools assume that you have the following prerequisites:
• A basic understanding of your operating system.
• The ability to move around in the Windows environment.
• An understanding of the data that you want to use.

Documents Provided
The documents provided with GeoMedia are delivered into three groups: Developer
Documentation, User Documentation, and Utilities Documentation..

Developer Documentation
Developer Documentation is accessed online only.
Document Description
GeoMedia Information about using the Command Wizard to create Visual Basic
Command Wizard commands for the GeoMedia-based application and to edit or to delete
Help Visual Basic or Visual C++ command-set information. Access through
the Command Wizard.

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Document Description
GeoMedia Object Programmer's guide to the objects, methods, and properties in the
Reference software’s automation layer. Access through Start > All Programs >
GeoMedia > Developer Documentation.
Building on the Information about customizing the software and building your own
GeoMedia Engine applications with the GeoMedia engine. Access through Start > All
Programs > GeoMedia > Developer Documentation.

User Documentation
User Documentation is accessed, depending on the component, both in hard copy and
online or online only.
Document Description
GeoMedia Step-by-step instructions for all tasks and information about tools and
Help dialog boxes. Available in the software and from Start > All Programs >
GeoMedia > User Documentation.
Installing Instructions for installing the product. Available in pdf format through the
GeoMedia PDF Viewer from Start > All Programs > GeoMedia > User
Documentation.
Learning Hands-on tutorial that guides you through the software basics using an
GeoMedia example workflow and real data. Runs through a Web browser.
Available online from Start > All Programs > GeoMedia > User
Documentation.
Working with Overview of and workflows for performing most software tasks.
GeoMedia Available in .pdf format through the PDF Viewer from Start All >
Programs > GeoMedia > User Documentation, or from the C:\Program
Files\GeoMedia folder.

Utilities Documentation
Utilities Documentation consists of online-only documentation for the following delivered
utilities (Start > All Programs > GeoMedia > Utilities):
• Define CAD Server Schema File
• Define Coordinate System File
• Define Symbol File
• Define Text File Server Format File
• Define Warehouse Configuration File
• Licensing Utility
• Edit MGSM Parameter File

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• Publish Address Geocoding Index


• Publish to GeoMedia SmartStore Warehouse
You can access this online documentation by:
• Selecting the utility document name in the GeoMedia Help menu.
• Pressing F1 while the utility is active.
• Selecting online Help from the utility Help menu in the Define CAD Server Schema
File, Define Text File Server Format File, and Publish to GeoMedia SmartStore
Warehouse utilities.

Typeface Conventions Used in the Documents


ALL Keyboard keys.
CAPS If keys are separated by a comma, press them in sequence. For example:
ALT, F5. If they are joined by a plus sign, press them at the same time.
For example: CTRL+z.

Bold An item in the graphical interface, such as the title of a dialog box or a
unserifed tool. Paths through menus use right angle brackets between items you
type select.
For example: Select File > Open to load a new file.
Courier Information you type.
type
For example: Type original.dat to load the ASCII file.

Italic type A document title, the first occurrence of a new or special term, folder
and filenames, or information about what the software is doing.

Interactive Documents
This product provides an interactive tutorial to help you learn how to perform the basic
tasks. If you are new to this product, you should work through Learning GeoMedia
Help is available online if you need step-by-step instructions, and other documents are
available for programmers who want to customize the software.

Learning GeoMedia
Learning GeoMedia steps you through an example workflow that uses real data and
covers the basic tasks. You start this tutorial by selecting Help > Learning GeoMedia
from the GeoMedia menu or by selecting Start > All Programs > GeoMedia > User
Documentation > Learning GeoMedia. This opens the tutorial in your default Web
browser. This tutorial works best with Internet Explorer 5.0, but it will run on another
browser.

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After you have worked through Learning GeoMedia, use Working with GeoMedia to gain
a broader understanding of what you can accomplish using this product.

Help Topics
You can find information for advanced topics and procedures from the online Help.
Included with the Help topics is a dictionary.
If Help was not installed on your hard drive during setup, you must have the GeoMedia
CD in your CD-ROM drive or be connected to the network node containing the Help
files.
To display Help when the software is active, select Help > GeoMedia Help from the
menu. To display Help when the software is not active, select Start > All Programs
> GeoMedia > User Documentation > GeoMedia Help.
Help is context sensitive, which means that you can press F1 to display Help for the
active window or dialog box. You can also click the Help button or press
SHIFT+F1. When the cursor changes to a question mark, select a menu item,
toolbar, or area of a window or dialog box.

Programming Guides
This product includes two online guides for developers who have experience with
programming languages that use automated objects and who want to customize or build
applications on this software.
• Building on the GeoMedia Engine is an interactive user’s guide developed in HTML.
• GeoMedia Object Reference covers the objects, methods, and properties available
through automation.
You can access the documents through Start > All Programs > GeoMedia Developer
Documentation.

What’s New in GeoMedia 6.1


To learn about changed and new features in GeoMedia 6.1, see the GeoMedia 6.1 Release
Notes.
1. To access this document, go to the “SG&I Support” page:
http://support.intergraph.com/.
2. Under Product Support, select GeoMedia from the Products drop-down list; then
click Go.
3. On the “GeoMedia Support” page, scroll down to the Product Versions table; then
click the Release Notes arrow for the latest 06.01 version information.

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Getting Started
To start this product, select Start > All Programs > GeoMedia > GeoMedia. If it has
not been turned off, the introductory GeoMedia dialog box appears.

This dialog box lets you create a new GeoWorkspace using a blank GeoWorkspace or a
GeoWorkspace template or open an existing GeoWorkspace from a list of recently opened
GeoWorkspaces. You can select one from the list, and click OK, or if the existing
GeoWorkspace you want is not listed, you can select More Files, and click OK to find the
GeoWorkspace yourself. To not open this dialog box when you start the software, check
the Don’t show this dialog box again check box.

Note: To exit the software at any time, select File > Exit from the GeoMedia menu.

See the “Working with GeoWorkspaces” chapter for complete information on using
GeoWorkspaces.

Getting Around in the Software


Familiarity with Microsoft Windows conventions and Microsoft Office applications
should make it easy for you to get around in this product. As in Windows, for example,
you move a window by placing the cursor over the title bar and dragging the window to a
new location. Buttons and menu items are dimmed when the tools they invoke are not
available, and you can see what tool a button invokes by placing your cursor over the
button.
Common tools, such as File > Print, work essentially the same in this application as they
do in any Windows application.
Still, this product’s working environment does have some special characteristics:

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• Within the software, you work in three types of windows, map windows, data
windows, and the layout window. These windows are contained in a GeoWorkspace,
which is roughly analogous to a workbook in Microsoft Excel®. If you have a
Microsoft IntelliMouse™, you can use it to manipulate map, data, and layout
windows faster and more efficiently.
• The software offers several specialized toolbars that are available only under the
appropriate circumstances. The Data toolbar, for example, is available only when the
data window is active. Select View > Toolbars to specify which toolbars you want
to display.
• Some right mouse menus are available in this product. You display pop-up menus by
pressing the right mouse button. The tools on the menu vary with the location of
your cursor.
• The product’s toolbars can be moved from their default locations and docked at other
locations within the interface. Moving a toolbar over a map window converts the
toolbar to a dockable control, and some tools provide a control rather than a dialog
box interface. Further, clicking the right mouse button on the title bar of a control
displays a menu that allows you to restore, move, minimize, maximize, or hide the
control, while clicking the X icon dismisses the control. Clicking the right mouse
button on a toolbar (or on the icons in a control) displays a menu that allows you to
turn toolbars on and off, display the Status and Precision Coordinates toolbars, and
customize toolbars.
• All controls in the product that perform the display and entry of either graphic text or
attribute text, support multi-language text (Unicode).
See the “Working with Map Windows”, “Working with Data Windows”, and “Working
with Layout Windows” chapters for information on the three types of windows.

Customizing the Menus and Toolbars


You can customize the GeoMedia working environment to display the menu items and
buttons you want and to accept the keyboard shortcuts you specify. You can do this on a
particular installation of your software by using the Customize command. In addition,
you and/or your administrator can also use the Save Customized Settings and Load
Customized Settings commands to save customized menus and toolbars to an XML
document that can be placed and reused on other machines.

Using the Customize Command


The Customize command (Tools > Customize) lets you customize menus, keyboard
shortcuts, and toolbars to help you perform your tasks more efficiently, as follows:
Keyboard shortcuts—Assign shortcut keys to commands and remove them as well as
restore all shortcut key assignments to the original settings.

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Working with GeoMedia

Menus—Add new menu items to and remove items from menus for quick access to the
commands you use most often, and reset menus to the original settings. You can also add,
rename, and delete menus.
Toolbars—Create new custom toolbars and add command buttons to delivered and custom
toolbars.
See the “Using the Customize Command” topic in the GeoMedia Help for complete
information on using this command.

Using the Save/Load Customized Settings Commands


Once you have customized the menus and toolbars for map windows and data windows
with the Customize command, the software provides an easy way to save (Save
Customized Settings) and to recall (Load Customized Settings) the customized
menu/toolbar configurations through a customized settings file (GeoMedia Customized
Settings, .xml), including commands from the core products and add-on products, as well
as custom commands. The layout window menus and toolbars, however, are not included
in these customized settings. You can thus create custom interfaces for specific purposes
or workflows as required. You may, for example, create a menu and toolbar configuration
for an edit-only workflow.
To save a customized configuration, you select Tools > Save Customized Settings to open
the Save As common dialog box. You then select the drive and folder for the new
customized settings file; the default folder is \GeoWorkspaces. Next, you type an
appropriate name for the customized settings file in the File name field, verify that the
Save as type drop-down list displays Customized Settings File (*.xml), and then click
OK.
To load a saved customized settings file, which removes all current menus and toolbars and
replaces them with the menus and toolbars defined in the XML document, the software
provides the following three options: Load Customized Settings command, command
line, and startup. The startup option is configured through the product’s automation layer.
The last two options let you load your customized settings at the end of GeoMedia
initialization. The schema for these documents is defined in GeoMedia
Professional\Schemas\gmcustom.xsd.

Note: A standard menus and toolbars customized settings file,


\ProgramFiles\GeoMediaProfessional\CustomizedSettings\StandardSettings.xml, is
delivered with the software. You can use this file to restore the delivered default menu and
toolbar settings.

To load a customized settings file with the Load Customized Settings command, you
select Tools > Load Customized Settings to open the Open common dialog box. You
then select the drive and folder containing the customized settings file you want to load.

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Next, you type the name of the customized settings file in the File name field or select it
from the list, and then click Open.
The command line option is /custom “<filename>”. During GeoMedia initialization, this
option is read, and the menus and toolbars are loaded, for example: GeoMedia.exe /custom
“D:\xmlfiles\MySettings.xml”.

The Product Workflow


This is a simplified example workflow for the most common tasks. Your workflow, of
course, will vary with the needs of your project.
1. Create a GeoWorkspace. See the “Working with GeoWorkspaces” chapter.
2. Define a coordinate system. See the “Working with Coordinate Systems” chapter.
3. Create warehouse connections. See the “Working with Warehouses” chapter.
4. Display data in your map window. See the “Working with Map Windows” chapter.
5. Change the appearance of the map-window contents. See the “Working with Map
Windows” chapter.
6. Display a data window. See the “Working with Data Windows” chapter.
7. Build and run a query. See the “Analyzing GeoMedia Data” chapter.
8. Create a thematic display. See the “Working with Map Windows” chapter.
9. Add labels to the map. See the “Analyzing GeoMedia Data” chapter.
10. Display a layout window. Display a layout window. See the “Working with Layout
Windows” chapter.
11. Prepare the map for printing. See the “Designing Map Layouts for Printing in the
Layout Window” chapter.
12. Print the map. See the “Printing in GeoMedia” chapter.

What is a GIS?
A GIS (geographic information system) is a computer system capable of assembling,
storing, manipulating, analyzing, and displaying geographically referenced information.
This system contains both data identified according to their locations as well as graphic
and nongraphic data.

What Can I Do with a GIS ?


A GIS allows you to perform the following functions:
• Locate information spatially – for example, find a site by latitude and longitude or by
proximity to other features.

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Working with GeoMedia

• Visualize information more effectively and intuitively.


• Spatially analyze information from many integrated data sources.
• Graphically navigate through data sets, for example, drill downs.
• Answer questions more quickly and accurately.
• Plan work and activities more effectively.
• Save resources on construction, maintenance, management, surveying, and similar
activities.

Aspects of a GIS
The following are some important aspects of a GIS system:
• A GIS knows where things are, which is essential to rational decision making in many
cases.
• The a GIS is only as useful and accurate as the information you put into it.
• Proper implementation of the technology is critical to the system’s success
• A map itself is not a GIS; a map is a derived output product of a GIS.
• A map is to a GIS as a report is to a database.

Types of Information
A GIS may contain the following types of information:
Textual—Reports, tabular data, and data streams.
Image Files—Aerial photos, scanned images, and photographs.
CAD (Vector)—Drawings containing linework, such as floor plans, schematics, and
diagrams, which are sometimes drawn to scale and sometimes not.
GIS (Smart Vectors)—Maps, properly scaled and properly oriented, and support for
multiple projections. Map feature definitions also include nongraphic data (attributes).
Other Documents—Office automation: presentations, spreadsheets, web pages, and so
forth.

GIS Concepts & Terminology


The following are several important GIS concepts and terminology that are used when
describing GeoMedia. They are discussed at greater length in their respective parts of this
document.

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Warehouses—Collections of GIS data, for example Oracle, ArcInfo, and CAD databases.
GeoMedia establishes connections to warehouses to gain access to the GIS information.

Features—Features are digital representations for real-world entities.

• Features have attributes. A feature class definition defines all of the attributes and
associated data types. Specific instances of the feature class have unique values for the
attribute fields.

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Working with GeoMedia

• Features can represent almost anything.

• Features can be represented in the GIS as points, lines, polylines, areas, arcs, text, and
images.

• Features can be organized into categories, themes, or layers.


Legends—Legends control what information appears in a map window, including
symbology, render order, and interactive characteristics.

Queries and Spatial Queries—Queries are questions, some complex, some simple, that
you can pose to the GIS. For example, a simple query might be to see all cities with more
than 100,000 people. Or, you may ask to see all states with a population over 100,000

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containing cities where the total crime rate is greater than 125. Spatial queries supplement
relational operators with spatial operators.

Coordinate Systems and Projections—Mathematical transformations must take place to


represent the Earth in two-dimensional space. It is the same source information in each
case, just represented differently. This is the primary cause for data from disparate sources
not to overlay properly.

Analytical Commands—Complex analyses and processing of the contents of the GIS.

GIS Applications
A GIS can be productively used in many endeavors, including the following:
• Agriculture
• Business
• Cartography
• Meteorology
• Geology
• Tourism

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Working with GeoMedia

• Education
• Archeology
• Facilities Management
• Military installation management
• Asset Management
• Environmental Management
• Utilities Management (water and sewer, electric, communication systems, cable, cell
phone coverage areas, and so forth)
• Natural Resources and Resource Conservation
• Public Safety (emergency dispatch management)
• Disaster planning (hurricane evacuation, earthquake)
• Health Care Industry (disease outbreak studies, epidemics)
• Industrial (plants, pipelines, storage tanks, and so forth)
• Aeronautical (Airport GIS, airspace management)
• Marine Engineering (biology, soundings)
• State and local government – Land Information Systems (LIS): parcels, right-of-way,
and so forth.
• Transportation Industry (highways, railroads, planning and analysis)

Benefits of GIS
Some of the benefits of using a GIS are the following:
Reduces Operations and Maintenance Costs—As a productivity multiplier, a GIS
enables less-skilled personnel to complete sophisticated analyses, as well as expanding the
output of the technical staff.
Improves Mission Effectiveness—A GIS provides command and management personnel
with the opportunity to rapidly analyze multidisciplinary sets of data and to arrive at the
best solution with complete supporting documentation.
Provides Rapid Modeling Capabilities for Analyzing Alternative Strategies— A GIS
provides the capability for command personnel to make the best and most cost-effective
decisions in tight budget environments.
Greatly Improved Communication Aids—Effective communication is essential for
managing an infrastructure, whether it be a college campus, military installation, or a city.
GIS visualization tools are fast and easy to use.
Promotes Harmony—By providing a standard set of data and tools for modeling and
analysis, major alternatives for a project can be consistently produced and analyzed. This

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capability helps bring teams together with the increased job satisfaction associated with the
feeling of effective group participation.
Provides a Repository of Institutional Knowledge—By incorporating as much
knowledge as possible into standard GIS functions, the loss of key personnel knowledge
can be minimized.

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Working with GeoMedia

1-16
Working with GeoWorkspaces
A GeoWorkspace is the container for all your work in this product. Within its confines are
the warehouse connections to your data, map windows, data windows, layout windows,
toolbars, coordinate-system information, and queries you have built. The first thing you do
is open an existing GeoWorkspace or create a new one.
Once you are in a GeoWorkspace, you can change its coordinate system, establish
warehouse connections, run queries, display data, and perform spatial analyses. The
settings and connections you define in a GeoWorkspace are saved in a .gws file, although
the actual data remains stored in warehouses. The software is delivered with an example
GeoWorkspace, USSampleData.gws.

Note: The U.S. Sample Data Set contains a shaded relief image of the United States,
complete with hypsometric tints. The data consist of a 1000-meter pixel resolution RGB
GeoTIFF file.

Every GeoWorkspace is built on a template, and you can create your own templates or use
an existing one. The software is delivered with a default GeoWorkspace template,
normal.gwt, which contains an empty map window, an empty legend, and a predefined
coordinate system. If you accidentally delete the normal.gwt file, you must reinstall the
software to restore the template; so it is a good idea to back up this file.
This is a representative workflow for creating and configuring a GeoWorkspace:
1. Select File > New GeoWorkspace.
2. Select a template.
3. If the coordinate system you want differs from the one in the template, define a
different coordinate system for the GeoWorkspace.
4. Make warehouse connections; configure map and data windows (topics covered in
other chapters).
5. Save the GeoWorkspace.

Creating a GeoWorkspace
You create a GeoWorkspace using normal.gwt or another template in the
\GeoMedia\Templates\GeoWorkspace folder. The available templates are displayed when
you select File > New GeoWorkspace from the GeoMedia menu or Create new
GeoWorkspace using from the introductory GeoMedia dialog box.

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Working with GeoMedia

The software assigns a default title of GeoWorkspace1 to each new GeoWorkspace.


When you save a GeoWorkspace, you assign it a filename, and the software automatically
adds a .gws extension.

Opening a GeoWorkspace
You can have only one GeoWorkspace open at a time. When you open a second
GeoWorkspace in the same software session, the software closes the open GeoWorkspace.
If the GeoWorkspace you want to open is read-only, you are advised that it is read-only
and asked if you still want to open it. If you open it, the software makes a copy of the
read-only GeoWorkspace and opens it as read-only. If you then make changes to this
internally copied GeoWorkspace and try to save it, you are advised that you have made
changes and asked if you want to save the GeoWorkspace to a different file name because
the original GeoWorkspace is read-only. The changes you make to a read-only
GeoWorkspace are discarded when you close it unless you save it with a different file
name.
A list of the most recently used GeoWorkspaces appears at the bottom of the File menu.
You can open a GeoWorkspace from this list by clicking the filename.

Note: GeoWorkspace (*.gws) files created in GeoMedia and other GeoMedia applications
that are saved to disk with queries specific to those applications, such as geometry
validation queries, will not open in GeoMedia.

To open a GeoWorkspace:
1. Select File > Open GeoWorkspace.

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Working with GeoWorkspaces

2. Select the GeoWorkspace you want.


3. Click Open.

Note: If a connection fails while attempting to open a GeoWorkspace, an error dialog box
appears prompting you to verify that your warehouse connection parameters are correct.

Delaying Data Loading


Depending on your data, opening an existing GeoWorkspace may take a long time. The
amount of time varies with the number of feature classes being loaded into displays, the
amount of data per feature class, and the processing time of any queries. To improve
performance, you can delay the loading of data by selecting the Do not load data when
opening GeoWorkspace check box on the General tab of the Options dialog box (Tools
> Options). If this check box is not selected, which is the default, the software loads all
data when opening a GeoWorkspace.

Upon setting this option, the map windows and data windows are empty when you open a
GeoWorkspace. The legend entries in the map view are created but not in a loaded state;
the data view shows a title but displays no records. Any existing queries are not re-
executed. Also, any subsequent opening of an existing GeoWorkspace, in the same session
or future sessions, does not load the data.
After opening a GeoWorkspace, you can selectively load its data as follows:
Legend Entries
• Select View > Update All to update all legend entries in all map windows and all data
windows.
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Working with GeoMedia

• Select one or more legend entries, display the right mouse menu (on the legend, not the
map window), and select Load Data. This is enabled only when one or more of the
selected legend entries is in an unloaded state.
Data Windows
• Select View > Update All to update all legend entries in all map windows and all data
windows.
• Display the right mouse menu, and select Load Data. This is enabled only when the
data window is in an unloaded state.

Automatically Backing Up GeoWorkspaces


To protect you against data loss due to GeoWorkspace corruption, the software contains an
automatic backup function. This automated backup is performed immediately after a
GeoWorkspace has been successfully read, at which point it is known that the
GeoWorkspace is not corrupted and a copy can be safely saved. This backup is performed
only if the GeoWorkspace itself is read-write, as there is no danger of a file corruption if it
is read-only. Furthermore, the GeoWorkspace may be read-only because it is in a read-
only folder or on a read-only medium (for example, a CD), which would prohibit creation
of the backup in any case.
The backup copy of the GeoWorkspace is made using a file copy, which ensures the
backup copy is identical to the original GeoWorkspace except for the filename. The
backup file has the same path and filename as the original GeoWorkspace except that the
extension is .bak. If a former backup file by the same name already exists, it will be
overwritten. The default is to automatically back up GeoWorkspaces, but you can turn this
feature off by unchecking the Create backup when opening GeoWorkspace check box
on the General tab of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options).

Saving, Closing, and Copying a GeoWorkspace


In addition to saving GeoWorkspaces automatically through the backup function, there are
several ways to save or to close one. When you save or copy a GeoWorkspace, you are
saving all its settings—the window configuration, the coordinate system, queries, legends,
thematic displays, and warehouse connections—even if you are connected to a read-only
warehouse.
The default location for GeoWorkspaces is specified during installation, usually the
\GeoWorkspaces folder of your root folder. You can change the default folder through the
File Locations tab of the Options dialog box. The default file extension for
GeoWorkspaces is .gws.
• To save changes to a GeoWorkspace any time during a session, select File > Save
GeoWorkspace. This saves but does not close the GeoWorkspace.

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Working with GeoWorkspaces

• To save a new GeoWorkspace, select File > Save GeoWorkspace As, and type a
name for the GeoWorkspace in the File name field.

Note: To make a GeoWorkspace read-only, you use standard Windows procedures for
changing file attributes.

• To copy the open GeoWorkspace to a new file, select File > Save GeoWorkspace As,
and give the GeoWorkspace a different name. This closes the open GeoWorkspace
without saving changes to it since the session was opened or since the last save. The
newly named GeoWorkspace becomes the open one.
• To close a GeoWorkspace without saving changes made since the last save or since the
current session was opened, select File > Close GeoWorkspace.

To change the location of your GeoWorkspace files:


The default storage location of your GeoWorkspace files is established when the software
is installed, but you can change it from the File Locations tab of the Options dialog box.

E-Mailing a GeoWorkspace
When you select File > Send from the GeoMedia menu, the electronic-mail application on
your system starts and attaches a copy of the open GeoWorkspace.
Because all warehouse connections are stored as folder paths, the person receiving the
GeoWorkspace will be able to open the GeoWorkspace, re-establish all original warehouse
connections, and view the data as it appeared when you e-mailed the GeoWorkspace.

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1. Select File > Send.


2. Fill in the To and Subject fields as you would for any e-mail message.
3. Send the message.

Creating a GeoWorkspace Template


The default location for GeoWorkspace templates is \Program
Files\GeoMedia\Templates\GeoWorkspaces. You can specify a different folder through
Tools > Options > File Locations.

To create a GeoWorkspace template:


1. Select File > New GeoWorkspace.
2. On the GeoWorkspace Template dialog box, select the Template option.
3. Select the normal.gwt template, and click New.
4. Define the GeoWorkspace coordinate system (View > GeoWorkspace Coordinate
System).
5. Make the warehouse connections you want for this template (Warehouse > New
Connection).
6. Turn on and position—or turn off—the legend, north arrow, and scale bar (View
menu).
7. Adjust the size and locations of the map and data windows.
8. In the map window, display the features and background images you want.
9. Build the queries you want saved with the template.
10. Select File > Save GeoWorkspace As.

Note: If you have named an alternate file location for GeoWorkspace templates, that
location appears in the Save in field of the Save GeoWorkspace As dialog box. Then
if you want to store the new template in the main templates folder, click the drop-down
arrow and browse to the \Program Files \GeoMedia\Templates\GeoWorkspaces folder.

11. Verify that GeoWorkspace Template appears in the Save as type field.
12. Type a name for the template in the File name text box. The file extension must be
.gwt.
13. Click Save.

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Working with GeoWorkspaces

Linking and Embedding a GeoWorkspace


GeoMedia can act as an OLE server, which means you can insert a GeoWorkspace as an
object into a container application that supports OLE. All such applications have an Insert
Object command, or something equivalent, that lets you link or embed objects. You can
also embed a GeoWorkspace by dragging and dropping the .gws file name from Windows
Explorer into a container application.
Only one view in a link can be active, and the container application shows the active view
by default when you link a GeoWorkspace. However, in some container applications, you
can edit the link and change the item part of the link source to a named view, which is the
title on a map or data window (by default, MapWindow1 or DataWindow1, for example).
When you embed a GeoWorkspace, the entire GeoWorkspace is embedded, not just a
single map or data window, although you can see only the active view of the embedded
GeoWorkspace in the document of the container document. The embedded GeoWorkspace
can be edited in one of two ways. First, you can in-place activate GeoMedia within the
container application. When you do this, the container application displays its own File
and Windows menus, but all other menus and tools belong to GeoMedia. Clicking outside
the embedded GeoWorkspace takes you back to the container document. Second, you can
open the embedded document in a separate GeoMedia window. This allows access to the
other windows in the embedded GeoWorkspace.

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2-8
Working with Coordinate Systems
This application displays all data—even data from different sources—using the coordinate
system defined for the GeoWorkspace. Each feature class stored in a warehouse can have
its own unique coordinate system and is transformed on the fly into the GeoWorkspace
coordinate system when you display them in the map window.

IMPORTANT: To accurately display raster images, FRAMME data, or data from many
non-Intergraph proprietary formats in a GeoWorkspace, the coordinate system of the
GeoWorkspace must either match that of the feature data in the warehouse or you must
define a coordinate system file for the feature data so that it can be correctly converted for
you. Assigning a coordinate system to your source data is the only way to ensure that
GeoMedia understands the source projection of your data. Data servers that use coordinate
system files typically specify the association of feature name to coordinate system file in
their ini file. In some cases these data servers allow the same coordinate system file to be
shared by all features in the warehouse. To create a coordinate system file (*.csf), you use
the Define Coordinate System File utility that is delivered with the software. A common
method to create the .ini file is the Define Warehouse Configuration File utility.

See "Displaying Data That Has No Coordinate System Specified" in this chapter. Also, see
the Define Coordinate System File utility’s online Help.
A coordinate system provides the mathematical basis for relating the features in your study
area to their real-world positions. The software supports the following types of coordinate
systems:
• A geographic coordinate system (the default) references a spheroid, expressing
coordinates as longitude, latitude, where longitude is the angular distance from a prime
meridian, and latitude is the angular distance from the equator.
• A projected coordinate system references a projection plane that has a well-know
relationship to a spheroid, expressing coordinates as X,Y, where X normally points
east on the plane of the map, and Y points north at the point chosen for the origin of
the map. The X coordinate is called easting, and the Y coordinate is called northing.
• A geocentric coordinate system references an earth-centered Cartesian system,
expressing coordinates as defining the position of a specific point with respect to the
center of the earth. These coordinates are Cartesian (X, Y, Z) where the X axis of the
geocentric system passes through the intersection of the prime meridian and the
equator, the Y axis passes through the intersection of the equator with 90 degrees East,
and the Z axis corresponds with the earth’s polar axis. The X and Y axes are positive
pointing outwards, while the Z axis is positive towards the North Pole.

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Geographic and projected coordinate systems reference horizontal position using either
longitude, latitude, or X,Y. Such a position may be extended to reference a vertical
position in the form of a third coordinate that indicates elevation above a known reference.
All GeoMedia coordinate systems provide both horizontal and vertical reference
information.
Coordinates may be transformed between these the geographic, projected, and geocentric
reference spaces. A paper reference space, which is a scaled representation of the
projection plane, is also supported.
Because the shape of the earth's surface varies from one geographic area to another, the
software interprets horizontal coordinates with reference to a network of geodetic control
points called the geodetic datum. The horizontal geodetic datum in turn defines the
reference ellipsoid, which is the model used to represent the shape of the earth’s surface.
Vertical coordinates (elevations) are interpreted with reference to a network of vertical
control or other vertical reference frame called the vertical datum.
See the “Coordinate System Information” appendix for a list of supported horizontal
geodetic datums, vertical datums, and ellipsoids.
If you change the coordinate system after displaying data, the data are transformed to the
new coordinate system, and the display is updated. Changing the coordinate system in the
GeoWorkspace does not affect the data in the warehouse, only data in the map window.
When you add a feature class to a GeoWorkspace, the software checks the datums in the
warehouse and in the GeoWorkspace for compatibility. If the datums are different, the
software automatically builds the appropriate datum transformation for these datums.

Note: To customize the datum transformation, edit the datum-transformation-building


algorithm in the file …\cssruntm\cfg\autodt.ini

The default coordinate system in the software contains the following settings:
• Base storage type—Geographic
• Horizontal storage unit—1 degree
• Vertical storage unit—1 meter
• Projection algorithm—Cylindrical Equirectangular
• Projection parameters—Centered at the equator and the prime meridian
• Horizontal geodetic datum and ellipsoid—WGS84
• Vertical datum— Earth Gravitational Model (EGM96)
• Nominal map scale—1:50,000

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Working with Coordinate Systems

Note: When the coordinate system type is geocentric, the projection algorithm is preset to
be Local Space Rectangular with latitude of origin at the North Pole. When the coordinate
system type is geographic, the projection algorithm is preset to Cylindrical Equirectangular
centered at the equator and prime meridian. For the geocentric and geographic coordinate
system types the projection algorithm is preset and cannot be changed.

You can change coordinate-system settings in an individual GeoWorkspace at any time.


Or you can create a new template with different settings so that all the GeoWorkspaces or
warehouses you create with the new template will have the different settings.
For projected coordinate systems, you can define a projection algorithm and its specific
projection parameters or accept the default of Cylindrical Equirectangular centered at the
equator and the prime meridian. For both projected and geographic coordinate systems,
you can define the horizontal and vertical storage units and storage-center parameters; or
you can accept the defaults. For geocentric coordinate systems, you can define the uniform
storage unit and storage center.
You can review but cannot change ellipsoid parameters unless you select user-defined
(non-standard) datum and ellipsoid types. Then you can type an equatorial radius value
and any other parameter and let the software calculate the remaining values.
In addition to using predefined horizontal geodetic datums, GeoMedia includes support for
custom named geodetic datums using the NamedHDatum.ini configuration file. For more
information see the …\cssruntm\cfg\NamedHDatum.ini file.
Finally, coordinate systems are heavily data dependant; therefore, you should not define
them arbitrarily. The projection you use in the definition should be the one that best suits
the data being displayed.

Storage Units
You can set the horizontal storage unit, vertical storage unit, geocentric storage unit, and
storage center parameters on the Storage Space tab of the Define Coordinate System File
dialog box, the GeoWorkspace Coordinate System dialog box, and the Coordinate
System Properties dialog box. The content of this tab varies depending on base storage
type. The following example is for the projection base storage type:

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Working with GeoMedia

For the geographic base storage type, you also define the horizontal and vertical storage
units, but the storage center options are longitude, latitude, and height. For the geocentric
base storage type, you define the geocentric storage unit and the storage center options of
X, Y, and Z.
Horizontal storage unit—For the coordinate system of a data source, the horizontal
storage unit defines what the distance between sequential integer X or Y coordinate
values is when the base storage type is geographic or projection.
For example, if the resolution is 0.001 ft., and then the X coordinate of a point changes
from 1 to 2, the distance in the X direction of the change is 0.001 ft. This is very important
for data sources that store coordinates as integers (MGE, MGDM, MGSM, and CAD with
.dgn files) because for these data types, you cannot go between 1 and 2. Thus, the smallest
distance that will resolve two values as being separate is 0.001 ft., which leads to the term
resolution being applied to integer storage. In the context of IGDS/MGE, this concept was
presented with the term UOR (Unit of Resolution), whereas GeoMedia uses storage
coordinates. Thus, when MGE tells you that you have 1000 UORs per ft., it is telling you
exactly the same thing that GeoMedia is telling you when it says you have a horizontal
resolution of 0.001 ft. (1 ft./1000 UORs). GeoMedia is just looking at the distance
between two adjoining UORs, whereas MGE/MCSO presents the same concept as "how
many UORs fill a common distance (such as 1 ft.)". The GeoMedia way of presentation
mimics common language, such as, "My data are at cm. resolution" (meaning the distance
between UORs is 1 cm., whereas MGE would state this as "100 UORs per m." or "1 UOR
per cm.").
For CAD and MGE users, the horizontal resolution is expressing the very real limitations
of the data. For example, you cannot draw a line and measure between two UORs.
For other data sources that use floating point, these limitations do not exist (within reason).
Much ArcInfo and MapInfo data are defined with a horizontal storage unit of 1 meter (or
for geographic data, 1 degree). That just means that the data source chose to store the
coordinates in those units. It is not necessary for floating point data to be stored as
hundredths of a foot, for example, which would be wasted calculation; they just store it as
feet (or meters, or whatever—whole units, usually).
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Working with Coordinate Systems

Likewise, data in GeoMedia's own geometry cache is kept as floating point. Thus, it is
normally not necessary to adjust the resolution definition for the GeoWorkspace coordinate
system. This is especially true due to the ability to match GeoWorkspace and default
warehouse coordinate systems through the General tab of the Options dialog box (Tools >
Options).

Note: If you are exporting data from an integer-based storage format to a floating-point
storage format, you should set the horizontal resolution for the coordinate system in the
target warehouse to 1. This ensures that the coordinates stored reflect the actual
coordinates of the data rather than the UOR values.

Vertical storage unit—For the coordinate system of a data source, the vertical storage unit
defines what the distance between sequential Z coordinate values is, when the base storage
type is geographic or projection.
Geocentric storage unit—For the coordinate system of a data source, the geocentric
storage unit defines what the distance between sequential X, Y, or Z coordinate values is,
when the base storage type is geocentric.
For a geocentric coordinate system, the geocentric storage unit takes the place of both
horizontal and vertical storage units because the geocentric storage space has uniform
scaling in all directions.
The description of how the horizontal storage unit relates to integer and floating point data
storage applies also to the vertical storage unit and the geocentric storage unit parameters.
Storage center—This is another legacy from integer storage. Integer storage mechanisms
such as MGE and CAD .dgn files can only store so many UORs. In some cases, users need
to offset the range of UORs that is used (some users wanted all coordinates to be positive,
for example). The MicroStation global origin offset would accomplish that. This appears
in GeoMedia as the storage center. A normal data set has a center of (0,0), which means
no shifting is defined.

Note: If you are exporting data from an-integer based storage format to a floating-point
storage format, you should set the storage center for the coordinate system in the target
warehouse to 0. This ensures that the coordinates stored reflect the actual coordinates of
the data rather than the shifted values.

Defining a Coordinate System for a GeoWorkspace


You can define the following coordinate-system properties in a GeoWorkspace:
• Coordinate system type (geographic, projection, or geocentric)
• Horizontal and vertical storage units or geocentric storage unit

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Working with GeoMedia

• Storage center
• Projection algorithm and parameters
• Horizontal (geodetic) and vertical datums
• Reference ellipsoid and parameters
See the "Coordinate System Information" appendix for the settings available in the
software.

To define a GeoWorkspace coordinate system:


1. Select View > GeoWorkspace Coordinate System.
2. On the General tab of the GeoWorkspace Coordinate System dialog box, select the
Geographic, Projection, or Geocentric coordinate system type.

3. Optional: To change the storage units and storage center, select the Storage Space
tab.

Note: Changing the coordinate system type from Projection or Geocentric to


Geographic resets the horizontal storage unit to 1 degree and the vertical storage unit
to 1 meter. Changing the coordinate system type from Geographic or Geocentric to
Projection will reset the horizontal and vertical storage units to 1 meter. Changing the
coordinate system type from Projection or Geographic to Geocentric resets the
geocentric storage unit to 1 meter. Each of these changes resets the storage center to
(0,0,0).

4. For projected coordinate systems only: On the Projection Space tab, select a
projection algorithm from the Projection algorithm drop-down list.
To change parameters, click Projection Parameters. Depending on the projection
algorithm selected, some text boxes may be read-only.

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5. Optional: On the Geographic Space tab, select the geodetic datum from the Geodetic
datum drop-down list.
6. Optional: If you select a user-defined (non-standard) geodetic datum, you can change
the ellipsoid on the Geographic Space tab; and if you select a user-defined (non-
standard) ellipsoid, you can change ellipsoid parameters as well.
7. Optional: On the Geographic Space tab, select the vertical datum from the Vertical
datum drop-down list.

Note: Changing the coordinate system type from Projection or Geographic to


Geocentric resets the vertical datum to Ellipsoid (geometric).

8. On the GeoWorkspace Coordinate System dialog box, click OK.

Defining a Coordinate System for a Feature Class


For a new feature class being defined or an existing feature class being edited (other than
non-graphic, that is, tabular-only, non-spatial data) that has no data, you can define or
review the following coordinate-system properties of the default coordinate system:
• Base storage type (geographic, projection, or geocentric)
• Horizontal and vertical storage units or geocentric storage unit.
• Storage center
• Projection algorithm and parameters
• Horizontal (geodetic) and vertical datums
• Reference ellipsoid and parameters
For information about creating feature classes, see the “Working with Features” chapter.

Note: For a feature class being reviewed or a feature class being edited that has data, you
can only review the coordinate system properties. However, a warehouse coordinate
system may be marked as the default coordinate system for the warehouse while reviewing
or editing an existing feature class, or while creating a new feature class.

To define a coordinate system for a new feature class:


1. Create or connect to a read-write warehouse.
2. Select Warehouse > Feature Class Definition.
3. On the Feature Class Definition dialog box, click New; then define new feature class
name, optional description, and data type.

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You may select a coordinate system by name from the Coordinate system drop-down
list. The properties of the selected coordinate system may be reviewed by clicking the
Properties button, which displays the Coordinate System Properties dialog box
(described below) in read-only mode. To create a new coordinate system for the
feature class, click New, which displays the Coordinate System Properties dialog
box in read-write mode:

4. On the General tab of the Coordinate System dialog box, select the Geographic,
Projection, or Geocentric coordinate system type.
5. Optional: To change the storage units and storage center, select the Storage Space
tab.

Note: Changing the coordinate system type from Projection or Geocentric to


Geographic resets the horizontal storage unit to 1 degree and the vertical storage unit
to 1 meter. Changing the coordinate system type from Geographic or Geocentric to
Projection resets the horizontal and vertical storage units to 1 meter. Changing the
coordinate system type from Projection or Geographic to Geocentric resets the
geocentric storage unit to 1 meter. Each of these changes resets the storage center to
(0,0,0).

6. For projected coordinate systems only: On the Projection Space tab, select a
projection algorithm from the Projection algorithm drop-down list.
To change parameters, click Projection Parameters. Depending on the projection
algorithm selected, some text boxes may be read-only.
7. Optional: On the Geographic Space tab, select the geodetic datum from the Geodetic
datum drop-down list.
8. Optional: If you select a user-defined (non-standard) geodetic datum, you can change
the ellipsoid on the Geographic Space tab; and if you select a user-defined (non-
standard) ellipsoid, you can change ellipsoid parameters as well.

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9. Optional: On the Geographic Space tab, select the vertical datum from the Vertical
datum drop-down list.

Note: Changing the coordinate system type from Projection or Geographic to


Geocentric resets the vertical datum to Ellipsoid (geometric).

10. Optional: On the General tab, type values in the coordinate system Name and
Description fields.
Both will be stored in the warehouse and can make it easier to determine what
coordinate systems are assigned to specific feature classes. The Name entry will be
used in the Coordinate system drop-down list on the New <feature class name>
dialog box when you exit the Coordinate System Properties dialog box with OK.
11. Click OK on the Coordinate System Properties dialog box.
12. Optional: To create or change the default coordinate system for the warehouse, select
the appropriate coordinate system from the Coordinate system drop-down list; then
click the Set As Default button.

Note: You can assign only one default coordinate system per warehouse.

13. Click OK on the New <feature class name> dialog box..

Matching GeoWorkspace and Default Warehouse


Coordinate Systems
The General tab of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options) provides two options to
match the GeoWorkspace and default warehouse coordinate systems. These options
improve performance when loading and displaying data by not imposing unnecessary
coordinate-system transformations. Both options are selected by default.

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The default warehouse coordinate system is assigned by clicking the Set As Default button
on the New / Edit / Review <feature class name> dialog box within the Warehouse >
Feature Class Definition command. If a default coordinate system has not been defined,
the software will look for the first coordinate system having the Description property
value Default. If no default is found that way, the first coordinate system found in the
metadata table GCoordSystem will be used.
The When making first connection option allows you to match the two coordinate
systems by copying the definition of the default coordinate-system of the first warehouse
connection made for the GeoWorkspace with the New Connection command to the current
GeoWorkspace coordinate system. If you do not select this option, New Connection has
no effect on the definition of the GeoWorkspace coordinate system. You can verify the
new coordinate-system definition through View > GeoWorkspace Coordinate System.
The When creating a new warehouse option allows you to match the two coordinate
systems by copying the coordinate-system definition of the current GeoWorkspace to the
default coordinate system of a new Access warehouse when it is created. If you do not
select this option, the active template defines the default coordinate system of the new
warehouse. This option does not affect Oracle or SQL Server connections.
The optimum workflow in many situations is to first use New Connection to connect to
your data, thus setting the GeoWorkspace coordinate system, and then to use New
Warehouse to create any appropriate new Access warehouse(s). This sequence ensures
that the new Access warehouse shares the same coordinate-system definition with the data
source and the GeoWorkspace.

Note: The When creating a new warehouse option does not apply to the Oracle Object
Model. When using the Oracle Object Model, you need to verify that the coordinate
system is set to what you want it to be; it is not automatically set by the software.

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Related Effects
The software automatically updates the various aspects of the system that are affected by
copying the default coordinate-system definition of the first connection to the
GeoWorkspace coordinate system. Any transformation pathways to coordinate systems of
connections that were previously created and then deleted will be updated. Any spatial
filters that exist (either from the GeoWorkspace template or from running Spatial Filter
definition commands) will be transformed into the new GeoWorkspace coordinate system.
Coordinate-system information will be updated on all map views, resulting in recalculation
of the display scale. If the north arrow and scale bar are displayed, they will be refreshed
to account for the new coordinate system and display scale.
Copying the GeoWorkspace Coordinate-System Definition onto the Default
Coordinate System of a New (Access) Warehouse
If you select the matching options, the software copies the definition of the coordinate
system of the GeoWorkspace into the warehouse and marks it as the default coordinate
system for the warehouse. This definition is written into the GCoordSystem table of the
database. The software creates a new row if necessary.
You can actually use the New Warehouse command in two slightly different ways to
create 1) a new Access warehouse (.mdb – the default), or 2) a new Access warehouse
template (.mdt). Only when creating a new warehouse (.mdb) does the command establish
a connection to the new warehouse. Because an open connection is required to update or
to add a row to the GCoordSystem table of the warehouse, it is only when a new warehouse
(not warehouse template) is created (and the preference is set) that the New Warehouse
command copies the GeoWorkspace coordinate system to the warehouse and marks it as
the default coordinate system.
The impacts of copying the GeoWorkspace coordinate-system definition onto the
coordinate system of a new (Access) warehouse affect the optimum workflow. The
optimum workflow in many situations is to first use New Connection to connect to your
data source, thus setting the GeoWorkspace coordinate system, and then to use New
Warehouse to create any new warehouse(s). This ordering ensures that the new
warehouse shares the same coordinate-system definition with the data source and
GeoWorkspace.

Getting Coordinate Readouts


To see the coordinates of any location in the map window, turn on the Precision
Coordinates display (View > Precision Coordinates).

This control displays the precision coordinates for the current cursor position in the map
window. The current coordinate format drop-down list determines if the displayed

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Working with GeoMedia

coordinates are geographic or projected. The coordinate display and entry field displays
the coordinate readout for the current cursor position. The units and precision of the
coordinate readout are defined using the Units and Formats tab of the GeoWorkspace
Coordinate System dialog box. You have the option to update coordinates with a mouse
move (the default) or with a click. The coordinate display and entry options drop-down
menu displays options that include the following:
• Update coordinates on mouse move
• Update coordinates on click
• Clear coordinates after enter (this option applies to precision keyins, not to precision
readouts)
See the Precision Coordinates Help topic in GeoMedia Help for complete information.

Setting Units and Formats


When setting a GeoWorkspace coordinate system, the Units and Formats tab of the
GeoWorkspace Coordinate System dialog box allows you to set default measurement
options for all commands that involve measuring, for example, Measure Distance and
Analyze Geometry. This tab also allows you to control the way coordinate readout
information appears on the Precision Coordinates dockable control.
When setting the coordinate system of a feature class, the Units and Formats tab allows
you to set the units and formats parameters on the tab; however, when the dialog box is
displayed from the Feature Class Definition command, these parameters only have an
effect on this dialog box or its sub-dialogs (for example, the Projection Parameters dialog
box). Specific units and formats are not stored for individual features, only the coordinate
system and the master unit are stored. This is also true for other commands (commands
other than the GeoWorkspace Coordinate System command) that use this dialog box.

These are the options you can set on the Units and Formats tab:

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• Type specifies the type of unit for which to set the default unit and precision. Each
unit type used by the software is listed. When the software outputs values of the
specified unit type, those values by default are displayed using the units and precision
specified here. Some commands allow you to override these defaults.
• Unit sets the linear, areal, or angular unit of measure. The choices vary with the unit
type.
• Precision defines the number of decimal places of precision in the coordinate-readout
applicable commands. A separate precision may be specified for each unit type.
• Geographic coordinate format defines the ordering of longitude and latitude values
and the definition of the positive direction of the two axes (including the option for
using character designators) when geographic coordinates are formatted or parsed as
ASCII strings.
• Projection coordinate format defines the ordering of projection east/west and
north/south values and the definition of the positive direction of these two axes used in
projection coordinate strings that are formatted for output or parsed for input.
• Measurement interpretation specifies how Earth curvature and nominal map scale
are accounted for in measurements and coordinate calculations.
− True (spheroidal) specifies that distance/area/azimuth(bearing) measurements are
taken on the surface of the ellipsoid by taking the curvature of the Earth into
account. These measurements do not contain any projection distortions.
− Projected (planar) specifies that distance/area/azimuth(bearing) measurements are
taken on the projection plane without taking the curvature of the Earth into
account. These measurements do contain projection distortions. This is the default
setting.
− Paper (scaled) specifies that distance measurements are computed on the paper
plane that is scaled in relation to the projection plane at the current nominal map
scale.

Note: This option is available only when the Units and Formats dialog box is
displayed with the Tools > Measure Distance dockable control.

• Azimuth settings specify the direction and starting point when setting and displaying
azimuths. An azimuth is a way of specifying an angle by measuring either clockwise
or counterclockwise from 0 to 360 degrees. These options apply to the distance and
azimuth readouts and keyins, and to some coordinate system projection parameters.
See the “Conversion Tables” appendix for multiplication factors for converting from/to the
International System of Units (metric) to/from the United States Customary System.
Units and formats can be temporarily set when displaying the Units and Formats dialog
box from the Tools > Measure Distance and the Insert > Feature dockable controls.

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The Paper (scaled) measurement interpretation is only available with the Tools >
Measure Distance dockable control.
See the "Measuring Distances" in the “Working with Map Windows” chapter.

Configuring for Datum Transformations


To convert data between two coordinate systems that are based on different horizontal or
vertical geodetic datums, you need one or more datum transformations. The software uses
the autodt.ini file to generate datum transformations during the building of coordinate-
system transformation paths, such as the path between the GeoWorkspace coordinate
system and a warehouse coordinate system. The autodt.ini file is in the …\cssruntm\cfg
folder.
When datum transformation is needed to go between a specific set of datums, the entries
from this file are used to create a network graph of the datum transformation possibilities
and the shortest path through the graph is used to choose the set of datum transformations
that you want. When building the graph, the software processes this file in order from top
to bottom. Where more than one file entry exists to transform between a given set of
datums, only the first entry will be used.
You can cause a different model or definition to be used by changing the order of the
entries in the autodt.ini file. You can also define new entries for many models, if you have
access to the parameters for these models that suit your needs. The Second Degree
Conformal Polynomial model may be used to achieve a Helmert transformation. All datum
transformation models can transform in both the forward and inverse directions.
For example, an entry that begins "csgdNAD27,
csvdNAVD88,csgdNAD83,csvdNAVD88, . . ." will match a search for a transformation to
go from NAD83 to NAD27 as well as a transformation from NAD27 to NAD83.
Details of the syntax for model-specific parameters are included as comments in the
autodt.ini file. The general syntax for all entries in this file is as follows:
ForwardInputHorizontalDatum,ForwardInputVerticalDatum,Forward
OutputHorizontalDatum,ForwardOutputVerticalDatum,DatumTransMo
delType[,model-specific-parameters...]
• Fields are separated by a comma (,).
• A semicolon (;) in the first column denotes a comment line.
• Horizontal datums are defined using the ASCII mnemonics from the
CSGeodeticDatumConstants enumeration and named horizontal datum names from the
NamedHDatum.ini configuration file.
• Vertical datums are defined using the ASCII mnemonics from the
CSVerticalDatumConstants enumeration.

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• Datum-transformation-model types are defined using the ASCII mnemonics from the
CSDatumTransformationModelConstants enumeration.
• This file is never localized for different languages, rather, it is always interpreted in
English (it uses the comma for the field separator and the dot for the decimal
character). No thousands grouping character is used.
• Floating point values are never written in scientific notation.
When you make changes to the autodt.ini file, they do not affect any GeoMedia or
GeoMedia object-based process that is currently running. This is because the coordinate
transformation software only reads the file once at start-up time; so if the file is altered
afterwards, the process does not know about the alteration until the next time the process is
run.
In addition, when you make changes to the autodt.ini file, they do not affect
transformations that have already been persisted in a GeoMedia GeoWorkspace. This is
because the coordinate transformation software only uses the autodt.ini file to build new
datum transformations. If, for example, you make a connection and the software at that
time uses the autodt.ini file to include a datum transformation and you then save the
GeoWorkspace, any subsequent change you make to the autodt.ini file does not affect that
saved GeoWorkspace. This is because the datum transformation has already been created
and saved within the GeoWorkspace.
See the “Coordinate System Information” appendix for a list of datum-transformation
models the software supports.

Displaying Data That Has No Coordinate System


Specified
To be displayed accurately in a GeoWorkspace, all data must specify a coordinate system.
MGE, MGDM, and MGSM data already specify coordinate systems (type-56 element), but
all ARC/INFO, Arc/View, and MapInfo data and some FRAMME, CAD, and raster data
do not. To accommodate data with no specified coordinate system, you first define a
coordinate-system file (.csf) outside of the software.

To define a coordinate-system file:


1. From the Windows Start menu, select All Programs > GeoMedia > Utilities >
Define Coordinate System File.
2. On the General tab of the Define Coordinate System File dialog box, select the base
storage type—Geographic, Projection, or Geocentric—of the coordinate-system that
is to be saved to the file.
3. Optional: To change the storage units and storage center, select the Storage Space
tab.

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Note: Changing the coordinate system type from Projection or Geocentric to


Geographic resets the horizontal storage unit to 1 degree and the vertical storage unit
to 1 meter. Changing the coordinate system type from Geographic or Geocentric to
Projection resets the horizontal and vertical storage units to 1 meter. Changing the
coordinate system type from Projection or Geographic to Geocentric resets the
geocentric storage unit to 1 meter. Each of these changes resets the storage center to
(0,0,0).

4. For projected coordinate systems only: On the Projection Space tab, select a
projection algorithm from the Projection algorithm drop-down list.
5. Optional: To change parameters, click Projection Parameters. Depending on the
projection algorithm selected, some text boxes may be read-only.
6. Optional: On the Geographic Space tab, select the geodetic datum from the Geodetic
datum drop-down list.
7. Optional: If you select a user-defined (non-standard) geodetic datum, you can change
the ellipsoid on the Geographic Space tab; and if you select a user-defined (non-
standard) ellipsoid, you can change ellipsoid parameters as well.
8. Optional: On the Geographic Space tab, select the vertical datum from the Vertical
datum drop-down list.

Note: Changing the coordinate system type from Projection or Geographic to


Geocentric resets the vertical datum to Ellipsoid (geometric).

9. Optional: On the General tab, type values in the coordinate system Name and
Description fields.
These will be saved in the .csf file. Many data servers that use .csf files will use these
values as the name and description exposed for a coordinate system, which may, for
example, be seen during Review of feature properties within the Feature Class
Definition command.
10. On the Define Coordinate System File dialog box, click Save As.
11. On the Save Coordinate System File As dialog box, select the drive and folder where
you want to save the coordinate-system file. If you do not select a path, the
coordinate-system file will be saved in the root folder of your active drive.
Select one of the following locations:
− The folder containing the specific warehouse for which the coordinate-system file
defines coordinate data. This is the preferred location.

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− The folder where the warehouses are stored. The default is <drive:>\Warehouses.
It may be necessary to use this location, for example, when the actual warehouse
data are located on read-only media.
− For FRAMME data, you can specify the folder containing the gateway file fsa.gtw
or the folder named in the gralocs.txt file, which is located on the FRAMME
graphics server. The default is \win32app\ingr\frs\cfg.
12. In the File name text box, type the name that you want to give to the coordinate-
system file.
13. Verify that the Save as type is set to Coordinate System File (*.csf).
14. Click Save.
To display ARC/INFO data:
(.csf)You identify the coordinate-system file for the ARC/INFO data by creating a
<workspace>.ini file, where <workspace> is the name of the ARC/INFO GeoWorkspace
data folder. Within this file, you specify the coordinate-system file to be used. Place the
<workspace>.ini file in the ARC/INFO GeoWorkspace folder, or if that is not possible, in
the software’s \Warehouses folder specified during installation.
See the “Creating Data Server .INI Files” topic in GeoMedia Help.

To display ArcView data:


You identify the coordinate-system file for the ArcView data by creating a
<workspace>.ini file, where <workspace> is the name of the ArcView GeoWorkspace
data folder. Within this file, you specify the coordinate-system file (.csf) to be used. Place
the <workspace>.ini file in the ArcView GeoWorkspace folder, or if that is not possible, in
the software’s \Warehouses folder specified during installation ($/GeoMedia/bin is the one
specified for the .ini file).
See the “Creating Data Server .INI Files” topic in GeoMedia Help.

To display CAD-server data:


For CAD-server data, perform the following:
• Specify the coordinate-system file(s) in the CAD schema definition (.csd) file.
• While creating the .csd file on the Files tab of the CAD Server Definition dialog box,
select all the coordinate-system files to be used, and specify the coordinate-system file
on the Coordinate Systems tab.
• For the IGDS Scanner, you can use either a .dgn file (with a type-56 element) or a .csf
file (created by Define Coordinate System File) to specify the coordinate-system
information.
• For the AutoCAD Scanner, you can use only a .csf file (created by Define Coordinate
System File) to specify the coordinate-system information.

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To display FRAMME data:


For FRAMME data, there are two ways to get spatially accurate displays:
Method 1
Under the [CoordinateSystem] keyword of the FRAMME .ini file, specify a design
file (.dgn) that contains a type-56 element. The syntax is FILE=<filename>. For
example, FILE=myfile.dgn.
If the design file you specify does not contain a type-56 element, the working units and
global origin defined in the type-9 element will be used to create a coordinate system.
If you do not specify a design file, the wrk_seed.dgn file on the FRAMME server will be
used to create a coordinate system.
See the “Creating Data Server .INI Files” topic in GeoMedia Help.
See MGE Basic Nucleus or MGE Projection Manager documentation for information
about type-56 elements.
Method 2
Define a coordinate-system file (.csf) that contains the coordinate-system parameters of the
FRAMME data. Then identify the coordinate-system file under the
[CoordinateSystem] keyword in the FRAMME .ini file as follows:
FILE=<filename>. For example, FILE=myfile.csf.

To display MapInfo data:


You identify the coordinate-system file for the MapInfo data by creating a
<workspace>.ini file, where <workspace> is the name of the MapInfo GeoWorkspace
folder. Within this file, you specify the coordinate-system file (.csf) to be used. Place the
<workspace>.ini file in the MapInfo GeoWorkspace folder, or if that is not possible, in the
software’s \Warehouses folder specified during installation.
If there is no .ini file, the data server will look for a .csf file in the MapInfo GeoWorkspace
folder that bears the same name as the MapInfo table and use that .csf file for the
corresponding GeoMedia feature class. This way, you need one .csf file for one feature
class in the GeoWorkspace folder. You cannot use a single .csf file for the whole folder
unless you specify it in the .ini file.
See the “Creating Data Server .INI Files” topic in GeoMedia Help..

To display raster images:


For Intergraph-format raster images that are inserted using the by-header placement mode
or other raster formats that have an associated ESRI word file, you define a coordinate-
system file and then insert the image into a read-write warehouse.
See the “Working with Images” chapter and the “Raster Information” appendix.

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To edit a coordinate-system file:


To edit an existing .csf file, double click the file name. This opens the Define Coordinate
System File dialog box. Make changes to the file, and click OK.

Creating Coordinate-System Files from Design


Files
You can easily create a coordinate-system file (.csf) from an IGDS design file (.dgn) with
Define Coordinate System File. This utility can read a .dgn file if you:
1. Drag the .dgn file from Explorer onto the Define Coordinate System File icon.
OR
2. Rename the file from a .dgn extension to a .csf extension and then double click to open
the file in Define Coordinate System File.
OR
After invoking the Define Coordinate System File utility from the Start menu, select
the Load button. Then on the Load Coordinate System From File dialog box,
change the Files of type selection to Design Files (*.dgn).
Note that Define Coordinate System File can only read .dgn files, not write to them. The
only format this utility can write to is the .csf (OLE compound files structured-storage)
format. If you want to write coordinate-system information into a type-56 element of a
design file, you need to use MGE. Also, in this 6.0 version of the software, MicroStation
Version 8 .dgn files cannot be read.
Define Coordinate System File reads .dgn files with or without a type-56 element.
Without a type-56 element, it reads only the information on working units (storage units)
and global origin (storage center) from the type-9 element. It then sets the projection to
Rectangular Grid, which means no algorithm is defined to get from Projection to
Geographic coordinates. With a valid type-56 element, in addition to reading the type-9
element, this utility reads projection and datum information from the type-56 element.
A potential workflow to use this capability would be with CAD server when you have .dgn
data, and 1) the .dgn data does not contain a type-56 element with projection information,
and 2) the information of the .dgn about working units (storage units) and global origin
(storage center) is valid.
In this case, if you know the projection information, but for example were digitizing with
vanilla MicroStation, you may want to use Define Coordinate System File to read the
working units and global origin information of the .dgn. You would then use it to define
the projection and datum, and you would save the information out to a .csf file.

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3-20
Working with Warehouses
You display feature geometries and attribute data in a GeoWorkspace through connections
to warehouses where the data are stored. Each warehouse connection uses a data server to
convert the data into a format that the software can display. Connections are links that
allow the transfer and translation of feature data from the various supported data
warehouse types.

You can output feature data in any GeoMedia-supported format to a warehouse with the
Output to Feature Classes command. You must have at least one read-write open
connection to use this command.
See the “Outputting Feature Data to Warehouses” section of the “Working with Features”
chapter
The New Connection command lets you to easily create warehouse connections. This
command guides you through the process of entering the information necessary to define
and to make the connection to your data. You specify the name and location of the
connection and all the necessary connection parameters. This command lets you specify a
warehouse configuration (.ini) file for many data connections. You can create the .ini files
using the Define Warehouse Configuration Utility before connecting to the data.

Note: Access-based warehouses, catalogs, and libraries all use *.mdb files. You should
maintain these in separate directories in order to make the individual database type more
easily found. In addition, the software has separate folder locations for the Access versions
of these files, and you should add the word catalog, library, or warehouse to filenames in
order to distinguish them from each other. Oracle and SQL Server can also contain
libraries and catalogs, and the associated schemas should be named to distinguish them
from standard spatial schemas.

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Working with GeoMedia

See the “Creating Data Server .INI Files” and the “New Connection Dialog Box” topics
in GeoMedia Help and the Define Warehouse Configuration File utility’s online Help for
complete information.
This version of the software lets you connect to data created in the following formats:
• Access • MGE Data Manager
• ARC/INFO • MGE Segment Manager (MGSM)
• ArcView shapefile • ODBC Tabular
• CAD – AutoCAD and MicroStation®/IGDS • Oracle® Object Model
• FRAMME™ • SQL Server
• GeoGraphics • SmartStore Server
• GML • Text File Server
• I/CAD MAP • WFS
• MapInfo • WMS
• (MGDM)Modular GIS Environment (MGE)
See the “Working with Map Windows” and “Working with Data Windows” chapters for
more information.
All warehouse types are read-only, except for Access, Oracle, and SQL Server. This
protects the integrity of your source data. So, if you want only to display data in the
software from one or more warehouses, you simply create one or more warehouse
connections and then use map windows and data windows to display the data.
This is a representative workflow for accessing the warehouse data you want to display:
1. Open a new GeoWorkspace.
2. Connect to the warehouse containing the data for your area of interest.
3. Connect to other warehouse(s).
4. Display the feature data.
If you want write access to the data in the software—to add new features or change
attributes of existing ones, for example—you create a new Access warehouse and import
data into it. You may also import data into an Oracle Object Model or SQL Server
warehouse assuming you have a read-write connection.
Whether you are displaying data or writing it, your GeoWorkspace can contain data from
many different sources, even those whose native data types are incompatible.
This is a representative workflow for importing data into a read-write warehouse:
1. Follow the steps in the preceding workflow to identify the area for which data are to be
imported.
2. Optional: Define a coordinate system for the empty warehouse. (The GeoWorkspace
defaults to the coordinate system from the first feature added to the legend.)
3. Import feature classes from the connected warehouses into your read-write warehouse
(Access, Oracle Object Model, or SQL Server).
4-2
Working with Warehouses

Creating a Read-Write Access Warehouse


A read-write Access warehouse can contain feature class definitions, features, raster
images, and a coordinate system.
Like a GeoWorkspace, a read-write Access warehouse is built on a template, and you can
create your own template(s) or use an existing one. The software is delivered with a
default Access warehouse template, normal.mdt.
See the “Working with Features” chapter.
If you accidentally delete the normal.mdt file, you may have to run repair to re-install the
normal.mdt template. If you have Microsoft Access, you can create a blank .mdb file to
use as your template. Be sure and follow the instructions for defining a warehouse
coordinate system, since this default database will not have one. Better still, make a
backup copy of the template.

Note: Warehouse, catalog, and library all use *.mdb files. Therefore, you should maintain
files for each of these three components in separate folders, or under separate users in SQL
Server and Oracle. In addition, the software has special and separate folder locations for
the Access versions of these files, and you should add catalog, library, or warehouse to
filenames (Access) or user names (SQL Server, Oracle) to help distinguish between files
for each use.

To create a read-write Access warehouse:


1. Select Warehouse > New Warehouse.
2. On the Warehouse Template dialog box, select a template. The default is
normal.mdt.
3. Verify that the Document option is selected.
4. Click New.
5. On the New Warehouse dialog box in the Save in field, select a storage location. The
default is <drive:>\Warehouses.

Note: The default storage location is established when the software is installed, but
you can change it in the product from the File Locations tab of the Options dialog box
(Tools > Options).

6. In the File name field, type a unique file name.


7. Leave Access as the file type.
8. Click Save.
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Working with GeoMedia

Defining a Coordinate System for a Warehouse


Normally, you define a warehouse coordinate system only for an empty read-write Access
warehouse that you just created. You can view but cannot change the coordinate system in
a warehouse in which feature classes already exist, but you can accomplish a change to the
coordinate system with the following procedure:
1. Create a new read-write Access warehouse.
2. Change the coordinate system.
3. Import the data into the new warehouse.
4. Delete the old warehouse.
If you plan to use multiple coordinate systems in your Access warehouse, you need to
assign one coordinate system to use as the default. To do this, type Default in the
Description field when naming or assigning a coordinate system to a feature class.
When digitizing in GeoMedia, you must ensure that the GeoWorkspace coordinate system
matches the coordinate system of the feature class into which you are digitizing. Failure to
do so can result in data that contains incorrect coordinates. GeoMedia will compare the
GeoWorkspace coordinate system to the coordinate system of the feature you select for
editing and will warn you if there is a mismatch. It will be up to you to rectify the
mismatch.
See the “Working with Coordinate Systems” chapter.

Preparing to Connect
As the universal geographic client, the software lets you combine data from many sources
and in different formats into one spatially accurate environment. To ensure accuracy, you
must set up your data servers and provide the software with certain information about the
data you want to view. Each data type requires different information; the following
sections cover special procedures or information required for each.

Connecting to an Access Warehouse


To connect to an Access database, you must identify or select an Access GeoMedia
Database file (.mdb).

Connecting to an ARC/INFO Warehouse


To connect to an ARC/INFO warehouse you must identify or select an ARC/INFO
warehouse folder. Before trying to connect, check the following:
• ARC/INFO data must be in native format (not exported). Native format requires a
warehouse folder that contains subfolders corresponding to coverages and an \INFO
folder that contains an ARCDR9 or ARC.DIR file.

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Working with Warehouses

• A coordinate-system file (.csf) for the ARC/INFO data must be created with Define
Coordinate System File.
• The coordinate-system file for the ARC/INFO data must be identified in a
<Arc/Infoworkspace folder name>.ini file, which should be stored in the ARC/INFO
GeoWorkspace folder, or if that is not possible, in the software’s \Warehouses folder.
• For ease of maintenance, you should store the .csf and .ini files along with the data in
the ARC/INFO warehouse folder as the primary location. When this is not possible
(due to read-only media, for example), you should store these files in the default
warehouse location, and the software will find them there.
The software does not support the PC version of ARC/INFO.
See “Displaying Data That Has No Coordinate System Specified” in the “Working with
Coordinate Systems” chapter and the “Creating Data Server .INI Files” topic in
GeoMedia Help.

Connecting to an ArcView Warehouse


To connect to an ArcView warehouse, you must identify or select an ArcView Shape Files
folder. Before trying to connect, check the following:
• ArcView data must be in native format (not exported). Native format requires a
warehouse folder that contains themes with each theme having its individual .dbf, .shp,
and .shx files.
• A coordinate-system file (.csf) for the ArcView data must be created with Define
Coordinate System File.
• The coordinate-system file for the ArcView data should be identified in a <workspace
name>.ini file, which should be stored in the Arc View Shape Files folder, or if that is
not possible, in the \Warehouses folder of the software.
• For maintenance ease, you should store the .csf and .ini files along with the data in the
ArcView Shape Files folder as the primary location. When this is not possible (due to
read-only media, for example), you should store these files in the default warehouse
location, and the software will find them there.
• If an <ArcView Shape Files folder>.ini file is not found, the server looks for a <theme
name>.csf file in the \GeoWorkspaces folder.
See “Displaying Data That Has No Coordinate System Specified” in the “Working with
Coordinate Systems” chapter and the “Creating Data Server .INI Files” topic in
GeoMedia Help.

Connecting to a CAD Warehouse


To connect to a CAD warehouse, you must identify or select a CAD Server Schema file.
Before trying to connect, check the following:

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Working with GeoMedia

• For AutoCAD and MicroStation V8 data, a coordinate-system file (.csf) must have
been created with Define Coordinate System File
See “Displaying Data That Has No Coordinate System Specified” in the “Working
with Coordinate Systems” chapter.
• For IGDS and AutoCAD data, an ODBC data source must have been created if there
are database attribute linkages that have to be served.
• A CAD schema definition file (.csd) must have been defined with Define CAD Server
Schema File utility (Start > All Programs > Product_Name > Utilities > Define
CAD Server Schema File). The CAD data server allows you to use MicroStation V7
design files (with or without attribute linkages) or AutoCAD files (.dwg/.dxf with or
without database attribute linkages) or MicroStation V8 design files (without attribute
linkages) as a GeoMedia data source.

Note: In order to use the Define CAD Server Schema File utility, you must have clear
and complete understanding of your CAD data.

You can specify a .ini file in the .csd file that allows for persistent caching. Persistent
caching is done in CAD data server to improve server performance.
See the “Creating Data Server .INI Files” topic in GeoMedia Help.
See the Define CAD Server Schema File utility’s online Help for complete information
about this utility.
See the “Creating Data Server .INI Files” topic in GeoMedia Help.

Supported MicroStation Element Types


The following table lists the MicroStation element types supported by GeoMedia:
Type Name GDO Geometry Type
2 Cell (named) OrientedPointGeometry, TextPointGeometry, and
Collection Geometry. This is served based on the .ini
file variables.
2 Cell (orphaned) BoundaryPolygonGeometry
2 Cell (unnamed) BoundaryPolygonGeometry
3 Line PolylineGeometry and OrientedPointGeometry. In case
of degenerate lines, OrientedPointGeometry is served.
4 LineString PolylineGeometry
6 Shape PolygonGeometry
7 TextNode TextPointGeometry (collection)
11 Curve Stroked PolylineGeometry
12 Complex String CompositePolylineGeometry
14 Complex Shape CompositePolygonGeometry
15 Ellipse PolygonGeometry
16 Arc Stroked PolylineGeometry for elliptical arcs.
ArcGeometry for circular arcs.
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Working with Warehouses

17 Text TextPointGeometry
22 Point OrientedPointGeometry (collection)
35 Shared Cell OrientedPointGeometry, TextPointGeometry, and
CollectionGeometry. This is served based on the .ini file
variables.

Connecting to a FRAMME Warehouse


To connect to FRAMME data, the software needs a valid FRAMME gateway file (.gtw).
You specify the location of the FRAMME Gateway file and select the FRAMME segments
you want. Identifying a warehouse configuration (.ini) file is optional.
If necessary, use Define Coordinate System File to create a coordinate-system-file for
your FRAMME data. Also, certain data configurations may require a
<rulebase_name>.ini file for your FRAMME data server.
See “Displaying Data That Has No Coordinate System Specified” in the “Working with
Coordinate Systems” chapter and the “Creating Data Server .INI Files” topic in
GeoMedia Help.

Connecting to a GeoGraphics Warehouse


To connect to a GeoGraphics warehouse, you must set up an ODBC data source name that
identifies the project database. Then, to connect to the warehouse, you need to identify a
GeoGraphics project folder. The GeoGraphics project folder should contain MicroStation
V8 design files. The data server ignores all the missing/invalid map files, including any
MicroStation V7 design files that may be present in the project folder. If the ODBC
connection requires a user name and a password, you are prompted to supply them each
time the warehouse connection is opened. If you would like to specify the ODBC
connection parameters only once, use the Advanced option on the Warehouse > New
Connection dialog box.
On the New Connection dialog box, you specify the following parameters:
• GeoGraphics project folder (full path to where the project is located)
• Warehouse configuration (.ini) file (optional)
• ODBC data source (DSN)
• Advanced Information (DSN, username, password, and additional ODBC parameters
about the schema)
See the “Creating Data Server .INI Files” topic in GeoMedia Professional Help

Connecting to a GML Warehouse


To connect to a GML (Geography Markup Language) Server warehouse, you must indicate
the following:

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Working with GeoMedia

• GML file, the .gml / .xml filename with its full path or address. The file can be a file
on the disk or an URL of a .gml file on the Web.
• Advanced options:
o When the GeoReferenceService (GRS) fails to return the coordinate system (CS)
object for a given EPSG code and a matching coordinate system file is not found
for a feature class in the default \EPSG folder, the options are:
− Ignore the coordinate system, that is, serve the feature class data without the
coordinate system.
− Skip the feature class.
− Abort the connection and report an error about the missing coordinate system
file.
o When the GeoReferenceService (GRS) fails to return the coordinate system (CS)
object for a given EPSG code and a matching coordinate system file is not found
for a feature instance in the default \EPSG folder, the options are:
− Serve with the coordinate system of the feature class, that is, serve the feature
instance data with the coordinate system of the feature class.
− Skip the feature instance.
− Serve only the attributes of feature instance data, that is, the geometry is made
NULL.
− Abort the query and report an error about the missing coordinate system file
for the feature instance.
o Swap the coordinate order for the following coordinate system types: Geographic
and Projected.

Connecting to an I/CAD MAP Warehouse


You can connect to an I/CAD MAP warehouse in two ways: through the GeoMedia
Warehouse > New Connection command or through GeoMedia automation objects.

Connecting through the New Connection Command


To connect to an I/CAD MAP warehouse, you specify the following parameters on the
New Connection dialog box:
• I/CAD MAP file, required
• Coordinate system file, recommended but not required
• An optional warehouse configuration file (.ini) to provide parameters like geometry
types for feature classes, linkage information for the feature classes, and the rich text
parameters required to serve text.

4-8
Working with Warehouses

Connecting through GeoMedia Automation Objects


To connect to an I/CAD MAP warehouse using GeoMedia automation objects, you need to
specify the connection string in the format specified as follows:
DATA=<MAP file name with the complete path>[;CSF=<coordinate system file
name with the complete path>][;INI=<INI file name with the complete path>]

You must replace the parts enclosed by angle brackets (< >) with appropriate values. The
following example (VB code snippet) illustrates usage of GeoMedia’s Connection object to
connect to an I/CAD MAP warehouse:
Dim objConn As Object
Set objConn = CreateObject("GeoMedia.Connection")

With objConn
.Type = "ICADMAP.GDatabase"
.Name = "I/CAD MAP Connection 1"
.Location = "I/CAD MAP file location"
.Mode = gmcModeReadOnly
.ConnectInfo = “DATA=\\node1\ICADMAP\data\Florida\Florida.map;” & _
“CSF=\\node1\ICADMAP\data\Florida\Florida.csf;” & _
“INI=\\node1\ICADMAP\data\Florida\Florida.ini"
.Connect
End With

Connecting to a MapInfo Warehouse


To connect to a MapInfo warehouse, you must specify the folder location of the MapInfo
files, the MapInfo Tables folder with valid MapInfo tables (.tab or .txt files). The server
can then read the MapInfo tables in the folder and create the feature classes. Before trying
to connect, check the following:
• A coordinate-system file (.csf) for the MapInfo data must be created with Define
Coordinate System File and be referenced by the .ini file. There can be one .csf file
for the entire MapInfo dataset or one .csf file created for each MapInfo table.
• MapInfo data must be in native format (not exported). There should be a table file
(.tab), an index file (.id), a map file (.map), and/or an info file (.dat/.dbf or .xls). All
four files are needed for both geometry and attribution.
• The coordinate-system file(s) for the MapInfo data should be identified in a <MapInfo
Tables folder name>.ini file using the COORDINATE SYSTEM: .ini variable. If a
<MapInfo Tables folder name >.ini file is not found in the \Warehouses folder or the
MapInfo Tables folder, the server looks for a <MapInfo Tables folder name>.csf file
in the MapInfo Tables folder. If this is not found, the server looks for a <MapInfo
Tables folder name>.csf file in the MapInfo Tables folder.
• The software geometry type (point, linear, areal, graphicstext, or anyspatial) for each
MapInfo Table can also be defined in the <MapInfo Tables folder name>.ini file using

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Working with GeoMedia

the GEOMETRY TYPE: variable. If there is no entry in the .ini file regarding
geometry type for a coverage, the data are served up as AnySpatial.
• If the coverage has text in addition to a point, linear, or areal geometry, use the
TEXT: variable in the <MapInfo Tables folder name>.ini file to enable the data
server to serve up Text. The server will not display the Text Geometry for a coverage
if this is not enabled in the <MapInfo Tables folder name>.ini file.
• The COORDINATE SYSTEM: section should be the first section in the <MapInfo
Tables folder name>.ini file. The other sections may or may not be present. If they
are present, they may be in any order.
See “Displaying Data That Has No Coordinate System Specified” in the “Working with
Coordinate Systems” chapter and the “Creating Data Server .INI Files” topic in
GeoMedia Help.

Connecting to an MGE or MGDM Warehouse


Before you can connect to an MGE or MGDM warehouse, you must set up an ODBC data
source name that identifies the project database. The ODBC data source must have the
same name as the schema identified in the MGE or MGDM (.mge) project file. Verify that
the path variable in the .mge file matches the actual folder/location for the MGE project.
Then, to connect to the warehouse, you need to identify an MGE or MGDM (.mge) project
file. If the ODBC connection requires a user name and a password, you are prompted to
supply them each time the warehouse connection is opened. If you would like to specify
the ODBC connection parameters only once, use the Advanced option on the Warehouse
> New Connection dialog box. Identifying a warehouse configuration (.ini) file is
optional.
See the “Creating Data Server .INI Files” topic in GeoMedia Help.

Connecting to an MGSM Warehouse


To connect to MGSM data, you will need to identify the following:
• MGE project file (.mge)
• Warehouse configuration file (.ini)
See the “Creating Data Server .INI Files” topic in GeoMedia Help.
• Parameter file (.prm)
• Seed file (.dgn)
• Coordinate file (.crd)
• RIS schema password (if using RIS and the schema is passworded)
Use your ODBC Administrator to set up access to distributed attribute tables in warehouses
that you access through ODBC connections. To access an MGSM warehouse from ODBC

4-10
Working with Warehouses

client, you need to have an ODBC driver installed on your machine corresponding to your
database. You also need to configure the ODBC driver to point to your database with a
DSN (Data Source Name). This DSN is the schema name in the .mge file.

Connecting to an ODBC Tabular Warehouse


Before you try to connect to an ODBC Tabular Model warehouse, you must set up an
ODBC connection through the ODBC Data source Administrator. You will need to choose
the correct ODBC driver for the database you want to connect and enter the appropriate
information.
To connect to ODBC Tabular Model data, you will need to identify the following:
• ODBC connection name.
• ODBC Data source (from the ODBC Administrator).
• User name (as required by data source).
• Password (as required by data source).
Using the ODBC Tabular read-only data server is an alternative to using the Attach table
command (Warehouse > Feature Class Definition). This data server uses Microsoft’s
ODBC and ADO technology to create a warehouse connection and to serve up any type of
data that can be used with the Settings > Control Panel, Data Sources (ODBC)
command. If you are connecting to text files, you place the files in a folder to themselves
and then use the Data Sources (ODBC) command to create a Data Source Name (DSN)
that points to the folder containing the data. The connection will read the Schema.ini file
found in the folder to determine the format of the text file(s). You can create the
Schema.ini file manually or use the Data Sources command to create the file.
See “Working with Feature Classes” in the “Working with Features” chapter for
information on the Feature Class Definition command.
You can also use ODBC Tabular to serve up tables from other formats and databases as
nongraphic (data) tables. Examples might include Dbase, Paradox, Excel, and so forth.

Note: It is strongly recommended that you use ODBC Tabular only for data types that do
not have a data server available in GeoMedia. For example, do not use the ODBC Tabular
data server to connect to Access; instead connect using the Access data server.

If you are using the ODBC Tabular data server to connect to Excel (.xls), you need to
define a named range in the Excel workbook to expose a table name. By default, the range
is usually already defined as all rows and the name is defined as the sheet name. You can
easily define a name in Excel by selecting the range of data for the table and then using the
Insert > Name > Define command.

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Working with GeoMedia

You cannot use the ODBC Tabular data server to connect to Oracle Object Model
warehouses. You can, however, use it to connect to any Oracle schema containing
attribute data.
For more information on Excel, ODBC, and ADO technology see
http://www.microsoft.com.

Connecting to an Oracle Object Model Warehouse


Before you try to connect to an Oracle Object Model warehouse, you must have already set
up an Oracle database server with Oracle’s Spatial Cartridge and added a user account
containing object model data that you want to access.
At a minimum, the Oracle Client software must reside on the system running the software,
and you must create a database alias/service. Use the Oracle Net 8 configuration utility to
configure a database alias/service.
See the Oracle documentation for more information.
To connect to Oracle Object Model data, you will need to identify the following:
• Oracle connection name.
• Whether to use Windows to authenticate the network login ID or to use Oracle
database to authenticate the user ID and password.
• User name.
• Password.
• Host string. The host string is the Oracle database alias/service name that you create
with the Oracle network configuration utility.

Connecting to a SmartStore Server Warehouse


The GeoMedia SmartStore warehouse is a spatially indexed cache of 2-D geometry and
significant attributes used to facilitate the quick generation of maps without querying the
original warehouse database. It supports all of the GeoMedia GDO-based warehouse
types. The GeoMedia SmartStore data server supports read-only access to the SmartStore
warehouse.
See the Publish to GeoMedia SmartStore Warehouse utility’s online Help for complete
information on this server and its limitations.
Before you try to connect to a GeoMedia SmartStore warehouse, you must indicate the
following:
• A single GeoMedia SmartStore file (.ddc)
OR

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Working with Warehouses

• A GeoMedia SmartStore GeoWorkspace folder containing one or more GeoMedia


SmartStore files.

Note: The Select a folder containing GeoMedia SmartStore files option on the New
Connection dialog box assumes that the .ddc files you have published to this folder came
from a single source warehouse. If your folder contains .ddc files from multiple source
warehouses, you will encounter errors.

You have the option of using the coordinate system of the input warehouse, or of
specifying that SmartStore is to transform the data to a different coordinate system.

Connecting to an SQL Server Warehouse


Before you try to connect to an SQL Server warehouse, you must set up a SQL Server
database.
To connect to SQL Server data, you will need to indicate the following:
• SQL connection name.
• Server name.
• SQL Server database name.
• Whether to use Windows to authenticate the network login ID or to use SQL Server to
authenticate the user ID and password.
• Login.
• Password.

Connecting to a Text File Server Warehouse


To connect to Text File Server data, you will need to indicate the following:
• Input data text file, which can be any ASCII file.
• Text format definition file (.tfd)
• Coordinate system file (.csf) - optional
Connecting to the Text File Server is a two-step process. You must first define the format
of the input data file so that the server can understand it. The Define Text File Server
Format File utility lets you perform this definition. Then you perform the actual
connection with the New Connection command, using the format definition file as input,
in addition to the input data file, and an optional coordinate system file.
See the Define Text File Server Format File utility’s online Help for complete information.

Connecting to a WFS Server Warehouse


Before you try to connect to a WFS (Web Feature Server) warehouse, you must indicate
the following:
• WFS connection name and optional description
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Working with GeoMedia

• WFS URL
• Advanced options:
o When a matching coordinate system file is not found for a feature class in the
default \EPSG folder, the options are:
– Ignore the coordinate system, that is, serve the feature class data without
coordinate system.
– Skip the feature class.
– Abort the connection and report an error about the missing coordinate system
file.
o Swap the coordinate order for the following coordinate system types: Geographic
and Projected.

Connecting to a WMS Warehouse


Before you try to connect to a WMS (WebMap Server) warehouse , you must indicate the
following:
• WMS connection name and optional description
• Web Map Server (WMS) URL
• Advanced options:
o When the GeoReferenceService (GRS) fails to return a coordinate system (CS)
object for a given EPSG code and a matching coordinate system file is not found
for a feature class in the default \EPSG folder, the options are:
– Skip feature class.
– Abort the connection and report an error about the missing coordinate system
file.

Working with Connections


To make connecting to your data a simple matter, the software provides the New
Connection command. Before you start, you need to know what type of connection you
want to make, the name and location of certain files, and other server-specific information.
The connection types available to you depend on which data servers were installed during
setup. The complete list of available connection types appears in the New Connection
dialog box. If you want a connection type for a data server that the software provides but
that does not appear in the Connection type list, you can add it by reinstalling the
software. The connection type you choose determines what additional information you
need. You can also create a new connection by the same procedure through the New
button of the Connections command (Warehouse > Connections) described later in this
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Working with Warehouses

section. The Connections command also lets you open, close, reopen, and delete
connections as well as view and edit connection parameters.

Enabling AFM Proxy Servers for GeoMedia PublicWorks


Manager
One of the connection parameters lets you enable a data server to use an AFM (Advanced
Feature Model) proxy server to proxy the warehouse connection. An AFM proxy server is
one that is AFM aware or enabled so that it can process AFM metadata if it is present.
See the GeoMedia PublicWorks Manager documentation for more information on proxy
servers (Available with GeoMedia PublicWorks Manager).
You enable this capability by checking the Enable advanced feature model check box,
below the Connection type list, on the New Connection dialog box. You can later change
this setting through the Connections command on the Properties dialog box, displayed
when you click the Properties button. This check box is enabled if the following criteria
are met.
• The AFM proxy server is available.
• The data server is one of the following servers:
o Access read-only o Oracle Object LTT read-write
o Access read-write o Oracle Object Model read-only
o DB2 read-only o Oracle Object Model read-write
o DB2 read-write o SQL Server read-only
o Oracle Object LTT read-only o SQL Server read-write
For all other cases, the connection is not proxied.
While using the Connections command, verify if the connection type is AFM.GDatabase.
In such case, instead of displaying the data server type as AFM, the underlying data server
name is determined and populated.

Setting Connection Status


The Connections command lets you set the connection status by opening, closing, and
reopening connections. The dialog box of this command displays all the connections
present in the GeoWorkspace in a grid, sorted in alphabetical order by name. The read-
only columns display the name, connection type, and warehouse. The status of a
connection is indicated by an icon to the left of the connection name as follows:
Open Read-Write
Open Read-Only
Closed
Your choices of status are summarized in the following table:

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Working with GeoMedia

Command Button Initial Final Connection Status


Connection
Status If the data server is If the data server is
read-only: read-write:
Open Connection Open read-write N/A No action – status
remains unchanged.
Open read-only No action – status No action – status
remains unchanged. remains unchanged.
Closed Open read-only Open read-write
Open Read-Only Open read-write N/A No action – status
remains unchanged.
Open read-only No action – status No action – status
remains unchanged. remains unchanged.
Closed Open read-only Open read-only
Reopen Connection Open read-write N/A Open read-write

Open read-only Open read-only Open read-only


Closed N/A N/A
Close Connection Open read-write Closed Closed
Open read-only Closed Closed
Closed No action – status No action – status
remains unchanged. remains unchanged.
If you choose an open status, the software creates a physical connection to the warehouse.
If you choose a closed status, you will not have immediate access to the data. Later you
can change the status simply by editing the warehouse connection status. Reopening
connection(s) closes and then automatically reopens the selected connection(s) as a
shortcut for refreshing their contents.

Note: The Library and Catalogs commands use a similar connection system and
interface.

Viewing and Editing Connection Properties


Properties lets you display the appropriate connection properties control for the data
server involved and also edit those properties. The Properties dialog box offers you
convenient and usable browsing of the connection parameters, unlike the Warehouse
column on the Connections dialog box, which presents the connection parameters for the
warehouse as a single text string. After reviewing the connection properties, you can then
edit them as necessary for your workflow.

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Working with Warehouses

To create a new warehouse connection:


1. Select Warehouse > New Connection.

2. Select the Connection type appropriate for your data.


3. Optional: Check the Enable advanced feature model check box if available.
4. Type a Connection name, or keep the default.
5. Optional: Type a Connection description.
6. Provide the remaining required information, which varies with each connection type;
then click OK.

IMPORTANT: Avoid opening more than one connection to a single warehouse.

To open, reopen, or close a warehouse connection:


1. Select Warehouse > Connections.

2. Select the row selector of the row(s) whose open/close status you want to change.
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Working with GeoMedia

Note: Use Shift/Ctrl to select multiple rows; click the top left-corner grid button, to
the left of the Name row, in order to select all rows.

3. Click the appropriate open, reopen, or close button.


To create a new warehouse connection:
1. Select Warehouse > Connections.
2. Click New to display the New Connections dialog box; then follow the previously
described procedure to create a new warehouse connection

To view or edit warehouse connection properties:


1. Select Warehouse > Connections.
2. On the Connections dialog box, select the row of the connection whose properties you
want to view or edit; then click Properties.

Viewing Changes in a Multi-User Environment


You can use Warehouse > Refresh with Warehouse Changes to update the workspace
for any changes made to the schema outside your GeoMedia session. This is useful in
multi-user environments where other GeoMedia users may be making modifications to the
same schema you are using. Changes you make though non-GeoMedia software do not
appear unless you close and reopen the connection or you restart your session. The
exception is with the use of the Oracle Object Model data server. In an Oracle schema,
you can assign Modification Log triggers to the feature classes you wish to track. These
Modification Log Triggers are assigned to feature classes using Database Utilities, and
they log all insert, update, or delete events. Refresh with Warehouse Changes then picks

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Working with Warehouses

up external modifications on these feature classes even if the changes are made by non-
GeoMedia applications.

Creating an Access Warehouse Template


The default location for warehouse templates is <drive:>\Program
Files\GeoMedia\Templates\Warehouses. You can specify a different folder through Tools
> Options > File locations.

To create an Access warehouse template:


1. Select Warehouse > New Warehouse.
2. On the Warehouse Template dialog box, select the Template option.
3. Select the normal.mdt template, and click New.
4. On the New Warehouse dialog box, accept the default storage folder, or browse to
select a new one. If you have named an alternate file location for warehouse templates,
that location appears in the Save in field.
5. Verify that Access Template appears in the Save as type field.
6. Type a name for the template in the File name text box.
7. Click Save.

Changing the Coordinate System of a New Access


Warehouse Template
Because the New Warehouse command does not establish a connection when you use it to
create a new Access warehouse template (.mdt), you should use the following workflow to
change the coordinate system of such a new template.
See the “Working with Coordinate Systems” chapter.

To change the coordinate system of a new access warehouse template:


1. Using the procedure from the previous section, create and save a new Access
warehouse template, selecting normal.mdt as the template on the New dialog box.

Note: Because you are creating a template, no GeoWorkspace coordinate-system


matching occurs, regardless of the preference setting.

2. Select Warehouse > New Connection.


3. On the New Connection dialog box, select Access as the connection type.
4. Type a connection name, or keep the default.
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Working with GeoMedia

5. Select your new template as the new GeoMedia database file. You must either type the
full path or change the file dialog filter to *.* if you browse for your new template.
6. Optional: Type a description of the connection.
7. Click OK.
8. Select View > GeoWorkspace Coordinate System, and proceed to change the
appropriate values.
9. Select Warehouse > Edit Connection to close and to delete the connection to the
template.
See the “Working with Coordinate Systems” chapter.

Note: After changing the coordinate system, the new Access warehouse template is ready
for you to use to create new warehouses. When you turn on the Match GeoWorkspace
and Warehouse coordinate systems options on the General tab of the Options dialog
box (Tools > Options), the coordinate system defined in the template by the previous
procedure will be the coordinate system of the newly created Access warehouses.

Configuring PickLists with Access Warehouses


GeoMedia includes support for the use of PickLists through the Properties dialog box
(Edit > Select Set Properties). PickLists allow for a predefined list of values to be used
when updating attribute fields.
GeoMedia determines if an attribute has a PickList by querying a preconfigured metadata
table. The name of the table that stores the PickList configuration must be defined in
GAliasTable with a TableType of INGRPickLists. You can use any name you want for the
PickList definition table as long as it is referenced in the GAliasTable.
Use Microsoft Access to make the necessary changes to the GAliasTable. For example, if
the PickList definition table were called GPickListTable, the following entries would need
to be added to GAliasTable:
GAliasTable
TABLETYPE TABLENAME
INGRPickLists GPickListTable
The table referred to by the GAliasTable entry for INGRPickLists must contain the
following fields: FeatureName, FieldName, PickListTableName, ValueFieldName,
DescriptionFieldName, and FilterClause. Use the New Table command in Access to
create the PickList metadata table using the following provided definitions (the table itself
can be called anything as long as it is referenced in the GAliasTable):

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Working with Warehouses

GPickListTable
Column Name Datatype
FeatureName Varchar(255)
FieldName Varchar(255)
PickListTableName Varchar(255)
ValueFieldName Varchar(255)
DescriptionFieldName Varchar(255)
FilterClause Varchar(255)

In the table definition:


• FeatureName and FieldName refer to the Feature Class and the specific Attribute
field for which the PickList is to be used.
• PickListTableName specifies a table in the schema containing the PickList values.
• ValueFieldName and DescriptionFieldName refer to the name of the fields in the
table containing the PickList values.
• The ValueFieldName specifies the field in the PickList table that contains values to be
stored in the database. The datatype of the field in the PickList table specified here
must match the datatype of the Attribute assigned in the FieldName.
• The DescriptionFieldName specifies the field that contains PickList descriptions to be
displayed in the pop-up menu on the Attribute tab of the Properties dialog box.
• The values stored in ValueFieldName and DescriptionFieldName could be the same
when the displayed values are the same as the stored values.
• The FilterClause is optional and may contain an SQL where clause that will be used
to filter the records in the PickList. The filter allows a single PickList table to be used
when creating multiple PickLists.
PickList tables can be any tables that contain the required information, including existing
feature classes. You can implement a PickList as a code list (using separate value and
description entries) or as a domain list (when value and description entries are the same).
Ranges are not supported.

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Working with GeoMedia

The following is an example of tables, columns, and values that could be defined for
PickLists:
GAliasTable
TableType TableName
INGRPickLists GPickListTable
GPickListTable
FeatureName FieldName PickListTableName ValueField
Name
Buildings Name PL_Building CodeValue
Buildings State PL_State StateName
Buildings Type PL_Building CodeValue
DescriptionFieldName FliterClause
ValDescription Bld_Type =
'NAME'
Desc
ValDescription Bld_Type =
'TYPE'
PL_Building
CodeValue ValDescription Bld_Type
0 MOTEL TYPE
1 MARRIOT NAME
2 HOLIDAY INN NAME
3 BED AND BREAKFAST TYPE
PL_State
StateName Desc
Alabama ALABAMA
Arkansas ARKANSAS
Colorado COLORADO
Texas TEXAS
Florida FLORIDA

4-22
Working with Images
In GeoMedia, raster images, such as a scanned map sheet, an aerial photograph, or a
satellite image, reside in image feature classes. Image feature classes are distinguished
from one another based on the coordinate system of the feature class. You can only insert
images into an existing feature class when the coordinate systems of the image and the
feature class are in agreement. All the images in an image feature class can be represented
by a either a single legend entry or multiple legend entries. You can add images to existing
feature classes as needed, without the images being displayed, thereby managing system
resources more efficiently.

Inserting Images into Warehouses


You can insert a raster image into a read-write warehouse and use it as a logo or a
backdrop in your GeoWorkspace. The image file is not moved from its location on your
hard disk, but the paths to the image and the geometry of the image are saved in the
warehouse. To edit or to change the actual image content (image pixels), you must edit the
source file. Image linkage and geometries are stored in the database tables (warehouse
feature classes) and are managed like any other feature. While multiple images can be
represented by a single legend entry, they must be images from the same feature class.

Note: Avoid inserting multiple images with the same filename into a single warehouse,
even if the images are stored in different folders.

The file type, associated metadata, and ancillary information contained in the file
determine whether the file must be inserted by interactive placement or, optionally, by
georeferenced placement.
Before inserting the image(s), you should determine the appropriate warehouse, feature
class, and placement method. You should define the image feature class name for the
specified image(s). This feature class name is actually the table name in the warehouse in
which the specified image(s)’s information will be placed.

Note: A valid image feature class must have a primary key of type autonumber. The
Insert > Interactive Image and the Insert > Georeferenced Image commands
automatically insert this key into any new image feature classes they create. Image feature
classes created with other tools are not usable unless they also have a primary key of type
autonumber.

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Working with GeoMedia

Interactive Image placement—Requires you to draw a dynamic rectangle by placing two


points in the map window to define the size and the location of the image. With
Interactive Image placement, the coordinate system of the inserted image is identical to
the GeoWorkspace coordinate system, as is the coordinate system of the target image
feature class. The aspect ratio (ratio of width to height) of this rectangle is determined by
the number of lines and pixels per line in the image (the image pixels are assumed to be
square). It is possible to insert images interactively into an image feature class without
displaying the image because the visibility of any feature class is dependent on the legend
status of the feature class.
Georeferenced Image placement—Inserts georegistered images directly into an image
feature class in a user-specified warehouse. All the selected images must share the same
coordinate system. When you select a new georeference mode, you must select the
coordinate system file if the mode requires an externally defined coordinate system. This
placement method lets you insert one image file or multiple image files into either an
existing image feature class or a new image feature class. The georeferencing mode is
determined by those available for the selected file(s) and the operator’s choice when
multiple modes are available. Some georeferencing modes require you to define the
correct coordinate system using external files – either a .dgn or a .csf file can be used.
Georeferenced placement uses the following georeference modes:
• Automatic (the default) lets the command choose the georeference mode based on the
images you select.
• GeoTIFF (the default mode) tags - if a well-defined set of GeoTIFF tags is available
in the header
• Intergraph GeoTie information
• Intergraph header matrix
• Other with internal coordinate system
• Other with external coordinate system
• USGS DOQ
• Associated world file
In all cases, when the raster image is displayed, the appropriate affine transformation is
applied to warp the image into the GeoWorkspace coordinate system. This is only an
approximation; rigorous re-projection through samplings of the raster image is not
available in GeoMedia.
If you use the Automatic georeference mode, all the files selected from the Available files
list must match in coordinate system and method of georeferencing. For instance, if the
first selected file is a GeoTIFF, all subsequent files must be GeoTIFFs that match the first
one in their coordinate system in order to be selected. If the first selected file has an
associated world file, all subsequent files must have associated world files in order to be

5-2
Working with Images

selected. This selection is handled automatically by the command during the error
checking for the > and >> file selection buttons.

Note: The following website contains the GeoTIFF specification, details about who is
supporting GeoTIFF, source code, and sample images:
http://www.remotesensing.org/geotiff/geotiff.html

GeoTie information consists of coordinates for the corners of the map image in a
geographic coordinate system based on the WGS84 datum. Only Intergraph raster-file
formats support the use of GeoTie information.
A Header matrix is a proprietary Intergraph data structure that uses design file UORs to
properly position the image geographically. This type of matrix is only found in
Intergraph raster format and TIFF format images.
A Native matrix with internal CS image is an image that contains a matrix and a coordinate
system definition within the image itself, but which does not fall into the other categories
with internal coordinate system information: GeoTIFF, Intergraph GeoTie, or USGS
DOQ.
A Native matrix with external CS image is an image that contains a matrix but which does
not contain any internal coordinate system information and which does not fall into the
world file or by-header category. The ECW raster format is an example of this.
A USGS DOQ image is an image with geodetic information in its header in a format
specific to USGS data. The software places USGS DOQ images using this information.
MrSid files, TIFF files, or JFIF (.jpg) files can have associated world files (*.sdw , *.tfw, or
*.jgw). These world files contain the six parameters necessary to define an affine matrix
that will transform the image to the desired geographic location in a specific coordinate
system. World files do not contain coordinate system information, so you must specify
this information in a coordinate system file or a MicroStation design file, which contains a
type 56 (coordinate system definition) element. The use of JFIF (*.jpg) files is
discouraged.

IMPORTANT: With the georeferenced placement mode using a world file, you must
supply a design file to which the image was originally registered or create a coordinate
system file for the image. The coordinate system you define in the coordinate system file
describes the native coordinate system of the image, not the coordinate system of the
GeoWorkspace. When you insert an image into your map window, you specify the design
file or coordinate system file to be used in the Coordinate system file field.

To insert an interactive image:


1. Select Insert > Interactive Image.

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Working with GeoMedia

2. In the Image name field, type the name of the image you want to insert, or click
Browse to select the image from the standard Open dialog box.

3. From the Warehouse drop-down list, select the read-write warehouse where you want
to store the path to the image and other associated attributes.
4. From the Feature class drop-down list, select the feature class to add the image to, or
type a new feature class name. Remember, all images in a single feature class must
have a common coordinate system and projection. Only those image feature classes in
which the coordinate system matches that of the GeoWorkspace will appear in the
drop-down list.
5. Click OK to load the image into the specified warehouse and feature class.
The software prompts you to define a rectangle by two points in the active map window
for the location of the image.
6. Place the cursor over the location for one corner, press and hold the mouse button, and
then drag the cursor to the opposite corner.
The aspect ratio of the image is maintained.
7. Release the mouse button.
The image is inserted into the specified feature class, and the path to the image is
saved in the read-write warehouse.
If you specified a new feature class, a new image entry is added to the top of the
legend associated with the active map window, and the image is displayed. If you
specified an existing image feature class, the display of the newly inserted image is
dependent on the current display properties of the image feature class.

To insert georeferenced images:


1. Select Insert > Georeferenced Images.

5-4
Working with Images

2. From the Georeference mode drop-down list, select the appropriate mode (Automatic
is the default). If your Georeference mode is USGS DOQ, GeoTIFF, Other with
internal coordinate system, or GeoTie, no coordinate system file is required; go to Step
4.
3. In the Folder field, type the name of the folder that contains the appropriate image
files, or click Browse to select it from the standard Browse for Folder dialog box.
4. Optional: In the Extensions field, type a new extension to change the default *.*.
If you enter a new extension, the Images list is updated accordingly, and any selected
image files are unselected.
5. From the Available files list, select an image or images; then move the selected
image(s) to the Selected files list using the arrow buttons.
6. In the Coordinate system file field, type the name of the coordinate system for the
chosen georeference mode, or click Browse to select it from the standard Open dialog
box.
7. From the Warehouse drop-down list, select the read-write warehouse where you want
to store the path to the image.
8. From the Image feature classes with matching coordinate systems drop-down list,
select the image feature class to add the image to, or type a new image feature class
name. Only those existing image feature classes that have coordinate systems
matching those of the selected images are available for selection.

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Working with GeoMedia

9. Optional: For a new feature class only, select the Image display method by checking
the Add new legend entry for feature class check box, or by leaving it unchecked
(the default) to not add a new legend entry.

Note: When inserting large numbers of images, it may be to your advantage to not add
the entire feature class to the legend. This allows the use of a spatial filter to restrict
image display as desired.

10. Click OK or Apply.


The images are inserted into the specified feature class.
If a new feature class name was provided, a new image feature class is created in the
specified warehouse. If the Add new legend entry for feature class check box was
selected, the feature class name appears on the legend, and the images are displayed.
If this check box was not selected, the new feature class is created, but no entry for it is
placed on the legend, and the images do not display.
If an existing feature class was selected, the images are inserted into that feature class.
Display of the newly inserted images depends on whether the feature class appears on
the legend, and on the current display settings for that legend entry.
See the “Raster Information” appendix.
See “Adding Entries to the Legend” in the “Working with Map Windows” chapter.

Images and Coordinate Systems


In GeoMedia, each data source has its own coordinate system. This coordinate system is
defined in a variety of ways. In the case of GeoMedia feature data in Access, SQL Server,
or Oracle databases, the feature class coordinate system is defined when the feature class is
created. Data in non-GeoMedia based warehouses, such as ArcView, ARC/INFO,
MapInfo, FRAMME, and MGE data, can be imported to GeoMedia feature classes or
served directly from the warehouse. These data sources may or may not have their
coordinate system explicitly defined. If GeoMedia is unable to determine the coordinate
system of a dataset, you must provide this information by associating a coordinate system
definition file with the data source. This is the case when serving CAD data that specify an
XY coordinate for a feature but do not provide coordinate system, projection, unit, and
datum.
When importing vector features to a GeoMedia read-write warehouse, the coordinate
system file is used for the one-time transformation of the data to the coordinate system of
the new feature class. Leaving the vector data in the native warehouse means that
GeoMedia refers to the coordinate system definition file whenever the data are served from
that warehouse.
Image data are treated a little differently. There is no non-GeoMedia based image
warehouse from which images can be served. Records for all images will reside in
GeoMedia image feature classes that are stored in a read-write warehouse. Also,
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Working with Images

GeoMedia image records are always stored in their native coordinate system – there is no
warping or transformation of the image geometry prior to its insertion into an image feature
class.
The suitability of any image feature class for storage of a new image record is determined
by how similar the two coordinate systems (that of the feature class and that of the image)
are to one another. If the match is not sufficiently close, a new feature class needs to be
created to store the new image record. When an image is inserted into an image feature
class, the path to the image file and the geometry of the image are recorded. Relocation of
the image file causes errors when displaying the image. Modification of any file-based
georeferencing information stored in or with the image file (GeoTIFF tags, world file
information, and so forth) is ignored by GeoMedia, once the images are inserted into an
image feature class.
The coordinate system of a given image (and of the image feature class it can be inserted
into) can be specified in a number of ways. With some georeferencing modes (GeoTIFF,
GeoTie, and DOQ) the image files contain their own coordinate system definitions. For
these data, the image feature class coordinate system is taken from the image file header.
Other modes of georeferencing images (an image with a WorldFile or an Intergraph raster
format with header matrix) require the use of an associated coordinate system definition
file to provide the necessary context. This file can be either a MicroStation design file that
contains a coordinate system element (.dgn) or a GeoMedia Coordinate System File (.csf).

MicroStation Design Files


For MicroStation design (.dgn) files, a coordinate system element is written into the file by
Intergraph’s MGE Coordinate System Operations (MCSO) software, which is bundled
with various Intergraph software packages such as MGE, and by ZI Imaging’s ZI
Coordinate System Operations (ZICSO) software, which is bundled with various ZI
Imaging software packages such as I/RAS C.

Define Coordinate System File


The second method of specifying a coordinate system is through the Define Coordinate
System File utility provided with GeoMedia applications. This utility creates a Coordinate
System File (.csf) containing the coordinate system information. The .csf file or a .dgn file
can be associated with a particular data source (warehouse) using an entry in an .INI file.
See the “Creating Data Server .INI Files” topic in GeoMedia Help for data on .INI
naming conventions, folder paths, and coordinate system entries for the data source types.

Linking Geometry Data to Coordinate Systems


The geometry field for raster images contains only the footprint of the raster. An affine
transformation is performed on the footprint when the coordinate system of the image is
displayed in a GeoWorkspace with a different coordinate system. The actual image is
retrieved from the hard disk containing the raster file and placed on the footprint. Since the

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Working with GeoMedia

raster image must be retrieved from a hard disk, it is often advisable to use a UNC path
when inserting images residing on other computers.

Managing Warehouse Images


You can manage the image records that exist in an image feature class of a selected
warehouse connection with the Images command. These image records are shown on the
dialog box as either a filename or an XML (Extensible Markup Language) moniker. You
can display, update, delete, and validate image records with a filename in a read-write
connection; in a read-only connection, you can only display and validate the records. For
those image records with an XML moniker, you can only display or delete the records in a
read-write connection and only display those in a read-only connection.
Each image record listed for a connection has a corresponding icon to denote whether
GeoMedia can link an image record to a file or to an XML string, as follows:

The specified file or XML moniker is valid.

Note: An XML moniker is always considered valid, so the associated icon is always the
valid icon.

The specified file is invalid.

The specified file has an unknown state.


This command displays selected images from an image feature class in an open warehouse
connection in the active map window. You can choose one or more valid image entries
(which can be filenames, XML monikers, or both) and display these images using a single
legend entry or separate legend entries for each selected image. Alternatively, you can
create a query from selected images, to be added to the legend at a later time. The selected
images are stored in a query based on the values of their primary key field(s). This query
contains a fixed and permanent list of images, referenced by keys. This list is not editable.
However, you can use the Queries command to edit the query, but only to edit the query
name and description. The image files of the selected filename entries are automatically
validated and their associated icons are updated after the display operation.
See “Adding Entries to the Legend” in the “Working with Map Windows” chapter.

Note: If you want to add all the images in a feature class to the display, under a single
legend entry, consider using the Legend > Add Feature Class command.

The Images command also lets you review the image entries and update the paths to any
filename image entries, single or multiple, not pointing to valid raster image files. You

5-8
Working with Images

cannot, however, update multiple images entries that contain both filenames and XML
monikers, nor single or multiple XML monikers, which are always valid. GeoMedia does
not store the image in the warehouse; rather the path to the image is stored in the image
feature class. If the location of the image file is changed, you can update the path stored in
the geometry column with this command. The image files of the selected filename entries
are automatically validated and their associated icons are updated after the update
operation.
If an image will no longer be used, you can delete its record from its image feature class
with the Images command. Alternatively, select the image in the map window and use the
Delete Feature command, or you can delete the feature class entirely with the Feature
Class Definition command.
Additionally, this command lets you validate the files associated with the selected entries.
The icons of the entries are then updated after the operation. As previously stated, you
cannot validate entries with XML monikers because they are always valid.

To display selected warehouse images in a map window (as a single legend


entry, or multiple legend entries), or to group images as a query that can be
added to the legend at any time:
1. Select Warehouse > Images.
2. Select the appropriate image record from the Feature class drop-down list, which only
displays image feature classes.

All image records of the selected image feature class are displayed in the Images list.
3. To display selected images, select the valid image record(s) from the Images list; then
click Display.

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Working with GeoMedia

4. Select the Display in a single legend entry (the default) option to display the selected
images in a single legend entry; then click OK.
OR
Select the Display in separate legend entries option to display the selected images
with one legend entry per image; then click OK.
OR
Select the Create query without legend entry option to create a query containing the
selected images that can be added to the legend at a later time through the Analysis >
Queries command; then click OK.
The image files of the selected entries are automatically validated, the icons of the
entries are updated after the operation, and the images are displayed in the active map
window or the query is created.

To update image records:


1. Select Warehouse > Images.
2. Select the appropriate image feature class from the Feature class drop-down list.
3. To update a single image record with the invalid filename icon, select the appropriate
record from the Images list; then click Update to open the standard Open file dialog
box, from which you choose a valid path and filename.
4. To update a single valid or unknown-state image record or multiple image records
(regardless of the icon) from the Images list, select the entry or entries; then click
Update to open the standard Browse for Folder dialog box, from which you choose a
valid folder.
Once the update is finished and the dialog dismissed, the image entries are updated
with the new folder and the warehouse is updated. The Images list is then refreshed so
that the appropriate icons are displayed for any updated entries.

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Working with Images

5. Click Close.

To delete image records:


1. Select Warehouse > Images.
2. Select the appropriate image feature class from the Feature class drop-down list.
3. Select the image record(s) that you want to delete from the Images list.
4. Click Delete.

Note: You can also delete an image as any other legend entry by selecting the image name
on the legend using the Select by Legend Entry and Delete commands on the Edit menu.

To delete an image feature class with Warehouse > Feature Class Definition:
1. Select Warehouse > Feature Class Definition.
2. Select the image feature class to delete from the Feature Classes drop-down list.
3. Click Delete.
4. Click Yes to confirm the deletion of the image feature class.
The image feature class is deleted from the warehouse, and any images in that feature
class that were displayed are removed from the map window. Notice that the name of
the image feature class may still be on the legend
5. Click Close.
6. Delete the old image feature class entry from the legend.

To validate image records:


1. Select Warehouse > Images.
2. Select the appropriate image feature class from the Feature class drop-down list.
3. Select the image record filename(s) you want to validate from the Images list.
4. Click Validate.
All files of the selected entries are validated and their associated icons are updated
accordingly.

Removing Images from a View and Redisplaying Them


Deleting an image feature class or query from the legend removes its images from the
view but does not alter the contents of the image feature class in the warehouse. If you

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Working with GeoMedia

remove an image feature class from the legend, the Legend > Add Legend Entries
command lets you redisplay the entire contents of the image feature class.

Note: When inserting large numbers of images, it may be to your advantage to not add the
entire feature class to the legend. This allows the use of a spatial filter to restrict image
display as appropriate. If you want to display only selected images from the image feature
class, use the Warehouse > Images command as previously described.

To remove an image feature class or query from a view and redisplay it:
1. Select the image feature class or query name on the legend.
2. Press DELETE on the keyboard; then confirm the deletion from the legend and map
window by clicking Yes.
3. Select Legend > Add Legend Entries.
4. Select the appropriate categories, queries, reference features, or connections node
from the Features treeview to display all feature classes within that group.
5. Select the appropriate image feature class check box from the treeview; then click OK
to redisplay the image.

Changing the Raster Image Display


An image style is of the image style class. As such, it provides display capability for
imagery. Raster image data is now supported through the same mechanisms as vector data,
for consistency and simplicity. You can change the image display through the image
Legend Entry Properties dialog box and the Style Properties dialog box. As with all
other style types, you must dismiss the dialog box before you can see the style definition
changes in the map window.
See “Working with Styles” in the “Working with Map Windows” chapter for more
information on styles.
You define the following style properties on the Image Style tab of the Style Properties
dialog box:

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Working with Images

Translucency percentage—The degree to which the image is to be translucent or see-


through, with 0% indicating totally opaque and 100% indicating totally transparent. It is
applicable to all image types.
Contrast—The contrast of the image display on a scale of –100 to 100, applicable to all
image types, including 8-bit color index imagery, however, not binary.
Brightness—The brightness of the image display on a scale of –100 to 100, applicable to
all image types, including 8-bit color index imagery, however, not binary.
Invert Image—Indicates whether the image display should be inverted (creates the effect
of a negative) , applicable to all image types, including 8-bit color index imagery, however,
not binary.
Transparent color—A color within the image that is to be treated as transparent (not
drawn). This is an actual color value (R,G,B), not a color index or pixel value. It is
applicable to all image types except binary.
Transparent pixel values—A set of pixel values within the image that are to be treated as
transparent (not drawn), applicable only to color index and grayscale images. These are
color index or pixel values, not an actual color value (R,G,B). The pixel values are
presented as comma (,) and a hyphen (-), separated values from 0-255.
Binary foreground color—The color with which the foreground pixels of a binary image
are to be displayed, applicable only to binary images.
Binary background color—The color, if any, with which the background pixels of a
binary image are to be displayed, applicable only to binary images. The background may
be made transparent by not specifying a background color.

Note: When using images as a backdrop, it is often useful to use the legend to turn off the
locate property for the image feature class so that the image canvas is not selected when
working with features.

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Working with GeoMedia

You can also use the Advanced tab to change attribute-based symbology. This tab
redisplays some of the information from the Image Style tab in a grid format with the
Default Value column containing the values from the Image Style tab. The Attribute
Based column lets you drive the value of a given property from a field value or from an
expression.

To change the raster image display:


1. On the legend, double click the style key of the image feature class you want to change
to display the Legend Entry Properties dialog box.

2. Make the appropriate change; then click Apply.


The changes are saved and reflected in the display of the image(s) in the associated
map window.
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Working with Images

OR
Click Properties to display the Style Properties dialog box.

Note: The first image type associated with the raster legend entry determines which
tab is available.

3. On the Image Style tab, change the characteristics of the selected image(s).
4. Optional: On the Advanced tab, change the attribute-based symbology.
5. Click OK to dismiss the dialog box and display the changes.
The changes are saved and reflected in the display of the image(s) in the associated
map window.

Creating Image Footprints


The Image Footprints command lets you create image footprint polygons of an image
feature class, query, category, or reference feature. An image footprint is an area geometry
that represents the outline of the image. Using image footprints when possible, rather than
the raster images themselves, greatly speeds display processing (panning, zooming, and so
forth). The separate Display Selected Images command loads the images from selected
footprints. You must have an active map window to use this command.
You can add the footprints query to a map and/or data window, and you can also edit these
queries using the standard edit query procedure. The Image Footprints command also
creates a legend entry of labels based on the image filenames. These labels are centered
within the footprint polygons. The default title of the legend entry for the labels is “GGG
of QQQ” where GGG is the name of the text geometry field, and QQQ is the query name.
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Working with GeoMedia

The default name for the text geometry field is ImageLabelGeometry. This default field
name cannot be changed through the command dialog box. An example legend entry title
is ImageLabelGeometry of Image footprints of LincolnCoTopos.
See “Displaying Selected Images” in the next section in this chapter.

To create image footprints:


1. Select Analysis > Image Footprints.

2. Select an image feature class, query, category, or reference feature from the Create
image footprints for drop-down list.

Note: Only image feature classes and reference features are listed. If a query or
categorized item is chosen, it is verified to have an image geometry.

3. Optional: Change the output Query name and/or optional Description.


4. Optional: Check the Display footprints in map window check box; then optionally
change the name in the Map window name field.
5. Optional: Click Style, and change the default style on the Select Style dialog box.
6. Optional: Check the Display labels in map window check box; then optionally
change the name in the Map window name field.
7. Optional: Click Style, and change the default style on the Select Style dialog box.
8. Optional: Check the Display results in data window check box; then optionally
change the name in the Data window name field.
9. Click OK.
The dialog is dismissed and the query is added to the queries folder. The appropriate
legend entries are created in the map window based on the settings of the check boxes.
A data window is created if the check box is checked.

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Working with Images

Displaying Selected Images


The Display Selected Images command displays images from those features in a select set
that have coverage geometries. Objects in the select set that do not have a coverage
geometry are skipped. This command is designed to be used in conjunction with the
Image Footprints command, which creates image footprint polygons of an image feature
class or query, although it can also be used in other contexts. The Display Selected
Images command loads only those images that have been placed in the select set, whether
they have been placed by selection of their footprints in a map window, their rows in a data
window, or some other technique. To use this command, which has no graphical interface,
you must have a select set, and an active map window.
In a typical workflow, you would use Image Footprints to generate footprints (image
shapes) for an image feature class. A subset of these footprints is placed into a select set,
and the images are then displayed through Display Selected Images. Alternatively,
footprints may have been created through the Functional Attributes command, through
custom software, provided directly through a data server, and so forth. In another
workflow, Display Selected Images may operate without footprints, for example, through
image features selected in a data window. This command has no graphical interface.
See the previous “Creating Image Footprints” section in this chapter.
See “Working with Functional Attributes” in the “Analyzing GeoMedia Data” chapter
Once all the image geometries in the select set are found, a legend entry is created. If
coverage geometries from multiple feature classes are found in the select set, multiple
legend entries are created. The title of each legend entry will be Selected images of <X>
where X is the feature class or query from the select set that contains the image geometry.
Legend entries for a given feature are reused if they exist. That is, for the existing legend
entry, the previous selected images are unloaded and the newly selected images are
displayed. If no newly selected images match an existing legend entry, the legend entry

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remains in the legend but has zero records; thus, any displayed images for that legend entry
are unloaded. This reuse allows legend entry settings, such as transparency, to be
maintained across multiple invocations of the Display Selected Images command. If no
matching legend entry can be found, a new legend entry will be created with the extended
property set to the appropriate value. Objects in the select set that do not have an image
geometry are skipped.
Queries are not created as output. To make a reusable named query in the GeoWorkspace,
you must use the Select Set to Query command.
See“Defining Queries from Select Sets” in the “Working with Features” chapter.

To display selected images:


1. Generate a select set of objects that have image geometries.
2. Make a map window active.
3. Select View > Display Selected Images.

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Working with Map Windows
The GeoMedia GeoWorkspace can contain one or more windows—map windows, data
windows, and a layout window. These windows provide you with different ways of
visualizing your data. The map window shows a graphic display of the geographic data
(features, images, and so forth). The data window shows the same features in tabular form,
displaying the attributes associated with the geographic data. Thus, if a feature is
displayed in multiple map and data windows, it highlights in all windows when selected.
The layout window allows you to design and to plot a map layout. Map graphics in the
layout window are linked their originating map window to reflect any changes made to the
data, or they can optionally be placed as a static snapshot reflecting the characteristics of
the map window at the time of placement.
Each map window contains the following marginalia items: a legend, a north arrow, and a
scale bar. You can select or deselect each of them on the View menu to turn them on or
off. Whatever the active parameters are for these marginalia items in the map window, the
same parameters are used to render these items in the layout window.
For the most part you define the content and design of each map window through its
legend. While a traditional legend simply reflects what is displayed on a map, you use the
GeoMedia legend to control what is displayed in the map window and how it looks.
The following is a representative workflow for displaying geographic data and map objects
in a map window:
1. In an open GeoWorkspace, connect to the warehouse(s) containing the data you want
to display.
2. Display the legend in the active map window.
3. Add entries to the legend.
4. Customize the look of your map by using the legend to change the display
characteristics of the geographic data.
5. Turn on the north arrow and change its appearance.
6. Turn on the scale bar and change its appearance.
7. Customize the appearance of the legend.
8. Add new map and/or data windows to the GeoWorkspace to show different views of
your map and/or data.
See the “Working with Data Windows” and the “Working with Layout Windows” chapters
for information on data windows and layout windows.

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Working with GeoMedia

Controlling the Map Window


To the left of a map-window title or in the upper-left corner of a maximized map window
is the map-window icon. Clicking this icon displays a menu that allows you to control the
map window.

Depending on the current state of the map window, this menu lets you do the following:
• Restore a minimized window.
• Move, restore, minimize, or maximize the window.
• Close the map window.
• Activate the next map or data window in the stack.
The GeoMedia Window menu contains tools for cascading or tiling windows and for
activating a different window. The bottom of this menu lists all the open windows in the
GeoWorkspace. A checkmark appears next to the title of the active window. You set the
title and behavior of a map window by setting its properties. To adjust the display in a map
window, you use the mouse and the map viewing tools. The north arrow and scale bar,
which you can turn on and off from the View menu, dynamically update to reflect changes
to the map window. The status bar dynamically updates to reflect the current display scale
or view extents.
On the Map Display tab of the Options dialog box, you can specify with the When
resizing map windows options that the contents of a map window be fit automatically
when the window is resized, or that the map scale be preserved.

Changing Map Window Properties


When you set map window properties, you specify the title that appears in the map window
as well as the way the map window displays features you select in another window.
Because the windows in a GeoWorkspace are linked, features you select in one map or data
window always highlight in the other map or data windows. Moreover, you can set certain
properties in a map window to have its view change when you select a feature in another
window.
For example, suppose you set the properties in Map Window A to fit and zoom out at
200%. When you select a feature in a data window or in another map window, the view in
Map Window A changes to fit the selected feature and zooms out at double the view scale.
In another example, you can use these properties as a simple queuing mechanism.
The following properties determine the display in the map view when a feature is selected
in another window:

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Working with Map Windows

• View at current scale (the default—Features in the select set are highlighted, but the
map window does not shift or change scale.)
• Center at current scale—Features in the select set are highlighted and centered in the
map view, but the map window does not change scale.
• Fit and zoom out—Features in the select set are fit to the map view, and the view
zooms out according to the percentage you specify. The default setting is 105%.
If you set the properties in Window 1, for example, to Center at current scale or Fit and
zoom out, selecting features in any window changes the zoom scale or window location.
You probably do not want this to happen when selecting features in Window 1 itself, only
when selecting in other windows. To override this behavior in Window 1, you select the
View at current scale option.
The following diagram shows a feature selected in the left map window. The same feature
is centered, fit, and zoomed out in the right map window:

The following diagram shows a the same feature selected in a data window and centered,
fit, and zoomed out in the map window:

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Working with GeoMedia

To change the properties of a map window:


1. Select Window > Map Window Properties.

2. Type a new title in the Map window name field if appropriate.


3. Select the appropriate For items in the select set option.
4. If you selected Center at current scale or Fit and zoom out, select or accept the
setting for selecting in the current window.
5. Click OK.

Defining Map Window Display Properties


View > Display Properties helps you visualize what your map data in the map window
will look like when viewed or plotted at a given map scale.

This command lets you define the following properties that affect the way the map
graphics are displayed:
Display scale—Typically associated with screen displays, display scale is the scale factor
with which to view the map data in a map window. This factor is flexible, changing every
time you zoom in or out. The current display scale is shown in the GeoWorkspace in the
lower-right corner of the Status bar.
Nominal map scale—Typically associated with style scaling, the nominal map scale is the
scale factor that serves as the base or reference scale. It is referenced when legend entries
have their style scaling set to Paper. When defining the style of a feature (for example,

6-4
Working with Map Windows

line thickness, symbol size, or text size), you define the size of the style in paper units.
With Paper style scaling, the styles are rendered at the nominal map scale and increase or
decrease in size as you zoom in or zoom out away from the nominal map scale. When you
display the Display Properties dialog box, this field contains the current nominal map
scale.
You can choose from two different ways of displaying data in a map window: View (size
is true at any display scale) and Paper (size is true at nominal map scale). Both options
are global, affecting the style scaling for all legend entries. When View (size is true at
any display scale) is turned on, the appearance of the style of a feature will not change as
you zoom in and out in the map window. In other words, the size of the symbols and the
text features, and the thickness of the lines, will not increase or decrease as the display
scale changes.
When Paper (size is true at nominal map scale) is turned on, the nominal map scale
becomes important in controlling the display in the map window because it serves as the
base scale for the definition of the style. The appearance of the style will increase or
decrease in size as the display scale changes. For example, if your nominal map scale is
set to 1:10,000, and you symbolize your text feature to be 12 point size, they will only
appear this size on the screen when the display scale is set to 1:10,000. If you zoom out to
1:20,000, the text will then appear to be 6 point in size. For this reason, you may notice
that certain features sometimes are too small to be seen, even though you set the style to be
20 points. This is because your nominal map scale is large, for example, 1:5,000, and you
are zoomed out so the display scale is much smaller, for example, 1:100,000. The text is
thus being displayed at 1/20th of its point size. You can fix this by changing the nominal
map scale, close to something you want to plot at. Or you can set style scaling for all
legend entries to View, so it always displays at 20 points, regardless of how far in or out
you are zoomed (display scale).
Rotation angle—Rotation angle of the map view. When the units are degrees (deg), the
values in the drop-down list are: -90, -75, -60, -45, -30, -15, 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90.
When the units are not degrees, the values are the preceding degree values converted to the
current angular units.
Units—Angular units. Changing the units converts the rotation value to the new units.
Set style scaling for all legend entries to—Legend entry display in the map window.
• View (size is true at any display scale)—The styles on all legend entries are display-
scale independent, overwriting the setting of the legend right mouse menu Style
Scaling > View command.
• Paper (size is true at nominal map scale)—The styles on all legend entries are
display-scale dependent, overwriting the legend right mouse menu Style Scaling >
Paper command.
To achieve a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) display in the map view, you
set the Display scale and Nominal map scale to the intended plot scale, set the Set style
scaling for all legend entries to setting to Paper (size is true at nominal map scale), and
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Working with GeoMedia

apply any rotation angle. The display of the features on the screen is how they will look
when plotted. If line weights, text sizes, and symbol sizes appear too small or too large,
you should make the necessary adjustments in the style definition for those features. In
general, the nominal map scale should be the same as the plot scale. However, it is not
necessary that they be the same, and having them differ does offer additional design
flexibility. After you have set these properties, you can use the View > Pan command to
view different areas of the intended plot area.
See “Defining Map Objects Display Properties” in this chapter and “Defining Map
Specifications in the Map Window” and “Previewing the Map in the Map Window” in the
“Designing Map Layouts for Printing in the Layout Window” chapter.
When you first open a dataset, such as the USSampleData.gws, various feature classes may
appear not to load properly to the legend, for example, Labels of Major Cities, Major
Cities, Interstates, and Highway Interchange. These feature classes have a not loaded
legend key. The actual legend key does not load to the legend view initially because these
feature classes are all set to view by scale and are thus not visible. The software does not
load data for a legend entry until/unless that legend entry is within its display scale range.
This behavior thus allows large data sets to be loaded quickly. When you zoom in so that
these features become visible, the actual legend keys display in the legend, as in the
following:

Using the Mouse in a Map Window

Note: If your mouse has been reconfigured so that the button functions are reversed, you
must reverse left and right mouse-button instructions in all the product’s documents.

In a map window, you use the left mouse button to do the following:
• Activate the window.
• Create a select set.
• Place or edit a map object.

6-6
Working with Map Windows

• Zoom and pan when the appropriate viewing tool is selected.


• Invoke a hypertext link.
You use the right mouse button to click in an empty space in the map window and invoke
the map-window pop-up menu. This menu contains tools most commonly used in the map
window.

Using an IntelliMouse
If you have a Microsoft IntelliMouse, you can use it to manipulate the display in your map
windows faster and more efficiently. Rolling the IntelliMouse wheel forward causes the
view to zoom in at the current cursor location, and rolling the IntelliMouse wheel
backward causes the view to zoom out at the current cursor location.

Using Map Viewing Tools


The following viewing tools are available only when a map window is active. You exit
persistent viewing tools by pressing ESC, by selecting another viewing command, or by
selecting the Select Tool.
Zoom In Zoom in on a point you identify with a single mouse click
or on an area you define by pressing and holding the left
mouse button on one corner of the area, dragging the fence
to the diagonally opposite corner, and then releasing the
mouse button. A right mouse click exits this command.
Zoom Out Zoom out on a point you identify with a single mouse click
or on an area you define with a dynamic two-point line. A
right mouse click exits this command.
Zoom Return a map window to its previous zoom scale and view
Previous extents.
Zoom to Zoom the display scale of the map window to the current
Nominal nominal map scale as specified on the Display Properties
Map Scale dialog box.
Fit All Fit all displayable objects to the active window.

Fit Select Fit the contents of a select set to the active window.
Set

Note: This command generates expected results only when the selected features are
within the defined display scale range of the legend entry.

Update Load unloaded legend entries and refresh the display in all
All map windows.

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Working with GeoMedia

Note: This command redraws the graphics in all map windows in which the loading
of data in the legend was terminated by the ESC key, beginning at the point in the
legend where the interruption occurred. This command does NOT refresh the map
window if the legend content has not changed. It does not repaint the window after
any view process has been interrupted; this applies only to the interrupting of the
loading of legend entry data.
Pan Drag the display in the direction of the cursor. A right
mouse click exits this command.
Pan has two modes, dynamic and fast, which are set through the When panning map
windows options on the Map Display tab of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options).
While the Pan command is active, you can switch between dynamic and fast panning by
changing the selected option.
The Use dynamic pan option means that all the graphics in the map window move
continuously in unison with the mouse cursor when panning is performed as you press and
hold the left mouse button.
The Fast pan option means that the graphics in the map window remain fixed while
panning is performed, thus limiting the number of map window redraw operations. This
mode is useful if the map window contains a large number of graphic objects, images in
particular, which results in dynamic panning not being smooth and efficient because it
takes too long to continuously redraw the window due to the large number of graphic
objects.
In performing fast panning, the graphics do not move until the left mouse button is
released. Placing the cursor in the map view and pressing and holding the left mouse
button defines the pan starting point. As you move the cursor, the graphics remain fixed,
and a dynamic dashed line appears. One end of this line remains fixed at the pan starting
point; the other end moves dynamically with the cursor, thus giving you a visual indication
of the distance and direction of the pan that will occur when the left mouse button is
released. Releasing the mouse button defines the pan ending point and ends the current
pan action, and the dashed line disappears. The map window is redrawn with the pan
starting point moved to the pan ending point.
On the General tab of the Options dialog box, which you access from the Tools menu,
you can specify whether to display in the status bar the view extents or the display scale. If
you have the status bar turned on, the view extents or current display scale appears in the
rightmost panel at the bottom of the GeoWorkspace window. To see the display scale
change, select it on the Options dialog box, and zoom in or out in the map window.

Changing Display Characteristics of Map Objects


You change the display characteristics of a map object by changing the properties of its
legend entry. Map windows are independent of each other, and each has its own legend.
This means, for example, that you can display highways as blue dashed lines in one map
window and as red solid lines in another map window within the same GeoWorkspace.
6-8
Working with Map Windows

The look and function of a map is determined by certain display characteristics of each
map object:
• Display priority. Which map objects are displayed on top of other map objects?
• Style. What does each map object look like?
• Scale range. At what scale range can map objects be displayed?
• Locatability. Can the map object be selected or highlighted in the map window?

Changing the Display Priority of Map Objects


The order in which map objects are displayed determines which object can be seen when
more than one object has the same spatial location. Depending on their relative size, type,
and display setting, the object on top is likely to be the only one you can see.
Moving entries within the legend affects the display priority of associated map objects in
map windows. The closer an entry is to the top of the legend, the higher the display
priority of its map objects. For example, if you have a legend entry for a light-duty road
and it is at the top of the legend, its map objects will appear on top of any other map
objects in the map window.
You can change the display priority of a map object to optimize display by changing its
order on the legend. The map object associated with the bottom legend entry is drawn
first, the object associated with the next-to-last entry is drawn on top of it, and so forth.
The map object associated with the first legend entry has highest priority and is drawn last.
You can change the display priority on the legend by simply selecting an entry and
dragging it up or down the list of legend entries. You cannot, however, move legend
entries between legends.
When you are using drag-and-drop, you can perform the following:
• Copy with CTRL key pressed.
• Cut/Copy selected multiple legend entries; all are inserted consecutively at the drop
point.
• Cut/Copy a group legend entry to automatically move/copy its entire subordinate
hierarchy.
• Cut/Copy nested legend entries of a thematic group legend entry within the group.
This also changes the order of display of the nested legend entries.
See the “Working with Legends” section later in this chapter for information.

Defining Map Objects Display Properties


The legend right mouse menu Style Scaling > Paper/View commands let you define the
display behavior of the style of a feature. The Paper setting is the same as the Paper (size
is true at nominal map scale) option on the View > Display Properties dialog box, and
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Working with GeoMedia

the View setting is the same as the View (size is true at any display scale) option. To
maximize you workflow, you can select multiple legend entries at a time and change this
setting. For global changes (all legend items), you can still use the Display Properties
dialog box.
The styles of legend entries that are defined as View maintain their size definition when
you change the display scale in the map window. Line weight, text size, and symbol size
definitions are always rendered at the current display scale. When you zoom in on a linear
feature that has its legend entry defined as View, the line remains the same width in the
display.
The following diagram shows the affect of having the View setting defined for text features
at three different display scales. The text remains the same size in all of the displays.

The styles of legend entries that are defined as Paper are display scale dependent, meaning
that its display is associated with a particular scale. Line weight, text size, and symbol size
are rendered at the nominal map scale defined on the Display Properties dialog box. The
display appears larger as you zoom in and smaller as you zoom out.
The following diagram shows the affect of having the Paper setting defined for text
features at three different display scales. The size of the text varies as the window is
zoomed out but remains proportionate to the map.

The active Style Scaling setting for any given legend entry appears with a check mark
when viewed in the legend right mouse menu. If multiple legend entries are selected, and
have a combination of Paper or View settings defined, neither option contains a check
mark when viewed in the legend right mouse menu.
See “Defining Map Window Display Properties” in this chapter.

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Working with Map Windows

Changing the Scale Range of a Map Object


One way to define the display in your map window is to set a scale range for map objects.
This means that, when the view scale of the map window falls within the scale range of a
legend entry, whether or not the object is displayed depends on whether or not the legend
right mouse Display by Scale command is on.
For example, interstate highways might be set to display at scales between 1:250,000 and
1:1,000,000. Zooming to a scale outside this range causes the display of interstate
highways to turn off.
You can also use this to display feature classes differently depending on the display scale.
For example, at 1:1,000,000 U.S. Interstates may be drawn as a single line, but as you
zoom in they could be drawn as thicker, double lines.

To set a scale range for a map object:


1. Select the appropriate legend entry.
2. From the legend right mouse menu, select Display Scale Range.

3. On the Scale Range dialog box, select a predefined range, select minimum and
maximum range values from the drop-down lists, or key in minimum and maximum
range values between 1 and 1,000,000,000.
4. Click OK.
Changing the Locatability of Map Objects
A map object must be locatable to be selected with the cursor. Turning off the locatability
setting helps when you have several feature classes clustered in one area but only want to
select from one feature class. Likewise, it makes no sense to select certain map objects,
such as backdrops or logos. You can turn its locatability off to prevent its being selected
accidentally.
An arrow next to the legend entry indicates that an object is locatable. You control this
through the legend right mouse menu Locatable On/Off commands.

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Working with GeoMedia

Working with Styles


The styles capability in the software is very powerful. You can create and name a style,
modify an existing style, and create nested styles. In addition, you can store styles for
reuse as part of the GeoWorkspace and distribute these styles throughout your organization
through GeoWorkspace templates. You perform these and other style management tasks
through three main styles dialog boxes that work together: Styles, Style Properties, and
Select Style. The following discussion addresses styles types and style collections,
followed by the styles commands, interface, and workflows.

Looking at Style Classes


In general, styles are classified by geometry type. These classes include Point, Line, Area,
Compound, Image, Text, and Fill styles. Within each style class, there is a style type
definition that provides a further distinction of the characteristics of the given style. Some
style classes, such as Image Styles and Text Styles are limited to a single style type. While
other style classes, such as Point Styles and Line Styles provide multiple style types to
further define the style. For example, Point Style classes support Symbol, Font, and
Picture style types. Line Style classes support Simple and Pattern style types.
Generally, most style classes present a simple relationship between the style and the
geometry. But in the case of Area and Compound style classes, this relationship requires a
composite style definition. Compound features, for example, contain points, lines and
areas; all of which are unique style classes. Composite styles are presented in a
hierarchical treeview.
The following figure shows the Styles dialog box with a corresponding table listing the
style classes and below them the style types available for each of those style classes.
Composite style types are tagged with an asterisk (*). The first style type listed in each
column is the default style type when a new style is created for that style class.

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Working with Map Windows

Style types are always interchangeable within style classes. For example, a symbol style
can be used in all of the same places that a picture style can be used.

Style types may also be reused within other style types, even if they are in different style
classes. For example:
• Point style types are used for point geometry but also for patterns in line and fill types.
• Line types are used for linear geometry but also for boundaries in area types and for
hatches in fill types.
• Area types are used for area geometry but also for frames in text types.

Using Legacy Styles


Legacy GeoMedia style (*.gsd) files are still honored when adding legend entries. You
can easily bring these files into a GeoWorkspace by drag-and-drop of the style files or
folders containing style files from Windows Explorer onto the styles list of the style dialog
boxes. The sharing of style definitions through .gsd files is replaced by the library system
in GeoMedia version 6.0.

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See the “Working with Libraries” chapter.

Style Types
The following section discusses each of the style types and their parameters, which you can
define through the Styles and Style Properties dialog boxes.
See corresponding GeoMedia Help topics for complete description of the styles, their
parameters, and how they are defined.
Picture Style—This point style class provides for the rendering of pictures at point
locations. The term picture is used in the Microsoft sense of the word, and encompasses a
wide range of common Microsoft-supported formats mostly, but not exclusively, of a raster
nature.
The following style properties exist for a picture style:
• Bitmap Image (*.bmp) • Portable Network Graphics Image (*.png)
• JPEG File Exchange Format Image • Graphics Interchange Format Image (*.gif).
(*.jpg, *.jpe, *.jpeg).
• TIFF Document (*.tif, *.tiff). • ICON Image (*.ico).
• Windows Metafile Image (*.wmf). • Enhanced Metafile Image (*.emf).
All pictures, symbols, and fonts used in point displays are externally referenced. You
cannot load a bitmap into the GeoWorkspace as an embedded picture; it is always a file
reference.
You can define the following picture style parameters: size, transparent color, override
color, translucency percentage, rotation, alignment, and offset.
Font Style—This point style class provides for the rendering of a character in a specified
font at point locations. All font characters are displayed through common Microsoft text-
rendering techniques. These techniques do not, however, recognize MicroStation-
proprietary font resource files. Thus, such files must be converted into a format

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understood by GeoMedia 6.0, either a Microsoft-supported font or picture, or a GeoMedia-


supported symbol file format, for example a MicroStation cell file.
You can define the following font style parameters: font, character, size, color,
translucency percentage, halo, rotation, alignment, and offset.
Symbol Style—This default point style class provides for the rendering of symbols at point
locations. The term symbol indicates any of a number of data formats, produced by
GeoMedia and other software products, that contain symbolized vector drawings intended
for display at point locations within a larger drawing.
The following symbol types are supported:
• Predefined symbols—A set of simple, predefined symbols (circles and other shapes)
are built into the symbol style. It is not necessary to select an external symbol path.
Each predefined symbol has a name by which it is selected. The default symbol style
is a small, filled, black circle.
• GeoMedia Feature Symbol Files (*.fsm)—This is a multi-symbol type.
• MicroStation Cell Files (*.cel)—This is a multi-symbol type. With this type, it is not
necessary to convert cell files into .fsm format.
• AutoCAD Drawing Files (*.dwg)—This is a single-symbol type. The symbol name is
automatically determined from the symbol file name. With this type, it is not
necessary to convert drawing files into .fsm format.
• Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Files (*.svg)—This is an industry standard, multi-
symbol type. These symbols may contain embedded text elements within the symbol
that can be tied to attributes. This provides a parametric symbol capability in which
the symbol text changes based on the attribute value for each feature instance, for
example, Interstate Highway Shields.
See the “Supported SVG Element Types” appendix.
You can define the following symbol parameters: source, name, size, override color,
translucency percentage, rotation, alignment, offset, and attribute value.
In the case of SVG symbols, support is provided for a single text element within each
symbol. If a text element exists in the chosen symbol, an attribute may be chosen for
association with the text element. As the symbol is drawn for a feature, the designated text
within the symbol is substituted with the value of the designated attribute for that feature.
You can define the display behavior of all Point styles (Picture, Font, and Symbol) based
on the following different rotation scenarios available on the Symbol Style tab of the Style
Properties dialog box:
• Ignore map rotation—When unchecked, the style will rotate with all other graphics
as the map window is rotated. When checked, the style will not rotate, maintaining the
rotation angle specified.

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• Ignore geometry orientation—When unchecked, the style will rotate based on the
orientation of the geometry of the point feature. When checked, the style will not
rotate, maintaining the rotation angle specified.
• Always keep upright—When combining map window rotations and geometry
orientations, it is quite possible that some of the styles will display upside down. This
option ensures that the style will always read right-side up.
Simple Line Style—This line style class provides basic linear rendering capability for
linear geometries and area boundaries. You can define the following simple line style
parameters: color, translucency percentage, width line type, interior boundary tint (area
boundary only), start and end cap (linear only), dash cap, mid-line joins, and offset.
The line type can be one of any number of predefined line types representing dash-gap
sequences, for example, solid, dotted, short dash, or long dash triple dot. A set of fourteen
predefined line types is available. A custom line type setting is also available for you to
enter a custom dash-gap sequence. In addition, you can indicate that the dash-gap
sequence should remain proportional to the line width. This setting is commonly used with
the predefined line types ensuring that the dash-gap ratio stays consistent as line widths
change.
The display of the start and end points of the line may be set independently of one another,
to any of the following:
• Round • Flat • Square • Triangle
• Round anchor • Square anchor • Diamond anchor • Arrow anchor
• No cap (the dash cap setting is used at the start and end instead)
The anchor choices generate a cap that is proportionally larger than the width of the line,
forming a knob at the start or end of the line.
The display of the ends of each dash in the dash-gap sequence of a line may be set to any
of the following: Round, Flat, or Triangle. The display of the joins that occur at each
bend/vertex in a multi-vertex geometry may be set to any of the following: Round, Miter,
or Bevel.
Pattern Line Style—This line style class provides the ability to render a pattern of point
styles along linear geometries, area boundaries, and area hatching. You can define the
following simple line style parameters: point style, position of point style along line,
insets, and offsets.
The point style can be any user-defined style that is of the point style class. You may use
the full range of point style types (picture style, font style, symbol style, or a collection of
any combination of these) to draw the pattern. You can then adjust this property through
the common properties interface.
You can use any combination of five different positioning options on the Pattern Style tab
of the Style Properties dialog box (Fix at start, Fix at end, Fix at center, Fix at vertex
with angle, or Repeat with spacing of) for how the pattern elements described by the
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point style are to be placed along the line. You can choose each option independently;
however, their combined selection and subsequent suboptions may affect the overall point
style placement. For example, the Fix at vertex with angle option allows you to specify
what the minimum angle should be for where the point style should be placed. This
provides the flexibility for not only placing a point at every vertex (0 degrees), but also
allows point filtering so points are only placed on vertices where there is a specific change
in direction. When the Repeat with spacing of option is combined with any of the fixed
location options and a conflict or overprint occurs, the repeat point style that is in conflict
with the fixed point style will not be placed. For the best cartographic results, whenever
the Repeat with spacing of option is used in conjunction with any of the fixed” location
options, the Adjust to produce even spacing setting should be selected.

Note: Linear patterns such as railroads, that are depicted as a line with a point symbol
placed along that line, require two separate entries in the style: a Simple Line Style to
define the line’s characteristics, and a Pattern Line Style to define the point style’s
characteristics.

Simple Fill Style—This fill style class provides basic fill rendering capability for the
interiors of area geometries. You can define the following simple fill style parameters: fill
type, color, and translucency percentage.
Hatch Fill Style—This fill style class provides hatch display capability for the interiors of
area geometries. You can define the following hatch fill style parameters: line style,
spacing, and angle.
Pattern Fill Style—This fill style class provides pattern display capability for the interiors
of area geometries. You can define the following pattern fill style parameters: point style,
rotation, spacing, staggering, and fill mode.
The point style can be any user-defined style that is of the point style class. You may use
the full range of point style types (picture style, font style, symbol style, or a collection of
any combination of these) to draw the pattern. You can then adjust this property through
the common properties interface.
You can define the behavior of the symbol display when the symbol encounters the area
boundary as follows on the Pattern Fill Style tab of the Style Properties dialog box:
• Clip—Causes each patterned point element to be clipped to the boundary of the area.
• Inside—Draws each patterned point element only if the entire element falls within the
boundary of the area.
• Overlap—Allows each patterned point element to be drawn beyond the boundary of
the area, if its origin is within the area or on its boundary.
Text Style—This text style class provides for the rendering of the text within a graphic text
geometry. You can define the following text style parameters: font, font style

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characteristics (bold, italic, underline), size, color, translucency percentage, frame, halo
around the text, alignment, offset, justification and line spacing.
You can define the display behavior of the text based on different rotation scenarios on the
Text Style tab of the Style Properties dialog box:
• Ignore map rotation—When unchecked, the text will rotate with all other graphics as
the map window is rotated. When checked, the text will not rotate, maintaining the
rotation angle specified for the text style.
• Ignore geometry orientation—When unchecked, the text will rotate based on the
orientation of the feature’s geometry. When checked, the text will not rotate,
maintaining the rotation angle specified for the text style.
• Always keep upright—When combining map window rotations and geometry
orientations, it is quite possible that some of the text will display upside down. This
option ensures that the text will always read right-side up.
Image Style—This image style class provides display capability for imagery. Images
participate in the display system exactly as do vectors. As with all other style types, the
impact of changes in the style definition are visible in the map window only after you have
dismissed the Styles or Style Properties dialog box. You can define the following image
style parameters: translucency percentage, contrast, brightness, invert image, transparent
color, transparent pixel values, binary foreground color, and binary background color.
See “Changing the Raster Image Display” in the “Working with Images” chapter.
Area Style—This area style class provides display capability for the boundary and interior
fill of area geometries. As a composite style, the area style has no style properties of its
own for drawing. Rather, it provides a hierarchical style composition tree that includes the
following style collections:
• Boundaries—A collection of zero or more line style types to use in drawing the
boundary of the geometry.
• Fills—A collection of zero or more fill style types to use in drawing the interior of the
geometry.
Area features also provide the ability to display the following:
• No boundary • Any number of line styles for a boundary
• Pattern line styles for a boundary • Any number of fill styles for an interior.
The following is an examples of area style usage for interior boundary tints:

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Compound Style—This compound style class provides display capability for the point,
line, and area geometry members of compound geometries. As a composite style, the
compound style has no style properties of its own for drawing. Rather, it provides a
hierarchical style composition tree that includes the following style collections of:
• Points–Zero or more point style types to use in drawing the point geometries.
• Lines–Zero or more line style types to use in drawing the line geometries.
• Areas–Zero or more area style types to use in drawing the area geometries.
Compound features also provide the ability to perform the following:
• Display no points, no lines, and/or no areas.
• Display any number of point styles, line styles, and areas styles.
• Guarantee, through style collections, that points are on top of lines, which are on top of
areas.

Looking at Style Collections


This section discusses the creation and manipulation of collections of style types. Each
individual style type has unique capabilities and user interface as described in the previous
section. When these style types appear within collections, additional capabilities and user
interface are available.
When looking at the structure of styles, there are basically three types: simple, composite,
and collections. Simple structures involve a single definition within the style. Composite
structures (Area and Compound) involve multiple predefined definitions within the style.
The style below on the left illustrates a simple structure, a Simple Line Style representing a
shoreline. The style below on the right illustrates a composite structure; where the
predefined structure is the Boundary Styles and Fill Styles. The style is composed of a
Simple Line Style for the area boundary and a Hatch Fill Style for the fill, representing an
intermittent lake.

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Collections are structures that occur when there are multiple definitions within a style
class. Collections can be created within a simple style structure, as illustrated in the style
below on the left. Or they can be created within a composite style structure, as illustrated
below on the right.

The style for the intermittent lake above does not contain any collections. While there are
multiple definitions in the style, there is only a single definition in each of the predefined
branches in the hierarchy. In contrast, the Fish Hatchery style above contains multiple Fill
Styles, and thus contains a collection. When the second Fill Style was added, the Fill
Styles branch became a collection.
Collections are optional and may be created at any time. You can create a user-defined
collection within the style composition tree of the Style Properties dialog box by right
clicking on a member of the tree to display the context menu and then selecting either the
New Style or Select Style options. This adds another member to the tree, and
automatically converts the chosen member to a collection, and puts the original style
definition and the newly created or selected style definition into that collection.
Once a style collection exists, the opportunities for manipulating that collection are the
same. More members may be added by right-clicking on the collection member and then
using the New Style and Select Style options as described. Additionally, each existing
member may individually be deleted, renamed, replaced, reordered, copied, changed to
another style type, or edited.
Like any other style type, a style collection has style properties that influence its behavior.
In the case of a style collection, these are not visual characteristics in themselves, but are
instructions for the order that the collection as a whole is to be drawn. When a style
collection is selected in the Style Properties dialog box, the following three options are
made available:
• Order by feature—This option draws the entire style collection one feature at a time
(Feature 1 – Style A, Style B. Feature 2 – Style A, Style B).
• Order by style—This option draws all of the features one style at a time within the
collection, (Style A – Feature 1, Feature 2, Style B – Feature 1, Feature 2). A common
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use for this capability is for intersection clearing in the case of a multi-part linear
styles. This option is only available for style collections that occur at the root of the
style definition.
• Select single style component—This option draws one feature at a time, using only a
single designated style from the collection (Feature 1, Style B – Feature 2, Style B).

The preceding illustration shows the three distinct drawing orders available, from left to
right: Order by feature, Order by style, and Select single index component.
As with other style types, you can find and select a style collection on the Styles and Select
Style dialog boxes, where you can edit the most commonly used style properties, with a
focus on providing group editing of all members of the collection. In most cases, these
collection controls provide limited editing capabilities because the collection may contain a
mixture of different style types within that style class, and those style types may have
different properties, as follows:
Point Collection Style—Permits manipulation of the color and size of all point styles.
Line Collection Style—Permits manipulation of the color and width of a simple line style.
Fill Collection Style—Permits manipulation of the fill color and translucency percentage.
Area Collection Style—Permits manipulation of the fill color and translucency
percentage, and of the boundary color and width of the line style(s) associated with the
area boundary
Compound Collection Style—Permits manipulation of the following:
• Fill color and translucency percentage.
• Boundary/line color and width of the line style(s) associated with the boundary/line.
• Point color and size of the point style(s).
Text Collection Style—Permits the manipulation of the font, size, font style characteristics
(bold, italic, underline), and color.
Image Style—Collections are not supported for this style class. However, the common
controls permit the manipulation of translucency percentage, contrast, and brightness.

Rules for Synchronizing Elements of Composite Linear Style


Definitions
A composite linear style definition is one that contains two or more subordinate linear style
definition elements. When these subordinate elements involve either dash-gap
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sequences (any non-solid Simple Line Style) or symbol spacing (any Pattern Line
Style), it can be important that the dashes, gaps, and symbols be placed consistently
relative to one another. Correctly spacing these elements produces complex lines that
are commonly referred to as being ‘in phase’ or ‘synchronized’.
For composite linear styles composed of non-solid simple line styles, GeoMedia’s
interpretation of the linear style definition requires that the shortest dash length in any
linear element be greater than or equal to the width of that linear element. Perceived errors
in the way composite linear style definitions are rendered are most commonly due to the
failure to take this requirement into consideration. Specifically, the following two cases
lead to style definitions that may be perceived as being incorrectly rendered:
• Use of style definitions (pre-defined or user-defined) that contain a ‘dot’—A dot is
specified by a dash length of 0 (zero). However, when drawn, it must be drawn with a
length equal to the width specified for the linear element. The difference between the
dash-length specified (0) and the actual length used to render the dot (line width) may
result in unexpected results when the linear style is rendered.
• Use of a dash length that is less than the line width—Because dash caps are included in
the total length of a dash, and because the length of a dash cap is half the width of the
line, the minimum length for any dash is the length of two dash caps, or the line width.
The use of explicit dash lengths (not zero-length dots) and dash lengths greater than or
equal to the width of the linear element ensures proper interpretation of composite linear
style definitions. Care must also be taken when changing line widths – such changes may
cause dash lengths to be less than the new line widths, resulting in the loss of proper
phasing.

Creating and Managing Named Styles


The Styles command lets you manage named style definitions through the Styles dialog
box. With this command, you can perform the following:
• Create new styles • Rename styles
• Change style properties • Preview styles
• Delete styles • Organize styles into folders
• Set units of measure for style • Browse styles, including sorting and filtering
properties by various style characteristics
See corresponding GeoMedia Help topics for more information.
You perform these and further management tasks through the three main styles dialog
boxes: Styles, Style Properties, and Select Style. There is a great deal of similarity in
design and function among these dialog boxes, as well as interplay among them, but they
are optimized for different workflows. The most apparent aspects of these three dialog
boxes to be shared are the styles list and the style preview.

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The styles list provides a visual listing of the named styles available in the GeoWorkspace.
This list presents a folder-like hierarchy of style definitions in the familiar Explorer look.
The following three alternate views of the list are available:
• Details—Styles in a single list by name, with a small sample rendering of the style and
additional columns for name, style class, style type, description, and folder.

• List—Styles in columns by name, with a small sample rendering of the style.

• Icons—Styles in rows by name, with a large sample rendering of the style.

You can filter the list by style class, and sort it by name, style class, style type, description,
or folder. You can also select styles and style folders and manipulate them through a right
mouse menu, which provides capabilities for you to create new style folders and style
definitions, rename, change properties, delete, and cut, copy, paste within the style list.
For more information on style classes and style types, see “Style Types” earlier in this
section.
The style preview provides a flexible visualization capability for a single selected style. It
lets you control the background color and magnification of the preview, display the
location of the origin for point and text styles, and gives you a choice of sample geometries
to use in the preview for linear and area styles.

Working with the Styles Dialog Box


The Styles dialog box, displayed by the Legend > Styles command, is designed for
creating and managing named style definitions within the GeoWorkspace. You can edit
the common properties of a style on this dialog box, or access the Style Properties dialog

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box through Properties to edit the complete properties. Additionally, clicking Units
displays the Style Units dialog box, which lets you specify the units of measure that style
properties are expressed in.

See the corresponding GeoMedia Help topics for complete information on these two dialog
boxes.

To create a named style:


1. Select Legend > Styles.
2. Click New; then select the appropriate style type from the drop-down list.
3. Edit the common properties for the new style as necessary; then click Close.
OR
Click Properties to open the Style Properties dialog box to view and edit the
complete set of properties for the new style.
4. After editing the complete properties, click OK to return to the Styles dialog box.

To rename a named style:


2. Select Legend > Styles; then from the Styles dialog box, right click on the style name
or icon and select Rename from the right mouse menu.
3. Type the new name in the highlighted name field.

To delete a named style:


1. Select Legend > Styles; then select the appropriate style in the styles list.
2. Click Delete from the toolbar, or select Delete from the right mouse menu.

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Working with the Style Properties Dialog Box


The Style Properties dialog box lets you edit existing style definitions. These could be
named styles resident in the GeoWorkspace, or current styles associated with legend
entries. Your editing of a style definition can be something as simple as adjusting style
properties (for example, changing color), or something as powerful as changing the basic
style type (for example, change from a symbol to a picture), or changing the style
composition (for example, constructing a style collection). You can also replace the style
definition with a named style through the Select Style dialog box, which you can access
through the Style Properties dialog box.

See the corresponding GeoMedia Help topic for complete information on this dialog box.

Note: You can also create new styles from the Style Properties dialog box by selecting
Add Style (icon) > New Style. In this case, the new style of the current style type is
immediately added to the Style composition list on the Style Properties dialog box.

You can access the Style Properties dialog box from the Styles, the Select Style, the
Legend Entry Properties, and the Add Thematic Legend Entry dialog boxes, and from
the legend right mouse menu.
See “Adding Entries to the Legend” and “Creating Thematic Maps” in this chapter.
The style composition display on the Style Properties dialog box has a hierarchical
presentation of the style, with a dedicated rendering of each component in the style
definition. It permits the addition, replacement, removal, and reordering of component
members of the style definition.

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The style preview display varies with the style type of the selected item in the style
composition tree. You can preview the entire style or any individual component of a style
definition.
You can review and edit the complete set of style properties on two tabs, available
depending on the style: the style-specific main style tab (for example, the Symbol Style
tab), which contains the commonly used style properties, and the Advanced tab.
See the corresponding GeoMedia Help topics for a complete description of the style-
specific parameters on both tabs and how they are defined.
The following example shows these two tabs for the symbol style.

The Advanced tab appears when any style is selected, except area and compound. This
tab is, however, available for the component parts of these two styles. The Advanced tab
gives you a style-specific comprehensive tabular view of all aspects of the style definition,
and the specifications of attribute-based display override rules for each. The grid contains
one row for each style property with three columns of information describing each
property. If animation is turned on, the grid contains a fourth column, Animation.
Clicking the button in this column displays the Animation dialog box for defining
animation frame sequence on the style property.

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The grid also provides for the definition of a default or fallback value in case the attribute-
based assignment fails. You can edit the properties of the style in a generic fashion using
standard editors for known style property types such as color, style definition, or one of
several enumerated types. All unknown style properties are treated as a key-in field of the
appropriate type.
The Advanced tab columns are the following:
Property—Read-only column alphabetically listing all style properties of the selected
style (for example, Size, Color, and Rotation). Hovering over a cell in this column shows
the property name and data type (Boolean, Double, Text, and so forth) as a tooltip.
Default Value—Read-write column displaying the value of each style property used as the
default for displaying the feature. These values correspond directly to the settings
available on the main style tab for each style type, and serves as the backup value in the
event that an attribute-based assignment fails. Cells in this column are either a key-in field
or provide a drop-down list for you to choose from for the available options. For example,
when editing the Displayable property in the Default Value column, after selecting the
cell, a button appears that displays a drop-down list for you to make a selection.

Clicking in other cells might display a drop-down list of options or make the cell active for
direct key in. These values can optionally be overridden by an attribute-based expression
placed in the Attribute Based column.
Attribute Based—Empty column by default, but it can be populated with an existing
attribute value or an expression in the same grammar used with the Functional Attribute
system. The attribute value or expression is evaluated when used in display, with any non-
null result overriding the default property. When you click in this column, a drop-down
list appears from which you can select from a list of available attributes or select the
Expression option. Selecting Expression from the list displays the Expression dialog
box, which allows you to build an expression. Depending on the data type of the selected
property, an entry is added to the drop-down list for each available attribute that matches
that data type.
See “Working with Functional Attributes” in the “Analyzing GeoMedia Data” chapter.
The following example demonstrates how to use the Attribute Based definition to specify
which point symbol to display. The Symbol Style type has a source property that identifies
the symbol file to use. In the case of multi-symbol file types (*.fsm, *.cel, *.svg), the
symbol name is appended to this definition. The syntax for this property is
“Source;Name”. In our example, Source is the Symbol file name, and Name is the
Attribute. An expression can be built to construct the appropriate syntax required for the
Source property as follows:
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CONCATENATE(";","Symbol file name",Attribute)


Symbol file name = "C:\Program Files\GeoMedia\Symbols\BaseMap.svg"
Attribute = Feature_Type
In this example, the symbol name in BaseMap.svg matches the value for the attribute
Feature_Type exactly, such as School, Church, Cemetery, and so forth.
Another example demonstrates how the Attribute Based definition can be used to control
the display status of a feature by using an expression to set the Displayable property. You
can turn on or off a legend entry based on the current map window display scale, or turn on
or off an individual feature instance based on the attribute of the feature. The Displayable
property is a Boolean data type, meaning it requires a True or False definition. A Logical
expression can be used to return a True value. The following syntax can be used to specify
that the feature should be displayed when the display scale is greater than 100,000.
DISPLAYSCALE() > 100000

You can also specify a scale range using the following syntax:
DISPLAYSCALE() > 100000 AND DISPLAYSCALE() < 500000
To test for an attribute value, the following syntax can be used:
IF (MyAttribute="Bridge", TRUE(), FALSE())
Or
IF (MyAttribute is null, TRUE(), FALSE())
In these examples, the feature has an attribute called “MyAttribute”. In the first test, the
feature is displayed only when that value is “Bridge”. In the second test, the feature is
displayed whenever “MyAttribute” has not been defined.

Note: When using Attribute Based definitions for the Displayable property in Composite
or Collection style structures, each of the leaf nodes in the structure needs to be defined.
For example, in an Area Style, the boundary style and the fill style both need to have their
Displayable property set with the appropriate expression.

Animation—Animating styles draws attention to critical features or situations as attribute


values change. Animation is more than attribute-based symbology; a change in the value
of an attribute may simply trigger the animation. Animation draws awareness or
emphasizes a particular feature by changing the style of the feature or simply modifying
the style properties of a feature through a sequence of values over time. You should only
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use animation to provide emphasis of a small number of features within a map display; it is
not intended for application to a legend entry displaying a large number of features.
Misuse may result in poor map display performance.
This column displays the animation state button for each row, indicating the current
animation state for each style property. The three states are as follows:
Enabled but not defined Enabled and defined Not enabled

Clicking this button in any of the three states displays the Animation dialog box, which
lets you define the animation frame sequence. Each member of the sequence is a frame
with a designated style property value (or expression), as well as definition of the timing
and nature of the transition to the next frame in the sequence. Note that you cannot define
animation for the “Locatable” style property.

Clicking New or Properties on the Animation dialog box displays the Animation
Property dialog box, which lets you define the properties for a specific animation frame.
The options available vary with the selected style property.
In addition, the Animation icon on the Style Properties dialog box displays the Animate
Style dialog box, which lets you set the animation properties (Animated and StartTime) of
the root style for legend entries, except when the root style is a non-image style. This
dialog box also lets you enable/disable the animation.

See the corresponding GeoMedia Professional Help topics for complete information on the
animation user interface and its use.

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To edit a style of a legend entry:


1. Double click on the style icon for the legend entry to open the Legend Entry
Properties dialog box; then click Properties to open the Style Properties dialog box.
OR
Right click on the legend entry, and select Legend Entry Properties from the right
mouse menu; then click Properties to open the Style Properties dialog box.
OR
Right click on the legend entry and select Style Properties from the right mouse menu
to open the Style Properties dialog box.
2. Edit the appropriate style properties.
3. Click OK to save your edits to the style properties.

Working with the Select Style Dialog Box


The Select Style dialog box lets you select an existing style definition from the named
styles in the GeoWorkspace. The Select Style dialog box is displayed when you choose
the Add Style > Select Style or Replace Style options on the Style Properties dialog box.
After selecting a named style, you can use it as is, or change the style definition before
using it. For simple changes, you can use the common properties directly on the Select
Style dialog box. Or, for more advanced changes, you can click Properties to display the
Style Properties dialog box. You can also make a new named style from what you have
selected/adjusted.

See the corresponding GeoMedia Help topic for complete information on this dialog box.
And, for more information on styles, see the “Style Types” in this section.

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Working with the Legend Entry Properties Dialog Box


The Legend Entry Properties dialog box lets you define how a feature is represented in
the map window by editing an existing legend entry. The options and fields on this dialog
box vary depending on the style of the selected legend entry, and are the same options
available for each style on the Add Thematic Legend Entry dialog box, except for the
addition of the Apply button. This button lets you update the specified legend entry based
on the settings defined on the dialog box without dismissing the dialog box. From this
dialog box, you can access the Style Properties dialog box and the Named Style dialog
box. You can access the Legend Entry Properties dialog box by double clicking on the
style icon of a legend entry or from the right mouse menu.

Changing the Type of Style of Legend Entries:


There are three types of style presentations for legend entries available in the map window:
Standard, Range Thematic, and Unique Value Thematic as illustrated in the following
figures:

Standard Range Thematic Unique Value Thematic


The Standard type portrays all of the selected features with the same style definition,
whereas the Range Thematic and Unique Value Thematic types portray a classified
definition of the selected feature where each class has its own style definition. A legend

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entry with a Standard definition can be expanded into a Thematic definition. Similarly, a
Thematic definition can be collapsed down to a Standard definition.

To change from one type of legend presentation to another:


1. Select a legend entry; then from the right mouse menu, select Legend Entry
Properties.
OR
Double click on a legend entry to display the Legend Entry Properties dialog.
2. On the Legend Entry Properties dialog, select the appropriate style Type.
3. Define the appropriate parameters; then click OK.
See the corresponding GeoMedia Help topic for complete information on this dialog box,
and the “Creating Thematic Maps” section in this chapter.

Obtaining Symbols for Feature Class Displays


The Define Symbol File utility provides the ability to translate symbols from several
different input formats into the GeoMedia Feature Symbol file (.fsm) format as well as
output to Scalable Vector Graphics (.svg).
The software delivers several symbol libraries that contain symbols you can use to
represent point-type features and to pattern linear and area features. The symbol libraries
are organized by industry, such as GIS (GISsym.fsm), Utilities (UTILsym.fsm), Recreation
(recreation.fsm), Transportation (transportation.fsm), and so forth. They are installed in
the <drive:>\Program Files\GeoMedia\Symbols folder. You can change this default
locations on the File Locations tab of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options).
If these symbol-library files do not contain the symbols you want, or you would like to
combine symbols from across multiple symbol files, you can create your own symbol
library file using the Define Symbol File utility. This utility supports assorted file types,
including: map window symbol (.fsm) files, layout window symbol (.sym) files,
MicroStation cell (.cel) files, AutoCAD block (.dwg) files, and Scalable Vector Graphics
(.svg).
See the Define Symbol File utility’s online Help for complete information.

To create your own symbol files:


1. From the Start menu of the Windows taskbar, select All Programs > GeoMedia >
Utilities > Define Symbol File.

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2. To place map window symbols (.fsm), layout window symbols (.sym), AutoCAD
blocks (.dwg), or MicroStation cells (.cel), from an existing file into the new file:
− Click Add.
− Identify the appropriate file type, select a file from the list on the Add From File
dialog box, and then click Open.
− Use the SHIFT and CTRL keys to select symbols from the list.
− Click Insert.
− Click Close.
The symbols you selected are appended to the new library file. Symbol colors that
match the map-window background may be replaced with another color so they can be
seen against the software background.
3. To change the name or description of a symbol, select it, click Edit, make the changes,
and click OK on the Edit Symbols dialog box.
4. To remove a symbol from the library, select it and click Remove.
5. Click Save As, and save the opened file in the \symbols folder.
6. Close the Define Symbol File dialog box.

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Note: 1 ) To have the correct color definition transferred from your MicroStation cell
library to the new GeoMedia symbol file, copy the MicroStation design-file color table
used when creating the cells to <drive>:\Program Files\GeoMedia\Program\Color.tbl.
The RGB definitions obtained from the color table will be used when creating the new
symbols. 2) If MicroStation fonts are used in the .cel files, for the correct translation of the
font, you must copy the font resource file into the <drive>:\Program
Files\GeoMedia\Program\Symtrans\font.rsc, and update the same location in ‘MS
Resource files’ entry under the [Options] section of <drive>:\Program
Files\GeoMedia\Program\Symtrans\DGNGT2D.ini.

Creating Symbols in Layout Windows to Use in Map


Windows
You can create your own symbols in the layout window through a two-step workflow.
You first create the required symbol with the layout window graphics commands as a
layout window symbol file (.sym), and then you add it to a map window symbol file (.fsm)
or scalable vector graphic file (.svg) with the Define Symbol File utility.

Note: Double clicking a .fsm file starts the Define Symbol File utility.

When creating the layout window symbol files, you should draw the graphics at the
appropriate output scale and size of intended use, using the appropriate line thickness and
colors. When converted to a map window symbol file, the size of the symbol and all of the
line thickness definitions are proportional. In other words, you can resize the symbols
during placement, but when you do, as the geometry scales, the line thickness scales as
well. If the symbol size defined with the utility is equivalent to the original layout window
symbol size, the symbol appears identical in the map window to the symbol drawn in the
layout window.
See “Obtaining Symbols for Feature-Class Displays” in this chapter and the Define
Symbol File utility’s online Help.

To create a layout window symbol file:


1. Draw the appropriate elements on a layout sheet using any of the drawing commands
located on the Drawing toolbox; then place them in a select set.

Note: When creating a symbol using different elements, press CTRL while choosing
elements with the Select Tool.

2. From the Drawing toolbox, select Draw > Create Symbol.

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3. Click a point on the layout sheet to define the origin of the symbol.
4. On the Save As dialog box, select the directory, and then type an appropriate name.
The document is saved with a .sym extension.

To add a layout window symbol file to a map window symbol file:


1. From the Start menu of the Windows taskbar, select All Programs > GeoMedia >
Utilities > Define Symbol File.
2. To place a layout window symbols (.sym) into a new or existing file:
− Click Add.
− Select Layout Window Symbol Files (*.sym) as the file type, select a file from
the list on the Add From File dialog box, and then click Open.
− Select the symbols from the list.
− Click Insert.
− Click Close.
The symbol selected is appended to the new library file.
3. Click Save As, and save the opened file in the \symbols folder.
4. Close the Define Symbol File dialog box.

Working with Legends


The legend contains the following parts:
• A title bar.
• Two legend tabs, Display Order and Groups.
• Legend entries, which you use to control the display of the objects in the active map
window. Legend entries can have titles, subtitles, and headings.

Looking at the Two Legend Tabs


The legend contains two tabs that give you two ways of looking at your map window data.
The Display Order tab shows the display priorities of all the legend entries. This is the
traditional perspective in which the order of the legend entries, from bottom to top, dictates
the order in which data is displayed. The Groups tab shows the logical relationships (in
terms of groups or categories) among all the legend entries. This offers the opportunity to
group and order legend entries independently of their display order. Thus, you can impose
not only to impose a user-desired order on the legend entries independent of display order,
but also perform group manipulations (for example, turn display off) in a single step. This
capability is useful, for example, when you have a large number of legend entries in your

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legend but you only need a limited number displayed for certain workflows. Grouping
legend entries on the Groups tab allows you to easily do this.

Hierarchical Display of Legend Entries


Both tabs contain a hierarchy of legend entries in a treeview and support similar
functionalities except that a change to the position of an legend entry on the Display
Order tab affects the display priorities of all the legend entries, while a change to the
position of a legend entry on the Groups tab does not.
Both tabs also contain two types of legend entries in the views: leaf, and group. The leaf
legend entry displays in the map window, and the group legend entry represents a
collection of (leaf/group) legend entries. A legend entry may be a group that contains
other legend entries, or a leaf that performs the display of data, but not both. Any level of
nesting is allowed. Group legend entries may be collapsed or expanded. While leaf legend
entries are commonly present in both tabs, and may be manipulated from either tab, group
legend entries are normally present only on the Groups tab. Thematic groups on the
Display Order tab are an exception to this rule.
The method used for creating the group dictates the types of changes available within the
group. For example, a group created by thematics only allows you to rearrange the order
of items within the group. A group created through the Categories command or the New
Group command allows you to rearrange the order as well as to add and to delete items in
the group. Modifying the contents of a group created by the Categories command only
impacts the legend; it has no affect on the original category.
Only one legend tab is visible at a time. However, you can easily switch tabs by clicking
the tabs at the bottom. In both tabs, arbitrary grouping is supported. When you make a
change to the properties of a legend entry, such as display mode or title, the change is
reflected in the corresponding legend entry on the other tab, if the legend entry is present
on the other tab (groups are commonly present in only one legend).
The two tabs share the same selection of legend entries. That is, when you select a legend
entry in one view, the corresponding legend entry is also selected (if present) on the other
tab. Any operation on a group item is applied to all of its child legend entries, regardless

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of whether the child legend entries are selected. Also, when you delete a leaf legend entry
on one tab the corresponding legend entry on the other tab is also deleted.

Docking the Legend


You can dock the legend in the map window wherever appropriate for your workflow by
selecting Position Legend from the map window right mouse menu. This command lets
you place the legend in the following three positions within the map window:

Floating (the default) Left side docking Right side docking


When docked, you can control the relative size of the legend and map window. In this
configuration, the legend does not obscure any data in the map window. Its height is fixed
to that of the map window. When undocked, the legend occupies its traditional location as
a floating legend over the map window.

Note: When the map legend is floating, the caption of the named legend is shown. You
can edit this name through the Legend Properties dialog box.

The graphic key that accompanies each legend entry may take on your choice of large,
medium, or small icons, and may vary in size for point and graphic text features. Legend
entry statistics are provided, and statistics are turned on by default for new map windows.

Resizing the Legend


When the map legend is floating, you can resize the legend by dragging any corner or any
edge of its frame. When the map legend is docked on the left side of the map window, you
can resize the legend first by hovering the cursor over the right edge of the legend until the
cursor becomes , then by left clicking the mouse, and last by dragging the overlay
vertical bar and dropping it to any position of the map window. Similarly, you can resize
the right side docked legend by dragging and dropping the overlay vertical bar that
originates from the left edge. When dragging the edge of the docked legend, you can only
resize the width of the legend because the height of the legend is always same as that of the
map window.
In addition, you can select the Fit Legend from the legend right mouse menu to resize the
legend to the minimal bounding box of the legend entries. The behavior varies with the

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docking state of the map legend. If it is floating, the size of the map legend is adjusted to
the minimum bounding box of all legend entries. If it is docked, the width of the map
legend is adjusted to the minimum width of all legend entries while the height of the map
legend is always the height of the map window.

Looking at Legend Style Keys


The following figure illustrated the various default legend entry style keys:

The legend contains a separate entry for each map object. When a feature class or query
has multiple geometry or text attributes, a separate entry is added to the legend for each of
these attributes.
Each entry contains a title and a style key. If statistics for a legend are turned on, the entry
displays the count of map objects in parentheses next to the title. Style keys for feature
classes and queries are dynamic and represent the geometry type of the feature class (point,
line, area, or compound). Style keys for thematic displays, images, and text are static and
represent the object type. You can change the style key by double clicking a style key to
open the Legend Entry Properties dialog box.
See “Working with Styles” this chapter.
Style keys include the following:
Style Key Object Type
Point feature class
Linear feature class

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Area feature class


Text label
Compound feature class
Image feature class
Range thematic display
Unique-values thematic display

Style keys can also indicate the state of the following legend entries:
Style Key Indicates
The data is not loaded. Here are some possible causes:
• If you press ESC while the map object is being loaded, the legend
entry is created but the data are not loaded.
• If you turn off the display of a map object, close the warehouse
connection or the GeoWorkspace, and then reopen the connection or
the GeoWorkspace, the data are not loaded.
• If you replace a legend with a named legend, and the named legend
has the display of a map object turned off, the data for that map
object is not loaded.
• If you have checked the Do not load data when opening
GeoWorkspace option on the General tab of the Options dialog box
(Tools > Options), all legend entries are not loaded.
• If the map object is set to view by scale and not visible initially; the
legend entry is not within its display scale range.
The legend entry is in an invalid state. This could mean the feature table
has been deleted or that an attribute has been altered in such a way as to
prevent the display of data.
Map object is locatable, which means you can use the mouse to click on a
map feature and retrieve its attribute information.
Map object is displayed by scale, which means the feature will only
appear when the map window is displayed within a specific scale range.

Displaying or Hiding the Legend


If the legend is not displayed in the map window, you display it in one of the following
ways:
• From the GeoMedia menu, select View > Legend. A checkmark next to Legend on
the menu indicates that the legend display is turned on.
• Select Legend from the map window right mouse menu.
You hide the legend in one of the following ways:
• From the GeoMedia menu, select View, and deselect Legend.
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• Deselect Legend from the map window right mouse menu.


• Double click the legend icon or the X on the legend title bar, if it is displayed.

Adding Map Objects to the Legend


When you add a map object, such as a feature class or raster image, to the legend, it also
appears in the active map window when it is in the display area. The legend entry controls
the style of the features, queries, categorized items, and reference features. You can add
the same map objects multiple times to create multiple legend entries with different styles.
However, the features , queries, categorized items, and spatial filter reference features
themselves are only loaded once. There is no feature, query, categorized item, or spatial
filter reference feature duplication, just different ways of visualizing the same items.

Note: If you interrupt the loading of map objects by pressing ESC, the entry will still
appear on the legend, but data for subsequent legend entries will not be loaded. To reload
the data, select Load Data from the Legend right mouse menu.

You can add the following types of map objects as entries to the legend:
• Feature classes (Legend > Add Legend Entries)
• Queries (Legend > Add Legend Entries or Analysis > Queries > Display, and most
other Analysis commands)
• Thematic displays (Legend > Add Thematic Legend Entry)
• Raster images (Legend > Add Legend Entries or Warehouse > Images)
See “Inserting Images into Warehouses” in the “Working with Images” chapter for
information on adding image entries.

Adding Entries to the Legend


Add Legend Entries lets you add multiple legend entries that span the set of all
connections and queries to the legend of the active map window. You can select the
feature class/query from warehouse connections, categorized features, reference features,
or queries nodes.

Note: The Categories node only appears in the list if categories have been created using
the Warehouse > Categories command. Likewise, the Reference Features node only
appears in the list if reference features have been created using the Warehouse > Spatial
Filter Reference Features command.

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Each feature class/query is displayed through the default legend entry found in the
designated master legend. If a legend entry for a feature class or query is found in the
master legend, the this command makes a copy of the master legend entry and adds it to the
legend. If there are categorized items defined in the GeoWorkspace, you can automatically
create or add groups and subgroups of legend entries by category and subcategory.
After you select the items to add to the legend, the command creates a legend entry for
every selected feature class, query, categorized item, and reference feature. Additionally,
this command creates legend entries for all the secondary geometry fields of every selected
feature class or query. However, if the secondary geometry field is of type coverage, the
command does not create a legend entry for it.
Grouping legend entries by categories is a useful way to manage large numbers of features
and queries, organizing them into legend groups based on common properties. Categories
manage feature classes and queries into a single group, making it easier to work on them as
a whole, for example, when there is a buffer zone around a road feature. Legend groups
organize these legend entries into a single group for easier location and manipulation when
dealing with large legends. If you have created categories to organize your features, the
Group legend entries by category option uses these categories to automatically create
corresponding legend groups on the Groups tab of the legend when you add features to the
legend. All new groups are added alphabetically at the top of the legend. If a
corresponding legend group is already present on the Groups tab, the new legend entries
are added to it, rather than creating a duplicate group.

To add entries to the legend:


1. Select Legend > Add Legend Entries.

2. Expand the treeview nodes as needed; then select the categories, queries, reference
features, or connections nodes to select all features within that group, or select

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individual features within each group by choosing the appropriate feature within each
node.

3. Optional: Check the Group legend entries by categories check box.


4. Click OK to add the selected legend entries.

To add image entries to the legend:


Image entries are added to the legend using the same procedure just described for adding
any other feature class. This procedure adds the entire image feature class. This means
that every image associated with the selected image feature class will be associated with
the new legend entry. If this is not appropriate, the Images command (Warehouse >
Images) lets you select specific image entries from within an image feature class to be
associated with the new legend entry.

Creating Thematic Maps


Thematic mapping is the process of classifying data based on the attribute values of a
selected feature class. For example, a feature class called states (as in
USSampleData.mdb) could be thematically mapped so that the states are classified into
discrete ranges based on their average temperature values, thereby allowing you to define
unique styles for each of the ranges defined. All geometry types, except image, can be
mapped thematically and will update when the source data changes. You can create and
edit thematic mappings with the Add Thematic Legend Entries command.
This command lets you map the attributes of graphic data and stylize the graphics based on
the value of a user-specified attribute column. In other words, GeoMedia can paint a
picture in the map window that represents attribute data in the feature class table. This
type of data presentation is more user friendly because it is easier to analyze a picture than
to analyze a column of random statistics.
You can create thematic legend entries for features of the following types: point, linear,
area, compound, coverage, and graphic text. Coverages only support default style
characteristics, and nongraphic types are not supported.

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After selecting the feature class for your legend entry, you edit its display characteristics to
meet your requirements. These characteristics include the type of legend entry and style
definitions or thematic characteristics. The picture sample on the dialog box illustrates the
active display type and changes as the legend entry type changes, as do the available style
definitions or thematic characteristics.
The thematic map updates when changes occur in the source data. The timing as to when
the thematic changes occur varies based on the type of connection. A thematic from read-
write data updates automatically if the edit to the source data is done from the local client
machine. A thematic from read-only data updates when the GeoWorkspace is opened. If
the edit to the source data occurred on a different machine, the thematic updates when the
GeoWorkspace is opened or after selection of Warehouse > Refresh with Warehouse
Changes.

Legend Entry Types


You can choose one of three legend entry types: standard, unique value thematic, and
range thematic.

Standard
The Standard legend entry type symbolizes the feature with a style, letting you edit the
standard legend entry style. A standard legend entry is a single legend entry with no
hierarchy. It has a style, record, and geometry field name all used together to display data.
In defining this legend entry style, you can:
• Select a named style.
• Change the selected style.
• Save the current definition as a named style.
• Change the style properties.

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See the Style Properties and Select Style dialog box topics in GeoMedia Help for complete
information on setting the Style.

Unique Value Thematic


You can use this command to classify a feature based on unique attribute values. This
unique value assignment may be used with numeric as well as character attribute data. The
Unique Value Thematic legend entry type is best used with attributes where the number
of unique values is small. For example, if an attribute column called Airport_Status has
valid values of on-time, delayed, or closed, then this can be used to quickly display
different symbols for each status.
This legend entry style creates a specified set of value classes each with their own style. It
does this by adding appropriate properties to the legend entry and structuring it in a two-
level hierarchy, where each sub-legend entry represents a thematic class based on a unique
value. Each leaf legend entry represents rows with a specific value for the selected
attribute. Every leaf legend entry is associated with a style. Typically, the sub-legend
entries are formatted using a color scheme.
In defining this legend entry style, you can:
• Select the unique value attribute.
• View unique values, corresponding labels (entry title), styles, and record counts.
• Edit styles and labels (entry title) of leaf legend entries.
• Add, edit, and remove leaf legend entries (unique values).
• Specify the sort order, ascending or descending.

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• Specify an Other entry that contains all unclassified values.

Range Thematic
For numeric attributes, the Range Thematic legend entry can analyze the values and group
them into classes, with each class having a defined range. These ranges or classes may
then be displayed in the map window, each with its own style. For example, county
population values may be broken into ranges, and each county may be color-filled based
on the range its population is classified as.
This legend entry creates a specified set of range classes each with their own style. It does
so by adding appropriate properties to the legend entry and structuring it in a two-level
hierarchy, where each sub-legend entry represents a discrete range. Each leaf legend entry
represents a specific range of values for the selected attribute. Every leaf legend entry is
associated with a style. Typically, the sub-legend entries are formatted using a color ramp.

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In defining this legend entry style, you can:


• Select an attribute to classify.
• Specify the classification method to calculate ranges.
• Specify number of ranges to distribute the values in.
• View the thematic statistics of the selected feature/attribute.
• Specify the sort order, ascending or descending.
• Specify the style scheme for the output legend entry, colors and weights.
• View ranges (calculated based on input method), corresponding labels (entry title),
styles, and record counts.
• Edit ranges, styles, and labels (entry title) of leaf legend entries.
• Remove or add leaf legend entries (ranges).
• Specify an Other entry that contains all unclassified values.

Setting Range and Unique Value Thematic Parameters


The Range and Unique Value Thematic legend entry styles have similar parameters on
the Add Thematic Legend Entry dialog box as detailed in the following discussion. For
both types, the right side of this dialog box contains Thematic classes and Thematic style
parameters, plus corresponding top and bottom grids.

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Thematic Classes
The Thematic classes frame specifies what inputs are required to produce the range or
unique value thematic classes. To produce the classes, you first select the appropriate
attribute value from those available from the input legend entry. The data types supported
for range thematics are: byte, short, long, float, currency, and double; the data types
supported for unique value thematics are: text, memo, byte, short, long, float, and double.
After selecting the attribute, you select the appropriate classification through the Classify
button to populate the two grids with corresponding styles, values, labels, and counts. The
styles are derived from the current settings of the Thematic styles frame.
For the range style, clicking Classify displays the Classify dialog box.

This lets you create discrete ranges by the following classification techniques:
• Equal Range (the default)— Divides the ranges equally and distributes the values into
each range. The records, most likely, are distributed unevenly into equal ranges..
• Equal Count—Distributes the same number of records to each range. The range
values automatically adjust to distribute the records evenly.
• Standard Deviation—Calculates the standard deviation of all values and applies it to
the number of ranges.
Selecting Equal Range enables the Begin Value and End Value fields in which you type
values to limit the ranges created. If the classification type is not Equal Range, these
fields are disabled, but the minimum and maximum attribute values are displayed.
You also select the number of ranges to create from the Number of ranges drop-down list,
which contains numbers from 2-20 to give you a notion of what is considered reasonable,
but the number is not limited to these values. The value is defaulted to 4, with a minimum
value of 2.
Clicking the Statistics button displays the Statistics dialog box that lets you review the
statistics, such as the number of records, minimum and maximum values in the field, range,
standard deviation, and so forth.

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See the corresponding topic in GeoMedia Help.


For the unique value style, clicking Classify populates the two grids with corresponding
styles, values, labels (entry title), and counts based on the selected attribute.

Thematic Styles
The Thematic styles frame specifies the styles for the leaf legend entries of the range and
unique value thematic classes through base style, colors, and size/width. Unlike the
Thematic classes, any change to any of the parameters in Thematic styles automatically
updates styles corresponding to each of the range and thematic classes, the effect being
immediately visible in top grid.
The Base style functions as a seed for all style-related activities. Clicking Base style
displays the Style Properties dialog box, which lets you modify the current style
parameters. For point geometries, the base style defines which point symbol to use. For
linear geometries, the base style defines the line’s characteristics (line type, caps and joins,
etc.). For area geometries, the base style defines the boundary / fill characteristics. For text
geometries, the base map defines the font characteristics. If the input legend entry is a
range or a unique value legend entry, the base style is obtained from the style property of
the root legend entry. When you edit the base style, it is immediately applied to all
thematic classes in the top grid, using the current color and size schemes. It is also set as
the style for the Other item in the bottom grid.
The Assign colors option lets you specify when colors are automatically assigned to the
thematic classes in the top grid. Automatic color assignment happens when you click
Classify, change the color scheme, or insert a new item into the top grid. In each case, the
active settings in the Thematic styles frame are applied. If this option is unchecked,
automatic assignment of style information to the thematic classes ignores the colors
schemes and defaults to the color of the base style for all thematic classes.

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Note: When assigning colors to area features, the result varies based on the definition of
the Base style. If the base style of the area only contains a boundary definition, the
boundary color will be modified. If the base style of the area contains a fill and boundary
definition, only the fill color will be modified. If the base style of the area contains
multiple fill definitions, the fill color of all definitions will be modified.

The image drop-down list contains colored bands that represent a color scheme. The
name for the color scheme is not displayed in the list but as a tooltip for the active color
scheme. The ramp color schemes are all listed first and then the random colors, but the
order of both is dictated by the color schemes collection order.

When you select a color scheme, it is immediately applied to the styles in the top grid. The
first item in the grid gets the first color in the color scheme. The second item gets the
second color, and so on. If there are more items in the grid than color scheme colors, the
process of assigning colors wraps back to the first color in the color scheme. Selecting a
different color scheme does not re-apply the base style or size ramping to the top grid; only
the colors are adjusted.
The Assign sizes/widths options let you ramp the minimum/maximum size of a point style,
text style, or a compound style that has a point style in it (that is, size applies to point and
text styles only) or the minimum/maximum width of a linear style. Automatic size or
width assignment happens when you click Classify or Base style. In each case, the active
settings in the Thematic styles frame are applied. If you insert a new item, it gets assigned
the base styles width. The size and width check boxes are not displayed at the same time.
If the style is an area style, the check box and the minimum/maximum items are not
displayed. If this option item is unchecked, automatic assignment of style information to
the thematic classes ignores the size/width ramping and defaults to the width of the base
style for all thematic classes.
When selecting the minimum/maximum width, it is immediately applied to the styles in the
top grid. The first item in the grid is assigned the minimum width value. The second item
is assigned the next calculated width value, and so on. The act of assigning a
minimum/maximum width does not re-apply the base style or active color scheme to the
top grid. Only size ramping occurs.

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Grids
The dialog box contains top and bottom grinds. The top grid displays a display state,
styles, values, labels (entry title), and counts. The bottom grid displays the Other class.

Range Legend Entry Type Unique Value Legend Entry Type

Top Grid
The columns in the top grid for range and unique values legend entry styles are populated
as follows:
Check box—Sets the display state of the legend entry in both the legend and the map
window. By default when new items are created, this is checked, meaning the items are
displayed.
Style—Displays a preview of the style for the thematic classes for each row, based on the
current settings in the Thematic styles frame. Double clicking the image displays the
Select Style dialog box, which lets you edit the style for the corresponding thematic class.
Values—These columns vary with the legend entry style. Range displays the Begin Value
and End Value columns, and unique value displays the Value column.
• Begin Value and End Value—Represent the minimum and maximum values of the
selected attribute. These columns let you edit existing ranges, which results in
validations and automatic adjustments with adjacent rows to prevent range overlap.
The Count column is updated automatically to reflect any change in the range. For
new rows, Begin Value has to be specified before the End Value.
• Value—Displays the unique values. This column lets you edit an existing row or add
a new row, which results in validation for uniqueness among all rows in the same
column. After validation, the Count column is updated with the record count
corresponding to the new value entered. The Label column is also updated with the
new value if the record is new (it is not updated if this is an edit). In addition to
impacts to this value, the Other class is updated (record count).
Label—Displays the label for the range or unique value legend entry styles sub-legend
entry. This editable column can have duplicate values; null values are not allowed. For

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the range legend entry style, the label is set to [BeginValue] to [EndValue] by default.
For the unique value legend entry style, the unique value is set as the label.
Count—Displays the count of records associated to a range or unique value legend entry,
either as an absolute record count or a percentage, depending on the Show count as
percent check box setting. This column is updated automatically when the Begin Value
or End Value columns change or the Show count as percent check box setting changes.

Manipulating the Top Grid


You can insert new rows into the grid even when there are no rows existing in the grid
(that is, Classify or Base value have not been clicked). But before adding rows to the top
grid, you must select an attribute. The new row is entered at the bottom of the grid as
normal, and when the focus shifts to another row, the new row is positioned appropriately
in the grid as per the sort order. The number of rows in the top grid and the currently
selected row are indicated by the Class: # of # item at the bottom of the top grid.
The data is sorted by default in ascending order based on the unique values. You can,
however, change the sort order by selecting the following column headers: Begin Value
and End Value for range, Value for unique values, and Label and Count for both. The
Value, Begin Value, End Value, Label, and Count columns can be all resorted.
For ease of use within the grid, you can also display a right mouse menu with the following
commands:
Ramp Colors—Ramps the colors from top selected item to the bottom selected item.
Ramp Size/Width—Ramps the size or width from the top selected item to the bottom
selected item.
Select Style—Displays the Select Style dialog box, which lets you select or edit the style.
Delete—Deletes the selected items.

Bottom Grid
The bottom grid displays only one row, the Other class, which contains all of the
unclassified data and always exists. For the unique value legend entry style, the Value
column is not displayed; for the range legend entry style, the Begin Value and End Value
columns are not displayed. You cannot add new rows to the bottom grid nor delete the
single row. You cannot edit the columns, only check or uncheck the display check box.

To add standard thematic entries to the legend:


1. Select Legend > Add Thematic Legend Entry.

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2. Select the feature class or query you want from the connections, queries, categories and
reference features in the Input features drop-down list.
3. Select the Standard legend entry Type.
4. Check the appropriate Named style from the Styles drop-down list.
5. Optional: Redefine the common properties of the Style.
6. Optional: Click Name Style to rename the style.

7. Optional: Click Properties to redefine the style.

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8. Click OK on the Add Thematic Legend Entry dialog box to add the selected
thematic legend entries.
An entry is created and added to the top of the legend, and the active map window
reflects the changes.

To add range thematic entries to the legend:


1. Select Legend > Add Thematic Legend Entry.
2. Select the feature class or query you want from the connections, queries, categories
and reference features in the Input features drop-down list.
3. Select the Range Thematic legend entry Type.
4. From the Thematic classes frame, select the appropriate Attribute for classification
from the drop-down list.
5. Click Classify.

6. Select the appropriate Classification technique from the drop-down list.


If you select Equal Range, type appropriate values in the Begin value and/or End
value fields.
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7. Select the Number of ranges from the drop-down list.


8. Click Statistics to review the contents of the attribute; then click Close.
9. Click OK on the Classify dialog box to populate the grids.

10. In the Thematic styles frame, click Base style to edit the style on the Style
Properties dialog box.
11. Check or uncheck the Assign colors check box; then if checked, select a color
scheme from the drop-down list.
12. For point style, text style, or a compound style that has a point style in it, or a linear
style, check or uncheck the Assign sizes/widths check box; then if checked, ramp the
minimum/maximum size/width values.

Note: You can also perform both of the Assign colors and Assign sizes/widths
operations before clicking Classify.

13. Edit the grid parameters as appropriate.


14. Check or uncheck the Show count as percent check box.
15. Click OK to add the selected thematic legend entries.
An entry is created and added to the top of the legend for each thematic display, and
the active map window reflects the changes.

To add unique value entries to the legend:


1. Select Legend > Add Thematic Legend Entry.
2. Select the feature class or query you want from the connections, queries, categories
and reference features in the Input features drop-down list.
3. Select the Unique Value legend entry Type.
4. From the Thematic classes frame, select the appropriate Attribute for classification
from the drop-down list.

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5. Click Classify to populate the grids.


6. In the Thematic styles frame, click Base style to edit the style on the Select Style
dialog box.
7. Check or uncheck the Assign colors check box; then if checked, select a color
scheme from the drop-down list.
8. For point style, text style, or a compound style that has a point style in it, or a linear
style, check or uncheck the Assign sizes/widths check box; then if checked, ramp
the minimum/maximum size/width values.

Note: You can also perform both of the Assign colors and Assign sizes/widths
operations before clicking Classify.

9. Edit the grid parameters as appropriate.


10. Check or uncheck the Show count as percent check box.
11. Click OK to add the selected thematic legend entries.
An entry is created and added to the top of the legend for each thematic display, and
the active map window reflects the changes.

Setting Defaults for Feature Class Legend Entries


You can set defaults for feature class legend entries through the master legend. The master
legend is any specially-designated named legend, as identified through the Legends
command. The master legend provides support for images, thematic displays, queries, and
secondary geometry fields. Also, any given named legend may serve as the master legend,
with the legend designated as the master changing from time to time. Because the master
legend is explicitly managed by you, no legend entry is ever added to the master legend
automatically by the software. To ensure consistent presentation of a data, you should
create a master legend entry for it.
The master legend serves as a template for map objects on all the legends in a
GeoWorkspace. Through the master legend, you can change the default properties for a
feature class so that it will display with the same properties each time it is added to any
legend in the GeoWorkspace.
When a feature class that already has a master legend entry is added to a legend, it is
displayed with the properties defined in the master legend. The master legend entries
override GeoMedia style files (.gsd). When you add features to the legend, the software
first checks if there is a master legend entry for the feature class or query. If there is no
entry in the master legend, the GeoMedia style file (.gsd) is used. If there is no match in
the GeoMedia style file (.gsd), the legend entry is given a default style.

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Changes to the master legend do not affect existing legend entries, but do affect future
additions to legends. You can use the master legend to change the default legend
properties for a feature class, and still customize individual legends.

Note: When you open a GeoMedia 5.2 GeoWorkspace in 6.0, the existing master legend
is made available in the Legends collection, is given the name Master, and it is designated
as the master legend. This ensures that there is no loss from any previously-defined master
legend.

Customizing the Legend


You can move, resize, and close the legend as you would any standard window. In
addition, you can edit, replace, and append the contents of a named legend; rename and
delete a named legend; and select a named legend as the master legend or unselect the
existing master legend. After customizing a legend, you can save it by giving it a name,
and then you can use it in other map windows within the same GeoWorkspace. When you
create a new map window, the New Map Window dialog box presents a list of all the
named legends in the GeoWorkspace. You can select one of the named legends or an
empty one.

IMPORTANT: If you close a map window without naming the legend, the legend of the
map window is not saved.

In addition to the steps listed below, you can use certain shortcuts to change legend (and
thus map-object) properties.
• To edit the style of a map object, double click the style key on its legend entry.
• To copy a legend entry, drag-and-drop with the CTRL key pressed.
• To change a thematic-display attribute, double click the thematic style key.

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• To edit a title or subtitle of a legend entry, double click the title or subtitle.
• To change the display priority of map objects, drag legend entries up or down the
legend with the cursor.
• To delete a map object, select its legend entry and press DELETE.
See “Using the Legend Right Mouse Menu” later in this chapter for complete right mouse
menu functionality.
If you have created and customized a legend that you want to use in other GeoWorkspaces,
save the GeoWorkspace in which you have customized the legend as a template. Then,
when you create a new GeoWorkspace, select that template and use the customized legend.
The legend right mouse menu Properties commands lets you customize various features of
the legend, such as:
• Legend title, which is visible when the legend is in its undocked position only.
• Font characteristics for the legend entry title and legend entry subtitle.
• Background color.
• Display of legend entry statistics. You can choose any combination of record count,
geometry count, and percentage (for thematic classifications only).
• Key size of each legend entry (small, medium, or large).
• Point and text styles fit to the key. You can choose to have point and graphic text
styles fit to the size of the graphic key, or have the size of the point or graphic text
style dictate the size of the graphic key.

To customize legend entries:


1. From the legend right mouse menu, select Properties.

2. Type a new legend Title.

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3. Set the font characteristics of the Legend entry title and Legend entry subtitle by
clicking the corresponding Font button to display the Font dialog box.
4. Click the Background color button to select the background color of the legend from
the Color dialog box.
5. Select the appropriate Key size option.
6. Set the Fit point and text styles to key check box appropriately.
7. Check the appropriate Statistics check boxes to suit your preference. You specify the
type of statistics for thematic displays on the Add Thematic Legend Entry dialog
box.
8. Click OK or Apply to accept the changes.

To control the appearance/contents of a named legend:


The Properties command lets you manipulate the contents and properties of a named
legend. You can add new legend entries, delete existing legend entries, or change the
properties and style of existing legend entries.
1. Select Legend > Legends.

2. Select the appropriate legend name; then click Properties

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3. Change the legend content as appropriate

To fit the legend:


You fit the legend in one of the following ways:
• From the GeoMedia menu, select Legend > Fit Legend.
• From the Legend right mouse menu, select Fit Legend.

To turn off the display of legend entries:


To gain space on the legend, you can turn off the display of some legend entries without
turning off the display of map objects in the map window. The Show Legend Entries
command from the legend right mouse menu controls whether the legend entry is visible or
hidden on the legend. This dialog box lists all legend entries in a hierarchical display. You
can control the display of each item by toggling the check box on and off. A check
indicates that the entry is visible.

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To name a legend:
1. To name and thus save the legend in the active map window, select Legend > Name
Legend.

2. On the Name Legend dialog box, type a name for the legend.
3. Click OK.

To rename a legend:
1. Select Legend > Legends.
2. Select the appropriate legend name; then click Rename.

3. Type the new name in the Name field; then click OK.
4. Close the Legends dialog box.

To replace a legend:
You can replace the contents of the legend in the active map window with the contents of
another selected named legend.
1. Select Legend > Legends.
2. Select the legend that you want to use as the replacement on the Legends dialog box.
3. Click Replace.
To append a legend:
Append lets you append the contents of the selected named legend(s) to the legend of the
active map window. For each appended legend, a new group is created at the top of the
Groups tab, with the group name being the name of the named legend (with incremented
number appended if needed, to ensure uniqueness). The Display Order legend entries of
the appended legend are added within the new group on the Display Order tab with no
additional hierarchy, and its group legend entries are added within the new group on the
Groups tab. The active map window display is updated to reflect the change in the legend
contents.
1. Select Legend > Legends.
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2. Select the legend that you want to append on the Legends dialog box.
3. Click Append.
To delete a legend:
1. Select Legend > Legends.
2. Select the legend that you want to delete on the Legends dialog box.
3. Click Delete.

Customizing the Legend Toolbar


The default Legend toolbar contains buttons for the most commonly used legend
operations, but you can customize it to suit your preferences.

To customize the Legend toolbar:


1. Select Tools > Customize.
2. On the Toolbars tab of the Customize dialog box, select Legend from the list of
categories.
3. Drag buttons for functions you do not want off the Legend toolbar.
4. Drag buttons for functions you do want from the grouping of available buttons onto the
Legend toolbar.
5. If you want to add the button that turns the legend on and off, select it from the View
category.
6. Close the Customize dialog box.

Using the Legend Right Mouse Menu


You display the legend right mouse (pop-up) menu by clicking the right mouse button with
your cursor on a legend entry. You can select multiple legend entries while holding down
the CTRL or SHIFT key. The status of the legend entry or entries that you select
determines which options are available on the pop-up menu. Some legend entries may be
read-only, in which case you may not be able to perform operations such as Display
On/Off, Locatable On/Off, Style Properties, and so forth.
Option Does this
Display On/Off Turns on/off the display of objects in the map window associated with the
selected legend entries.
Display by Scale Displays map objects associated with selected legend entries according to a
specified scale range.
Display Scale Displays the Scale Range dialog box to set a scale range for map objects.
Range
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Option Does this


Locatable On Toggles locatability of map objects associated with the selected legend
entries. When enabled, Locatable On indicates that all map objects
associated with selected legend entries are locatable.
Locatable Off When enabled, Locatable Off indicates that one or more map objects
associated with selected legend entries have locatability turned off. When
a legend entry has locatability turned off, Locatable Off appears
disabled..
Add Subtitle Adds a subtitle to the selected legend entry.
Hide Hides selected legend entries on the legend without affecting the display of
associated objects in the map window. To display a hidden legend entry,
use the Show Legend Entries dialog box.
Show Legend Opens the Show Legend Entries dialog box to display selected legend
Entries entries.
Load Data Loads data that was previously in an unloaded state for the selected legend
entries.
Style Properties Opens the Style Properties dialog box to edit the style associated with the
selected legend entry.
Style Scaling Sets the scaling mode for the selected legend entries to Paper (adjusts
style size to nominal map scale) or View (adjusts style size to display
scale).
Map Window Specifies the map window tooltip of the selected legend entry to None
ToolTip (removes the tooltip), Name (sets the feature class or query name as the
tooltip), Attributes (sets the tooltip from a selected displayable attribute of
the legend entry), or Expression (opens the Map Window Tooltip dialog
box to edit the tooltip).
Cut, Copy, Delete Perform standard Windows command functions.
Paste Pastes the legend entries from the clipboard Into, Before, or After the
selected legend entry.
New Group (Only available from the Groups tab) Creates a new group legend entry at
the bottom of the legend if no item is selected, or as a sub-legend entry of a
selected legend entry.
Add Opens the Add Legend Entries dialog box to add legend entries into the
legend.
Fit by Legend Fits the contents of the selected legend entries to the map window.
Entry
Legend Entry Opens the Legend Entry Properties dialog box to set the properties of the
Properties selected legend entry.

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Fit Legend Fits the legend to display all entries.


Properties Opens the Legend Properties dialog box to set the properties of the
legend.

Defining Map Window ToolTips


The Map Window ToolTip command on the legend right mouse menu lets you define the
map window tooltip of a selected legend entry. A map window tooltip displays the
information you define for a selected legend entry when you hover the cursor over a
feature in the map window, and as a tooltip in the PickQuick interface.
See “To select a hidden or overlapped feature” in the “Working with Features” chapter
for information about PickQuick.
You define the map window tooltip through the submenu, which provides you with the
following options:
None—Removes the map window tooltip definition, if there is one, of the selected legend
entry so that no tooltip is displayed for the features when the cursor hovers over them. If
no definition exists, None is marked with a dot beside it.

Name—Sets the name of the feature class or query as the map window tooltip. If the
format of the tooltip matches that of the query name, Name is marked with a dot beside it.

Attributes—Opens a submenu of attribute names created from the names of the


displayable attributes associated with the legend entry. Only attributes whose data type is
Text, Memo, number (AutoNumber/Byte/Integer/Long Integer/Single/Double/Currency),
Date, GUID, or Boolean are displayed in the submenu. You select the appropriate attribute
name to be the map window tooltip. If the format of the tooltip matches that of a selected
attribute, when the attributes submenu appears, the attribute found in the tooltip is marked
with a dot beside it to note it is the current tooltip content.

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Expression—Opens the Map Window Tooltip dialog box from which you edit the map
window tooltip. If the tooltip is defined and it is neither the name of the feature class or
query nor the name of any displayable attribute, Expression is marked with a dot beside it.
See “Working with Functional Attributes” in the “Analyzing GeoMedia Professional
Data” chapter.
If no tooltip is defined, the map window displays nothing when you hover the cursor over a
feature, and the PickQuick interface displays only its tooltip.

Deleting Map Objects through the Legend


You remove an object from a map window and from a legend by deleting the associated
legend entry. Deleting the legend entry does not delete the data from the warehouse. To
delete map objects through the legend:
• Select the associated legend entry or entries, using the SHIFT key to select contiguous
entries and the CTRL key to select discontiguous entries or to deselect entries, and
press DELETE or select Delete from the legend right mouse menu.

Creating Additional Map Windows


You can create multiple map windows in a GeoWorkspace to display different views of
your map. Each map window contains its own legend, north arrow, and scale bar.

To create a map window:


1. Select Window > New Map Window.

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2. Type a title for the map window in the Window name field.
3. Select a legend for the map window. The legend can be one that has already been
named (saved) in the GeoWorkspace, if one exists, or an empty legend.
4. Click OK.

Displaying the North Arrow


By default, the north arrow is not displayed. You can toggle the display on and off in the
active map window through View > North Arrow. You can display only one north arrow
in a map window.

You can click and drag the north arrow anywhere within the map window. The size of the
north arrow remains constant regardless of how the scale is changed in the map window. If
the azimuth is defined by the north arrow location, the north arrow is intelligent, that is, it
updates dynamically when you move it or when you zoom or pan through the window. If
the azimuth is user-defined, the north arrow does not update dynamically.
The direction of the north arrow is determined in the following manner:
1. The center of the north arrow window is calculated (the center of the square box
around the north arrow).
2. The position of this center point on the earth is determined.
3. The world coordinates for the center point are given to the Coordinate System
Manager and the azimuth of that point is returned.
4. The arrow is rotated about the center point to match the azimuth.
See the “Inserting North Arrows” section in the “Designing Map Layouts for Printing in
the Layout Window” chapter for information on using north arrows in the layout window.

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To change the appearance of the north arrow:


You can change the symbol used, size, background color, position, and azimuth of the
north arrow. In addition, you can set the north arrow transparency, that is, whether the
north arrow background is transparent when the map window is printed. You can print the
north arrow without a background so that any items behind the north arrow are visible, or
you can print the north arrow so that it masks all the items behind and the background uses
the specified background color. The north arrow always masks when displayed in the map
window. You can also display a compass rose instead of a north arrow. As you make
changes in the symbol, north azimuth, and background color, they are displayed in the
Preview area. This display is always at a fixed size; it does not reflect changes made in the
Size field.
1. With the north arrow displayed in the active map window, select Edit > North Arrow
Properties, or right click the north arrow and select Properties from the pop-up menu.

2. To change the north-arrow symbol, browse to select a different one. The product
delivers .wmf files for north arrows and compass roses in the \GeoMedia\Program
folder, but you can also select another one if you have it.

Note: To see graphics of all the north arrows and compass roses, open the
NorthArrows.pdf file, which is also in the \GeoMedia\Program folder.

3. Select the size from the Size drop-down list, or type the appropriate value. The north
arrow is not defined in ground units; it is printed at the position and size specified in
the map window.

Note: The largest value in the drop-down list is 96, but you can type a larger value in
the Size field. The maximum size allowed is 32767 points.

4. Click the Color button to change the background color.


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Note: If you want the arrow to appear transparent in the map window, select a color
that matches the background of the map window.

5. To make the background of the north arrow transparent during printing, check the
Print transparent check box.

Note: The north arrow appears in a printed copy exactly as it appears in the map
window.

6. Select Azimuth at north arrow location to draw the north arrow according to the
north azimuth of the north arrow location.
OR
7. Select Custom azimuth to define your own azimuth of north, by selecting or , typing
the appropriate degree value.

Note: The azimuth of north is measured clockwise from the vertical: 0 points straight
up, 90 points horizontally to the right, 180 points straight down, and so forth..

8. To save the settings on the North Arrow Properties dialog box as the default settings
for all map windows in the GeoWorkspace, click Save as Default If you do not, only
the properties and location of the north arrow in the active window are saved
9. Click OK.

Displaying the Scale Bar


The scale bar shows intervals in ground units to indicate the distance on a map. You
toggle the display of the scale bar on and off in the active map window through View >
Scale Bar.

The scale bar shows the scale for the window in which it is displayed. You can display
only one scale bar in a map window. You can click and drag the scale bar anywhere within
the map window. The scale that the scale bar uses is the scale of the map window. The
measurement unit of the scale bar is km by default, but you may change that using the Edit
> Scale Bar Properties command.
The scale bar provides great flexibility for changing its appearance through Scale Bar
Properties. You can easily change the scale bar displayed in the active map window by
selecting Edit > Scale Bar Properties or right clicking the scale bar and selecting

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Properties from the pop-up menu, and then setting appropriately the options on the three
tabs of the dialog box. As you make changes, they are displayed in the Preview area.
See the “Inserting Scale Bars” section in the “Designing Map Layouts for Printing in the
Layout Window” chapter for information on using scale bars in the layout window.
The Style tab lets you define the display characteristics of the scale bar including the type,
color, and line widths.

You can choose from the following types of scale bars:


Single Block Double Block Single Block with Centerline

Single Ruler with Ticks Down Single Ruler with Ticks Up Double Ruler

Stepped Ruler

This tab also lets you select the color fill of odd- and even-numbered interval blocks and
the line work in the scale bar. In addition, you set the scale bar height, width, and
centerline. Finally, you can specify whether the scale bar background is transparent when
the map window is printed. You can print the scale bar without a background so that it lets
any items behind the scale bar be seen. Or you can have the scale bar mask all the items
behind it when printed with the background using the specified color. The scale bar
always masks when displayed in the map window.

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The Intervals and Units tab lets you specify information such as the number of intervals,
interval length, and ground units represented by the scale bar. You can also define the text,
position, and font characters of the units label.
If you modify the extents of the map window, the scale bar automatically resizes to
indicate the correct scale bar length. The scale bar length and the number of displayed
intervals may be shortened or lengthened to maintain a length that is approximately one-
fifth the width of the map window. To ensure that information is displayed clearly, the
scale bar holds a minimum length.
You can define the interval properties for the scale bar or have them automatically
calculated based on the size of the map display associated with the scale bar. When you
specify the number of intervals and/or interval length, the scale bar maintains those values
regardless of the effects of resizing or rescaling. If the resulting display is inappropriate,
you can change the scale bar-interval properties.

You can choose from the following unit label positions on the Intervals and Units tab:
Above scale bar Below scale bar

Before interval labels After interval labels

Before and after interval labels Before scale bar

After scale bar Before and after scale bar

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The Labels tab lets you specify the appearance of the scale bar numbers and caption and
where they are displayed.

You can choose from the following fixed interval label locations on the Labels tab:
Every interval Intervals and first subinterval

Intervals and all subintervals Intervals and first midpoint

Scale bar ends and zero

The following example shows displayed interval label ticks:

Note: For scale bars in the map window, the unit for this property is defined by the Line
weight field on the Style Units dialog box accessed through the found on the Style
Definition dialog box of the legend.

See the “Conversion Tables” appendix for converting from the International System of
Units (metric) to the U.S. Customary System, and vice versa.

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Measuring Distances
The Measure Distance tool calculates the linear distance between two or more points.
The measurement interpretation option, the units of measure, and their precision are set on
the Units and Formats tab of the GeoWorkspace Coordinate System dialog box. In
addition, this tool updates the Precision Coordinates control with the coordinate values of
each snapped point found as you move the cursor in the active map window instead of the
coordinate values of the actual cursor position.
After you select the first point, the commands starts measuring the distance between that
point and the cursor location and draws a dynamic line. The distance is displayed on the
Measure Distance dialog box in the Distance field along with the chosen measurement
interpretation (True, Projected, or Paper) and the default unit in the Interpretation
(unit) field. The distance value and dynamic line segment are continuously updated as you
move the cursor.
When you select a second point, the distance between the first and second points is
displayed in the Total field, and the dynamic display between those two points is frozen.
The dynamic display resumes between the second data point and the current cursor
location. Subsequent selected points behave similarly, with the Total field containing the
cumulative distance between the first and last data points entered.
You can display the distances in paper units by clicking the Units and Formats button to
the right of the Interpretation (unit) field to display the Define Coordinate System File
dialog box. You can then use this dialog box to select the appropriate measurement
interpretation, display unit, and display precision. When the Paper (scaled) measurement
interpretation is used, the selections (unit and precision) for the Paper Distance unit type
apply to the display of distances of the Measure Distance command. If the selected
Measurement interpretation is Projected or True, then the Distance unit type applies to
the measurements. Changes to the unit types through the Measure Distance dockable
control do NOT change the units as defined by the View > GeoWorkspace Coordinate
System command.
See "Setting Units and Formats" in the “Working with Coordinate Systems” chapter.
To find the area of a feature, right click a single area feature that you have selected, and
select Select Set Properties from the pop-up menu. The area of the feature is listed on the
General tab.
When using Oracle and measuring areas of features that contain arcs, GeoMedia reads the
three points stored in Oracle to represent the arc and generates a GeoMedia ArcGeometry
object from them. Internally, this object consists of a start point, an end point, a radius, a
normal vector and a greater than PI flag. The GeoMedia ArcGeometry does not keep track
of the original point on the arc that is stored in Oracle (nor does it need to in order to do its
job).

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For feature measurement involving an arc, GeoMedia Professional strokes the


representation of the arc to a polyline using a very fine tolerance, which is calculated by
the measurement software to ensure that the area measurements are correct to within 0.01
sq. m. The points resulting from stroking (perhaps thousands of them) are then used to
calculate the measurement. In GeoMedia Professional arcs are considered circular in the
X-Y plane. Feature length and area measurements within the Select Set Properties
command are always 2-D, so these measurements always use a (stroked) circular arc,
regardless of the Z-values for the start and end points of the arc.

To measure distance:
1. Select Tools > Measure Distance.

2. Optional: Click the Units and Formats button; then change the measurement
interpretation and units to be used to measured on the Units and Formats dialog box.

3. In the map window, click the starting point, and move the mouse to draw a dashed line
to the second point.
The dashed line moves with the mouse, and the Distance fields in the Measure
Distance dialog box is updated dynamically. If the Update coordinates on mouse
move option has been set on the Precision Coordinates control, its coordinate values
are also updated dynamically. The Interpretation (unit) field displays the chosen
measurement interpretation and the corresponding unit.

Note: You can use snaps during measurement to snap to specific locations.

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Working with Map Windows

4. Click the second point, and move the mouse to the third point, click it, and continue in
this fashion until you have the measurement you want. You can press the
BACKSPACE key to delete a previous point measurement, and right click to reset and
start over.
Now the Distance field shows the distance from the last point as you move the mouse,
and the Total field shows the cumulative distance between all points clicked (it does
not update dynamically as the mouse moves).
5. Press the right mouse button to clear the measure.
6. Leave the Measure Distance dialog box displayed while you work on other tasks, or
dismiss it by clicking the X on the title bar.
See the “Conversion Tables” appendix for converting from the International System of
Units (metric) to the U.S. Customary System, and vice versa.

Measuring Angles
The Measure Angle tool calculates the angle between any two selected linear or area
geometry segments (default Segment Mode, or between any two imaginary line segments
designated by four points placed in the map window (Four Point Mode). You can choose
either mode from the right mouse menu, which also contains the Copy To Clipboard and
Exit options. Measurements are displayed directly in the map window in the default unit
and format designated for the GeoWorkspace. Once the measurement has been calculated,
you can copy the angle value, in text format, to the clipboard through the Copy to
Clipboard on the right mouse menu or the <Ctrl>+C accelerator key. This command is
available for features from both read-write and read-only connections. The command also
identifies both parallel and collinear lines.
Measuring an angle with the Segment Mode requires you to define two line segment
portions (of a linear or area feature) as input. If the identified lines do not intersect, an
intersection point is computed to serve as the vertex of the measured angle. The selected
line segments are extended as required to show point intersection. As you move the
mouse, the measured angle value is displayed as a dynamic text at the midpoint of a
dynamic arc showing the angle value.

The command responds to the mouse move and calculates the appropriate angle
measurements. As you hover the mouse beyond the calculated intersection point, the
selected line segment portions are extended appropriately, and the corresponding
supplementary/vertical angle measurement is shown in the dynamics, as shown in the

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Working with GeoMedia

following figures. Nothing is displayed when you place the mouse on the intersection
point of the two line segments.

Measuring an angle with the Four Point Mode requires you to define the starting point
and the end point of two line segments between which the angle is to be determined. These
two pairs of points can be points on existing features or points selected by clicking
anywhere in the map window. You can select the points within a pair in any order. The
line segments created by joining these two pairs of points are then extended to intersect at a
vertex point.
The angle between the two lines is shown dynamically. As you move the mouse, the
measured angle value is displayed as a dynamic text at the midpoint of a dynamic arc
showing the angle value. The command responds to mouse moves and calculates the
appropriate angle measurements. As you hover the mouse beyond the calculated
intersection point, the selected line segment portions are extended appropriately, and the
corresponding supplementary/vertical angle measurement is shown in the dynamics.

If the intersection point is off the map window, the command attempts to show the
dynamics (that is, angle value and arc). The command honors the auto pan option so that
by placing the mouse on the boundary of the active map window, you can adjust the map
window extent to see the dynamics and calculated intersection point.
The following figure shows angle measurement when a line segment portion of an area
feature and a linear feature are selected.

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Working with Map Windows

Taking a Snapshot of the Map Window


You can copy an image of the active map window to the Clipboard by selecting the
Snapshot tool from the GeoMedia Edit menu or from the map-window pop-up menu. Use
the Paste tool to paste it into any application that supports Object Linking and Embedding
(OLE), such as Word, MSPaint, or an HTML Web page.

Displaying CAD Files


Display CAD Files lets you quickly and easily display MicroStation V7/IGDS and
MicroStation V8 design files and AutoCAD drawing (.dwg/.dxf) files data in a map
window based solely on levels/layers. This command provides an alternative to using the
delivered Define CAD Server Schema File utility to specify the parameters the software
uses when creating connections with the CAD server. Thus, you do not need to have a
complete understanding of the CAD data or knowledge of the project, for example, how
the features are defined in the project and whether the graphics in the project have
attributes. This is useful for quick viewing or backdrop data. To make this command
easier to use, its dialog box separates functions on two tabs, General and Advanced.
This command automatically builds the CAD server schema (.csd) file based on the
levels/layers you select, makes a connection to that .csd file, and then it displays the data in
the active map window according to the display options set on the Advanced tab.
Depending on the display options set, there is one legend entry (feature class) displayed
per selected level/layer or a single legend entry (feature class) displaying data of all the
selected levels (if you want to see the entire map without style differentiation between
levels/layers). You may also choose to display empty levels/layers (by default empty
levels/layers are not displayed).

Note: You can change the selection of attributes exposed for all feature classes by editing
the .csd file created by this command.

If the GeoWorkspace options are set to match the GeoWorkspace and the default
warehouse coordinate systems when you first make a connection, and if there are no
connections in the GeoWorkspace, and if you have specified a coordinate system file - then

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Working with GeoMedia

the GeoWorkspace coordinate system is changed to match the coordinate system you
specified.

To display CAD files:


1. Select Tools > Display CAD Files.

5. On the General tab, select the CAD type from the drop-down list.
6. In the Folder field, type the complete path of the folder containing the CAD files, or
use Browse to locate the folder.
7. From the Available files list, select one or more files you want to display.
8. Optional: Type the appropriate Files of type, or select it from the drop-down list - if
you need to see/select a specific type of files in the Available files list.
9. Optional: In the Coordinate system file field, type the complete path of the file to be
used for all selected design files, or use Browse to select the file.
10. Optional: On the Advanced tab, change the default in the CAD server schema file
field by typing the complete path of the CAD server schema output file or by using
Browse to specify the file.
11. Optional: In the Connection name field, change the default connection name.
12. Accept the default Display all levels/layers display option, or select Levels/Layers to
display and select the appropriate levels/layers in the Levels/Layers list.
13. Accept the default Create a single legend entry for all selected levels/layers legend
option, or select Create a separate legend entry for each selected level/layer.
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Working with Map Windows

14. Optional: Check/uncheck the default checked Do not create legend entries for
empty levels/layers check box to specify whether or not to create legend entries for
empty (no data/statistics) levels/layers.
15. Click OK.
The software creates a new CAD server schema file, a CAD server connection with
that file, and feature classes based on the options set on the Advanced tab; and then
(depending on your selection) displays the features on the specified levels/layers in the
active map window based on the options set on the Advanced tab.
See “Connecting to a CAD Warehouse” in the “Working with Warehouses” chapter and
the Define CAD Server Schema File utility’s online Help.

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Working with Data Windows
Each data window contains the nongraphic attributes of a single feature class or query.
This equates to a feature table, with each column representing an attribute and each row
representing an instance—a feature—of the feature class. The data in each cell is called a
value or attribute value. Data windows display area, linear, point, image, compound,
graphics text, and nongraphic feature classes, but do not display geometry or spatial index
key attributes.
In a read-write warehouse, you can review and edit the features and values in a data
window, and any changes you make will be reflected in the map window. So, if you delete
a row in a data window, the corresponding feature is also deleted from the map.
You can use the layout window command Insert Data Table to display selected portions
of a data window in the layout window in a customized style.
See “Inserting a Data Table” in the “Designing Map Layouts for Printing in the Layout
Window” chapter.
The data window displays descriptions for attributes with PickLists defined. For editing
such an attribute, a drop-down list box is displayed in the cell. This list contains all the
available descriptions for the attribute values as well as a blank entry (available only if the
attribute is not required). You can insert a value of NULL for this attribute by selecting the
blank value. You can edit an attribute only by selecting a description from the list.

Opening a New Data Window


To open a new data window, you must be connected to a warehouse. Once you open a
warehouse connection, you can select a feature class or query result whose content to

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Working with GeoMedia

display in a data window. The feature class or query can be from either a category,
reference features, connections, or queries.

To open a data window:


1. Select Window > New Data Window.

2. Type a title for the data window in the Window name field.
3. Click the plus sign next to the warehouse or query folder that contains the feature class
you want to display in the data window.
If you select a query that has not been run, the software runs the query and displays the
results in the data window. If you select a query that has been run, the existing results
are displayed in the data window.
4. Click OK.

The Data menu replaces the Legend menu.

7-2
Working with Data Windows

Controlling the Data Window


To the left of a data-window title or in the upper-left corner of a maximized data window is
the data-window icon.

Clicking this icon displays a menu that allows you to control the data window. Depending
on the current state of the data window, this menu lets you do the following:
• Restore a minimized window.
• Move, restore, minimize, or maximize the window.
• Close the data window.
• Activate the next data or map window in the stack.
In addition, the GeoMedia Window menu contains tools for cascading or tiling windows
and for activating a different window. The bottom of this menu lists all the open windows
in the GeoWorkspace. A checkmark appears next to the title of the active window.

To change the title of a data window:


1. Select Window > Data Window Properties.

2. On the Data Window Properties dialog box, type a new title in the Data window
name field.
3. Click OK.

Using the Mouse in a Data Window

Note: If your mouse has been reconfigured so that the button functions are reversed, you
must reverse left and right mouse-button instructions in all the product’s documents.

In a data window, you use the left mouse button to do the following:
• Activate the window.
• Place the cursor.
• Create a select set.
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Working with GeoMedia

• Select a table, row, column, or cell.


You use the right mouse button to open the data-window pop-up menu. This menu
contains tools commonly used in the data window.

Using an IntelliMouse
If you have a Microsoft IntelliMouse, you can use it to manipulate the display in your data
windows faster and more efficiently. Rolling the IntelliMouse wheel forward scrolls up at
the cursor location. Rolling the IntelliMouse wheel backward scrolls down at the cursor
location.

Using the Data View Tools


To adjust the display in a data window, you use the data view tools, which you access on
the Data menu, from the Data toolbar, or from the data-window pop-up menu. These
tools are available only when a data window is active. Before you use some of these
viewing tools, you generally have to select the entire table, one or more rows, one or more
columns, or one or more cells.
• To select the entire table, click the table button in the upper-left corner of the data
window, or select Edit > Select All Rows.

• To select cell contents, click the cell.


• To select a row, click the row selector. To select adjacent cells in a row, click and drag
the mouse cursor across the cells.
• To select a column, click the column header. To select adjacent cells in a column,
click and drag the mouse up or down.
You can use the SHIFT and CTRL keys to add and remove rows or columns to or from a
select set, but you cannot select a column and then add a row, or select a row and then add
a cell from another row.
You can use Data > Change Contents to replace the feature class or query shown in the
active data window. The feature class or query can be from either a category, reference
features, connections, or queries.

To show columns in the table:


1. Select Data > Show Columns.

7-4
Working with Data Windows

2. On the Show Columns dialog box, toggle the display of individual columns
(attributes) on or off. A check beside a column name means that the column is shown
in the data window. Removing the check hides the column, but does not delete it.
3. Click OK.

To hide columns in the table:


You can hide columns in one of two ways. One way is to toggle it off on the Show
Columns dialog box. Here is another:
1. Select the column you want to hide by clicking its header cell. You can select multiple
contiguous cells by dragging the cursor across the column headers. You select
discontiguous columns by pressing the CTRL key while clicking the column headers.
2. Select Data > Hide Columns. This tool is only available when at least one column is
selected. You can hide all but one column.

To promote rows in the table:


1. Click the row selector(s) of the rows you want to promote to the top of the table.
2. Select Data > Promote Columns.
When multiple rows are promoted, they are displayed at the top, but they retain their
original order in the table.

To sort rows in the table:


1. Click the header of the column by which you want the rows sorted.
2. To sort rows in ascending order, select Data > Sort Ascending.
3. To sort rows in descending order, select Data > Sort Descending.

To display column statistics:


1. Click the header of the column for which you want statistics. The attribute must be
numeric.

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Working with GeoMedia

2. Select Data > Column Statistics.

To change the contents of the active data window:


1. Select Data > Change Contents.

2. On the Change Data Window Contents dialog box, select another feature class or
query from either a category or reference features or connections or queries.
3. Click OK to update the active data window.

Editing Cells in the Data Window


When you edit a cell or field in the data window, you are changing the value of an attribute
of the affected feature. The software uses standard Windows editing tools and the
Clipboard to allow you to cut, copy, and paste text in the data window. These actions do
not affect hidden cells or cells containing hypertext. You can also use the Clipboard to
copy features in the data window, but associated graphics are not copied.
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Working with Data Windows

Edit > Cut deletes selected cell values. You cannot cut cells containing the
primary key or other required values.
Edit > Copy copies selected multiple cells, columns, and rows to the
Clipboard as text. For example, you can copy a data view into an Excel
spreadsheet. You can select cells directly as a range of one or more cells or
indirectly by selecting rows or columns, which you can select in various ways
including their buttons on the data window, the Select Tool in the map
window, Select by Legend Entry, and so forth. This command is enabled
when you select one or several cells, rows, or columns in the data window.
Both the Cut and Copy commands let you copy data window column headers
to the clipboard. You set this option through the Copy data window column
headers to clipboard check box on the General tab of the Options dialog
box (Tools > Options). The default (unchecked) is to not copy the headers.
If you are cutting or copying a single cell, the copy header setting is ignored
and the headers are not included. Also, if you have copied data to the
clipboard with column headers, the headers are removed before you paste the
cell data back into the data window.
Edit > Paste copies data from the Clipboard to the selected cell(s). When you
select a single cell, the data on the Clipboard is pasted to the right and down
from the selected cell, replacing the selected cell. When you select a
contiguous block of cells, the data on the Clipboard replaces each selected cell
with the corresponding entry on the Clipboard.
Paste will not work in the following circumstances:
• If the shape you want to paste does not match exactly the shape of the selected cell(s),
except when pasting to one cell.
• If pasting to the right and down would exceed the number of columns in the data
window.
• If pasting would create null values for required cells.
• If the primary key column is not displayed.
• If pasting would require an invalid data conversion, such as trying to paste a text string
containing letters into a numeric field.
• If pasting would require duplicate values for the primary key field or any other fields
requiring unique values.
• In pasting into the last row, the software tries to paste all cells from the Clipboard. If
you have selected multiple cells in the last row, the shapes must match exactly. If you
have selected a single cell, cells are pasted to the right of the selected cell, but not
down. If the paste would populate required fields and create a unique primary key, the
paste creates new features in the database corresponding to each row from the

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Working with GeoMedia

Clipboard. Pasting does not occur if the paste would not populate the required fields,
or if the paste would create duplicate primary keys.
You can use Edit > Undo to undo changes made as in standard Microsoft
Office products. You cannot use Undo following a cut or paste operation.

Taking a Snapshot of the Data Window


You can copy an image of the active data window to the Clipboard by selecting the
Snapshot tool from the GeoMedia Edit menu or from the data-window pop-up menu.
Hidden columns and cells containing hypertext are not copied.

You can paste the snapshot into any application that supports OLE, such as Word,
MSPaint, or an HTML Web page.

7-8
Working with Features
A feature is represented in a map window by geometry and is further defined by
nongraphic attributes in the database. The values of these nongraphic attributes can be
viewed as cells in the data window view on the non-spatial data of the feature. For
example, a parcel of land—Parcel 126-A—is represented graphically in the map window
by area geometry.
The area geometry attributes for Parcel 126-A are part of a single row in the Parcels table.
The Parcels table contains information about all the members of the Parcels feature class.
Parcel 126-A is one of 15 members of this feature class. The Parcels table, therefore,
contains 15 rows, one for each parcel.
Among the nongraphic attributes of Parcel 126-A are its identification number (126A), the
name of its owner (P. Brown), and its assessed value ($10,000). Each of these attributes is
a column in the Parcels table. So, the Parcels table has at least the following three
columns: ID, OWNER, and ASSESSED_VALUE.
126A, P. Brown, and $10,000 are values (or cells) in the ID, OWNER, and
ASSESSED_VALUE columns of the row containing the geometry for the Parcel 126-A
geometry.
In a read-write warehouse, you can create a new feature class, delete a feature class, and
edit a feature class definition. You can edit a feature class in the following ways:
• By adding attributes (columns)
• By removing attributes
• By changing attributes
In a read-write warehouse, you can also manage feature data in the following ways:
• By changing attribute values (cells)
• By adding or deleting features (rows)

IMPORTANT: Changes to data in a read-write warehouse are automatically saved as


soon as you make them.

Understanding Geometry Types


Geometry refers to the graphic representation of a feature in the map window. Features are
represented by the following geometry types:

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Working with GeoMedia

A point feature is represented by one or more points on a map that represent the
location of a feature. A point can also represent features that cannot be mapped at
the defined map scale. Points can have an orientation, that is, they can be rotated.
Elevation control points, oil wells, and manholes are all examples of point
features.
A linear feature is represented by one or more lines and/or arcs. What appears on
the map to be a single line may actually be line segments strung together to form a
single feature. Rivers, railroad tracks, utility lines, and roads are examples of
linear features.
An area feature is represented by closed boundaries. Each boundary may or may
not contain one or more holes, and the boundaries and holes themselves may be
composed of one or more lines and/or arcs. Counties and land parcels are
examples of area features.
A compound feature may have point, linear, and/or area geometry within the
feature class or even within a single feature.
A text feature is represented by text that appears at a point location on a map.
You can place text in an existing text feature class or create a new one to contain
it. Text can have an orientation, that is, it can be rotated.
An image feature is a raster image.
Features can be contiguous or discontiguous. A contiguous feature has a single geometry.
In a map data set, for example, California is a single contiguous feature that consists of one
geometry. A discontiguous feature consists of multiple geometries. For example, Hawaii
is a single discontiguous feature that consists of several islands, each island being a
separate geometry.

Note: When a discontiguous area is placed so that it completely encloses a second


discontiguous area, then the second discontiguous area becomes a hole inside the area
being placed. When the hole completely encloses a third discontiguous area, the third
discontiguous area becomes an island.

You can create a hole in an area geometry by adding a second area geometry that falls
entirely inside the boundary of the first area geometry. You can create an island inside the
hole by adding a third area geometry that falls entirely inside the boundary of the second
area geometry.

Working with Feature Classes


In GeoMedia, you can create a feature class from an active map window or data window,
and only in an open read-write Access warehouse. When you add a feature to a feature
class, you have the option of placing geometry. A feature does not need geometry to exist,
although most features do have geometry.

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Working with Features

The software allows you to create feature classes in various ways:


• From scratch
• By copying some of the information from an existing feature class into a new feature
class in the same warehouse
• By importing data
• By outputting to feature classes
• By attaching an external data source

Coordinate Systems
When creating a feature class through the Feature Class Definition command, you select a
coordinate system to be assigned to the primary geometry field of the feature class from the
list of available warehouse coordinate systems. Upon starting this command, a coordinate
system is pre-selected on the General tab of New/Edit/Copy – <FeatureClass> dialog
box. For a new feature class, this is the inherent default coordinate system. For an existing
feature class being edited or reviewed, this is the coordinate system assigned to the primary
geometry field.

The available warehouse coordinate systems are listed alphabetically with an icon for each
to indicate its validity and default status, as follows:
Non-default coordinate system.
Default coordinate system, with Default appended to its name. If
the coordinate system name is blank, it is listed with <Unnamed #>,
where # is a number to make the name unique within the list. If the
coordinate system has a non-unique name within the list, the name is
appended with #, a number to make it unique within the list.
Temporary coordinate system. When a new coordinate system
definition is defined, it is added to the list and assigned this icon as
this coordinate system has not yet been written to the warehouse.
Invalid coordinate system. In cases where the coordinate system
environment is faulty such as the following:
• Client side coordinate system metadata table does not exist or
there is no reference to it in the server side table.
• The metadata table is properly set up (that is, it exists and is
referenced), but it is empty.
• The metadata table is populated but does not contain the
coordinate system referenced by the primary geometry field of
the feature class.
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Working with GeoMedia

Clicking Save As Default on this tab lets you set the selected coordinate system to be the
default for the read-write warehouse and assign it to the feature class. Only one coordinate
system can be set as the default.
Clicking Properties on this tab lets you review the selected coordinate system definition
on the Coordinate System dialog box. If the coordinate system has not yet been written to
the warehouse, you can edit its definition. You can then save all of the changes to the new
coordinate system definition and assign the modified coordinate system to the primary
geometry field of the feature class. If the coordinate system was identified as the default
warehouse coordinate system, this information is also written to the warehouse.
Clicking New on this tab lets you define a new coordinate system on the Coordinate
System dialog box and assign it to the feature class. When a coordinate system in the
warehouse is modified, the new coordinate system definition is added to the list and is
assigned the temporary coordinate system bitmap as this coordinate system has not yet
been written to the warehouse. Once added, the new coordinate system can be edited
and/or set as default in the warehouse.

Key Attributes
Each feature class created from scratch or by copying must contain a key attribute and a
primary, unique index value on that key. You can define multiple key fields (up to ten) for
a feature class on the Attributes tab of the New/Edit/Copy – <FeatureClass> dialog box.
Note that there can only be one attribute with data type autonumber. You set the key
definition for the current or selected attribute row by clicking the Set Primary Key button
on this tab. This button appears when you select an attribute row. When the selected
attribute is already a part of the primary key, the button name changes to Unset Primary
Key.
Ordering of the attributes in defining the primary compound key is determined by the order
in which they are defined. As you define new keys, they are added at the next available
index. When a key is undefined, that key is removed, and all key indices below it are
adjusted accordingly. The Key column on this tab indicates the key priority ordering by
including the index number (1 to 10).
You cannot modify the key index order directly. However, by undefining and redefining
keys, you can move them to a different index position. For example, to move the key at
index 1 to index 2 when there are 2 keys defined, you have to undefine and redefine key 1.
When you undefine it, key 2 moves up to the first position. When you redefine it, it is
added at index 2.

8-4
Working with Features

Note: It is possible to hide the primary key column(s) from Feature Class Definition by
setting their Displayable flag to No in GeoMedia’s metadata tables. Feature Class
Definition will disable the Set Primary Key button if it determines there are hidden
primary key fields. If the primary key fields are not hidden, the Set Primary Key button is
enabled for Edit mode.

The ODBC Tabular Data Server allows you to create a connection to any nongraphic table
in an ODBC-compliant data source. Thus, you can access additional data stores containing
tabular-only data, such as coordinate locations, addresses, and additional attribute
information. In addition, you can attach one or more tabular-only feature classes from the
following external data sources with the Feature Definition command: a text file, an
Excel worksheet, or an Xbase database. You can, however, only attach an external data
source to a read-write Access warehouse connection.
You can view and handle the resulting table(s) in the target read-write connection similarly
to other tables except that the feature class is read-only. For example, you can edit the
name, description, and data source name of the attached table and copy an attached table.
When you copy an attached table, the software creates a local table without data. This
new, empty table then serves as a template into which you can add data.
The software also allows you to easily to review the general and attribute feature class
properties or an attached table definition, to delete a feature class, and to detach an attached
table.
You should use the Feature Class Definition command to add or to modify features in an
Access warehouse. Using Microsoft Access to modify features in a GeoMedia Access
warehouse can result in the improper operation of the feature class or corruption of the
warehouse.
You should never delete or modify the following tables with Microsoft Access:
• GcoordSystemTable • INGRFeatures
• Gmodifications • INGRGeometryProperties
• GmodifiedTables • INGRAttributeProperties
• INGRSQLOperatorsTable • INGRFieldLookup
8-5
Working with GeoMedia

The words in the following list are the keywords in SQL Parser. They are considered
GeoMedia Keywords. As such, they cannot be used in table or column names or anywhere
else in a given warehouse. They can only be used as part of SQL queries.
ABS ALL AND ANY ASC
AVG BETWEEN BY COMMIT COUNT
DATE DELETE DESC DISTINCT EXISTS
FLOAT FROM GROUP HAVING ININSERT
INTO IS LIKE MAX MIN
NOT NULL ON OR ORDER
ROLLBACK SELECT SET SOME SUM
TIME TIMESTAMP UNION UPDATE VALUES
WHERE WITH TO_DATE TO_CHAR TO_NUMBER
See the “Working with Feature Classes” topic in GeoMedia Help, and the “Defining
Attribute-Filter Queries” section in the “Analyzing GeoMedia Data” chapter.

To create a feature class from scratch:


1. Select Warehouse > Feature Class Definition.

Note: This dialog box is resizable for better viewing of long query names.

2. Select the connection to the read-write warehouse where you want to store the new
feature class; then click New.

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Working with Features

3. On the General tab of the New - <FeatureClass> dialog box, type a name for the
feature class. The feature class name must be unique within a warehouse.

Note: When creating or editing attribute names, the Name column fields may
seem to become un-editable. If this occurs, toggle the Hypertext check box on
the Attributes tab on then off to edit the field.

4. Optional: Type a brief description of the feature class.

Note: The Description field has a maximum length of 255 characters. If you type
more, only the maximum number of characters is assigned to the Text property, and
the extra characters are truncated. Furthermore, in double-byte character set (DBCS)
systems like Chinese, each character can take up to two bytes instead of only one,
which further limits the number of characters you can type in this field.

5. From the Geometry type drop-down list, select a geometry type. To create a feature
class for labels or for inserting text, select a geometry type of Text.
6. For a feature class other than a nongraphic type (None):
To change the default coordinate system, select a coordinate system from the
Coordinate system drop-down list; then click Set As Default.
OR
To change the coordinate system, select a different coordinate system from the
Coordinate system drop-down list.
OR

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Working with GeoMedia

To review and/or edit the coordinate system properties, click Properties; then make
the appropriate changes on the Coordinate Systems Properties dialog box.
See the “General Tab (Coordinate System Properties)” topic in GeoMedia Help for
information on using this dialog box.

OR
To define a new coordinate system and assign it to the feature class, click New; then
define the coordinate system on the Coordinate Systems Properties dialog box
7. Click the Attributes tab on the New - <FeatureClass> dialog box, which contains a
grid with a row for each attribute definition.

8. To define a unique primary key for the feature class, click in a cell in the Key column
or select the row; then click on the Set Primary Key button or press the space bar.
You can define multiple rows as key columns as described earlier in this section.
9. In the Name column, type attribute names. Each of these must be unique for the
feature class.

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Working with Features

10. Click the cell in Type for each row to display the drop-down list of available data
types.

11. Select a data type, and define its parameters at the bottom of the Attributes tab,
which varies with the data type selected. The AutoNumber data type has no
parameters for you to define.
12. Optional: You can assign default values for attributes as long as the value is not a
function. Functional defaults are not supported in Feature Class Definition.
13. Optional: Type a brief description of the attribute in the Description cell of each
attribute.
14. Click OK.
15. Note the new feature class on the Feature Class Definition dialog box, and close the
dialog box.

To add, change, and delete attributes:

Note: You can change the geometry type of a feature class only if the feature class is
empty.

1. Select Warehouse > Feature Class Definition.


2. On the Feature Class Definition dialog box, select the connection to the warehouse
that contains the feature class you want to edit.
2. Select the feature class, and click Edit.
3. On the Edit - <FeatureClass> dialog box, click the Attribute tab.
4. To add an attribute, enter the attribute name, data type, and description in the bottom
row, and set a primary key.
5. To change an attribute, click the cell you want to change, and make the changes.
6. To delete an attribute, select the attribute row, and press DELETE.
7. Click OK to update the feature class.
8. Close the Feature Class Definition dialog box.
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Working with GeoMedia

Note: Editing an existing Oracle feature class definition is an Oracle administrative task
and is, therefore, not allowed in the GeoMedia Feature Class Definition tool.

Outputting Feature Data to Warehouses


You can output feature data in any GeoMedia-supported format to a warehouse with the
Output to Feature Classes command. You must have at least one read-write open
connection to use this command.
Output to Feature Classes lets you perform the following:
• Output single and multiple feature classes, queries, categories, and reference features
• Output selected fields from a feature class, query, category, and reference feature
• Control output, key, and autonumber modes
• Review the coordinate system of the primary geometry of the source and target feature
classes
• Set the user-defined coordinate system for geometry of the new target feature classes
In addition, this command lets you create feature classes from existing feature classes or
queries. You should bear in mind that features are static and are stored in the database; in
contrast, queries are dynamic and are not stored in the database.
Output to Feature Classes lets you output a feature class from a connection back into
itself provided the target table name does not conflict with existing table names. However,
the command does not allow append, force append, update, or append-and-update
operations back into the same feature class.

Using the General Tab


To perform an output operation, you use the General and Advanced tabs of the Output to
Feature Classes dialog box. On the General tab, you first select the source feature data
warehouse—that is, the warehouse that contains the data you want to output. You can
select any mixture of feature classes, queries, categories, and reference features, across any
number of connections. If the source warehouse has a spatial filter applied, only those
features allowed by the filter can be output. You select the source from list of all open
connections (read-write and read-only) or the set of available queries, with a single
additional item Queries. Your selection populates the default values for the selected items
in the feature classes list on the Advanced tab.
You next select the target read-write connection, the name of the target warehouse—that
is, the warehouse into which the data is to be output. You can select this from a list of all
open read-write connections.

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Working with Features

Using the Advanced Tab


The Advanced tab contains parameters in the Output settings grid as described in this
section. Rows are automatically added to this grid as features are selected in the feature
treeview on the General tab, and the rows are populated in the order: categories, queries,
reference features, and connections.

The read-only Source column is populated with the folder/path of the features selected in
the treeview. The read-only Features to Output is populated with the names of the
features selected in the treeview.
The Target Feature Class column lets you select a target feature class name. Each cell in
this column has a drop-down list to populate feature class names from the target
connection. You can select a feature class from the list, edit an exiting feature class name,
or type a new feature class name. The default name is the same name given for the source
features. If you choose a new target feature class name, new values are generated as
needed for all subsequent columns in the grid. In the case of a query, any embedded
spaces are replaced with an underscore (_).
You can output more than one source feature class to the same target feature class, even if
the target feature class does not exist. One feature class is processed with output mode set
to New, while all others are processed with output mode set to Append. If there are two or
more features with the same name and, if a feature class with that name does not exist in
the target connection, the output mode for the first selected feature class would be New.
The target feature class for the rest of the features is same as the first selected feature class
with Append as the output mode. If the output of the first selected feature class with the
output mode as New fails, all subsequent output operations to the same feature class with
Append as the output mode also fail. If there are two or more features in the column with
the same name and, if a feature class with that name exists in the target connection, the
output mode of all such features is Append.
If the target feature class name you supply or the default value does not conflict with a
name already in the target connection, the command populates the default values in
subsequent columns as is the following table. If multiple features are being output to the

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Working with GeoMedia

same target feature class that does not exist in the target warehouse, the command
populates the default values for the first selected feature class as follows.
Column Name Default value
Output Mode New
Key Mode Preserve Key if the source has a displayable primary key, otherwise New
Key
AutoNumber Preserve Definition and Values (PD&V) if the target warehouse
Mode supports this capability, for example, OOM.
Preserve Values if target warehouse does not support PD&V, and the key
mode is New Key.
Preserve Definition if target warehouse does not support PD&V, and the
key mode is Preserve Key.
Target Coord For vector geometry, the default coordinate system of the target
System warehouse is populated.
For raster geometry, the source coordinate system is populated.
For nongraphic feature classes, this cell is empty.
For no default coordinate system in the target warehouse, the fall-back
logic (using MetadataService) is used to get the first coordinate system
from the GcoordSystem table.
For an empty target warehouse, the source coordinate system is assigned
to the target feature class. This similar to the raster case mentioned.
For an invalid or missing source coordinate system, no coordinate system
is populated.
If the target feature class name you supply or the default value conflicts with a name
already in the target connection, the command populates the default values in subsequent
columns as in the following table. If multiple features are being output to the same target
feature class that does not exist in the target warehouse, the command populates the default
values for all the features other than the first selected feature as follows.
Column Name Default value
Output Mode Append
Key Mode N/A (blank)
AutoNumber N/A (blank)
Target Coord Primary geometry's coordinate system of the target feature class of the
System target warehouse, if the target feature class exists in target warehouse. If
not, this is same as the target coordinate system of the first such target
feature class that has its output mode as New. For non-geometry feature
classes, this cell is blank.
The Output Mode column lets you set one output mode for a selected item, based on the
existence of the target feature class in the target warehouse: New, Append, Force
Append, Append and Update, and Update. The default is Append if the target feature
class exists, New if not. These modes are available on the right mouse menu after selecting
this column.

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Working with Features

• New—New data.
• Append (default)—Appends new records by doing a primary key comparison. New
key values are added; existing key values are skipped.
• Force Append—Appends all records and re-sequences the primary key.
• Append and Update—Appends new records and updates existing records based on
primary key value.
• Update—Only updates existing records by comparing primary key values.
The Key Mode column lets you set one of the following key modes (only if the target
feature class does not exist in the target warehouse, that is, if the output mode is New).
• New Key—Creates a new primary key column.
• Preserve Key—Uses existing key column.
The default is New Key in the case of source data that has no key field(s) or hidden key
field(s), and Preserve Key in all other cases. These modes are available on the right
mouse menu after you select this column.
The AutoNumber column lets you set one of the following autonumber modes (only if the
target feature class does not exist in the target warehouse, that is, if the output mode is
New):
• Preserve Definition—Preserves the primary key column definition but not the data.
• Preserve Values— Preserves the existing data in the primary key column.
• Preserve Definition and Value (default)— Preserves key definition and data values.
These modes are available on the right mouse menu after you select this column.
The read-only Target Coord System column is populated with the coordinate system
name of the primary geometry field of the selected target feature class. If the name of the
coordinate system is blank, a temporary name is supplied. This cell is blank if the selected
target feature class is a nongraphic type or it has no coordinate system. If the selected
target feature class is a new feature class, the default coordinate system of the target
connection is populated for a vector type; otherwise, for a raster type the coordinate system
of the source feature class is populated by default.
Below the Output settings grid, you have the following additional options:
• Select Source Attributes—Opens the Attributes of <feature name> dialog box that
lets you select a subset of fields. You can use this option if only one record is selected
in the grid.
• Target Coordinate System—Opens a dialog box of the same name that lets you
perform the following:

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Working with GeoMedia

− Review a coordinate system of a source feature class as well as the target


warehouse coordinate systems.
− Set a coordinate system for one or more new target feature classes at a time.
− Assign a new coordinate system to one or more new target feature classes at a
time.
− Set the source coordinate systems to the target feature classes for multiple selected
rows at a time, which are being output in New output mode.
You can use this option only if at least one record is selected in the grid.
• Display target feature classes in map window—Lets you display (the default) the
selected target feature classes in the active map window and add a new legend entry for
each selected feature class.
While processing, the application status bar displays the output feature class/query,
target feature class, progress, and number of features output.

Running Output To Feature Classes creates the log file gmotts.log in your \Warehouses
folder, if the file does not already exist, and appends log information to the contents of an
existing log file. The command always deletes the existing log file and creates a new one
for each run of the command.

To perform an output operation:


1. Select Warehouse > Output to Feature Classes.

2. On the General tab, select the appropriate items from the Source features to output
treeview.

8-14
Working with Features

Note: When you hover the mouse cursor over an entry in the treeview, a tooltip is
displayed indicating the geometry type.

3. Select the appropriate target connection from the Target connection drop-down list.
4. Select the Advanced tab; then for a selected source feature, select the appropriate
name from the corresponding Target Feature Class cell drop-down list, edit an
existing name, or type a new name.

5. If appropriate, change the Output Mode, Key Mode, and AutoNumber values.

Note: You can select these modes from the right mouse menu after you select a
column cell. You can also set a mode to all rows in bulk.

6. Optional: Click Select Source Attributes to select a subset of fields if only one record
is selected in the grid.

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Working with GeoMedia

See the GeoMedia Help for information on using this dialog box.
7. Optional: Click Target Coordinate System to review, define, or assign a coordinate
system. Continue with Steps 8 through 9.

See the “Target Coord System” and the “Select Coordinate System” topics in the
GeoMedia Help for information on using these dialog boxes.
8. Select the appropriate name from the Coordinate systems list.
9. Click New to define a new coordinate system on the Define Coordinate System File
dialog box.
OR
Click Review to review the selected coordinate system.
OR
Click Assign to assign the selected coordinate system to the selected target feature
class(es) being output in New mode.

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Working with Features

10. Optional: Check the Display target feature classes in map window check box to add
a new legend entry to the active map window for each selected feature class.
11. Click Apply.
The dialog box is dismissed, and a confirmation message box is displayed with the
following information:
The output process will result in:
<n> feature classes – New mode
<n> feature classes – Append mode
<n> feature classes – Force Append mode
<n> feature classes – Update mode
<n> feature classes – Append and Update mode
Do you want to continue?
12. Click Yes to output the data from the source connection/query to the target warehouse
The status information and progress during processing are displayed in the status bar,
and the log file gmotts.log is created. Optionally, new legend entries are added to the
active map window.

Selecting Features in the Map Window


You select features with a left mouse click or by drawing a fence on the map when the
Select Tool is active. The Select Tool is located on the Selection toolbar and is the default
active mode. When Select mode is active, the Select Tool button is depressed, and the tip
of the cursor has a circle around it called the locate zone.

The locate zone determines how close to a feature you must be to highlight it or to select it.
The size of the locate zone is set using the Size of cursor locate zone slider on the
SmartLocate tab of the Options dialog box (Tools > Options).

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Working with GeoMedia

The size or tolerance is measured in screen pixels. You drag the slider to the right to
increase the size and to the left to decrease it. A preview of the locate zone is displayed
next to the slider.
The Selection toolbar supports Inside Fence, Overlap Fence, Rectangular Fence, and
Polygonal Fence selection modes, which are described later in this section.

A feature can be located (identified) only if it is displayed in the active map window and its
Locatable property is turned on. A feature within the locate zone of the cursor is not
located or highlighted until the cursor has been paused over the feature for a short time, but
you do not have to pause the cursor to select the feature. The duration of the pause interval
is set using the Delay before cursor highlights features slider on the SmartLocate tab.
When you select one or more features, they become a select set. A select set can contain
features from one or more sources. You create a select set to edit it. When the select set
contains more than one object, any Edit tool you select affects all objects in the select set
simultaneously.
A select set can also contain both read-write and read-only features. Objects in the select set
are distinguished as read-write or read-only by the display of handles in the map window
when an edit tool is selected. For example, if you select the Move tool when a select set is
active, handles appear on read-write objects but not on the read-only objects in the select
set.

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Working with Features

Note: You change the highlight, select, and handles colors on the Map Display tab of the
Options dialog box.

You can have only one select set active in a GeoWorkspace at a time. The same select set
is visible in all displayed windows, both map windows and data windows.
You can also select a feature by selecting its row in the data window by clicking on the
row selector or using the CTRL or SHIFT keys to select multiple features.
See “Changing the Locatability of Map Objects” in the “Working with Map Windows”
chapter.

To select a single feature:


You select a single feature with a left mouse click when the Select Tool is active. The
feature is highlighted as long as any part of it is within the locate zone of the Select Tool.
The feature changes to the select color when you click it.

To add features to a select set:


Hold down the CTRL or SHIFT key while left clicking the highlighted feature. This also
works for data window record selects.

To select a hidden or overlapped feature:


When multiple features are under the cursor, the Always display Pick Quick dialog on
locate check box on the SmartLocate tab lets you control the Select Tool behavior.
When this check box is checked, the PickQuick dialog box is displayed whenever you do
a left mouse click and there is more than one object inside the locate tolerance. If there is
only one object inside the locate tolerance, the object is selected without the PickQuick
dialog box displaying.
When this check box is not checked, there are multiple features within the locate zone and
you pause the cursor over them, an ellipsis (three dots) appears at the lower-right edge of
the Select Tool. If you left click when the ellipsis is displayed, the PickQuick dialog box
appears.

You use PickQuick to select features that overlap each other or features that are hidden by
other features. A numbered button is displayed for each selectable feature. If there are
more than six features, the dialog box displays scroll buttons. Move the Select Tool over
the buttons without clicking to highlight the corresponding features. When the feature you
want to select is highlighted, click the corresponding button on the PickQuick dialog box.

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Working with GeoMedia

PickQuick supports keyboard navigation. You can use the arrow keys to navigate among
the items, and the space bar to select\unselect items. You use the CTRL and SHIFT keys
in the conventional way to select and unselect groups of items in multi-select mode.
When you move the cursor over a numbered button representing a feature in the map view,
a tooltip appears showing the name of the feature class or query of the highlighted item. If
the Add connection prefix to feature names check box is selected on the General tab of
the Options dialog box, the feature class name is prefixed with the connection name. If a
map window tooltip has been defined for the legend entry associated with the highlighted
item, the text for the map window tooltip is displayed.
For more information on map window tooltips, see “Defining Map Window ToolTips” in
the “Working with Map Windows” chapter.

To select multiple features:


There are several ways to place multiple features in a select set. When the Select Tool is
active, you can:
• Hold down the CTRL or SHIFT key while left clicking the highlighted features.
• Draw a fence with the Select Tool that encompasses the area containing the features
you want in the select set.
The features included in the select set are determined by which Selection toolbar
button (fence modes) is depressed.

− Inside Fence selects all features that fall completely within the fence.

− Overlap Fence selects all features that fall inside and are overlapped by the fence.

– Rectangular Fence (the default) selects all features that fall completely inside the
rectangular fence.
– Polygonal Fence selects all features that fall completely inside the polygonal
fence.

To select all features for a legend entry:


Highlight the associated entries on the legend and select Edit > Select by Legend Entry.

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Working with Features

This selects all map objects in the map window associated with highlighted legend entries,
regardless of whether objects are fitted in the map window. Legend entries must have the
display turned on and must be in the current view scale, but map objects do not need to be
locatable.

To select all features for a data window:


Click on the table selection button in the upper-left corner of the data window grid, or
select Edit > Select All Rows. This selects all features in the data window, whether they
are visible in the data window or not.

To clear a select set:


You can clear a select set in the following two ways:
• Select Edit > Unselect All.
• Left click an empty space on the map window.

To remove features from a select set:


You can remove a feature from a select set in the following two ways:
• Hold down CTRL or SHIFT while left clicking the feature you want to remove from
the select set.
• Hold CTRL or SHIFT while clicking and dragging to place a fence around the features
you want to remove from the select set.

Note: You must hold down CTRL or SHIFT, or the select set will be replaced.

Defining Queries from Select Sets


Select Set to Query lets you build a query from the contents of a select set that belongs to
a single feature or from a query participating in the select set. You cannot, however, use
heterogeneous select sets, that is, those with mixtures of different feature classes and
queries.
This command does not process features without primary keys. Due to an internal system
limitation, query objects in the select set are not processed directly. Instead, the original
feature class upon which the query is based is used. For this reason, only the fields from
the original feature class appear in the output query; any fields that were added by the
query in the select set do not appear in the output query, nor are any other changes in

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Working with GeoMedia

schema apparent. Queries resulting from other GeoMedia analysis commands that
combine disparate feature classes (for example, Join and Spatial Difference) cannot be
processed. Only those feature classes in the select set that are valid for processing by the
command appear in the drop-down list.
The resulting query is a snapshot of the select set at the time you run the command. Any
subsequent changes made in the select set do not affect any queries previously created from
the select set.
Select Set to Query appends the query to the query folder and optionally outputs the
resultant query to a data window and/or map window. You can adjust the display style for
optimum viewing in the map window.

To define query from a select set:


1. Create a select set.
2. Select Analysis > Select Set to Query.

3. From the Select features from drop-down list, select a feature class or query within
the select set to be converted to a query.

Note: The Add connection prefix to feature names check box setting on the
General tab of the Options dialog box is honored. Also, the complete connection
name and feature class name appear as a tooltip when you hover the mouse cursor
over the list box.

4. Optional: Change the default name and/or type a description of the query.
5. Verify that the Display query in map window box is checked, and change in the Map
window name field, if appropriate, the map window in which to display the query
results.
OR
To not display the query results in a map window, click the Display query in map
window box to remove the checkmark.

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Working with Features

6. Optional: Click Style, and change the default style on the Select Style dialog box.
7. Verify that the Display query in data window check box is selected, and change in
the Data window name field, if appropriate, the data window in which to display the
query results.
OR
To not display the nongraphic attributes of the query results in a data window, select
the Display query in data window check box to remove the checkmark.
8. Click OK to generate and to display the query results in the specified data window
and/or map window.

Note: If you do not select either a map window or a data window, the query is only
appended to the query folder.

See the “Analyzing GeoMedia Data” chapter for information on queries.

Inserting Features into a Feature Class


If a feature class exists in an open read-write warehouse, you can create new features
belonging to that feature class and place them on the map. You can insert a feature into a
feature class in two ways:
• From the map window, you place the geometry and type the attributes in the dialog
box that appears.
• From the data window, you supply attribute data and then place the geometry in the
map window.
If the feature class of the feature being placed is not on the legend or if the feature class
display is turned off, the feature is not displayed after it is placed.
You select the appropriate warehouse, feature class, and, if the feature is compound, the
geometry type from the Insert Feature dockable control, which is displayed when you
select Insert > Feature.

To insert a feature into a map window:


1. Select Insert > Feature.

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Working with GeoMedia

Note: Pressing ESC does not cancel Insert Feature; you must select another
command, such as the Select Tool, to cancel the command.

2. Click the drop-down arrow on the Insert Feature dockable control to display the list
of feature classes in the read-write warehouses to which you are connected.

3. Click the feature class that will contain the new feature.
4. Place the geometry of the new feature in the map window.

Note: If the selected feature class has compound geometry, the buttons on the right of
the Insert Feature control enable to let you select the type of geometry to place.
Toggle between the feature’s Properties dialog box and the geometry-type buttons as
you place geometry.

5. In the feature’s Properties dialog box, type attribute values in the appropriate fields.

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Working with Features

Note: When performing inserts into an Oracle Object Model warehouse, any default
values that you have will not appear on the Properties dialog box until after you have
inserted the feature.

6. Click OK.
7. Repeat Steps 4 - 6 to insert additional features.
8. To exit Insert Feature mode, press ESC in the Select Tool.

Note: If you dismiss the control by clicking the X on the title bar, the control
disappears, but Insert Feature mode remains active.

See “Adding Geometry” in this chapter

To insert a feature into a data window:


1. Select Window > New Data Window.
2. On the New Data Window dialog box, navigate to the appropriate connection, and
double click the feature class to which you want to add the feature.
3. In the row at the bottom of the table, type the values for each attribute of the new
feature.
New features are inserted with null geometry until you place geometry.
4. After you enter attribute values for the new feature, click the row selector of the new
feature.
5. Activate the map window by clicking the title bar. Clicking in the map window
instead of on the title bar clears the select set.
6. Select Edit > Continue Geometry, and place the new geometry in the map window.
See “Adding Geometry” in this chapter.

Inserting Text Features into a Feature Class


You can insert text features into a feature class and place them on the map interactively
with the Insert Text command. Text placement is dynamic, so that you can see characters
appear next to your cursor as you type. If you change the alignment set for the text after
typing your text, you can also see the position of the text change next to your cursor.
If you want to place multiple copies of the same text, you can do that with additional
mouse clicks. Insert Text is an interactive mode, and you have to press ESC or click the
Select Tool to return to select mode.
Starting Insert Text displays the following dockable control:

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Working with GeoMedia

In addition to basic text insertion, Insert Text provides the following functionality:
• Applying instance-based symbology for text features—By default, placed text relies
on the Select Style parameters defined in the legend when displaying the text in the
map window. You may override these parameters on individual text instances
(instance-based symbology) by checking the Override style check box and defining
the appropriate text symbology. When the Override style check box is checked, the
entire text string will display using the defined format (bold, italic, or underline), color,
size, and font. To change instance-based text symbology, you need to use the Edit
Text command.
• Placing incremental numeric text—Type a numeric (integer or real) value into the
text-entry field, and then set the increment value to an integer or real number.
• Placing text at a user-defined rotation angle—Set the rotation mode to Place at
angle, set the appropriate angle for placing the text, and then click to place the text.
The controls on the dockable control remain as set.
• Placing text to rotate dynamically—Set the rotation mode to Rotate dynamically,
click for the location of the text origin, and then click for rotation.
• Placing text along an arc—Set the rotation mode to Place along arc, optionally
modifying the inter-character spacing, and then digitize three points to define the
curvature of the arc, in the order 1-2-3. Upon defining the third data point, the text
will be floating and oriented along the curvature of the arc defined. Click a fourth
point to place the text. Type additional text to continue the process, select another
command, or press ESC. Using this mode generates a composite text collection, which
lets other parts of GeoMedia recognize the resulting multi-part text as a single
composite string rather than individual characters.
• Placing along existing geometry—Set the rotation mode to Place along existing
geometry, type a single-line text, and then select a linear, area. or compound
geometry. This displays the text in dynamics, undulating along the curvature of the
selected geometry starting from the mouse cursor. You can control the distance of the
text from the geometry and the spacing of the characters, and influence the smoothness
of the flow of the text. Move the cursor above or below the geometry to get the
appropriate offset distance from the geometry, increasing the inter-character spacing by
using the mouse wheel or clicking the up arrow key. Tune the resulting text pattern by
changing the vertical offset or by using the down arrow key. Click on the map window
or type the location coordinates to place the text.

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Working with Features

• Optionally modifying the inter-character spacing—Use character spacing


modifications to expand or to retract the text string, except when placing multi-line
text. If character spacing is adjusted with the Place at angle or Rotate dynamically
mode, a composite text collection is placed as with arcs. Otherwise, a simple multi-
character string is placed. You can use the mouse wheel and the + and - keys to
increase or to decrease the character spacing after the second click point and before the
fourth click point.

To insert text:
1. Select Insert > Text to display the Insert Text dockable control.
2. Click the drop-down arrow to display the list of text feature classes, queries, reference
features, and categories in the read-write warehouses to which you are connected. If
none of the open read-write warehouses contains a text feature class, create one
through Warehouse > Feature Class Definition.
3. Click the feature class you want to contain the text.
4. Optional: Check the Override Style check box; then define the appropriate text
symbology.
5. Select the text alignment you want from the drop-down list.
6. Type the text you want to place in the text-entry field. To create a new line in the text,
press CTRL+ENTER (except for curved text).
As you type, the text appears in the text field and in dynamics next to the cursor in the
map window.
7. Select the text placement rotation mode.
8. Position the text where you want it on the map; then click the left mouse button.
9. To place additional instances of the same text, repeat Step 8.
10. To place additional but different text, repeat Steps 7 - 9.
11. To exit Insert Text mode, press ESC or click the Select Tool.

Note: If you dismiss the control by clicking the X on the title bar, the control disappears,
but Insert Text mode remains active.

Editing Text
Edit Text lets you to interactively edit one or more instances of read-write text, and the
corresponding alignment and symbology, generated by the Insert Label command or
Insert Text command. You can select the text from a map window or a data window;
however, if from a data window, you must activate a map window to enable this command.

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Also, if you select a mixture of read-only and read-write text, you can only edit the read-
write text.
This command lets you place the text with instance-based text symbology through the
Override style check box. When you select this option, the entire text string in the Edit
Text dialog box is placed with instance-based text symbology, and the active symbology
settings for text format (bold, italic, or underline), color, size, and font override the legend
display parameters set on the Select Style dialog box for the selected feature class.

Multiple Text Instances


When you select multiple instances of text, the Text and Alignment fields on the dialog
box are only populated if these properties are common across the selected labels.
For example, consider selecting two instances of the Tennessee River, each with an
alignment of Center center. When you start this command, the dialog box displays
Tennessee River and Center center as the text and alignment, respectively. However,
selecting an instance of Tennessee River and Flint River (assuming the same feature class),
each having different alignments, yields a dialog box displaying nothing for the Text or
Alignment fields. In the hybrid case where each river shared a common text or alignment,
the respective control would show the common value and not the other.
If you select multiple instances of text, and one or more instances are not instance-based
text symbology, the Override style check box is unchecked, and all of the options are
disabled.
If you select multiple instances of text that are instance-based text symbology, the
Override style check box is checked, and all of the options are enabled. If the font size
and font definitions are different for the items selected, these two fields are blank.
Furthermore, in the case of multiple instances, if you do not specifically change the text
and/or alignment settings, on clicking OK, these settings are left unchanged. Thus, in
certain cases of multiple selections, OK and Cancel can perform the same action.
However, once you make a specific selection for either text, alignment, or style override
options, OK updates all valid selections with the change(s).

Composite Text Collections


Edit Text lets you edit composite text collections as a single text string. The composite
text collection can consist of text placed along an arc, where each character is a component
of the collection, and text labeling multiple geometry in a collection such as the islands of
Hawaii, where each island name is a text component. This command presents such a
collection as single text string for you to edit and, to the extent possible, preserves the
original location information for each text point geometry. You cannot, however, edit
multi-line text. This command lets you change a particular aspect of a style of multiple
features even when Override style is turned on. For example, if you need to change just
the color of all selected text features without changing any other style parameters.

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Working with Features

Portions of Text Style


When editing multiple text features, you can change individual text characteristics (text
string, alignment, style properties) rather than overwriting all characteristics for all selected
features. When the selected text features have differing values for text characteristics, that
is, if the select set contains at least one composite text collection indicating that it is not
possible to type a multi-line text, each control on the dialog box presents itself in a neutral
state to indicate that no change is applied.
Checking the Override style check box while in the neutral state changes the state to
checked. Clicking Bold, Italic, and/or Underline while in neutral state changes them to
the pressed state. However, once you change the state of a control from neutral, it
continues to maintain one of its two states only (that is, either checked/unchecked or
pressed/unpressed).
The dialog box appears as on the left if the select set does not contain any composite text
collections, indicating you can type multi-line text. It appears as on the right with the Size
and Font fields in neutral state if the select set contains at least one composite text
collection, indicating you cannot type a multi-line text.

To edit a text feature:

Note: The following behavior also applies to one or more instances of text selected from a
text collection. Basically, the Edit Text dialog only displays attributes if they are
common. Any edits are written to all of the items in the collection

1. Select the text feature class instance(s) in the map window.


2. Select Edit > Edit Text.

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3. In the Text field, type the replacement text. If you are editing multiple text instances,
all instances are modified to reflect the new text.
4. Accept or select a different alignment from the Alignment drop-down list. If you are
editing multiple text instances, all instances are set to the new alignment.
5. Accept or change the Override style check box setting. If you are editing multiple text
instances, all instances will be modified to reflect the new text.
6. Accept the text symbology, or change it through the format (bold, italic, or underline),
color, size, and font controls.
7. Click OK.

Selecting and Searching for Text


Select Text lets you define the criteria to search for graphic text features, performing the
search as you can for text in a Microsoft Word file, according to any combination of their
text string and various style properties, and then select text features. Thus, you can
quickly find and update text to adjust to changing map specifications or to create new map
products.
This command uses a combination of both text string and style characteristics on all the
displayed graphic text legend entries within the legend of the active map window. In
addition, when you specify a text string as selection criteria, you can use wild cards and
perform sub-string selection. If you do not use a text string, the search is based on style
alone; if you do not specify style characteristics, the search is based on the text string
alone. In the search, this command finds those text feature instances displayed in the map
window that match the specified search criteria. The search results are output to a new
select set, whose rich text format parameters (color, font, size, and so forth) you can edit.
You can then immediately use this select set as input to other commands such as Edit Text
or Delete.
For those features with override style, selection is performed using the rich text format
information available in them. In the case of plain text, the default style property
information of the corresponding legend entry is used. For those features with override
style, the command assumes that the rich text style information is constant for the whole
text and always uses the rich text style of the first character. When an input geometry

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contains a standard text collection, the geometry is selected if at least one of the items in
the collection matches the selection criteria.
Selecting Edit > Text > Select Text displays the Select Text dialog box for you to define
the appropriate search criteria. When you first start this command, all the dialog box
controls are in the neutral state as in the example on the left. To return to this neutral state
after setting any search parameters, as in the example on the right, you must exit and restart
the command.

You can type or select the text string you want to search for in the Text field. Note that the
search is not based on a case-sensitive text string. Checking the Match entire text check
box selects those graphic text features with their text having an exact match with the string
value entered in the Text field.
Checking the Use wildcards check box lets you use any of the listed special characters
entered in the Text field as wildcards and perform pattern matching using both regular
characters and wildcard characters as specified in the Text field. Regular characters must
exactly match the characters specified in the character string. Wildcard characters,
however, can be matched with arbitrary fragments of the character string based on the
wildcard character used. This command supports the following GeoMedia-recognized
wildcards only:
• % Any string of zero or more • _ (underscore) Any single character
characters
• [] Any single character within • [^] Any single character not within the
the specified range ([a-f]) specified range ([^a-f]) or set
or set ([abcdef]) ([^abcdef])
When the Use wild cards check box is checked, the Match entire text checkbox is
disabled automatically and cannot be checked.
You can also set the appropriate text Style characteristics, using any combination of bold,
italic, and underline, as well as font color, size, and name to define the selection criteria.

Adding Hypertext to a Feature Class


Hypertext is a link to an external file. Inserting hypertext into a feature table is essentially
attaching an external file or Web location to a feature in the read-write warehouse. Once
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hypertext has been inserted into a table, you can invoke the external application associated
with the file and activate the file by clicking the hypertext cell in the data window.
If the feature table does not already have a hypertext attribute defined, you must define one
in the warehouse before inserting hypertext. Once you have a hypertext column in a table,
you can add hypertext links to as many features as the table contains.

To define a hypertext attribute in a read-write warehouse:


1. Select Warehouse > Feature Class Definition.

2. On the Feature Class Definition dialog box, navigate to the warehouse connection
that contains the feature class in which you plan to insert the hypertext, and select the
feature class.
3. Click Edit.
4. On the Attributes tab of the Edit - <FeatureClass> dialog box, click the bottom row
selector that contains an asterisk.

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5. Click somewhere in the Name field, and replace the automatically generated attribute
name by typing a meaningful name, such as HYPERTEXT.
6. Click the Hypertext check box.
7. Click OK.
8. Close the Feature Class Definition dialog box.

To insert hypertext into the data window:


1. In the data window, select the empty cell in the hypertext column of the feature you
want linked to an external application.
2. Select Insert > Hypertext.
3. From the Insert Hypertext dialog box, navigate to the appropriate folder, and select the
file or Web location that you want to attach to the feature.
4. Click Open.

To insert or edit hypertext from the map window:


1. Select the feature in the map window.
2. Double click the selected feature, or select Edit > Select Set Properties.

3. On the Attributes tab of the feature’s Properties dialog box, click the hypertext cell in
the Value column, and type the path and name of the file or Web location. To edit,
highlight the file name or Web location, and type the new file name or Web location.

Note: You must highlight the text to edit it. If you just click on the text, the
hypertext link is invoked.

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4. Click OK.
See “Attributes Tab” later in this chapter.

To designate a column in the database as a hypertext link in MGE or MGSM:


In MGE and MGSM, you must identify both the table and column names in the .ini file for
the MGE or MGSM data server using the HYPERTEXT: keyword. You can identify
several columns without repeating the keyword, but each table-column pair must appear on
a separate line.
For example, the Birds table contains a hypertext column linking a record to a photograph
of the species, one that references an audio clip of the bird's call, and one that identifies a
video clip of the bird in flight:
HYPERTEXT:Birds,Photo
Birds,Audio
Birds,Video
The MGE or MGSM data server looks for hypertext files in the multimedia folder of the
project unless the HYPERTEXT PATH: keyword appears in the .ini file. Use this
keyword to identify one or more folders in which to search for multimedia files.
If more than one folder is specified, the folders are searched in the order specified. You
may use either a comma (,) or a semicolon (;) to separate the path components. Path
components may contain UNC-style folder names:
HYPERTEXT PATH:C:\Images,D:\AudioClips,
\\BIGSERVER\VIDSHARE\Birds\Video

Adding Geometry
You can add geometry to an existing feature that does not have geometry, add holes to
existing geometry, and add geometry to existing geometry.
Here are some tips for placing geometry:
• Follow prompts in the status bar when placing geometry.
• Use the map view tools for more accurate placement.
• To place discontiguous geometry, press and hold the CTRL key while you place
geometry. When you have placed all segments of the feature, double click the left
mouse button.
• If you are placing a linear or area feature, press the back arrow key to delete the last
vertex.
• When you place linear or area features, double click to indicate you have placed the
last point.

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Note: These tips also apply to inserting features.

For point and area geometry, the Continue Geometry tool adds only discontiguous
geometry. For line geometry, if the first or last point of the new geometry is within the
locate zone of an end point of the feature, the Continue Geometry tool adds contiguous
geometry; otherwise, it adds discontiguous geometry.
When the cursor is within the locate zone of any locatable map object, the pointer changes
to indicate when you can snap to an end point, snap to a line, or snap to a vertex, as
follows:

To add geometry to a feature, select the feature, select Edit > Continue Geometry, and
place the new geometry in the map window.

Note: If you select a feature from the data window that is not on the legend in the map
window, the geometry of the feature appears for the duration of the process. Once the
process is completed, the geometry disappears from the map view, although it is not
deleted. To display the geometry, add the feature class to the legend.

Changing Attribute Values of Features


You can change the attribute values of features either in a map window or in a data
window.
In a data window, you use standard Windows editing tools and the Clipboard to cut, copy,
and paste text in cells. You cannot, however, edit hidden cells or cells containing
hypertext.
In the map window, you use the Attributes tab of the Properties dialog box, displayed by
selecting Edit > Select Set Properties.

Attributes Tab
The Attributes tab lets you review and edit the attribute values of features. On this tab, all
required fields are indicated by the value in the Name column appearing in bold, red type.
All key fields are likewise indicated by the value in the Name column appearing in bold,
red type (because key fields are also required fields) and by the value’s being underlined.

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Tooltips
When you hover the cursor over a cell in the Name column, a tooltip displays the attribute
description defined through the Feature Class Definition command. If no attribute
description was defined, no tooltip appears.
When you hover the cursor over a cell in the Value column, a tooltip displays the data type
and the default value of the column. If there is no default value, the tooltip displays only
the appropriate data type string from the table. If there is a default value, the data type
string is followed by the string “ : Default = “ and then by the actual default value string
supplied by the data server.
If the default value string is a literal value of the correct data type for the attribute, it is
formatted according to the display rules for the field (honoring the format and precision
properties, regional settings as appropriate, custom Boolean wording, and so forth), as seen
in the following example:
Text (20) : Default = Alabama
Memo : Default = This is a default value for a memo field.
Integer : Default = 5
Double : Default = 123.456,789
Currency : Default = $ 1,200.50
Boolean : Default = Yes
Date : Default = 01-May-2000
If the default value string is not a literal value of the correct data type for the attribute, it is
displayed in its native form as provided by the data server. This may occur when, for
example, the default value is an autonumber or is to be calculated through a database
procedure, as in the following example:
Integer : Default = AutoNumber
Date : Default = TRUNC(SYSDATE)

To use the Properties dialog box:


1. Select one or more features as a select set.
2. Select Edit > Select Set Properties.
3. Optional: Resize the dialog as desired through standard Windows resize operations.
4. Position the pointer over the appropriate item for your task to display the tooltip.

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Working with Features

In this example, ID is a required field. The cursor is hovering over the word Alabama
in the Value column, thus the tooltip shows the data type of the field, the size (because
it is a text field), and the default value.

To change attribute values of features in a map window or data window:


1. In the map window, select a single feature you want to change.
OR
In the data window, select the row of the feature you want to change.
2. Select Edit > Select Set Properties.
3. On the Attributes tab of the feature’s Properties dialog box, edit the attribute values
and click OK.

Note: You could also double click the select set, which amounts to triple clicking a
feature, or right click a select set and select Properties from the right mouse menu.

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Working with GeoMedia

4. Optional: Resize the dialog box to more easily view and change data in the Value
column of both tabs.
5. On the Attributes tab of the Properties dialog box, click the cell in the Value column
that you want to edit.
The arrow on the row selector moves to the row you clicked.
6. Type the new value in the cell.
If the warehouse is read-write, a pencil appears on the row selector when you begin to
type.
7. Click OK.
If the map window display check box was selected, the map window with the
geometries is displayed. If the data window display check box was selected, the data
window with the geometries is displayed.
See “Editing Cells in the Data Window” in the "Working with Data Windows" chapter.

Changing and Deleting Features


You can change the location of a feature, and you can change the orientation of text and
points by creating a select set in a map window or a data window and then activating the
appropriate tool.
• You can move one or more features together. Selected features can belong to different
feature classes. By selecting a geometry in the map window, you move only the
selected feature. By selecting the row for the feature in the data window, you move all
of the feature’s geometry and associated text as one.
• You can rotate one or more text and/or point features that are represented by symbols.
By selecting a geometry in the map window, you rotate only the selected geometry.
By selecting the row for the feature in the data window, you rotate all points and text
for that row as one.

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Working with Features

To move features in a map window:


1. In a map window, create a select set containing the feature(s) you want to move.
2. Select Edit > Move.
Handles appear on the select set to indicate that it can be moved.
3. Click a select-set handle to attach it to the cursor, or click in the map window and drag
the select set to the new location.

To move features in a data window:


1. In a data window, click the row selector of the feature you want to move. Press and
hold the CTRL key while selecting multiple features.
2. Activate the map window by clicking the title bar.
3. Select Edit > Move.
Handles are displayed on all geometry and text associated with the selected rows to
indicate that they can be moved.
4. Click a select-set handle to attach it to the cursor, or click in the map window and drag
the select set to the new location.

To spin a point symbol or text:


1. In a map window, select the point symbols or text you want to spin; or select the row
for the point symbols or text in the data window, and activate the map window by
clicking the title bar.
2. Select Edit > Spin.
An origin handle appears in the map window for each selected point symbol or text.
3. Click the origin handle.
A baseline (dashed line) and reference line (solid) appear from the origin handle.
4. Move the cursor, using as a guide the dynamic spin of the reference line in the active
map window.

Moving the cursor in a clockwise direction counts degrees backwards (0, 360, 359, . . .
). Moving the cursor in a counterclockwise direction counts degrees forward (0, 1, 2,
3, . . . ).

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When you click, the first reading before the cursor is moved shows the beginning
active angle. As you move the cursor in either direction, the active angle changes and
the readout in the status bar updates dynamically.
5. Click to accept the angle.

To insert, move, and delete vertices of feature geometry:


1. In a map window, create a select set containing the feature you want. Or, in a data
window, select the row for the feature and then activate the map window by clicking
the title bar.
2. Select Edit > Edit Geometry.
3. Activate the map window by clicking the title bar.
4. Handles appear on all geometries of the selected feature to indicate that the geometries
can be edited.

Note: You can use the CTRL or SHIFT key to select multiple handles (vertices).

5. To insert a vertex, select the point of the geometry where you want to insert the vertex.
6. To move a vertex, press and hold the left mouse button on the vertex you want to
move, drag it to the desired location, and release the mouse button.
7. To delete a vertex, select the vertex and press DELETE.

To delete geometry:
When you delete the geometry of a feature in a map window, the feature is no longer
displayed in the map window. Deleting geometry, however, does not delete the feature.
Attribute data still exists for the feature, which can be viewed in a data window.

IMPORTANT: When you select multiple rows in a data window, this procedure deletes
all the geometry and text for all selected rows, including those not displayed in the active
view.

1. In a map window, create a select set containing the feature(s) you want. Or, in a data
window, select the row(s) for the feature and then activate the map window by clicking
the title bar.
By creating a select set in the map window, you delete only the selected geometry.
2. Select Edit > Delete Geometry.

To delete a feature:
When you delete a feature, it is removed from the warehouse and from all windows.
However, the legend entry is not affected, and you must delete it separately.

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Working with Features

IMPORTANT: This procedure deletes all selected features, including those not displayed
in the active view.

The mode in which the command is running depends on the contents of the select set. If
the select set is empty when you start the command, Delete runs in action-object mode,
which lets you delete multiple features (one after another) during a single instance of the
command. In this mode, you cannot clear the contents of the selected cells from data
window or use fence select or CTRL-Click select. If the select set contains one or more
features, or when the data window is active and there are cells selected, the command runs
in object-action mode, which lets you delete only the selected features or clear the selected
cells during the command instance.
1. In a map window, create a select set containing the feature(s) you want. Or, in a data
window, select the row(s) for the feature and then activate the map window by clicking
the title bar.
2. Select Edit > Delete.

Note: Through Tools > Options, you can specify whether the confirmation box is
displayed before processing.

All views that were displaying the deleted features are updated. If you selected
columns or cells instead of the row, the values in the cells are set to NULL.

Working with Categories


Categories lets you group feature classes and queries into categories in a structured way.
Thus, you can create your own customized logical model of your data as a complement to
the physical model represented by the warehouse-resident feature classes and the queries
built upon those feature classes. This lets you take control of what you want to see and
helps you organize your data. Once categorized, you need not bother about connections or
the source of your data. You can think of these categories as user interface shortcuts only;
they do not form actual parts of the warehouse data model.
You may want to, for example, create thematic categories to group Rail and Road features
under the category Transportation. Or you may want to create a category to just reflect the
priority or frequency of use, for example, you might want to work with only a fixed set of
feature classes and queries and not bother about others. The categories possibilities are
only limited by one’s imagination.
The Categories command provides you with great flexibility in category creation as you
group feature classes and queries. You can include a feature class or a query into more
than one category, and feature classes and queries can also appear in none of the
categories. When creating a new feature class or query, you cannot, however, assign them
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to a category at that time. Categories can contain feature classes and queries from multiple
connections, including read-only connections, and the connections are hidden to simplify
category organization and presentation. No distinction is drawn between feature classes
and queries within a category. In addition, you can nest categories in folders that in turn
can have subfolders representing individual categories, and each such category subfolder
can in turn have sub-categories to continue the nesting as required for your organizational
plan. You also have flexibility in naming categories by the aliasing of feature class and
query names as well as the aliasing of attribute names. Finally, you can share your
categories within the enterprise.

Managing Categories
The Categories dialog box lets you easily manage your categories and their contents. You
can create and delete categories, add features and queries to them, edit their properties,
rename/alias categories and attributes, move and copy categories and their contents in the
treeview, and organize and expand the treeview nesting.

Central to the Categories command is the categories treeview. This treeview always
contains the root node Categories. To this you expand the treeview by adding category
folders as you create as many categories as you require. These category folders can in turn
have sub-folders that represent sub-categories, or feature classes or queries. Thus the
treeview contains three types of nodes: categories, feature classes, and queries. The items
at each level are displayed alphabetically. A category may be nested to any level. A
category node may contain its sub-category nodes or query or feature class nodes. The
query and feature class nodes themselves cannot have subfolders. If any of the source
connections of any of the categorized feature classes are closed, or if the categorized query
is closed or invalid, it is flagged with an icon indicating the feature class or query is not
accessible:

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Working with Features

You can copy and move categories/sub-categories, feature classes, and queries to other
categories by using drag-and-drop. You cannot, however, drop feature classes and queries
on the root node Categories nor drag-and-drop this node. Drag-and-drop works similarly
to Windows Explorer’s folders treeview. While drag-and-drop is being done, if you press
Ctrl, a copy is performed; otherwise, a move operation is performed. Tooltips on the
treeview show the original feature class name (with or without the connection name, per
the Options > General tab setting Add connection prefix to feature names) or query
name.
Once defined, the category structure appears in treeviews across the product by the
commands, for example Attribute Queries and Join, and controls to support categories.
Categories are thus displayed in the treeviews along with all the connections, queries, and
reference features information, for example, in the New Data Window and Add Legend
Features dialog boxes. If, however, categories have not been defined, no empty
Categories node is displayed by other commands.

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Working with GeoMedia

In creating categories under the Categories root node or subfolder, you use Create
Category to provide a unique name and an optional description, both of which you can
later change. You can delete a selected category, which also deletes all subfolders and
their contents by clicking Delete Category on the Categories dialog box or by pressing
the Delete key.
To add one or more sets of features (feature classes/queries) under a category, you select a
category and then use Add Features to make selections from all the features and queries in
the GeoWorkspace under the Queries node and the name of each connection in the
GeoWorkspace as a separate node at the first level, as displayed on the Add Features
dialog box. All connection nodes contain the feature classes available in that connection.
These are the physical connection, feature class, and query names, not the logical names as
categorized. You can add multiple items to a category by checking multiple item check
boxes or the Queries node and/or the connection node on the Add Features dialog box.
You can remove features or queries from a category by selecting the item then clicking
Remove Features on the Categories dialog box or by pressing the Delete key.

Once you have added feature classes and queries to a category, you can review and edit
their properties from the Categories dialog box. Selecting a feature class or query and
then clicking Attributes displays the Attributes of <feature name> dialog box, which lets
you choose, reorder, and rename attributes for the selected feature class or query.
Selecting a feature class or query in the Categories treeview and clicking Properties
displays the Properties of <feature name> dialog box, which lets you review and change
properties for both feature classes and queries. You can review the read-only original
name and description (as present in the warehouse - connection name of the feature class,
and as defined on the query, that is, the one with which the query is identified in the
Queries folder) as well as the current name and description (as categorized). You can edit
(rename) only the default/user-defined, categorized feature class and query names and
descriptions. Changing these names and descriptions does not change the original, read-
only values. You can also view the read-only feature class and query category names.
These names show the complete category hierarchy using the dot convention. For
example, a category C1.Sub_C1_1 indicates, that the feature class belongs to sub-category
Sub_C1_1 whose parent category is C1.

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Working with Features

Feature Class Properties Query Properties


After you edit the properties, the command validates the new name for uniqueness at the
same level of hierarchy in the treeview, and the name and description of the categorized
feature class/query are updated.

To create a category and add features/queries:


1. Select Warehouse > Categories.

2. Click New Category.

3. Type the appropriate category Name.


4. Optional: Type a category Description.
5. Click OK to create the category.

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Working with GeoMedia

Note: To create a sub-category, select the category and then repeat Steps 2 – 5.

6. Optional: To edit the name and/or add a description, select a category, click Properties,
and then click OK.

7. To add features to the category, select the category; then click Add Features.

8. Expand the appropriate feature class and/or query node(s); then check the appropriate
feature class and/or query check boxes.

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Working with Features

9. Click OK to return to the Categories dialog box.

To edit feature class and query properties:


1. Select Warehouse > Categories.
2. Select the appropriate feature class or query.
3. Click Properties.

4. Edit the Name and/or Description fields; then click OK.

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Working with GeoMedia

To manage feature class and query attributes:


1. Select Warehouse > Categories.
2. Select the appropriate feature class or query.
3. Click Attributes.

4. Check or uncheck the appropriate Attributes check box(es) for the selected feature class
or query.

Note: Graphic attributes, fields of type gdbSpatial or gdbGraphic, cannot be removed.

5. To reorder an attribute, select the attribute; then use the up/down arrows to the right of
the Attributes list.
6. To rename an attribute, select the attribute; then click Rename.

Note: Graphic attributes cannot be renamed.

7. Type the New name; then click OK.

8. Click OK on the Attributes of <feature class/query> dialog box.

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Working with Catalogs
The Catalogs commands form a bridge between spatial data and the standard geospatial
catalog that describes that data. These commands support the integration of metadata
search, edit, and query functionality with other GeoMedia functions, and they also provide
complete spatial metadata functionality within GeoMedia. With these commands, you can
connect to geospatial catalogs, query for interesting catalog records (metadata items), and
open associated GDO connections (if the record is already associated to a feature class).
See “Catalog Features,” “What is Geospatial Metadata?,” and “Glossary of Catalog
Terminology” in this chapter.

In summary, the Catalogs commands let you catalog and open associated feature classes
and perform the following additional tasks in manipulating catalogs:
• Import metadata from other exchange formats.
• Associate a feature class to a metadata record.
• Update spatially related metadata elements from the associated feature class.
• Search catalogs for feature data and image files.
• Export to standard exchange formats.
• Generate catalog record reports.

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Working with GeoMedia

The functional modules can be classified into the following three categories:
1. The first set interacts with the open catalogs and process metadata. Query/search,
import and export, and report generation are examples of this set.
2. The second set of modules has spatial data as input from warehouses and generates
metadata as output. Examples are capturing spatial attributes and creating skeleton
metadata records for selected feature classes.
3. The third set of modules has metadata records as input either directly from user-
selected metadata records, or as a result set from a query and open associated
connections in GeoMedia.
These modules, the Catalogs commands, thus form a bridge between spatial data sets and
their associated metadata sets.
The Catalogs commands are the following:
• New Catalog • Export Catalog Records
• New Catalog Connection • Associate Catalog Records
• Catalog Connections • Catalog Explorer
• Import Catalog Records

Catalog Features
Standards-compliant—GeoMedia Catalog makes it easy for anyone, regardless of prior
knowledge of the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) standard, to create,
manage, and publish FGDC-compliant metadata. Catalog also supports publication of
metadata records that conform to the ISO-19139 TS RC technical specification (May
2006).
Biological Data Profile—Create standardized metadata for your biological datasets
following the FGDC’s Biological Data Profile.
Data Layer Association—Catalog ties metadata to data by allowing you to associate a
metadata record with the GeoMedia feature class or image file that it describes.
Metadata Capture—Once you have associated a catalog record with a dataset, you can
extract metadata elements like bounding coordinates and attributes, directly from the
dataset into the metadata record.
Catalog Explorer—Bridges the gap between spatial data and metadata catalogs to provide
an unprecedented level of access to and control over your GIS data library. With the
Catalog Explorer, you can quickly locate and preview any dataset in your GIS data
library, and you can automatically load search results into a GeoMedia map window.
Browse Graphics—Include images of datasets in your Catalog reports.

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Working with Catalogs

Online Help with Real-world Metadata Samples—Context-sensitive online Help


provides FGDC definitions and real-world metadata samples.
Metadata Templates—Load one record with your organization's core metadata, save it,
and use it to create multiple metadata records, and thus instantly reduce data-entry time.
Import and Export—Load any metadata record that is FGDC compliant in ASCII text,
GeoMedia Catalog Exchange format(s), or XML format into GeoMedia Catalog.
Exchange your catalog records with others as ASCII text, in GeoMedia Catalog Exchange
format, or in XML (FGDC or ISO-19139) format.
Metadata publishing—Output attractive, Web-ready metadata reports to distribute or to
put on your website. Create and use your own enterprise style sheets to make published
XML files look just as you would like them to.

What Is Geospatial Metadata?


Geospatial Metadata is data that describes geospatial data. Geospatial metadata tells you
the who, what, and when of a geospatial dataset. Who created it? For what purpose?
When?
Geospatial metadata tells you what a dataset cannot show you—data quality, history, and
availability. Through metadata, you can answer the following questions to determine
whether a geospatial dataset suits your needs:
• Where did a dataset originate? • What geographic area does it cover?
• What steps were followed to create it? • How do I obtain the data?
• What attributes does it contain? • Will it cost me anything?
• How is the data projected? • Whom do I contact for more information?
Geospatial metadata has been compared to the nutrition label on a food package. Without
this label, you cannot be sure whether the food you are eating is good for you. Without
metadata, you do not know if the data you are considering using is good for your intended
use.
See the “GeoSpatial Metadata Profile: FGDC Dataset” document
(FGDCDatasetMetadataProfile.pdf in <HOME>\Program Files\GeoMedia Professional
or \GeoMedia).

Why Have Metadata?


Investing in geospatial metadata is a sound data management strategy because of the
following reasons:
• Metadata protects your investment in data and supports re-use of information already
acquired or developed within your enterprise.

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Working with GeoMedia

• Metadata makes data sharing easier and less costly.


• Metadata helps minimize the costs incurred by data loss or by re-creating data that
already exists.
Some people see geospatial metadata as inconvenient and are reluctant to allocate time or
resources to a metadata project. No one has demonstrated to them that, when used
properly, metadata is a vital component to a successful GIS program.
• Metadata protects an organization's internal investment in data. Metadata is like a card
catalog for an organization's GIS data library. Through metadata, personnel within the
organization can see what data is available and how to obtain it. The risk of losing
data or re-creating existing data is minimized.
• Metadata promotes data sharing. Metadata helps GIS personnel share data by
providing the information that people need to locate, evaluate, and obtain data.
Without metadata, an organization often depends on employees to keep track of data
holdings. Sometimes persons store all this vital information in their, or perhaps in notes.
However, what if a person quits? Gets transferred? Falls ill?
People come and people go. With metadata, however, information vital to your GIS
program stays at your fingertips.

What Are FGDC Metadata Standards?


The FGDC is the Federal Geographic Data Committee—the U.S. federal government
committee responsible for creating and maintaining widely adopted standards for metadata.
FGDC geospatial metadata standards have been adopted by organizations that author
metadata within the U.S. and by many enterprises outside the U.S. as well.
GeoMedia Catalog commands support both the FGDC Content Standard for Digital
Geospatial Metadata, commonly called the FGDC standard, and the Biological Data
Profile of the CSDGM, which includes an extended set of specialized metadata content
elements.
The FGDC standard is like a style guide for metadata. It defines what information belongs
in a metadata record and the order in which it is presented.
The purpose of the FGDC standard is to provide a common definition for geospatial
metadata to the GIS community. Through the use of a common standard, it becomes easier
for those within and among different organizations to share data through metadata.
The FGDC standard organizes a metadata record into the following seven main sections:
1. Identification Information: Basic information about the dataset. Where did the data
originate? How current is it? For what purpose was it created? What geographic area
does it cover?

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Working with Catalogs

2. Data Quality Information: A data quality assessment. How accurate is the data?
What steps were followed to create the data? What sources were used to create the
data?
3. Spatial Data Organization Information: How is spatial data represented in the
dataset? What objects were used to represent space?
4. Spatial Reference Information: The description of the reference frame for, and the
means to encode, coordinates in the dataset. What are the projection parameters?
5. Entity and Attribute Information: What entity types and attributes does the data
describe?
6. Distribution Information: From whom may the data be obtained? In what media is
it available? How large is the dataset? Can it be downloaded? Does it cost anything?
7. Metadata Reference Information: Information about the metadata. When was the
metadata record created? Who is the responsible party? When was it last updated?

In addition, the FGDC standard defines three supporting sections, which are not used
alone, but rather are used within the seven main sections. The supporting sections are as
follows:
1. Citation Information: A recommended reference for the dataset.
2. Time Period Information: Information about the date and time of an event.
3. Contact Information: Information about the persons and organizations associated
with a dataset.
Each section is comprised of individual metadata elements, and of compound elements.
For example, the compound element address may include individual elements for street
address, city, state, or province.

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Working with GeoMedia

Under the FGDC standard, there is a one-to-one relationship between a metadata record
and the GeoMedia feature class or image file that it describes. In other words, you should
have one metadata record per dataset.

What Are ISO Metadata Standards?


In 2003 the international community adopted the ISO-19115 Geospatial Metadata standard.
The objective of ISO-19115 is to provide a clear procedure for the description of digital
geographic datasets so that users can determine whether the data in a holding will be of use
to them and how to access the data. Like the FGDC metadata standard, the ISO-19115
model consists of multiple packages of geospatial metadata content elements.

ISO is also at work on ISO-19139, an XML schema for metadata implementation. ISO-
19139 is designed to provide a common specification for describing, validating, and
exchanging metadata about geographic datasets. It is intended to promote interoperability,
and to exploit ISO 19115’s advantages in a concrete implementation specification.
GeoMedia’s Catalog commands include support for exporting metadata records in an XML
format that conforms to the 19139 XSchemas TS RC (May 2006 ).

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Working with Catalogs

Updating Metadata Databases for GeoMedia 6.0 or


Higher
The following workflow allows users of the current software to update their databases to
the new format.
1. Open GeoMedia SMMS version 5.x before uninstalling the legacy product and before
installing GeoMedia 6.0 or a higher version.
2. Export all records to SEF format, and make a secure copy.
3. Uninstall GeoMedia SMMS version 5.x and GeoMedia version 5.x, and then install
GeoMedia 6.0 or a higher version.
4. Create one or more new catalogs.
5. Import SEF records exported from GeoMedia SMMS version 5.x.

Creating a New Catalog


New Catalog lets you create a new Access catalog compatible with Access2K using a
catalog template (.mdb). This new catalog has no catalog records when created from
delivered template. The command copies all existing records if created from a template
which has records. Creating a catalog is a two-step process. You first select and validate a
catalog template, and then you use that template to actually create the new catalog. This
command is similar to the Warehouses > New Warehouse command in GeoMedia.
See “Working with Connections” in the “Working with Warehouses” chapter.
By default, this command creates the catalog from the provided catalog template
CatalogTemplate.mdb located in the <Program Files>\GeoMedia\Templates\Catalogs
folder. This catalog template is an Access database with tables defined as per the metadata
model and containing no metadata. Only the system-specific tables having static data, like
the system parameters and field names, are populated. When you select a template, the
command checks whether it is a valid GeoMedia catalog template or not.
To create the new catalog after selecting the template, you specify a name for the catalog
or select an existing .mdb file in the default <warehouse location>\Catalogs folder. The
command then creates the catalog based on the selected template. If the template is valid
and it has some catalog records, all the records are copied into the new catalog. A template
can be created to easily enter metadata information for information that is the same.
When the catalog is created, a connection is opened for the new catalog, and it is added to
the CatalogConnections collection. The name of the catalog connection is set as the
catalog name itself. If a catalog connection exists with the same name, an incrementing
digit is added to the end of the name.

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Working with GeoMedia

To create a new catalog:


1. Select Tools > Catalogs > New Catalog.

2. Select the appropriate catalog template; then click Open.

3. Type the appropriate File name; then click Save.


The template is validated, and if valid, the catalog is created.

Creating a New Catalog Connection


New Catalog Connection lets you connect to multiple geospatial catalogs that are
compatible with GeoMedia. This connection is then available for use with other catalog
commands. You can open a catalog in read-write, in read-only, or in closed states.
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Working with Catalogs

You can make the following two types of connections:


• Access database—Catalog is a Microsoft Access database (default), with the default
connection name Access Catalog Connection <Number starting from 1>, for example,
Access Catalog Connection 1.
• ODBC database—Catalog is located in an SQL Server or Oracle database, with the
default connection name ODBC Catalog Connection <Number starting from 1>, for
example, ODBC Catalog Connection 1.
For Access, you select the location of the Microsoft Access database file (.mdb) to which
you want to establish a connection. For ODBC, you select the data source name (DSN) of
the catalog to which you want to establish a connection. You then provide additional
parameters for the SQL or Oracle database.
The command makes the connection to the catalog with maximum permissions available to
you. Initially the command tries the connection in the read-write state. If this fails it tries
to open the connection in the read-only state. If a connection fails, it is added to the list of
the catalog connections, but its state is set to closed. If a connection to the same database
already exists, a message is displayed telling you to use the existing connection. In this
case, the connection is not made.

Note: Access-based warehouses, catalogs, and libraries all use *.mdb files. You should
maintain these in separate folders in order to make the individual database type more easily
found. In addition, the software has separate folder locations for the Access versions of
these files, and you should add the word catalog, library, or warehouse to filenames in
order to distinguish them from each other. Oracle and SQL Server can also contain
libraries and catalogs, and the associated schemas should be named to distinguish them
from standard spatial schemas.

To create a new catalog connection:


1. Select Tools > Catalogs > New Catalog Connection.
2. Select Access database as the Connection type.

OR
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Working with GeoMedia

Select ODBC database as the Connection type.

3. Change the default connection Name if appropriate.


4. For Access, type the complete path of the .mdb file, or select the Database file name
through Browse.
OR
For ODBC, select the Data source name from the drop-down list.
5. Click OK.
For Access, the connection is made.
OR
For ODBC, type the username and password in the SQL or Oracle dialog boxes that
are displayed, and then the connection is made.

Managing Catalog Connections


Catalog Connections lets you manage the connection information of catalogs in a manner
similar to the Warehouse > Connections command of GeoMedia. This command lets you
perform the following:
• Make a new catalog connection.
• Review a list of all available catalog connections in a GeoWorkspace.
• Change the state of a catalog connection (open read-write, open read-only, or closed).
• Edit the catalog connection parameters of an existing connection.
• Delete an existing open or closed catalog connection.
All catalog connections present in the GeoWorkspace are displayed in the connection grid
on the Catalog Connections dialog box. The rows in the grid are sorted alphabetically
based on the Name column. You can resize this grid as appropriate.
The connection grid has the following read-only columns:

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Working with Catalogs

Name—Catalog connection names, with an icon at the start of the cell indicating the state:
Open Read-Write
Open Read-Only
Closed
Type—Catalog connection type, Access or ODBC.
Catalog—Location of the database .mdb file for an Access database or the data source
name for an Oracle or SQL Server database. You can edit the location of the catalog using
the Properties but not directly from the cell of the grid.

To create a new connection:


1. Select Tools > Catalogs > Catalog Connections.

2. Click New.
3. Select Access database as the Connection type.

OR
Select ODBC database as the Connection type.

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Working with GeoMedia

4. Change the default connection Name if appropriate.


5. For Access, type the complete path of the .mdb file, or select the Database file name
through Browse.
OR
For ODBC, type the complete path of the Data source name, or select it from the
drop-down list.
6. Click OK.
For Access, the connection is made.
OR
For ODBC, type the username and password in the Oracle or SQL Server dialog boxes
that are displayed, and then the connection is made.

To open or close connections:


1. Select Tools > Catalogs > Catalog Connections.
2. Select the row of the connection that you want to open or close.
3. Click Open Connection or Close Connection as appropriate.

To edit a catlog connection:


1. Select Tools > Catalogs > Catalog Connections.
2. Select the row of the connection that you want to edit.
3. Click Close Connection if the connection is open.
4. Click Properties.

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Working with Catalogs

5. Change the location of the .mdb file for an Access database or the data source name for
an Oracle or SQL Server database.

Importing Catalog Records


Import Catalog Records lets you import catalog records from multiple sources into a
read-write catalog. Thus, this command is a timesaving tool that allows the easy
integration, sharing, and storage of data. To use this command, at least one read-write
catalog connection must exist in the GeoWorkspace. When you select a catalog, a
connection is made to the catalog if it is not already open, that is, the catalog connection is
opened on-demand by the command but not during the GeoWorkspace load. You must
supply a password to establish a connection to the catalog if it is required.
Imported records can be from the following exchange formats: GCE (GeoMedia Catalog
Exchange Format), TXT (FGDC), and XML (FGDC). You can import multiple files of the
same format in a single import operation. In addition, you can apply a filter on the list of
selected files. Based on the selected import format, the filter is the selected format or all
files, as follows:
Selected Format Filter
GCE • GeoMedia Catalog Exchange Files (.gce)
• SMMS Exchange Format Files (.sef)
• All Files
TXT (FGDC) • FGDC Formatted Text files (.txt)
• All Files
XML (FGDC) • FGDC standard XML Documents (.xml)
• All Files
XML files can be used by different applications when they conform to a published
Document Type Declaration (DTD) file, which defines tag names and proper sequence, or
to an XML schema. For exporting metadata content, and for importing metadata generated
by other applications, Catalog uses the standard FGDC metadata DTD file: FGDC-STD-
001-1998 (Version 2) – http://www.fgdc.gov/metadata/fgdc-std-001-1998.dtd.
Other applications may generate XML files which use variants of this XML format.
Therefore, Catalog users will minimize potential errors in the import process by always

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Working with GeoMedia

pre-processing a metadata XML file with the mp application available from the U.S.
Geological Survey. The no-cost mp utility can parse and output a metadata record into an
FGDC-compliant format that is acceptable for FGDC clearinghouse submission and for
import into Catalog. This and other metadata utilities are available for free download
through the USGS website at http://geology.usgs.gov/tools/metadata/.
Catalog users can process any XML metadata file through mp and can generate an output
XML file which is completely compliant, along with helpful information about metadata
fields which may be missing or incorrect.
This command Import Catalog Records creates one catalog record for each imported file.
The record is created in the catalog with a primary key consisting of the FGDC-standard
content field title as contained in the selected file. If a catalog record with same title exists
in the destination catalog, an error is generated, and the import process for that record is
aborted.
Each import generates log files (.log) listing the results of the import operation. There are
two types of log files, an individual log file for each input file and a summary log file for
the entire import operation. The log files are output to the folder in which the input files
reside, unless that folder is read-only. In this case, the log files are output to your \tmp
folder.

To import catalog records:


1. Select Tools > Catalogs > Import Catalog Records.

2. Type the location from where the import files are to be read, or use Browse to select
the location.
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Working with Catalogs

3. Select the appropriate file(s) from the Available files list.

Note: A tooltip is attached to the filenames so that long filenames can be read easily.

4. Select the appropriate Import format option.


5. Optional: Select a file type from the Files of type drop-down list to filter the
Available files list.
6. Select the appropriate Target catalog from the drop-down list; then click OK.
The status of the import for the selected set of files is displayed in the status bar, the
catalog records are imported from the selected source file(s) to the selected catalog,
and an Import complete message is displayed.
The target catalog connection is opened if it is in the closed state and it prompts for
the password in this process in the case of ODBC catalog. If the connection cannot be
opened in Read-Write mode, a message is displayed because the import cannot be
done on the Read-Only/Closed connection.

Hints about Importing Metadata


• The Catalog database structure will recognize contacts, citations, and other “re-usable”
components of imported metadata records if they have the same names as those
contacts, citations, and so on, that are already in the Catalog database. Catalog will not
update a contact, citation, or other component of existing metadata records when new
(records) contain the same “key” information.
• View the Importing Metadata dialog box to determine whether your record(s) was
imported successfully. You might want to view or save the import LOG file(s) that
results from the import operation in order to learn about any import errors or warning
conditions. If you choose to save the LOG file(s) for further use, Catalog will provide
a default filename, such as My_File.XML.ERR, and will default to the same folder
from which the import records were selected.
• If the Importing Metadata command is unable to import a file, you should consult
Catalog Help regarding the use of the mp utility to validate the file as part of your
preparation for importing data.
• The import process can be aborted pressing ESC.

Exporting Catalog Records


Export Catalog Records lets you output multiple catalog records for distribution of data,
for submission to a metadata clearinghouse, for exchange with other users, and for general
viewing outside of GeoMedia, that is, using Web browser software. This command
exports the catalog records from a specified catalog into files of a selected format in a
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Working with GeoMedia

specified destination folder. The default destination folder is the \Catalogs subfolder of
your \Warehouses folder. The exported file is named are <Record title>.<export file type>.
In case the title of the exported record contains invalid characters for file naming in
Windows, these characters are replaced by an underscore ( _ ) in naming the exported file.
This command generates one or more files for each exported metadata record.

The Difference between Exporting and Publishing


The Export Catalog Records command produces two kinds of metadata files. While the
results may seem similar, the intent of the two groups of file types is different, as follows:
• Catalog records that are “exported” are intended for exchange with other Catalog users,
and for use in other software applications.
• Catalog records that are “published ” are intended for general viewing outside of
Catalog; usually with Web browser software.
HTML files are exclusively for viewing, and GCE files are exclusively for export to other
Catalog users. TXT files can be used for either, and XML files may be created for file
exchange or – when a style sheet reference is included – for viewing.
To use the Export Catalog Records command, at least one catalog must exist in the
GeoWorkspace. When you select a catalog, a connection is made to the catalog if it is not
already open, that is, the catalog connection is opened on-demand by the command but not
during the GeoWorkspace load. You must supply a password to establish a connection to
the catalog if it is required.
You can export catalog records into the following file formats selected on the Export tab
of the command dialog box: HTML, GCE, TXT (FGDC), XML (FGDC), and XML (ISO).
Each format lets you select different parameters on the Advanced tab, as follows:

Export Format: HTML TXT GCE XML XML


(FGDC) (FGDC) (ISO)
Sections to include:
User Defined √ √
Identification √ √
Data Quality √ √
Spatial Data Organization √ √
Entity and Attributes √ √
Distribution √ √
Metadata Reference √ √
Options:
Rollup empty fields √ √
Include biological profile √ √ √ √
Include map display √
Publish using style sheet √ √ √
Sections to include—Lets you select which FGDC metadata sections to export.
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Working with Catalogs

Options:
• Rollup empty fields—Lets you exclude all the empty metadata elements.
• Include biological profile—Lets you include the metadata content belonging to
biological profiles.
• Include map display—Lets you include a map display of the record. This option is
not applicable if the selected record is nongraphic.
Publish using style sheet, displayed only for the XML (FGDC) and XML (ISO)
formats—Lets you attach a style sheet to the exported data. You can type the style sheet
path or browse to select the style sheet.
A style sheet customizes the display of your catalog content. It is attached to the exported
XML file to view the XML data in a browser. For XML(ISO) only, the core elements are
published using a style sheet. Four style sheets are delivered in the \Program
Files\GeoMedia\stylesheets\catalogs folder: FGDC_classic.xsl, FGDC_FAQ.xsl,
ViewDetails.xsl, and ISO_Stylesheet1.xsl.

Note: XSL is a language for expressing style sheets. An XSL style sheet is a file that
describes how to display an XML document of a given type. The XSL style sheets used to
display GeoMedia catalog metadata records in your Web browser include bits of
programming known as scripts. Scripts are termed active content; examples of familiar
active content include stock tickers, video, and animated content on Web pages. In order
to properly display metadata in FGDC.XML or ISO.XML format, be sure that your Web
browser is set to allow the running of scripts.

Each export generates log files (.log) listing the results of the export operation. There are
two types of log files, an individual log file for each catalog record exported and a
summary log file for the entire export operation. In case the title of the exported record
contains invalid characters for file naming in Windows, these characters are replaced by an
underscore ( _ ) in naming the log file. The log files are output to the export folder.

To export catalog records:


1. Select Tools > Catalogs > Export Catalog Records.

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Working with GeoMedia

2. On the General tab, select the appropriate Catalog connection from the drop-down
list.
3. Select the appropriate open catalog record(s) from the Records list.
4. Select the appropriate Export format option.
5. Type the appropriate location where the export files are to be saved in the Export
folder field, or use Browse to select it.
6. Select the Advanced tab; then set the available parameters appropriately.
(The following example is the Advanced tab for the HTML export format.)

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Working with Catalogs

(The following example is the Advanced tab for the XML (ISO) export format.)

If the style sheet you want to use is available on your network, browse to its location,
and select the XSL file you want to use. Click Open and OK. Until you change this
selection, Catalog will publish all XML (ISO) metadata records with a link to this style
sheet.
Some users map network drives to their machines with the possibility of remapping in
the future. If this applies to you, you may want to use a UNC pathname, for example,
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Working with GeoMedia

\\gisdataserver\metadata\My_Style.XSL, as opposed to placing a drive letter in the


path. If you remap using a UNC, you will not have to re-attach to the database.
If you want to publish XML metadata on the Web and the style sheet you want to use
is available on a website, do not browse to its location—instead, type or paste in the
full URL for the style sheet, such as
http://www.gisdataserver.org/metadata/My_Style.XSL.
7. Click Apply.
The status of the export for the selected records is displayed in the status bar, the
selected catalog records are exported, and the files are stored in the destination folder.

Select Text Styles and Graphic File for XML Display


An XSL style sheet is a file that describes how to display an XML document of a given
type, and an accomplished XSL editor can control many aspects of the display of the
metadata content contained in an Catalog XML record. You can control the font, colors,
and size of text displayed in your XML metadata reports by editing a custom style sheet.
Each of the XSL (style sheet) files supplied with catalogs is located in the
<HOME>\StyleSheets\Catalogs folder, and contains identical code that defines text font,
color, and size used when that style sheet is used. XSL editors can use Notepad or another
tool to edit the class definitions that are encoded in the beginning of the style sheet. The
style sheet is initially delivered with following classes:
CLASS RENDERS
.title Title of the report
.contents List of sections
.sectionname Hyper linked section names
.tag Metadata element headings
.text Element content of type text
.biotag Biological element headings
.biotext Text of biological elements
XSL editors can also eliminate the GeoMedia graphic displayed at the top-left corner of
XML metadata reports, or replace it with the graphic identity of the enterprise graphic, by
editing any of the style sheets delivered with GeoMedia Catalog. The four XSL files
supplied with Catalog use the following graphic:
• <HOME>\StyleSheets\tech_geomedia.gif as the graphic file that displays by default.
XSL editors can create a graphic file of similar size, located in any convenient
pathname.

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Working with Catalogs

Associating Catalog Records


Associate Catalog Records lets you link a catalog record to the dataset, which is the
GeoMedia feature class or image that it describes. This allows you to do the following:
• Capture certain metadata elements automatically.
• Provide a visual view of your data.
• Export browse graphics on the fly when generating an HTML report.
To use this command, at least one catalog connection must exist in the GeoWorkspace.
When you select a catalog connection, the catalog will be opened if it is not already open,
that is, the catalog connection is opened on-demand by the command but not during the
GeoWorkspace load. You must supply a password to establish a connection to the catalog
if it is required.
To associate the catalog record, the catalog must be connected in the read-write state. The
association information of a dataset is persisted in the catalog. You can associate a feature
class or an image file. Supported image file formats are the same as those of the GeoMedia
raster system that are georeferenced.
You can associate a dataset with a catalog record as a foreground layer or as a background
layer. The first dataset associated is called the foreground layer. The catalog record can be
associated to a second dataset called the background layer, which helps provide a frame-of-
reference for the associated dataset. For example, a dataset that displays rivers in a state is
more useful if a background layer showing the state is displayed with it. Therefore, the
background layer must thus have the same projection as the foreground layer. This
command associates a dataset (foreground or background) to a catalog record and captures
spatial-related metadata from the associated (foreground) dataset. Each catalog record can
point to zero, one, or two GeoMedia feature classes, which are then used in map displays
of the spatial data described by the catalog record.
Associate Catalog Records also displays the available catalog record titles from the
connected catalogs before making an association. Catalog record titles are displayed along
with icons to indicate whether or not the catalog record already has an association with a
feature class as a foreground layer, as follows:
—With an associated dataset in the foreground layer
—Without an associated dataset in the foreground layer
In addition, this command lets you create a new catalog record. You can create an entirely
new catalog record, create a blank catalog record, or create one from an existing catalog
record. If the latter, the new catalog record is created, and the content of the existing
catalog record with any modified FGDC sections are copied into the new one. Once
created, you can then associate a dataset to the new catalog record.
You can also disassociate a dataset from a catalog record and re-associate a dataset with a
catalog record. Disassociating a dataset breaks the link between the dataset and a catalog
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Working with GeoMedia

record, updating the relevant metadata record of the catalog. Once disassociated, the
dataset can no longer be previewed.
This command also captures spatially related metadata after associating a dataset
(foreground) to a catalog record. The captured information is stored in related fields in the
catalog record. This allows synchronizing the captured metadata stored in a catalog to
reflect changes to the associated dataset in the foreground. Captured metadata elements are
the following:
• Bounding coordinates—The limits of coverage of a dataset expressed by latitude and
longitude values. This compound metadata element is stored in the
Identification/Spatial domain section.
• Attribute name—The identity of all attributes associated with the feature class. This
metadata element is stored in the Entity and Attributes section.
• Point and vector object information—The type and number of vector or non-
gridded-point spatial objects in the dataset. This compound metadata element is stored
in the Spatial Data Organization section.
Finally, this command lets you view the associations and complete metadata content for a
selected catalog record. Thus, you can see the spatial data captured during a capture
operation.

To associate a catalog record as a foreground or background layer:


1. Select Tools > Catalogs > Associate Catalog Records.

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Working with Catalogs

2. Select the appropriate catalog connection to display the treeview of Available catalog
records.
3. Select the appropriate catalog record to associate.
4. Select the appropriate Dataset associations > Foreground layer/Background layer
option.
For Foreground layer, if a feature class is associated to the record, warehouse
connection and feature information is displayed. If an image is associated to the
record, the image folder and image file name are displayed.
For Background layer, if a feature class is associated to the record, warehouse
connection and feature information is displayed. If an image is associated to the
record, the image folder and image file name are displayed.
5. For a feature class, click Associate Feature Class.
OR
For an image file, click Associate Image File.
6. For a feature class, select the appropriate connection and Feature class to which the
catalog record needs to be associated; then click OK.

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Working with GeoMedia

OR
For an image file, select the appropriate connection and image file to which the catalog
record needs to be associated; then click OK.

To create a new catalog record:


1. Select Tools > Catalogs > Associate Catalog Records.
2. Click New Catalog Record.

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Working with Catalogs

Note: The width of the Catalog record field expands to fit the largest item in the list.

3. Type the Title of the new record. Go to Step 7.


OR
Type the Title of an existing record. Continue with Step 4.
4. Check the Create from check box.
5. Select the appropriate entry from the Catalog record drop-down list.
6. Check the appropriate Sections to include check boxes for the FGDC sections whose
contents are to be copied from the existing catalog record into the new one.
7. Click OK.
The new catalog record is created with the user-specified title in the selected catalog,
and the newly added catalog record is displayed in the Available catalog records
treeview under the relevant catalog.

To capture information:
1. Select Tools > Catalogs > Associate Catalog Records.
2. Select the appropriate catalog connection to display the treeview of Available catalog
records.
3. Select the appropriate catalog record.
4. Click Capture.

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Working with GeoMedia

The metadata elements of the catalog record are updated by capturing relevant
information from the associated foreground layer.

To view catalog details:


1. Select Tools > Catalogs > Associate Catalog Records.
2. Select the appropriate catalog connection to display the treeview of Available catalog
records.
3. Select the appropriate catalog record.
4. Click View Details.
A system-supported browser window is opened, and the metadata content is displayed
as an XML file using the ViewDetails.xsl style sheet.

Exploring Catalogs
Catalog Explorer provides a functional and practical means for you to manage your data
and metadata. This command provides a powerful tool for quickly locating and
previewing datasets in your GIS data library. You can browse catalog records from
multiple catalogs and locate datasets according to metadata keywords, attributes, time
period, or geographic area.
To use this command, at least one catalog connection must exist in the GeoWorkspace.
When you select a catalog connection, the catalog will be opened if it is not already open,
that is, the catalog connection is opened on-demand by the command but not during the
GeoWorkspace load. You must supply a password to establish a connection to the catalog
if it is required.
With this command, you can view a list of open catalogs and the catalog records that they
contain. You can then select one of the catalog records in the Windows Explorer-style
treeview, and view the important metadata content, as follows:
• Title and the contact persons for the metadata and the dataset
• Preview of the map if the catalog record is associated to a feature class
• Basic description
• Important spatial metadata content
You can define specific criteria for searching within open catalogs, and you can clear and
redefine a search. This search criteria for the selection of catalog records include the
following:
• Contains any or none of the listed keywords
• Contains any of the listed attributes
• Corresponds to the time period of content
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Working with Catalogs

• Contains the warehouse type of the associated dataset


• Contained in the bounding region you select
After you have executed a search based on the search criteria entered, you can view the
search results as a list of catalog records. You can then load the feature classes associated
with the selected catalog record(s) into an active map window. You can also view a
detailed display of a catalog record.

Looking at the Catalog Explorer Interface


You perform all of the previously discussed tasks through the Catalog Explorer dialog
box. This dialog box has three main sections. The treeviews section to the left contains
two treeview panels for displaying available catalog records and search results. The tabs
section to the right contains five tabs for viewing important catalog record content
summary, for entering search criteria, and performing a search. The commands section at
the bottom contains the commands for viewing catalog record details and for loading
feature data.

Catalog Record and Search Result Treeviews


In this section, the Available catalog records field displays all the catalog connections in
the GeoWorkspace in the collapsed mode. When you expand any catalog node, a
connection is made to the catalog if it is not already open, that is, the catalog connection is
opened on-demand by the command but not during the GeoWorkspace load. You must

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Working with GeoMedia

supply a password to establish a connection to the catalog if it is required. A selected


catalog is highlighted to indicate that it is the active catalog and that it can be expanded to
view the catalog records. You can only select one catalog record at a time. When you
select a catalog record, the metadata summary of an active record is displayed in the first
four tabs to the right of the treeview.
The icon to the left of each catalog record indicates whether or not the item is already
associated with a feature class, as shown below:

—With associated dataset in the foreground. Both the


dataset and metadata are available to preview.

—Without an associated dataset in the foreground. Only


the metadata is available to preview.

The Search results treeview is populated with the list of titles of the search results when a
search is executed on all connected catalogs. The search operation is based on the search
criteria entered in the Search Criteria subtab of the Search tab. You can select one of the
catalog records in the list to view the metadata summary. The selection of the catalog
record in the Available catalog records treeview and in the Search results treeview is
synchronized. Thus, if you select one catalog record in the Search results treeview, the
same item is highlighted in the Available catalog records treeview and the metadata
summary of a selected record is displayed in the tabs to the right. Similarly, if you select a
catalog record in the Available catalog records treeview, the corresponding item in the
Search results treeview is selected if the item exists, and the metadata summary of a
selected record is displayed in the tabs to the right. When multiple catalog records are to
be selected for a load operation, you select them by selecting multiple items from the list.
When multiple items are selected in this list, however, there is no synchronization with the
Available catalog records treeview and the Search results treeview, and no metadata
summary is displayed in the tabs.

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Working with Catalogs

View Details and Load Feature Data Commands


In the bottom section, View Details lets you view the complete content of a selected
catalog record in a system-supported browser window. The catalog record content is
displayed as an XML file using the ViewDetails.xsl style sheet. This button is enabled
when you select one catalog record, with or without foreground association, from the
Available catalog records treeview or from the Search results treeview.

Note: The graphic file, style elements, and content displayed by the ViewDetails.xsl style
sheet can be modified to conform to your preferences and enterprise standards by anyone
who has the XML authoring tools and system privileges to modify this or other style sheets
delivered in the <HOME>\StyleSheets\Catalogs folder.

Load Feature Data lets you create, open, and use warehouse connection(s) and feature
classes in GeoMedia that are associated with the selected catalog record(s). This command
is enabled when you select one or more catalog records from the Available catalog
records treeview or from the Search results treeview. If you need to select a single
record, you can do so from the Available catalog records treeview or from the Search
results treeview.
Load Feature Data checks whether the selected catalog record(s) have associated feature
class(es). Catalog records that are not associated to a dataset, or that are associated to an
image file, are skipped. For each qualifying feature class, the command checks whether a
GDO warehouse connection is already established. To identify whether the warehouse
connection already exists or not, the command tries to match the location and the
connection information for each connection in the connection collection on the document
with that of the dataset of the selected catalog. If the command finds an exact matching
connection, with a closed status, it tries to open the connection in the read-only state. If
command does not find a matching connection already connected, a new connection is
created by generating a unique name for the connection based on the type of the dataset
(‘<Type> Connection <numeric>’) for example, ‘OracleORO Connection 1’. The new
connection is always opened in the read-only state, irrespective of the type of the dataset,
for example, Oracle read-write or read-only. If such a connection already exists but is
closed, the connection is opened. If it is possible to open the connection in the read-write
state, the connection is opened. If such a connection already exists and is open, no further
action related to the connection is required.
Once an open connection is established, the associated feature class is added to the active
map window legend, if a map window is indeed active and if the feature class in question is
a spatial feature class. A legend is created using the name of the feature class as the title,
and this name is added to the legend entries collection in the first position. This is repeated
for all the catalog records you select. The log file LoadFeatures.log is created in the user
\temp folder to log any errors in making connections.

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Working with GeoMedia

Catalog Explorer Tabs


The five Catalog Explorer tabs in the left section of the dialog box let you browse and
search catalog records. These tabs are the following: Description, Identification,
Spatial, Attributes, and Search.
All the tabs except the Search tab are summary tabs. You define the search criteria on the
Search tab and review the results on the summary tabs. The Search tab is always enabled,
but the behavior of the summary tabs varies. The summary tabs are:
• Disabled when you only select a catalog connection node.
• Enabled when you select one catalog record having an association from the Available
catalog records or Search results.
• Enabled when you select one unbound record (having no foreground association) from
the Available catalog records or Search results.
• Enabled when multiple records are selected in Search results, and the content for the
selected catalog record of the available records treeview is displayed.
• Selecting a catalog record from the Available catalog records treeview, which does not
have a foreground and background association, the Summary map displays a message
saying “Map not Available.” In the case of an invalid dataset association (that is, the
dataset cannot be connected), the summary map displays a message saying “Unable to
connect to the database. Please verify that your warehouse-connection parameters are
correct and try again.”
Description tab—Displays the Abstract, Purpose, and Supplemental metadata elements.
These elements are displayed in their respective read-only fields.

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Working with Catalogs

Identification tab—Displays important metadata elements of the Identification section:


Dataset contact, Metadata contact, Theme keywords, Place keywords, keywords,
Stratum keywords, Temporal keywords, Time period, Access constraints, Use
constraints, Dataset credit, and Native dataset environment. Keywords may consist of
one or more words and are separated by commas (,).

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Working with GeoMedia

Spatial tab—Displays a map preview of the associated feature class of the selected catalog
record. A catalog record can have two feature classes associated to it, one to display the
foreground layer and one to display the background layer. The map control is disabled if
either of the following two conditions exists:
• The metadata has no associated feature class for the foreground layer.
• The selection is on a catalog node in the Available catalog records treeview.
To the left of the map is a toolbar that lets you display and browse the map content.
Show Map—Display map or data, if available.
Zoom In—Zoom in on features.
Zoom Out—Zoom out from features.
Pan—Pan map features.
Full Extent—Display full extent (fit all) of the map.

This tab also displays read-only association details and spatial-related metadata elements of
the two feature class layers. For the foreground layer it displays the feature class name,
warehouse, number of features in the map, and map projection. For the background layer
it displays the image filename, image folder, and bounding coordinates.

Note: The projection of the displayed map is always predefined as geographic, and the
symbology is also predefined and hard coded.

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Working with Catalogs

Attributes tab—Displays all the Attribute labels and their Attribute definition for the
entity named captured. FGDC metadata can contain multiple entities for the dataset it is
explaining. An entity contains multiple attributes. Each attribute has a name, a value, and
several associated properties. The attributes of the associated feature class are captured
and placed under an entity named captured.

Search tab—Contains two subtabs, Text/Data Criteria and Spatial Criteria, that let you
enter search criteria to search for metadata. You can search on the following criteria:
• Keywords • Time period
• Attributes • Geographic area
The Text/Date Criteria tab contains the following frames: Keywords, Attributes, Not
containing keywords (excluded), Associated dataset type, and Time period of content.
The Keywords and Attributes frames let you enter a list of keywords or attributes. The
search process finds the catalog records containing one of the keywords or attributes from
the list. Clicking Add appends the new keyword or attribute to a list. The excluded frame
finds the catalog records not containing the keywords from the list.
The Associated dataset type frame lets you select catalog records associated with a
specific type of warehouse. The Time period of content frame lets you enter the time
period of interest to which the metadata corresponds.

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Working with GeoMedia

The Spatial Criteria tab is for the interactive capture of bounding extents of the interested
spatial area for a search. The Bounding coordinates frame contains a feature class
(having geometry) selection field, a search graphic, and bounding extents fields. The
command automatically fills in the bounding coordinates based on the search area defined
and searches for corresponding bounding coordinates entered in the metadata records.
This tab gives you a geographic display so you can select a region to search for the data
you want. The catalog search is based on the spatial extent values that you enter manually
or that you capture from a map by rubber banding. The display contains the feature class
selected for reference in the map. To the left of the map is a toolbar that lets you display
and browse the map content, as described for the Spatial tab, and the Bounding Extent
button, which lets you rubber band on the map: .

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Working with Catalogs

Note: The projection of the displayed map is always predefined as geographic, and the
symbology is also predefined and hard coded.

The Search tab also has two command buttons, Search and Clear. Search lets you
perform the search on open catalogs to select catalog records satisfying the search criteria
entered in the Spatial Criteria tab, and it then lets you send the results to the Search
results treeview. To perform a search from this tab, you must either edit existing search
criteria to create new search criteria, or you must clear existing search criteria and search
results with Clear, and then enter the new search criteria. This command is enabled when
any of the controls on this tab are populated.
You can navigate through the search results by clicking the summary tabs and by clicking
the record of interest in the Search results list. This provides a quick means of locating a
dataset, especially for those organizations with hundreds or thousands of datasets to
manage.

To explore catalogs:
1. Select Tools > Catalogs > Catalog Explorer.

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Working with GeoMedia

2. Select the appropriate catalog connection to display the treeview of Available catalog
records.
3. Select the appropriate catalog record.
4. Select the Description tab to view the corresponding information.
5. Select the Identification tab to view the corresponding information.
6. Select the Spatial tab to view the corresponding information.
7. To display the map/data if the map display area contains the message Click the Show
Map button to view the data, click Show Map on the toolbar.
8. Select the Attributes tab to view the corresponding information.
9. Select the Search tab to perform a metadata search.
10. Select the Text/Data Criteria bottom tab; then enter the appropriate search criteria.
11. Select the Spatial Criteria bottom tab; then enter the appropriate search criteria.
12. Click Search.
The results are displayed in the Search results treeview.

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Working with Catalogs

Sample Catalog Explorer Workflows


A client has called to ask if you have any data for highways in the U.S. You plan on trying
to do a GIS-based search for this data with no metadata. However, it is difficult to
navigate through the data because there are over 50 features on the legend with names that
are not descriptive. When you display a dataset in the map window, it is also difficult to
know its quality. Therefore, you have decided to perform a metadata-based search using
the Catalogs commands in the following workflow:
1. Start Catalog Explorer, which is your query and display tool for geospatial metadata
catalogs. The GIS data stored in the USSampleData.mdb warehouse is described by
metadata records that are stored in Catalog_Samples.mdb.
2. Next, use the Available catalog records treeview to expand the USSampleData
connection. This results in a list of the catalog records being displayed.
You can easily find datasets with this approach because the catalog record names are
more descriptive than the feature class names in the legend. In addition, the summary
tabs provide information about the dataset, such as abstract and purpose.
3. Select the record named Highway Interchanges -- USA_Sample_Data for GM6.0
to view the corresponding metadata elements.
4. To load the selected dataset into GeoMedia, use Load Feature Data.

Another client has called to ask if you have any U.S. data in your warehouses of worldwide
feature classes. To perform a search on all of the feature classes described in the catalog,
you select the Search tab and then the Spatial Criteria subtab. Define a region around the
U.S. in the displayed map – zoom in, if you would like. Then click Search, which
generates a search result set based on the bounding region.

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Working with GeoMedia

1. To perform a related search using a keyword, select the Text/Date Criteria subtab of
the Search tab. Type highway in the Enter keywords field, click Add, and then
click Search.
Notice that the feature classes appearing as Search Results is reduced; you have
generated a search result set based on the spatial selection and on the keyword.
2. The client is happy you found the data, but now has asked you to provide a digital
copy of the data in HTML format. To do this, use the Export Catalog Record
command, selecting the catalog records included in your search results as the metadata
to export. Then select the HTML export format (keeping the advanced defaults and
including the map display), and then perform the export.
3. You were quickly able to query and to display for the client key information on U.S.
geospatial datasets that are related to highways. Your client is really seeing the value
of metadata management.

Glossary of Catalog Terminology


The following is a list of useful terms when working with catalogs:
Catalog: A database that serves as a repository of metadata records. Also termed a
metadata database.
Dataset: GeoMedia feature class or image file associated with a metadata record. The
metadata record stores the connection and other information related to the feature class
associated with a metadata record.

Note: According to the ISO-19115 Metadata standard: “A dataset may be a smaller


grouping of data which, though limited by some constraint such as spatial extent or feature
type, is located physically within a larger dataset. Theoretically, a dataset may be as small
as a single feature or feature attribute contained within a larger dataset. A hardcopy map or
chart may be considered a dataset.”

FGDC: U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee, which supports the “Content Standard
for Digital Geospatial Metadata.” See http://www.fgdc.gov/metadata.
GCE: GeoMedia Catalog Exchange. A file format for the exchange (export and import)
of metadata records among GeoMedia Catalog users.
Geospatial Catalog: See Catalog.
Geospatial Metadata: Data that describes the content, quality, condition, and other
characteristics of geospatial data.
ISO: International Organization for Standardization, which is the world's largest
developer of standards. An ISO technical committee is responsible for the development of
ISO-19115 and ISO-19139, which are international standards and technical specifications
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Working with Catalogs

prescribing the content and expression of geospatial metadata. See


http://www.isotc211.org.
Metadata: Information about data. For the purposes of this document, see Geospatial
Metadata.
Metadata element: A data element is a logically primitive item of metadata. A
compound metadata element is a group of logically related data elements and other
compound elements.
Metadata record: A single logical entity, which is a collection of related data (metadata
elements) describing geospatial data. A key field (title) identifies each metadata record
uniquely within a catalog.
SEF: SMMS exchange format. A file format for the import of metadata generated from
legacy Intergraph metadata products.

Software Delivery
GeoMedia Catalog functions will be delivered as part of GeoMedia by using the default
delivery folder of C:\Program Files\GeoMedia. These are referenced as “<HOME>” in
the remainder of this section.
GeoMedia software components will be delivered to the folder <HOME>\Program.
GeoMedia Catalog functions require the delivery of database(s), style sheet(s), and other
files that will be located in the structure detailed in the following table.
Catalog Components Delivery Table
Files/Folders Description Location
CatalogTemplate.mdb Template access Catalog <HOME>\Templates\Catalogs
required for the New
Catalog command.
Catalog_Samples.mdb Sample Catalog required <Drive>:\Warehouses\Catalogs
for the New Catalog
Connection command.
World.mdb GeoMedia warehouse used <Drive>:\Warehouses
in the Catalog Explorer
command as the default
search map.
Oracle Scripts Template scripts required <Home>\Program
for creating Oracle
catalogs.
SQLServer Scripts Template scripts required <Home>\Program
for creating SQL Server
catalogs.

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Working with GeoMedia

Files/Folders Description Location


FGDC_classic.xsl, Style sheets used to View <HOME>\StyleSheets\Catalogs
FGDC_FAQ.xsl, a Catalog Record, and to
ISO_Stylesheet1.xsl, publish record(s) using
View_Details.xsl the Export Catalog
Records command.
tech_geomedia.gif Default graphic file <HOME>\StyleSheets\Catalogs
displayed by XML style
sheets.
FGDC_to_ISO.xslt, FGDC content is <HOME>\Program
FGDC Dataset translated to XML(ISO)
Metadata Profile.pdf using the xslt in the
Export Catalog Records
command. An ISO
“profile” documents the
logic for transforming
FGDC metadata content to
ISO19139.XML structure,
as performed by the xslt
file.

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Analyzing GeoMedia Data
GeoMedia provides various ways for you to analyze your data using queries. Broadly, a
query is a request for information. Specifically, it is a request for the features that meet the
conditions you define and/or a request for certain information about the features. The
software gives you several ways to define these conditions.
To find features that meet your conditions, you query feature classes in any open
warehouse in the GeoWorkspace or query previously built queries. Queries are stored in
the GeoWorkspace so that, if a warehouse changes, all queries are updated each time they
are displayed. If a default spatial filter is defined for the warehouse connection at the time
the query is defined, the query is limited to the geographic area defined by the spatial filter.
Furthermore, spatial filters, feature classes, interact in three scenarios. First, if a feature
class that has never been accessed in the GeoWorkspace, the feature class has never had a
spatial filter created for it and so gets the default spatial filter. Second, if the feature class
has already been accessed in the GeoWorkspace, it has its own spatial filter and so does not
get the default spatial filter. Third, a query always has its own spatial filter.
The software scans the query area for the features that meet your conditions and then
displays the results geographically in a map window or in tabular format in a data window.
An entry for the query result is added to the legend, and its display can be manipulated
through the legend properties like any other legend entry. In fact, once built, a query can
be treated just like a feature class.

Working with Filter Queries


Filter queries are distinguished primarily by the fact that they return a subset of the features
in a single feature class or query. You can build several types of filter queries although
they have much in common:
• An attribute-filter query allows you to limit the search to individual features whose
attributes contain values that meet the conditions specified by an operator. An
operator is a symbol or expression, such as = (equals) or > (is greater than), that
represents the relationship between two values.
For example, an attribute-filter query would return all parcels with an assessed value of
$50,000 or more.
• A spatial query allows you to limit the search to individual features whose geometry
has a spatial relationship to features from another feature class or query.

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Working with GeoMedia

For example, a spatial query would return all parcels that are within 500 feet of a
railroad.
• A combined attribute and spatial query requests features with certain attribute values
that meet specified spatial conditions, such as overlapping or being contained by
another feature class or query.
For example, a combined attribute and spatial query would return all parcels with an
assessed value of $50,000 or more that are within 500 feet of a railroad.

Note: Attribute filtered spatial queries cannot be run against the results of a Spatial
Intersection query unless the results are first output to a feature class.

• To retrieve information from an MGSM warehouse, you build linear network queries.
MGSM stores distributed attributes that are linearly referenced to network linear
features such as roads, rivers, or pipelines. Linear network queries are a type of
combined spatial and attribute query.
For example, a linear network query would return all segments of a railroad that
intersect accident sites.

Defining Attribute-Filter Queries


In an attribute-filter query, you identify the features you want by defining an attribute
filter. A filter consists of one or more expressions, each consisting of an attribute, an
operator, and a value for the attribute. In a where statement, you can specify a specific
value or a range of values for one attribute or a combination of attributes.
For example, in an attribute-filter query to select all schools where enrollment is less than
400, schools is the feature class, enrollment is the attribute, less than (<) is the operator,
and 400 is the value.
The following operators are available for all attribute queries:
= Equals >= Greater than or equal to
<= Less than or equal to <> Not equal to
> Greater than < Less than
() Parentheses for grouping expressions
and Logical and between two expressions
or Logical or between two expressions
Additional operators, such as the wildcard character % and the Structured Query Language
(SQL) function AVG, are also available from a drop-down list on the Filter dialog box.
Just which operators are available depends on your warehouse connection type.

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Analyzing GeoMedia Data

For example, the following query would find all parcels where the accessed value is greater
than the average accessed value for all parcels:
. . . where assessed_value > (select AVG (assessed_value) from
parcels);
You create compound expressions with the and or the or operator and group expressions
with parentheses ( ).
The and operator means that both statements must be true to produce a query result.
For example, the following query would find all parcels where the owner is J. Smith and
the assessed value is over $50,000:
. . . where parcel_owner = ‘J. Smith’ and assessed_value > 50000;
The or operator means that either statement can be true to produce a query result.
For example, the following query would find all parcels where the owner is either J. Smith
or M. Brown:
. . . where parcel_owner = ‘J. Smith’ or parcel_owner = ‘M. Brown’;
Parentheses can be used to control the order in which an expression is evaluated. By
default, all relational comparison operators (<, >, <>, =,<=, >=) are evaluated first, from
left to right. The logical and operator has a higher precedence than the logical or operator;
so all and operations are performed first. You can use parentheses to change the order.
For example, to find all roads with more than four lanes or divided roads that were paved
before 1994, you would create the following filter:
last_paved < 1994 and num_lanes > 4 or divided = ‘yes’;
Because of the precedence of the and operator, you would get all roads that are divided or
all roads where the number of lanes is greater than four and paved before 1994. To get the
correct results, you would use parentheses as follows:
last_paved < 1994 and (num_lanes > 4 or divided = ‘yes’);
The software uses SQL for creating attribute-filter queries, but its point-and-click interface
allows you to build a query without knowing SQL.

SQL Dialects
Different connection types require different SQL dialects. For example, Access
connections require pound sign (#) delimiters around date and time values, whereas
MGSM connections require the keyword TIMESTAMP followed by single-quote (‘)
delimiters.
The software formats SQL statements into the appropriate dialect for each connection type
except MGE and MGDM. The SQL dialect for MGE and MGDM connections depends on
the ODBC driver. For date and time queries—and possibly others—you must manually
edit the SQL text on the Filter dialog box to issue a successful query.

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Working with GeoMedia

In addition, the Filter dialog box performs the following:


• Displays fields of date, currency, and Boolean data types in the attributes list when
performing a query on a query.
• Displays values for these fields when you click Show Values. These values are
formatted according to the standard attribute formatting rules (that is, they appear as
they appear in the data window, feature properties, and so forth. See table below).
• When you select a value for such an attribute the list and add it to the Filter field, it is
added with any necessary delimiters and with formatting compatible with the SQL
dialect of the AttributeFilterPipe or the GDO server being queried (See table below).
• When you type a value for such an attribute in the Values field above the list and add
it to the Filter field, it is validated in standard support of formatted data entry (that is,
as validated in the data window, feature properties, and so forth), and it is then added
with any necessary delimiters and with formatting compatible with the SQL dialect of
the AttributeFilterPipe or the GDO server being queried (See table below).
• When you type a value for such an attribute in the Filter field, it is interpreted as a
literal and is not reformatted.
• When you selectsfrom the PickList descriptions in the list (either by clicking on one or
by typing the description in the Values field) , the corresponding PickList value is
added to the filter string.
Note: Fields of type LongBinary, Spatial, Graphic, and GUID are not supported by the
Filter dialog box.
Field Value Handling by Field Type for Entry, Presentation, and SQL
Text, Memo Byte, Integer, Boolean Date
Long, Single,
Double, Currency
“Show Values” Standard format (not User-defined User-defined format User-defined
Display and hypertext) format (General (Yes/No, etc., format (Date,
Entry Number, Fixed, custom) Time, Date/Time)
Standard,
Currency, or
Percent)
Attribute Filter Standard format, General Number -1 for TRUE, 0 for See note below.
Pipe SQL delimit with single format, not FALSE, not
quotes, replace delimited delimited
embedded single quotes
with consecutive single
quotes
Note: If user-defined format is “Date”, keyword DATE followed by date value expressed as YYYY-MM-DD,
delimited by single quotes. If user-defined format is “Time”, keyword TIME followed by time value expressed
as HH:MM:SS, delimited by single quotes. If user-defined format is “Date/Time”, keyword TIMESTAMP
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Analyzing GeoMedia Data

followed by date/time value expressed as YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS, delimited by single quotes.


Access GDO See Attribute Filter See Attribute Filter See Attribute Filter See note below
server SQL Pipe Pipe Pipe
Note: If user-defined format is “Date”, date value expressed as MM/DD/YYYY, delimited by pound signs. If
user-defined format is “Time”, time value expressed as HH:MM:SS, delimited by pound signs. If user-defined
format is “Date/Time”, date/time value expressed as MM/DD/YYYY HH:MM:SS, delimited by pound signs.
ArcInfo GDO See Attribute Filter See Attribute Filter See Attribute Filter See Attribute
server SQL Pipe. Pipe. Pipe. Filter Pipe.
ArcView GDO See Attribute Filter See Attribute Filter See Attribute Filter See Attribute
server SQL Pipe. Pipe. Pipe. Filter Pipe.
MapInfo GDO See Attribute Filter See Attribute Filter See Attribute Filter See Attribute
server SQL Pipe. Pipe. Pipe. Filter Pipe.
CAD GDO See Attribute Filter See Attribute Filter See Attribute Filter See Attribute
server SQL Pipe. Pipe. Pipe. Filter Pipe.
FRAMME GDO See Attribute Filter See Attribute Filter Not supported See note below.
server SQL Pipe. Pipe.
Note: Date value expressed as MM/DD/YY, delimited by single quotes; time values are not supported.
MGE GDO See Attribute Filter See Attribute Filter TBD – See note See ODBC
server SQL Pipe Pipe below. Tabular GDO
server.
Note: Differs according to ODBC driver in use. Approach to be taken is TBD.
MGDM GDO See Attribute Filter See Attribute Filter See MGE GDO See MGE GDO
server SQL Pipe. Pipe. server. server.
MGSM GDO See Attribute Filter See Attribute Filter Not supported See note below.
server SQL Pipe. Pipe.
Note: Keyword TIMESTAMP followed by date/time value expressed as YYYY-MM-DD:HH:MM:SS,
delimited by single quotes.
Oracle Relational See Attribute Filter See Attribute Filter See Attribute Filter See Attribute
GDO server SQL Pipe. Pipe. Pipe. Filter Pipe.
Oracle Object See Attribute Filter See Attribute Filter See Attribute Filter See Attribute
GDO server SQL Pipe. Pipe. Pipe. Filter Pipe.
ODBC Tabular See Attribute Filter See Attribute Filter See Attribute Filter See note below.
GDO server SQL Pipe. Pipe. Pipe.
Note: For an ODBC Tabular GDO server, the ODBC escape sequence is used. The entire escape sequence is
enclosed in braces with an identifier for the type of expression (that is, keyword), followed by the expression: {
type expression }. If user-defined format is “Date”, the expression is defined by the keyword d followed by date
value expressed as YYYY-MM-DD, delimited by single quotes. If user-defined format is “Time”, the expression
is defined by the keyword t followed by time value expressed as HH:MM:SS, delimited by single quotes. If user-
defined format is “Date/Time”, the expression is defined by the keyword ts followed by date/time value
expressed as YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS, delimited by single quotes.

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Working with GeoMedia

SQL Server See Attribute Filter See Attribute See Attribute Filter See note below.
GDO server SQL Pipe. Filter Pipe. Pipe.
Note: If user-defined format is “Date”, the date value is expressed as YYYY-MM-DD, delimited by single
quotes. If user-defined format is “Time”, the time value is expressed as HH:MM:SS, delimited by single quotes.
If user-defined format is “Date/Time”, the date/time value is expressed as YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS,
delimited by single quotes.

To define an attribute-filter query:


1. Select Analysis > Attribute Query.

2. On the Options dialog box (Tools > Options), select the Confirm show value
operations check box on the General tab to turn on or off the display of the
confirmation dialog box that appears if you click Show Values when you define a
filter; then click OK.
3. From the Select features in drop-down list, select a feature class or query.
4. If you know SQL and the attribute you want to query, type the where clause in the
Filter box and skip to Step 10. Otherwise, click Filter to display the Filter dialog
box.

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Analyzing GeoMedia Data

5. Select an attribute from the selected feature class and click the down arrow below the
Attributes box, or double click an attribute.

Note: MGE features use the MSLINK value as an identifier. Features in an MGE
warehouse that have graphics but no attributes do not have an MSLINK value. When a
query is performed on such features, the MGE data server assigns them MSLINK
values that are numbered sequentially in the order that they are encountered—that is,
sequentially within each category in map-table order. The first MSLINK number
assigned is 16777217.
When you view attributes in a data window or on the Filter dialog box, non-attributed
features will have the MSLINK identifier assigned by the MGE data server, whereas
attributed features will have an MSLINK, a MAPID, and other attributes.

6. Select an operator. If you select an operator from the drop-down list, you must click
the down arrow to make it appear in the Filter box.
7. To see the list of values in the selected attribute, click Show Values.
If you checked Confirm show value operations on the Options dialog box, the
confirmation message appears.
8. Type a value for the attribute in the Filter box, or select one from the list of values and
click the down arrow, or double click an attribute. You can also type a value in the
Values box.
9. Verify that the SQL statement in the Filter box is correct, and click OK.

Note: For date and time queries—and possibly others—on MGE and MGDM
connections, you may have to manually edit the SQL text on the Filter dialog box to
issue a successful query. This is due to the varying SQL dialects of the various
available ODBC drivers.

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Working with GeoMedia

10. On the Attribute Query dialog box, accept or override the default query name, and
optionally type a query description.
11. Verify that the Display query in map window check box is selected, and change in
the Map window name field, if appropriate, the map window in which to display the
query results.
OR
To not display the query results in a map window, uncheck the Display query in map
window check box.
12. Optional: Click Style, and change the default style on the Select Style dialog box.
13. Verify that the Display query in data window box is checked, and change in the Data
window name field, if appropriate, the data window in which to display the query
results.
OR
To not display the query results in a data window, uncheck the Display query in data
window box.
14. To display the query, click OK.
The query is displayed in accordance with the query options you set.
See the ODBC documentation for instructions.

Defining Spatial Queries


A spatial query defines the relationship between two feature classes using a spatial
operator. The spatial operator forms the that clause of the query statement.
For example in the following query, the word touch is the spatial operator because it
defines the relationship between the two-lane highways and interstate highways:
Find all two-lane highways that touch interstate highways;
The Not qualifier, if checked on the Spatial Query dialog box, simply returns the elements
from the first/top input feature class or query that were not found by the selected operator.
For best results when using Spatial Query, you should create and apply connection filters
to spatially constrain the search area. The spatial query alone does not spatially constrain
the search area of the subject feature class.
See “Working with Spatial Filters” in this chapter.

Available Spatial Operators


The available spatial operators and example graphics of their results areas follows:

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Analyzing GeoMedia Data

Touch returns features that touch the defined features in any way—meeting, overlapping,
containing, or being contained by.
touch with the Not qualifier

Contain returns features that surround defined features. Contained features can touch but
not overlap the borders of the surrounding features. Points cannot contain other features.
contain with the Not qualifier

Are contained by returns features that fall completely within the defined features.
Contained features can touch but not overlap the borders of the surrounding features.
are contained by with the Not qualifier

Entirely contain returns features that surround defined features. Contained features
cannot touch or overlap the borders of the surrounding features. Points cannot entirely
contain other features.
entirely contain with the Not qualifier

Are entirely contained by returns features that fall completely within the defined features.
Contained features cannot touch or overlap the borders of the surrounding features.
are entirely contained by with the Not qualifier

Overlap returns features that overlap the defined features.


overlap with the Not qualifier

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Working with GeoMedia

Meet returns features that fall next to the defined features, touching without overlapping.
meet with the Not qualifier

Are spatially equal returns features that occupy the same space and location. Features
must be of the same type to be spatially equal.
are spatially equal with the Not qualifier

Are within distance of returns features having any part located within the specified
distance of the defined features. If either the starting or ending point of a linear feature, for
example, falls within the specified distance, it is returned.
are within distance of with the Not qualifier

Note: The spatial operators used by Spatial Query are different from the Oracle Spatial
Cartridge specific operators used by the Native Query command when querying an Oracle
warehouse.

Spatial Queries and Tolerance


Spatial queries are now executed with a consistent millimeter-level tolerance in processing
geometry. Often, when calculating or storing geometries using floating-point accuracy,
coordinates that are supposed to be identical may in fact vary slightly.
This tolerance is used in determining coordinate equivalence, that is, vertices that are
within 0.1 millimeter of one another on the ground are assumed to be equal when
executing spatial queries.

To define a spatial or combined query:


1. Select Analysis > Spatial Query.
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Analyzing GeoMedia Data

2. From the Select features in drop-down list, select a feature class or query.
3. Optional: To create a combined query, define an attribute filter for either or both
feature classes or queries. Click Filter to display the Filter dialog box; then define the
appropriate attribute filter.
4. Accept the default spatial operator for the that clause or override it by selecting another
operator from the That drop-down list.
5. Accept or override the default not qualifier by checking or unchecking the Not check
box.
6. If you selected the are within distance of operator in Step 5, type the zoning distance
in the Distance field, and select the appropriate units from the Units drop-down list.
7. Select the second feature class or query from the Features in drop-down list.
8. Optional: Define an attribute filter as described in Step 4.
9. Accept or override the default query name, and optionally type a query description.
10. Verify that the Display query in map window check box is selected, and change in
the Map window name field, if appropriate, the map window in which to display the
query results.
OR
To not display the query results in a map window, uncheck the Display query in map
window check box.
11. Optional: Click Style, and change the default style on the Select Style dialog box.
12. Verify that the Display query in data window box is checked, and change in the Data
window name field, if appropriate, the data window in which to display the query
results.
OR

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Working with GeoMedia

To not display the query results in a data window, uncheck the Display query in data
window box.
13. To display the query, click OK.
The query is displayed in accordance with the query options you set.

Defining Spatial Intersections


Spatial Intersection allows you to perform a spatial overlay on two feature classes or
queries to find the intersecting areas, or areas of coincidence. The spatial operators
available for this command are touch, contain, are contained by, entirely contain, are
entirely contained by, overlap, meet, and are spatially equal. After you choose the two
sets of input features to intersect and the type of spatial operation to perform, this
command outputs the results as a new query.
The results include the geometry for the points, lines, and areas of spatial coincidence as
well as the attributes for each pair of spatially intersecting features, that is, a spatial join.
The features can be point, line, area, or combinations of these feature types. You can
output the resultant new spatial intersection to a map window and/or data window.
Before Spatial Intersection After Spatial Intersection

In addition, you can set the style for the map window for optimum display results. One can
think of this command as producing results that are the opposite of those produced by
Spatial Difference as shown in the following two figures from the delivered Madison
County, Alabama sample data set.

Note: Attribute filtered spatial queries cannot be run against the results of a Spatial
Intersection query unless the results are first output to a feature class.

Map features before using Spatial Intersection:

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Analyzing GeoMedia Data

Spatial Intersection results with the touch operator showing the intersection of the Major
Water Polygons features and the Parks features:

The following are two example workflows:

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Working with GeoMedia

• Spatially intersect roads to districts; then use the spatial intersected roads to input to
Aggregation or Analytical Merge for total mileage of roads X district.
• Spatially intersect address points with voting districts to combine the attributes of both
the address and the district. The result can then be output to a warehouse such as
Access and used with Report Wizard to run a report on the addresses X district.

To use spatial intersection:


1. Select Analysis > Spatial Intersection.

2. Select the first feature class from the top Features in drop-down list.
3. Optional: Click Filter to define an attribute filter for the selected feature class on the
attribute filter dialog box.
4. Optional: Change the default spatial operator in the That drop-down list; then verify
the operator in the illustration below the operator field.
5. Select the second feature class from the bottom Features in drop-down list.
6. Optional: Click Filter to define an attribute filter for the selected feature class on the
attribute filter dialog box.
7. Optional: Change the default value in the Query name field.
8. Optional: Type a query description in the Description field.
9. Verify that the Display intersection in map window check box is selected, and
change in the Map window name field, if appropriate, the default active map window
in which to display the new spatial intersection.
OR
To not display the new spatial intersection in a map window, uncheck the Display
intersection in map window check box.
10. Optional: Click Style, and change the default style on the Select Style dialog box.
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Analyzing GeoMedia Data

11. Verify that the Display intersection in data window box is checked, and change in
the Data window name field, if appropriate, the default new data window in which to
display the new spatial intersection.
OR
To not display the nongraphic attributes of the new spatial intersection in a data
window, uncheck the Display intersection in data window check box.
12. Click OK to generate and to display the new spatial intersection in the specified map
window and/or data window.

Note: You may need to adjust the style for better viewing.

See “Defining Spatial Queries” in this chapter for a description of the spatial
operators.
See “Defining Attribute-Filter Queries” in this chapter.

Defining Spatial Differences


Spatial Difference allows you to perform spatial masking, that is, to perform a difference
operation on two sets of areas to produce resultant geometries. You can output the
resultant new spatial difference to a map window and/or data window. In addition, you can
set the style for the map window for optimum display results.
This command takes as input two area feature classes or queries, the features to be masked
or cropped (the from-feature), and the features to be used as a mask (the subtract-feature).
After processing using the touch spatial operator, this command outputs the results as a
new query. This resultant geometry is calculated by removing all portions of each from-
feature that are overlaid by any subtract-feature. Thus, the output consists of any portion
of each from-feature not overlapped by the geometry of the subtract-feature. If a from-
feature is completely overlaid by the subtract-feature, the from-feature does not appear in
the output query.

The following cases are valid:


From-feature Subtract-feature Result
area area area or nothing
line area line or nothing

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Working with GeoMedia

line line line or nothing


point area point or nothing
point line point or nothing
point point point or nothing
The following cases are not allowed as input:
From-feature Subtract-feature
area line
area point
line point
One can think of this command as producing results that are the opposite of those produced
by Spatial Intersection. Or, one can think of a cookie-cutter process, with the results
being the sheet of dough from which the cookies have been cut out, as shown in the
following example from the delivered Madison County, Alabama, sample dataset:
Map features before using Spatial Difference:

Spatial Difference results showing the difference of Major Water Polygons features and
the Parks features. The difference is shaded gray.

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Analyzing GeoMedia Data

See “Defining Spatial Queries” in this chapter.

To use spatial difference:


1. Select Analysis > Spatial Difference.

2. Select the feature class to be masked from the From features in drop-down list.
3. Optional: Click Filter to define an attribute filter for the selected feature class on the
attribute filter dialog box.
4. Select the feature class to be used as a mask from the Subtract features in drop-down
list.
5. Optional: Click Filter to define an attribute filter for the selected feature class on the
attribute filter dialog box.

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Working with GeoMedia

6. Optional: Change the default value in the Query name field.


7. Optional: Type a query description in the Description field.
8. Verify that the Display difference in map window check box is selected, and change
in the Map window name field, if appropriate, the default active map window in
which to display the new spatial difference.
OR
To not display the new spatial difference in a map window, uncheck the Display
difference in map window check box.
9. Optional: Click Style, and change the default style on the Select Style dialog box.
10. Verify that the Display difference in data window box is checked, and change in the
Data window name field, if appropriate, the default new data window in which to
display the new spatial difference.
OR
To not display the nongraphic attributes of the new spatial difference in a data window,
uncheck the Display difference in data window check box.
11. Click OK to generate and to display the new spatial difference in the specified map
window and/or data window.

Note: You may need to adjust the style for better viewing.

See “Defining Attribute-Filter Queries” in this chapter.

Working with Native Queries


Native Query provides server-based native querying by performing a spatial query on an
Oracle data server and by performing a query on an MGSM data server to generate an
offset display. This allows you to take advantage of the particular capabilities of each data
server.
Native Query takes as input a connection to a warehouse that supports native-query
capability and an additional set of inputs specific to that type of connection. The command
then appends the query to the query folder and optionally outputs the resultant query to a
map window and/or data window. You can adjust the display style for optimum viewing
in the map window.

Defining Native Queries against an Oracle Warehouse


When working with a connection to an Oracle database (with Spatial Cartridge), this
command allows you to select the feature classes to query and an Oracle Spatial Cartridge
spatial operator. The query is executed on the Oracle database, taking full advantage of the

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Analyzing GeoMedia Data

Spatial Cartridge engine and the speed of the hardware containing the database. The
performance of this command depends on how well you tune the Oracle database and the
Spatial Cartridge. Performance also depends on the nature of your query, for example, if
your query retrieves a small number of feature instances out of a large data set.
A spatial query defines the relationship between two feature classes using a spatial
operator. The spatial operator forms the that clause of the query statement.
The following spatial operators are available:

Touch—The boundaries intersect but the interiors do not.

Disjoint —The boundaries and interiors do not intersect.

Overlap Boundary Disjoint—The interior of one object


intersects the boundary and interior of the other object, but the
two do not intersect. This relation occurs, for example, when a
line originates outside a polygon and ends inside that polygon.
Overlap Boundary Intersect—The boundaries and interiors
of the two objects intersect.

Equal—The two objects have the same boundary and interior.

Contains—The interior and boundary of one object are


completely contained in the interior of the other.

Inside—The opposite of Contains. A Inside B implies B


Contains A.

Covers—The interior of one object is completely contained in


the interior of the other, and their boundaries intersect.

Covered By—The opposite of Covers. A Covered By B


implies B Covers A.

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Working with GeoMedia

Any Interact—The objects are non-disjoint. This is the


default operator unless there is a valid session preference.

Note: The spatial operators used by Native Query when querying an Oracle warehouse
are specific to Oracle Spatial Cartridge and are different from those used by the Spatial
Query command.

To define an Oracle native query:


1. Select Analysis > Native Query.

2. From the Connection drop-down list, select an Oracle connection.


3. From the Select features in drop-down list, select the feature class on which to query.
4. Optional: Click Filter to define an attribute filter for the selected feature class on the
attribute filter dialog box.

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Analyzing GeoMedia Data

5. From the That drop-down list, select the appropriate spatial operator(s).
6. From the Features in drop-down list, select the appropriate constraining feature class.
7. Optional: Click Filter to define an attribute filter for the selected constraining feature
class on the attribute filter dialog box.
8. Accept the default query name, or type an appropriate name in the Query name field.
9. Optional: Type an appropriate query description in the Description field.
10. Verify that the Display query in map window check box is selected, and change in
the Map window name field, if appropriate, the default active map window in which
to display the query results.
OR
To not display the query results in a map window, select the Display query in map
window check box to remove the checkmark.
11. Optional: Click Style, and change the default style on the Select Style dialog box.
12. Verify that the Display query in data window box is checked, and change in the Data
window name field, if appropriate, the default new data window in which to display
the query results.
OR
To not display the nongraphic attributes of the query results in a data window, click the
Display query in data window box to remove the checkmark.
13. Click OK to generate and to display the native query results in the specified map
window and/or data window.

Note: If you do not select either a map window or a data window, the query is only
appended to the query folder.

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See “Defining Attribute-Filter Queries” in this chapter.

Defining Native Queries against an MGSM Warehouse


When working with a connection to an MGSM dataset, Native Query allows you to
perform a query against an MGSM warehouse and have the results of the query displayed
offset from the original centerline. These queries can be from a single distributed attribute
table or from an overlay of multiple distributed attribute tables using the intersect and
difference overlay operators. The offset display can be a fixed offset, a scaled offset, or a
combination.
It is important to note that the offset display definition does not persist, that is, it is not
maintained beyond the initial definition of the query. If you save a GeoWorkspace with an
offset query, the next time you open the GeoWorkspace, the offset defined for the query is
lost, and the display reverts to the centerline of the control network as defined in the
coordinate file. Although the offset definition is not maintained, the offset geometry in the
query is maintained as long as the MGSM connection is open in the current session.
The software also allows you to edit a query to redefine the offset. When you bring up the
query in the Query Properties dialog box (even if the query is currently displayed with an
offset), the query has no offset defined for it because the offset display definition is not
maintained. If you define a native query with an offset and then edit the query through the
New Query command, the offset is not known to the query. When you edit an MGSM
native query, the offset definition reverts to zero, and you have to redefine the offset.
See “Editing Queries” and “Defining Attribute-Filter Queries” in this chapter.

Offset Display Concepts


Offsets let you display distributed attributes to the left or right of the Network Linear
Feature centerline. Offsets can be defined as fixed, scaled, or a combination of fixed and
scaled. A fixed offset is used to display the distributed attributes at a constant offset
distance from the centerline for all segments. A scaled offset is a ratio of a stored database
value that is used to display the distributed attributes at a scaled offset distance from the
centerline. The fixed offset value and the size of the scaled offset value are defined in
paper working units.
For example, you could define a fixed offset of 50 feet and a scaled offset of 25 feet
multiplied by the value stored in the LaneNumber field in the distributed attribute table. If
the LaneNumber was equal to two for a a particular segment, the display of that segment
would be offset 100 feet (50 + 25 * 2).

Offsetting to the Right or Left


Offsets can be positioned to the right or left of the centerline by typing a positive number
or a negative number, respectively, in the Offset field. If you use a fixed offset that is a
positive number, the offset is to the right of the centerline when you are looking in the

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Analyzing GeoMedia Data

positive direction of a highway (the direction of increasing distance). If you use a fixed
offset that is a negative number, the offset is to the left of the centerline when you are
looking in the positive direction of a highway (the direction of increasing distance).
Scaled offsets are different because the offset display is depends on the value used in the
database offset column (Scale attribute). If you use a scaled offset size that is positive
and the offset value in the database is also positive, the offset is displayed on the right of
the centerline. If your database offset value is negative, the offset is displayed to the left of
the centerline. However, if you use a scaled offset size that is negative and the database
offset value is positive, then the offset is displayed to the left of the centerline. If your
database offset value is negative, the offset is displayed to the right of the centerline.
The command retrieves the scale attribute value from the database and multiplies it by the
scale factor to obtain the offset distance in the specified unit of measure. The scale factor is
the server the command applies to the value of the scale attribute of the segment.

To define an MGSM native query:


1. Select Analysis > Native Query.
2. From the Connection drop-down list of the Native Query dialog box, select the
MGSM connection that supports native queries.

3. From the Select features in drop-down list, select the feature class on which to query.
4. Optional: Click Filter to define an attribute filter and/or an overlay filter for the
selected feature class on the Filter dialog box.
5. Select the appropriate offset type(s), Fixed offset and/or Scaled offset.
6. Enter the appropriate corresponding offset parameters.
7. Accept the default query name, or type an appropriate name in the Query name field.
8. Optional: Type an appropriate query description in the Description field.

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Working with GeoMedia

9. Verify that the Display query in map window check box is selected, and change in
the Map window name field, if appropriate, the default active map window in which
to display the query results.
OR
To not display the query results in a map window, select the Display query in map
window check box to remove the checkmark.
10. Optional: Click Style, and change the default style on the Select Style dialog box.
11. Verify that the Display query in data window box is checked, and change in the Data
window name field, if appropriate, the default new data window in which to display
the query results.
OR
To not display the nongraphic attributes of the query results in a data window, click the
Display query in data window box to remove the checkmark.
12. Click OK to generate and to display the native query results in the specified map
window and/or data window.

Note: If you do not select either a map window or a data window, the query is only
appended to the query folder.

Defining Linear Network Queries


If you are using an MGSM warehouse, you can define the search conditions for a linear
network query by combining sets of segments in distributed attribute tables with overlay
operators. The distributed attribute values that the query returns are displayed as point or
linear segments along their respective network linear features. These new segments are
created dynamically when you display the query.
The following overlay operators are available:
• The intersect operator searches for segments that overlap.
For example, a query for accidents that intersect construction returns only segments
containing accidents where there is also construction.

• The difference operator searches for segments that differ.

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For example, a query for accidents that differ from construction returns only segments
containing accidents where there is no construction.

You can also apply attribute filters and spatial queries to linear network queries. For
example, you can build a query to find roads that intersect construction and touch
wetlands where geese have nests.

The linear network query finds roads that intersect construction.


• The spatial query limits the search for roads that intersect construction to those that
touch wetlands.
• The attribute filter limits the search for roads that intersect construction to those where
geese have nests.
The procedures for creating a linear network query are the same as for any other query,
except that you can include intersect and difference overlay operators.

To define a linear network query:


1. Select Analysis > Native Query.
3. From the Select features in drop-down list, select a feature class or query.
4. Click Filter.
5. Select an attribute, and click the down arrow below the Attributes box.
6. Select an operator and, if necessary, click the down arrow in the Operators box.
7. To see the list of values in the selected attribute, click Show Values.
8. Type or select a value, and click the down arrow below the Values box.
9. Click Add Overlay to display the Add Overlay dialog box.

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Note: The Add Overlay and Remove Overlay buttons only appear on the Filter
dialog box if you are querying a feature class from an MGSM warehouse.

10. Select an overlay operator from the drop-down list.


11. Select a distributed attribute table.
12. Click OK.

13. On the overlay tab, select an attribute, and click the down arrow below the Attributes
box.
14. Select an operator and, if necessary, click the down arrow in the Operators box.
15. To see the list of values, click Show Values.
16. Type or select a value, and click the down arrow below the Values box.
17. To add an additional overlay, click Add Overlay, and repeat Steps 9 - 15.

Note: Clicking Remove Overlay removes the overlay displayed on the active tab,
thereby removing that portion of the query statement.

18. Click OK.


19. On the Native Query dialog box, type a name and optional description for the query.
20. To display the query, click OK.

Manipulating Queries
The software provides various commands that allow you to manipulate queries in order to
obtain the exact results you need for each specific condition of your workflow.
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Displaying Queries
In general, a query is displayed automatically when you build it. If you build a query
without displaying it—to use in another query or for creating a thematic display, for
example—there are many ways to display it later.

To display a query:
Add the query to the legend. This displays queries in the
active map window and ignores query option settings.

When a data window is active, select Data > Change


Contents, and select the query.
Open a new data window, selecting the query as the data
you want to display.
Or, use the Analysis > Queries command to display a query. This command also lets you
edit, delete, and unload queries. The icon beside each query name on the Queries dialog
box indicates information about the query, including its status and geometry type (if
available), as follows:
Closed query Nongraphic
AnySpatial Point
Areas Graphics Text
Image Unknown, graphic type cannot be determined
Line Invalid, query cannot be opened
Or, use the following procedure:
1. Select Analysis > Queries.

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Note: This dialog box is resizable for better viewing of long query names.
Furthermore, you can use standard Microsoft procedures for multiple selections using
CTRL and SHIFT.

2. From the Queries dialog box, select the query you want to display, and click Display.

3. On the Display Query dialog box, select a window in which to display the query.
4. To display the query in a new window, type a name in the appropriate window name
field. To display the query in an open window, select it by name from the drop-down
list.
5. To change the style of a query display in a map window, click Style, define the style,
and click OK on the Style dialog box. The style of the query depends on the feature
class type returned by the query.
6. Click OK.

Editing Queries
Once a query has been defined, you can change everything except the feature class or
query on which it is built. If you change a query name, the new name is not changed in
any existing legend-entry titles, data-view captions, or dependent query names. Editing a
query that is used as input to other queries may affect the other queries.
If a feature class or query that is used in a query changes, the dependent query is also
affected:
• Changes to the definition of a feature class or query can invalidate a dependent query.
If the dependent query is an attribute-filter query, its display will be removed from the
map window. Data windows associated with the feature class will not contain any data
if the dependent query is rendered invalid by the change.
• If you close the connection to a warehouse containing a feature class on which a query
is dependent, the data will be removed from the display, but you will have to edit the
legend to remove the entry.

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To edit a query:
1. Select Analysis > Queries.
2. On the Queries dialog box, select the query you want to edit and click Properties.
The type of query selected determines what is displayed on the Query Properties
dialog box.
For example, if you selected a query that is a label, the Query Properties dialog box
appears with the options that were available on the Join or the Label dialog box.

Note: The Query Properties dialog box has a different appearance with queries
generated from the following commands: Analyze Geometry, Attribute Filter,
Geocode Addresses, Geocode Coordinates, Join, Label, Native Query, Spatial
Difference, Spatial Intersection, and Spatial Query. This dialog box also varies if
the query was created with Spatial Query in GeoMedia version 4.0 and earlier or in
GeoMedia version 4.0 Service Pack 1.

See GeoMedia Help for more information.

3. Edit the items available for the specific selected query.


For example you can edit the query name or description, or click Filter to edit the
attribute filter for an attribute-filter query.
All existing displays of the edited query and any other query built upon that query will
be updated.
4. Click OK to accept the changes.
5. To create a new display for the query, click Display to bring up the Display Query
dialog box.
Deleting Queries
When you delete a query, you are deleting the query definition but not the data associated
with the query. Similarly, if you delete a legend entry for a query, you are removing the
display of the query in the map window but not deleting the query itself. Deleting a query
from the queries collection does not remove it or its name from legends, the data window,
use from other queries, or even the treeview on the Queries dialog box. You can delete
single or multiple queries.

To delete a query:
1. Select Analysis > Queries.
2. On the Queries dialog box, select the query or queries you want to delete and click
Delete.

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Unloading Queries
Unload lets you unload the data associated with one or more queries and thus free up
memory by closing the selected queries.

To unload a query:
1. Select Analysis > Queries.
2. On the Queries dialog box, select the query or queries you want to unload; then click
Unload.
The bitmaps of the selected queries are updated to reflect the new unloaded status.

Working with Spatial Filters


To limit the geographical area and thus the number of features that can appear in the map
window, you can define a spatial filter in the GeoWorkspace and apply it to data in the
GeoWorkspace with the Spatial Filter command. Depending on the size of your data set,
spatial filters can save a great deal of processing time.
Spatial filters play two important roles in the GeoMedia system, often with two different
use patterns:
1. They are used to constrain data to be loaded, thus improving performance and
scalability. For this you would generally use a coarse spatial operator and a crude
spatial filter geometry, for example, a rectangle.
2. They are used to identify areas of interest/study for purposes of focused analysis. For
this you would generally use a more refined spatial operator, for example, inside, and a
more complex spatial filter geometry, for example, an actual area feature such as a
political state or natural resources zone.
This command performs GeoWorkspace-level spatial filtering by setting the spatial filter
and operator on all features and queries, including Geocode queries in the GeoWorkspace.
There can be only one active spatial filter definition at a time for the entire GeoWorkspace,
so setting or changing the spatial filter simply sets the geographic scope of all operations in
the GeoWorkspace. You can access this command from the Warehouse menu when you
have either an active map window or an active data window.
For best results when using the Spatial Query command, you should create and apply
filters to spatially constrain the search area. The spatial query alone does not spatially
constrain the search area of the subject feature class.
See “Defining Spatial Queries” in this chapter.
The Spatial Filter command lets you perform the following:
• Define filter geometry and perform spatial filtering at the GeoWorkspace level.
• Select filter options.

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• Set the active filter to the map window.


• Use and manage named spatial filters.
Spatial Filter lets you perform all of these tasks though the Spatial Filter dockable
control, which puts filtering at your fingertips.

This dockable control displays the name of the currently active spatial filter (if any) in a
read-only field and contains command buttons for defining and managing spatial filters, as
discussed in the following sections. This control is persistable. Thus, if you save a
GeoWorkspace with the control hidden, when you next open this GeoWorkspace, the
control is not displayed. To display the control again, you must select Warehouse >
Spatial Filter, or select Spatial Filter from the right mouse menu.

Defining Spatial Filters


The flexibility of this command lets you define the filter geometry by the various following
methods:
• By placing a fence, which can be rectangular, polygonal, or circular.
• By selecting a reference feature by name from a feature class area, or by compound or
raster geometry type.
• By having area, compound, or image features in a select set.
• By using the active map window extent as filter geometry.
• By choosing not to have a spatial filter.
• By applying an existing spatial filter definition.
When you define a filter through any of these methods (except the last one), the software
automatically assigns a default name, displayed on the Spatial Filter dockable control,
based on the definition method, for example. You can later rename the filter through the
Named Spatial Filter command.
See “Named Spatial Filters” later in this section.

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The default spatial filter names are as follows:


Filter Type Default Filter Name
Named Spatial Filter <actual name of spatial filter>
Select Reference Features Selected Reference Feature Filter
Select Set Select Set Filter
Active Map Window Extent Map Window Extent Filter
Rectangular Fence Rectangular Fence Filter
Polygonal Fence Polygonal Fence Filter
Circular Fence Circular Fence Filter
Remove Filter No Active Filter

By Placing a Fence
You can define a spatial filter by simply following the standard digitizing prompts to place
one of the following fence types in the active map window:
• Rectangular Fence – (Rectangular Fence Filter)
• Polygonal Fence – (Polygonal Fence Filter)
• Circular Fence – (Circular Fence Filter)

By Selecting Reference Features


You can use Select Reference Features (Selected Reference Feature Filter) to define a
spatial filter by selecting one or more reference features by name from a feature class of
area, compound, or raster geometry type whose geometry will be used as a spatial filter,
using the following dialog box. Spatial filter reference features are designated through the
Spatial Filter Reference Features command.
See “Designating Spatial Filter Reference Features” later in this section.

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This method is similar in to filtering by select set, but lets you select a reference feature
instance by name attribute. This method is thus a flexible alternative to named spatial
filters, effectively allowing any named reference feature instance to serve as a spatial filter.
This permits the straightforward creation of attributed spatial filtering feature classes,
which are easier to manage than named spatial filters.
You first select the reference feature class from the list of reference feature classes. You
can only select features of type area or compound, or image geometry. This selection then
enables selection of an attribute from an alphabetical list of attribute names of the selected
feature class. After selecting the appropriate attribute, you display a list of the features to
use as a spatial filter. The command then creates the filter geometry and performs the
filtering. You can select multiple items, and the merged geometry of the selected reference
features is displayed in the active map window.
To create the final filter geometry, feature geometries that are not areas (for example, linear
or point geometries from a compound feature class) are first discarded. Then if the number
of selected feature instances is more than one, a single geometry is created by merging the
remaining feature instances’ geometries. In case the final geometry (single or merged)
does not contain area geometries, the command displays an error message.

By Using a Select Set


You can define a spatial filter by using a select set (Select Set Filter) created by any type of
selection you choose to use (click, fence drag in map window, data window, and so forth).
The bounding polygon of image features may be used as a spatial filter with this method.
The command creates the filter geometry from the select set and performs the filtering. All
select set object types are supported. To create the final filter geometry, feature geometries
that are not areas or images are first discarded. Then if the number of geometries
remaining is more than one, a single geometry is created by merging the remaining
geometries in the select set. In case the final geometry (single or merged) does not contain
area geometries, the command displays an error message.

By Using the Active Map Window Extent


You can define a spatial filter by simply using the active map window extent (Map
Window Extent Filter). Using this command when a map window is active performs
filtering by taking the current map window extent as the filter geometry for the filter. No
further inputs are required when using this method. The filter is automatically applied to
all existing feature classes and queries in the GeoWorkspace.

By Not Using a Filter or By Applying an Existing Filter


You can also define a spatial filter by choosing not to have a spatial filter (No Active
Filter), that is, removing any existing filter applied to the GeoWorkspace through the
Remove Filter command. Finally, you can define a spatial filter by applying an existing
spatial filter through the Named Spatial Filters command.

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See “Managing Spatial Filters” later in this section.

Defining Spatial Filter Workflows


The following workflows show the procedures for defining spatial filters by the various
methods discussed.

To define a spatial filter by selected reference features:


1. Select Warehouse > Spatial Filter.
2. Click Select Reference Features on the dockable control.

3. Select the appropriate reference feature from the Select features from treeview.

4. Select the appropriate Feature name attribute from the drop-down list.
5. Click Show Values.

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6. Select the appropriate attribute value(s) from the Features to use as spatial filter list;
then click OK.

Note: The Features to use as spatial filter list supports multiple selection.

The filter geometry is created, the dialog box is dismissed, and filtering is performed.
Merged geometry of the selected features is displayed in the active map window.

To define a spatial filter by select set:


1. Create a select set of the features needed for your workflow.
2. Select Warehouse > Spatial Filter.
3. Click Select Set on the dockable control.
Filter geometry is created from the select set, and filtering is performed.

To define a spatial filter by active map window extent:


1. Adjust the map window so that it displays the data needed for your workflow
2. Select Warehouse > Spatial Filter.
3. Click Active Map Window Extent on the dockable control.
Filter geometry is created from the active map window extent, and filtering is performed.

To define a spatial filter by fence:


1. Select Warehouse > Spatial Filter.
2. Click Rectangular Fence on the dockable control; then draw a rectangular fence to
define the filter area.
OR

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Click Polygonal Fence on the dockable control; then draw a polygonal fence to define
the filter area.
OR
Click Circular Fence on the dockable control; then draw a circular fence to define the
filter area.
Filter geometry is created from the digitized fence, and filtering is performed.

Managing Spatial Filters


After you have defined spatial filters, you can manage these filters by using the following
commands accessed from the Spatial Filter dockable control:
• Spatial Filter Options • Fit Spatial Filter
• Named Spatial Filters • Remove Filter

Spatial Filter Options


When you first define a spatial filter, it takes the default filter options. However, you can
easily change these to meet your specific workflow needs through the Spatial Filter
Options. These options let you control the behavior of spatial filtering by setting the
spatial operator, filter geometry, map window display and fit, and display style, using the
following dialog box, which shows the default options:

Note: Warehouse > Export to commands always honor the default spatial filter whether
or not the feature(s) have been previously referenced by the GeoWorkspace.

You can choose from the following available spatial operators:


Inside (the default)—Lets you access only data that is contained either entirely inside, or
inside and sharing part of the boundary of, your spatial filter geometry.

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Entirely Inside—Lets you access only data that falls completely within the boundaries of
your spatial filter geometry.

No spatial filter applied Inside Entirely Inside

Coarse Overlap—Lets you access all data inside or overlapping the boundaries of your
filter, but it may also return some additional features. The purpose of this operator is to
allow the data server to quickly and efficiently return data according to its internal spatial
indexing system, without doing individual geometry comparisons against the boundaries of
your spatial filter geometry. This processing varies with server efficiency and data
complexity.
Overlap—Lets you access any feature that falls within or touches the boundaries of your
spatial filter geometry.

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The Coarse Overlap spatial operator is available for Oracle, Access, MGDM, and SQL
data servers. If you choose this spatial operator with any other data server, it automatically
reverts to the Overlap spatial operator.
Each database has a different indexing system, so the spatial filtering results may vary
drastically. The Access data server employs a Quad-Tree algorithm for its spatial
indexing. When applying a spatial filter with the Coarse Overlap spatial operator to data
in an Access warehouse, the results returned include all features overlapping the spatial
filter boundary, and any features that lie on certain Quad-Tree boundaries. This often
includes strips of features that are at some distance from the spatial filter boundary,
particularly for linear and areal features.
The Oracle data server generally employs an R-Tree algorithm for its spatial indexing.
Oracle uses a two-pass filtering method, and Coarse Overlap is always used as the first
pass filter. The Coarse Overlap filter always provides the best performance in an Oracle
environment.
Spatial Filter Options also lets you choose to filter the geometry by using the minimum
bounding rectangle (MBR) of the defined geometry, the Geometry extent (MBR), which
is faster because filtering is not unnecessarily bogged down by very complex area
definitions, or by using on the default actual defined geometry (Actual geometry), which
is more precise.
This command also gives you the option of fitting (auto fit) the filter with the MBR value
of the active spatial filter, with a margin of 5% in the map window of your choice from all
those in the GeoWorkspace (Automatically fit filter in check box, off by default). And
you can optionally display the currently active spatial filter in the active map window at all
times (Display filter on by default). Finally, you can change the area style used to display
the active filter in the active map window through the Select Style dialog box.

To define spatial filter options:


1. Select Warehouse > Spatial Filter.

2. Click Spatial Filter Options on the dockable control.

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3. Select the appropriate Spatial operator from the drop-down list.


4. Select the appropriate Filter by option.
5. Optional: Check the Automatically fit filter in check box; then select the appropriate
item from the Map window drop-down list.
6. Optional: Uncheck the Display filter check box.
7. Optional: Click Style to change the style on the Select Style dialog box.
8. Click OK to dismiss the Spatial Filter Options dialog box.

Fit Spatial Filter


Fit Spatial Filter lets you easily fit the active map window with the minimum bounding
rectangle (MBR) value of the currently active filter, with a margin of 5%.

Remove Filter
Remove Filter (No Active Filter) simply removes the existing active named spatial filter
with a single click. The active filter can be a user-named filter or a system-defined filter.

Named Spatial Filters


Named Spatial Filters lets you choose an existing named spatial filter as the active filter,
rename the active filter for later use, and delete previously named filters, using the
following dialog box.

This dialog box displays the currently active spatial filter name in the Active filter field, in
the same manner as the dockable control. This field is always enabled, locked, and grayed
to indicate it is read-only.
Also displayed are the names of all the GeoWorkspace spatial filters, except the active
filter, in the Named filters list. The default spatial filter name is SpatialFilter<n>, where
n is a number determined at runtime to guarantee uniqueness. You can select a filter from
this list to perform filtering with the geometry and spatial operator of the selected item by
clicking Apply or double clicking on the item, and the filter definitions of the selected

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items are displayed on the active map window. The Filter by geometry extent and
Spatial operator settings on the Spatial Filter Options dialog box are ignored.
You can change the name of a filter by selecting it from the list, clicking Name, and then
typing a new name on the Name dialog box. The Name button, however, is only enabled
if there is an active spatial filter that is not a user-named spatial filter. Thus, only system-
defined filters can be named and stored in the spatial filters collection. Also, you can never
rename a named spatial filter. This adds the active spatial filter definition to the filter list
with the name specified, and with the spatial operator currently defined for the command.
The filter geometry added is either the actual active filter geometry or the MBR of the
active filter geometry, according to the Filter by geometry extent setting from the Spatial
Filter Options dialog box.

You can easily delete spatial filters by simply selecting one or more names from the list of
named filters, and then clicking Delete. Deleting a spatial filter does not affect any
existing legend entries, data windows, or queries.

To manage spatial filters:


1. Select Warehouse > Spatial Filter.
2. Click Named Spatial Filters on the dockable control.

3. To apply an existing filter, select a name from the Named filters list; then click Apply.
OR
Double click a filter name.
Filtering is performed with the filter geometry and spatial operator of the selected filter.
4. To rename the active filter (not a named spatial filter), click Name.

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5. Type the new name in the Name field; then click OK.
6. To delete a filter, select the name(s) from the Named filters list; then click Delete.

Designating Spatial Filter Reference Features


Spatial Filter Reference Features lets you designate feature classes that will not be
subject to spatial filtering. These spatial filter reference features provide you with a visual
reference system for defining spatial filters. You can select a set of individual feature
classes from any number of warehouse connections, rather than a single, entire connection.
When a feature class is designated as containing spatial filter reference features, it plays
that role in addition to its routine role as a spatially-filtered feature class. It is available in
both filtered and unfiltered form. You can thus select the unfiltered form from the
Reference Feature node for use with other commands, for example Add Legend Entries
and Attribute Query.
To designate spatial reference features, you first select a connection to display the
corresponding feature classes from which you select those you want to designate. You
cannot designate nongraphic feature classes or queries as spatial filter reference features.
Spatial filtering is inherently performed through data servers, while queries inherit spatial
filtering through the filtering of their input data. However, you can create queries from
reference features, which yields essentially the same effect.
It is easy to identify all feature classes within a connection as being spatial filter reference
features. However, any feature classes subsequently added to the connection are not
automatically considered to be reference features. In other words, it is the feature classes
within the connection, not the connection itself, which are so designated.
Once defined, the reference features appear in treeviews across the product in the
commands, for example Attribute Queries and Join, and controls to support reference
features. Reference features are thus displayed in the treeviews along with all the
connections, queries, and categories information, If, however, reference features have not
been defined, no empty Reference Features node is displayed by other commands.
After designating your reference features, you would typically define a corresponding
spatial filter using the Select Reference Features command, as in the following workflow.

To designate spatial filter reference features:


1. Select Warehouse > Spatial Filter Reference Features.

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2. Select the appropriate connection.


3. Check the appropriate Feature classes check box(es); then click OK.

All the selected feature classes are set as reference features. Any unselected feature
classes that were previously reference features are reset as non-reference features.

Note: If a connection node is checked/unchecked, all the feature classes available in the
connection are checked/unchecked.

4. Click Select Reference Features on the dockable control.


5. Select the States feature class from the Select Features from drop-down list.
6. Select STATE_NAME from the Feature name attribute drop-down list; then click Show
Values.

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7. Select Alabama from as the feature to use as a spatial filter; then click OK to perform the
filtering.

Querying Graphics-Only Features in MGE and


MGSM
The MGE and MGSM data servers expect valid map ID values in attribute tables, which
means that the feature geometries actually exist in the design file identified by the map ID.
This allows the data servers to limit queries for geometry to the identified design file.
If a query on an MGE or MGSM warehouse includes graphics-only features (features that
have no associated attribute table) or if map IDs are not valid, the query could take a very
long time, depending on the number of design files that must be searched. This is because
the server has to search all design files allowed by the spatial filter.
See the “Creating Data Server .INI Files” topic in GeoMedia Help for setting the MAPID
IS RELIABLE keyword in the mge.ini file.

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If a category contains design files for multiple feature types, then the MGE or MGSM
server will have to search design files that have no elements relevant to the query. So, if
you have multiple graphics-only features in a single category, a query will take longer than
if the features were separated into different categories. Furthermore, the MGDM server
uses additional memory when it must search for graphics-only features.
One way to improve the performance of queries on graphics-only features is to limit the
size of the categories. The best way, of course, is to clean up your MGE and MGSM data.

Working with Queued Edit


The Queued Edit command on the Tools menu lets you sequentially review selected items
for potential edit of the geometry and the non-graphical attributes of the located items.
Each item is thus presented in sequence, so you do not have to perform time-consuming
searches. Then as you review and/or fix each item, the queue is automatically updated.
Furthermore, if you fix an item in the data window, the solution is automatically reflected
in the map window and vice versa. You can use this command in two general workflows:
as a review and edit tool for an operator performing an operational task, and as a tool for
performing formal Quality Assurance/Quality Control tasks.
The review items located by this command may or may not have geometry, and they can
be of two kinds: standard review items available in the GeoWorkspace, that is, feature
classes, categories, and queries; and items in a previously created queue. A queue is a
special list of items selected for review, as generated by commands in GeoMedia Fusion
(for example, a queue of geometric anomalies produced by the Advanced Geometric
Validation >Advanced Validate Geometry command), PixelQue, Map Editor, or other
software, not by GeoMedia Professional. GeoMedia Professional currently does not have
any commands that generate queues. However, the process of locating and stepping
through selected items for review is similar for both standard review items and for queues.
When working with queues, nevertheless, the Queued Edit command has additional
capabilities, such as changing the status of queue items and creating subqueues. This
section describes the use of this command with standard items and with queues.

Note: The active queue may be closed by various actions. These include placing a spatial
filter in the GeoWorkspace, closing the connection containing the queue information, and
changing the attribute filter query if you are looking at a query through Queued Edit. If
this occurs, you need to re-open the queue to continue your workflow.

Dynamic and Static Queues


Queued Edit works with two types of queues, dynamic and static. In dynamic queues, if
you make changes to the original data, the queue updates to reflect the changes; and if you
make changes in the queue, the original data updates. For example, the number of items in
a validation queue decreases as the anomalies are reviewed and corrected. If a new
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qualifying anomaly is created, a new item appears in the queue. Dynamic queues are
stored in the GeoWorkspace.
In static queues, if you make changes in the queue, the original data does not update. A
static queue is a snapshot of the original data; each item of the queue is maintained
independently. For example, the number of items in a validation static queue does not
decrease as the anomalies are corrected in the original data. Instead, the static queue
remains a record or snapshot of the problems found. Static queues are stored in the
warehouse.

Note: The dynamic and static queue concepts do not apply to the standard review items.

Looking at the Queued Edit User Interface


The Queued Edit command has three main interface components: the Queued Edit
dockable control, the Queued Edit Map Window, and the Queued Edit Data Window,
as seen in the following example.

Using the Queued Edit Dockable Control


Selecting Tools > Queued Edit opens the Queued Edit dockable control for selecting,
navigating, and managing standard review items and queues. Some non-GeoMedia
Professional commands automatically open this control when they create a queue.

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In the following example, the queue is designated as a dynamic queue by the yellow icon
to the left of the queue name. A static queue is designated by a white icon.

You can use this control to select standard review items or a queue from the drop-down list
of feature classes, queries, categories, and queues available for review.

Immediately after you make a selection, by default the first item of the sequence is
displayed in the active Queued Edit Map Window and the active Queued Edit Data
Window (if displayed). However, if the selected queue has previously been active during
the session, the previously active item is remembered.
After displaying the first item you can perform the following management tasks:
• Navigate through the subsequent items • Set options for viewing the items
• Sort the items • Track the status of queue items
• Delete queue items by status • Delete queues
• Create subqueues • Show queue statistics
• Access additional options and commands to manipulate the standard review items and
queues

Navigating in Queued Edit


You can navigate through the standard review or queue items using the following control
options: Move First, Move Next, Move Current, Move Previous, and Move Last. Each
of these makes use of the appropriate view properties you set in the Queuing Options
dialog box, which is displayed by clicking the Options button on the control.

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When the Queued Edit Data Window is present during a navigation (that is, a sequential
review of the selected items), this window is scrolled in such a way that the current item
(record) is shown as the first record in the visible data view grid, and the row selector
image points to this row.

Note: If you exit the GeoWorkspace while a queue is active, when you reopen the
GeoWorkspace, the queue is inactive until you reselect it.

The control provides circular queue navigation by default, where in navigating before
(beyond) the first (last) record moves to the last (first) record of the queue. When you
close a queue, the dockable control is cleared, and the review items are removed from the
Queued Edit Map Window legend. However, the Queued Edit Map Window and
Queued Edit Data Window remain open.

Reviewing and Updating the Status


The Status Review/Update field displays the status for the current queue item – for static
queues only, not for dynamic queues or standard review items. The status is generated by
the process that created the queue. You can change the status of the active queue item (for
example, from "Linked" to "Unlinked") by selecting a new value from the drop-down list.
When you change the value, the status is updated in the queue, and the queue advances to
the next item if you selected the Automatically advance when status changes check box
on the Queuing Options dialog box General tab.

Note: The Status Review/Update is disabled for queues generated by the GeoMedia
Fusion Advanced Geometric Validation > Validate Geometry command.)

Using the Queued Edit Map Window


The Queued Edit Map Window opens automatically when standard review items or a
queue is selected on the Queued Edit control or upon queue navigation. As seen in the
following example, this window contains two sections: the Queued Edit Map Window
legend on the left and the map display on the right. This map displays the graphic
attributes of the active review item. A legend entry is added to the Queued Edit Map
Window legend for each item geometry, and the current item is initially displayed in a
centered and fitted view in the Queued Edit Map Window.

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The item graphics are displayed to the Queued Edit Map Window by placing each item
geometry in the Queued Edit Map Window legend. On initial creation, there is one
legend entry per geometry field identified, but you can add other feature classes or queries
to this legend. You can also change the order of item legend entries and style, and the
modified order and style is maintained upon a move next, move previous, move first, or
move last action in the sequence.
To customize the map, you can set options for defining an item locator and for viewing the
map window display on the Queuing Options dialog box, which is accessed by clicking
the Options button on the control.

Setting View Options


The View tab on the Queuing Options dialog box lets you define the view options. When
you zoom in, zoom out, or fit the view of an item in the Queued Edit Map Window, the
view adjusts according to these view options.

The Zoom In/Out and Fit current queue item buttons on the dockable control let you
control the map window view. They make use of the values on the View tab in the Zoom
factor field and the Fit and zoom out field, respectively. The appropriate view action is
based on the MBR of the current queued item as determined by the select set.

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Optionally, you can let other map windows with the window properties of “center at
current scale” or “zoom and fit” to be honored by Queued Edit during navigation through
the review items. This works in the same way as when reviewing a query with the window
properties of center or zoom and fit enabled.

Note: The features or the geometry that make up the queued item are not required to be in
the legend of the other map windows for this to work as it does for a query.

The following example illustrates the view before selecting the Honor setting from Map
Window Properties during queue navigation check box.

The following example illustrates the view after selecting the check box during navigation,
with the Fit and zoom out map window property set to 500%.

Defining the Locator


The Locator tab on the Queuing Options dialog box lets you define the locator, which
consists of two graphical elements, the locator box and crosshairs. These two elements can
be displayed around the queued item to give a visual reference of the location of the item in
the Queued Edit Map Window and in other GeoMedia map windows. You can define
the style (color, line type, and line width) for the locator box and the crosshairs. The
default color is the GeoMedia highlight color.
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Using the Queued Edit Data Window


The Queued Edit Data Window displays the nongraphic attributes of the active review
items. It does not display geometry attributes or spatial attributes.

The active row in this window indicates the item that is displayed in the Queued Edit
Map Window. If you change the active row in the data window, the map window view
moves to the location of that item, and the Queued Edit control shows the item number that
corresponds to the active row. You can sort the active items by attribute in ascending or
descending order through Additional Commands > Sort ascending/descending.
If you have a read-write warehouse connection, you can review and edit the features and
values in the Queued Edit Data Window. Any changes you make in the data window are
reflected in the Queued Edit Map Window and other map windows. In static queues, you
cannot delete rows from the data window. In dynamic queues, you may be able to delete
rows, depending on what command created the queue.

Displaying and Removing the Queued Edit Data Window


By clicking the Display/Remove Data Window button on the control, you can display the
Queued Edit Data Window when you select standard review items or a queue and also
remove the data window for the active items. If this toggle button is depressed and the data
window does not exist, a data window is created when standard review items or a queue is
made active. If you delete the window, the window is created the next time you advance in
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the sequence of review items or make standard review items or a queue active. If the
button is raised and the data window exists, the window is deleted.

Using Queuing Options


You can set queuing options through the General tab on the Queuing Options dialog box,
which is displayed by clicking the Options button on the control. These options are
enabled when a GeoWorkspace is open, whether a queue is selected or not.

Show description box—Displays a description box on the control that contains an


optional description for each queue item. This option is for queues only.
Automatically advance when status changes—Advances the current queue item when
you change the status of a queue using the Status Review/Update field on the Queued Edit
control or the Queued Edit QuickStatus control. This field displays the current status
value and lets you update the status of the active queue item. This option is for queues
only.

Note: If the current queue item is deleted or removed from the queue, the next item
becomes current.

Add item to select set—Adds the graphic elements of the review items to a select set as
you navigate through the items. This option is for standard review items and for queues.
Clear Queuing Legend when queue closes—Clears all Queued Edit Map Window
legend entries when you close a queue. This option is for standard review items and for
queues.
Show number of items in a queue—Displays the number of located queue items next to
the corresponding name on the Queued Edit control. For dynamic queues from closed
connections, the number displays as (0). This option is for queues only.

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Note: When this option is set, it may take longer for the queue name lists to display
because a count of each queue is being made. Therefore, when queues contain many items,
setting this option is not recommended.

Using Additional Commands


Clicking the Additional Commands button on the control displays a menu with the
following commands that let you manipulate queues according to your workflow. The
Sort ascending/descending commands also work with standard review items.

Note: Delete Queue, Create subqueue, and Show statistics are enabled when a
GeoWorkspace is open, whether a queue is selected or not.

Delete queue—Deletes one or more queues/subqueues in one operation according to your


selection on the Delete Queue dialog box. Deleting a queue also deletes its subqueues and
all associated metadata. This command is for queues only.

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Create subqueue—Creates a subqueue for any queue through the Create Subqueues
dialog box. When you create a subqueue, it becomes the active queue. A subqueue is a
user-defined subset of a queue, that is, a view into a specific queue. You can create
subqueues for queues but not for subqueues. The items in the subqueue remain in the
parent queue. If you delete the parent queue, the subqueues are also deleted. Subqueues
are the same type of queue as parent queues. That is, if the parent queue is dynamic, the
subqueue is dynamic; if the parent queue is static, the subqueue is static. As with parent
queues, dynamic subqueues are designated on the Queued Edit control by a yellow icon,
static subqueues by a white icon.
To create a subqueue, you first select the parent queue and then name the subqueue. You
can create a subqueue based on one of two criteria: attribute filter (the default) or spatial
filter. If an attribute filter, you select the Attribute filter option and then click Define,
which displays the GeoMedia standard Attribute Filter dialog box for you to define an
attribute query filter. If a spatial filter, you select the Spatial filter option and then select a
filter from the corresponding drop-down list of spatial filters defined for the
GeoWorkspace. This command is for queues only.

Show statistics—Displays information about a queue and its items on the Show Statistics
dialog box. This information includes the name of the queue, the name of the process that
created the queue, and the number of items in the queue. If the Status field is defined for
the queue, the information includes the number of items with each defined status. If
subqueues have been created, the information includes the number of subqueues, the names
of the subqueues, and the number of items in the subqueues. You can also generate a
queue report that displays in your default text editor. This command is for queues only.

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Delete queue items by status—Deletes all the items in the active queue that have a
particular status through the Delete Queue Items by Status dialog box. This command is
for queues only.

Queued Edit QuickStatus—Displays the Queued Edit QuickStatus dockable control,


which lets you quickly access and update the statuses of queue items by eliminating the
need to scroll through the drop-down list of statuses in the Status Review/Update field on
the Queued Edit control. This control is for use only with queues having a status defined.
A tooltip displays the text associated with each status number, which is the same text
displayed in the Status Review/Update field on the Queued Edit control. This command
is for queues only.

If you want to use this control to change a series of statuses, select the Automatically
advance when status changes option on the General tab of the Queuing Options dialog
box before beginning this procedure.
Sort ascending/descending—Sort the active review items or queue and the Queued Edit
Data Window in ascending or descending order by attribute. This command is for
standard review items and for queues.

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Working with Searches


A search locates a point of interest in the map window. You can do this with a text string
to search the specified feature class, or with a query for features that have attribute values
that match this string. You can create and perform searches though two related commands,
Searches and Search. You use the Searches command to create, to change, and to
manage predefined searches. And, you use the Search command to perform these
predefined searches or to create and directly perform ad hoc searches. Both types of
searches locate the appropriate items and display them in the regular map window and the
Search Data Window, allowing you to then perform operations on the results according to
your workflow. This section discusses these two commands and how to create and to
perform the different types of searches.

Creating and Managing Predefined Searches


The Searches command lets you perform the following:
• Create predefined searches • Edit predefined search properties
• View predefined searches and their descriptions • Delete predefined searches
Selecting View > Searches displays the Searches dialog box containing a list of all
existing predefined searches in the active GeoWorkspace and, when one is selected, its
corresponding description.

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To create a predefined search, click New to display the New Search dialog box on which
you define properties for the new search. A predefined, or named, search consists of
parameterized SQL filter string for which parameter values are supplied when you run the
Search command.

You first select the search input from the Search for features in treeview list. This list
contains the feature classes, queries, categories, and reference features from the current
GeoWorkspace. You can then define a search parameterized filter string, such as
CITY_NAME='[Name of city]', by typing the filter string directly into the Filter field or
through the Filter button. Clicking Filter displays the standard Filter dialog box, which
lets you select the appropriate column names and values for your filter.

With the filter text string, the command searches the specified feature class or query for
features that have attribute values that match this string.
You can create a filter string containing placeholders for values to be typed in the Search
command dockable control. For example, if the filter string is CITY_NAME='[Name of
city]', the Search command has a one-row, two-column grid on its control with the
Name of city prompt in the first column, for the value to be typed in the second column. If
the filter string requires value substitutions indicated by the brackets with a prompt such as
CITYNAME like '[Name of city]', the command makes the value substitutions in the

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filter string before it performs the query. This is the usual case. If no substitutions are
required, the command uses the search filter string as it is.

Note: When creating a filter string for text attributes, the search definition uses single or
double quotes (depending on the database type of the warehouse) around the character.
For example: Attribute = '[prompt]'

However, when creating a filter string for numeric attributes, the numeric attribute should
not be enclosed in quotes. For example: Attribute = [prompt]

Finally, you define the search name and an optional search description; then click OK.
Once created, the searches are located in the Searches folder, which is integrated with the
library system for sharing predefined searches at the enterprise level or between users.

You can also view and edit existing searches by selecting a search on the Searches dialog
box and clicking Properties to display the Search Properties dialog box.

This dialog box displays the current properties of the selected search and lets you change
the input (feature class, query, category member, or reference feature), filter string, search
name, and search description.

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Finally, selecting one or more searches on the Searches dialog box and clicking Delete
deletes the selected search(es).

Performing Searches
The Search command lets you perform a search to locate a point of interest in the regular
map window and display the results in the Search Data Window. For example, you can
easily navigate to Parcels by Parcel ID number through a search. You can type a text
string to search the specified feature class or query for features that have attribute values
that match this string. Once the items are located through the search, you can edit or
perform any other task appropriate for your particular workflow. This command is a
tracker command, that is, it can remain active at all times if appropriate.
You can start Search if the active window is a map window and if there is at least one
active connection. If the command is active and the active window becomes a data
window, the command remains active, and you can perform a search. The command uses
the original search map window as the search window. If you delete the original search
map window, change the active window to one that is not a map window, and select the
command, an error message informs you that you need an active map window. If the
layout window becomes the active window, this command is not displayed.
The Search command lets you perform two types of searches:
• Ad hoc searches, created with the search string entered directly in the Search dockable
control applied to all applicable attributes. All attributes in the feature class are
searched for the specified value.
• Predefined searches, previously created through the Searches command with your
control over the SQL used for the search, identification of the attribute(s) to be
searched, and provision of caption(s) for each search operand.
You can perform both types of searches on either a warehouse-resident feature class or a
GeoWorkspace-resident query on the Search dockable control, which is displayed when
you select View > Search. Any search results are immediately displayed, and you can also
set options for viewing the result items. The active map window is fit to, or centered on,
the first result and all results are available for navigation and are also displayed in the
Search Data Window.

Using the Search Dockable Control


The Search dockable control provides a field with a drop-down list from which you can
select the search input or a predefined search; a drop-down list, field, or grid for selecting
or typing the attribute value(s) if required by a search; and a Search button to execute the
search. It also contains the Queued Edit control for scrolling through the output of the
search and for setting viewing options.

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To begin a search, you select one of the following:


• A feature class, query, category member, or reference feature for an ad hoc search.
• A predefined search, created through the Searches command, from the drop-down list,
located in the Searches branch of the treeview.
Depending on the search type selected, the dockable control takes one two forms, ad hoc or
predefined.

Performing Ad Hoc Searches


For an ad hoc search, the drop-down list, the key-in field, and the Options and Search
buttons are enabled.

To create an ad hoc search, you select a feature or query (from the features, queries,
categories, and reference features drop-down list) to search, type an appropriate text value,
and then click Search to perform the search and to display the results, as in the following
example. The Search command constructs an attribute query, executes it, and feeds the
results into the Queued Edit control.

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If the attribute value entered is numeric, the constructed query searches all Text and Memo
fields for the entered value and compares all numeric fields to see if they are equal to the
entered value. If the attribute value entered is not numeric, the constructed query searches
all Text and Memo fields for the entered value. For the non-numeric comparisons, the
constructed string uses the like operator and assumes that you have entered the appropriate
wildcard characters if necessary.
For many database systems (Oracle, ArcView, and so forth) the percent sign (%) is the
multi-character wildcard character. For Access, the asterisk (*) is the multi-character
wildcard character. If the selected input is a query, the multi-character wildcard character
is the percent sign. Case sensitivity also varies depending on the database system. Access
queries are not case sensitive. Oracle queries are case sensitive. If the selected input is a
query, the new query is case sensitive.

Note: It may be helpful when first using this command to practice using the input query
you construct in the Analysis > Attribute Query command to ensure that it is correct and
returns appropriate results. You can then use it to perform your ad hoc search.

Performing Predefined Searches


For a predefined search, the dockable control appearance varies according to the type of
search. If the search does not require attribute value input, that grid does not appear, as in
the following example, with the Options and Search buttons enabled. To perform such a
search, you only need to click Search to display the results.

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If the search does require input, an attribute (prompt)/value grid is displayed and enabled
along with the Options button. The Search button is enabled when you type a value for
the displayed attribute. To perform such a search, you type the appropriate value and then
click Search to display the results.

The number of rows in the grid is the same as the number of unique parameter values
defined when the search was created with the Searches command. The Search command
populates the left-hand column of the grid with parameter names extracted from the SQL
of the predefined search. The right-hand column is for your data entry. The command
substitutes the values entered for the SQL parameters, executes the query, and feeds the
results into the Queued Edit system. If the search requires more than two substitutions, the
grid has a vertical scroll bar, as in the following example.

Using the Queued Edit Control


Whether your search is ad hoc or predefined, the search output is displayed as a queue
using the Queued Edit control on the bottom of the Search dockable control in the map
window and in the Search Data Window. You can use this control for navigating among
multiple items returned by the search.
The Queued Edit control saves the map window name, Search Data Window, and the
legend, so that if you delete the Search map window or data window, it can create the
window again when you try to navigate the queue again. If you have deleted the map or
data window and created a new one (with the same name as the original Search window),
the Queued Edit control creates the window and adds “1”, or whatever number makes it
unique to the name. You can define the extent of the map window using Queued Edit
options and use the Spatial Filter Options to reset the spatial filter.

Navigating through Searches


You can navigate through the items in a search and adjust the view using the Queued Edit
control options: Move First, Move Next, Move Current, Move Previous, Move Last,
Zoom In/Out, and Fit current queue item. Each of these makes use of the view
properties you set in the Options > Queuing Options dialog box. When a Search Data

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Window is present during a queue navigation, the data window is scrolled and the row
selector image points to the highlighted current queue item (record).

Setting Queuing Options


You can set options for viewing the map window display and for defining an item locator
through the two tabs on the Queuing Options dialog box, which is displayed by clicking
the Options button on the control.
The View tab lets you define the view options. When you zoom in/out or fit the view of an
item in the map window the view adjusts according to the view options. The Locator tab
lets you define the locator, which consists of two graphical elements, the locator box and
the crosshairs.

See “Setting View Options” in the “Working with Queued Edit” section of this chapter for
more information on using this dialog box.

Displaying the Search Data Window


You can also show or hide the data window for the active queue though the
Display/Remove Data Window button on the control. If this toggle button is depressed
and the Search Data Window does not exist, a data window is created when a queue is
made active. If you delete the data window, the window is created the next time you
advance the queue or make a queue active. If the button is raised and the data window
exists, it is deleted.

Working with Joins


A join query combines data from two feature classes or queries that have common
attribute values. For example, a join would return all attributes for parcels from the parcel
feature class along with parcel ownership information from another feature class, based on
a common parcel ID, even if the latter feature class is in another warehouse.

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The Join command lets you specify feature classes or queries to join along with the
attributes within those feature classes or queries to join on, and the type of join operation to
perform. To create a join containing the appropriate features from each feature class, you
select the attribute in each feature class that contains the matching value. Attribute pairs
need not have the same name, but they must be the same data type. Only the values in
each attribute need to match.

Note: For values to match, they must be a perfect match. For example, “Kansas” is not a
perfect match for “Kansas<space>”.

You can also select and rename output columns in a join query through the Output
Attributes dialog box, which lists all the attributes. This enables you to see the final
resulting fields and to manipulate the field names and the order of the fields.
This command generates a read-write output query when at least one output attribute is
read-write. Output attributes are read-write when they come from a read-write attribute in
the input feature classes or queries, and when they are participating in an inner join or the
inner portion of a left outer or right outer join.

Defining Joins
You can create the following types of joins:
Inner join Records are added to the join only if the value from
the left field matches the corresponding value in the
right field. Records from either feature class that do
not match are not included in the join.
Left outer All records from the left feature class are included in
join the join, but only matching records from the right
feature class are included. Records from the right
feature class that do not match are not included.
Right outer All records from the right feature class are included in
join the join, but only matching records from the left
feature class are included. Records from the left
feature class that do not match are not included.
Full outer All records from both feature classes are included in
join the join.

In any of the outer joins, fields in records with unmatched values have null values.
Accordingly, join attributes with null values cannot be matched to any record in the other
feature class. If a record in one feature class contains a value that has a match in more than
one record in the other feature class, the query will return multiple copies of the first
record.

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To display the join in a map window, the software uses the geometry from the left feature
class or query. So, when you create a join from two feature classes or queries that contain
geometries, select the feature class or query whose geometry you want from the left side of
the Join dialog box.

To create a join:
1. Select Analysis > Join.

2. From the Left side of join drop-down list, select the left feature class or query.
3. From the Right side of join drop-down list, select the right feature class or query.
4. From the lists of available attributes, select the attributes on which to create a join.
5. Click the down arrow to add the attribute pair to the Selected attribute pairs list.

Note: To remove an attribute pair, select it from the Selected attribute pairs list and
click the up arrow.

6. If the records have to match in more than one attribute, repeat Steps 2 - 5 to add
additional attribute pairs to the join.
7. Optional: Click Attributes to rename (click Rename) and/or to reorder the attributes
(using the arrow buttons and/or Select/Unselect All buttons to aid the
selecting/unselecting process).

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See GeoMedia Help for more information on using this dialog box.

Note: When you hover over an entry in either list, a tooltip is displayed indicating the
name of the field.

8. Select the type of join to perform.


9. In the Query name field, type a name for the join or accept the default name.
10. Optional: Type a description for the join.
11. Select a window in which to display the join. If you select a map window, you can
also change the style of the join.
12. Click OK.

Analyzing Geometry
Analyze Geometry calculates geometric statistics for each feature instance of a selected
feature class or query and displays the output as a query, which can be displayed in a map
window and/or data window.
The statistics available are as follows:
2
• Area features—area, perimeter, area/perimeter
• Linear features—length, azimuth, bearing
• Point features—geographic coordinate, projection coordinate, height
2
• Compound features—area, length, perimeter, area/perimeter , length, azimuth, bearing,
geographic coordinate, projection coordinate, height
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• Graphics text features—geographic coordinate, projection coordinate, height


• Raster features—none
In addition, you can use this tool as an analytical tool to find certain specified conditions.
For example, you could use it to locate all the parcel areas of a certain size or to prepare a
thematic map. You access Analyze Geometry from the Analysis menu.
This tool takes a feature class or query as input and outputs the results as a new query
containing all the fields from the input feature class, plus additional fields for each
appropriate geometry statistic selected on the dialog box. You can display this resultant
query in a map window and/or a data window. In addition, you can set the style for the
map window for optimum display results. A query or data window sort can be performed
to find small areas or short lines, which allows greater flexibility in the use of the tool. For
example, you may want to find all features with large area or those with areas within a
specific range. The default unit values are populated from the Units and Formats tab of
the Coordinate System Properties dialog box, but you can change them. The distance
and area units, however, are not displayed in the output query.
See GeoMedia Help for information on the Units and Formats tab.
The query is dynamically linked back to the input feature class or query and is
automatically updated when any changes are made. This means that you can select
features in the output query and delete them, and they will be deleted from the original
feature class. In this way, for example, you could find all areas less than a certain
minimum size or lines less than a minimum length and eliminate them.
Analyze Geometry performs calculations based on the options selected on the Units and
Formats tab of the Coordinate System Properties dialog box. You can change these
options by selecting different unit values on the tab.
For azimuth, bearing, geographic coordinate, projection coordinate, and height, the units
and format are taken directly from the settings on the dialog box. You cannot override
these settings through the Analyze Geometry dialog box. This means that once you
generate the query, you cannot change the units and format of the azimuth, bearing,
geographic coordinate, projection coordinate, and height. To change the settings, you must
generate a new query.
You also have the option of using a spheroidal or planar reference space when computing
the statistics. The default value is taken from the Units and Formats tab of the
Coordinate System Properties dialog box. All computations take place in the
GeoWorkspace coordinate system.

Note: Existing queries produced by this command in GeoMedia 3.0 continue to be


computed in the warehouse coordinate system. Only new (GeoMedia 4.0 and higher)
queries are computed in the GeoWorkspace coordinate system.

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After running Analyze Geometry, you can perform maintenance on the detected
conditions. Any changes you make to the geometries of the features for which the
statistics were calculated update the statistics automatically in any open map window
and/or data window displaying the affected features.
For example, if you wanted to delete small areas found by Analyze Geometry, you would
do as follows:
1. Run Analyze Geometry to find the small areas.
2. Open a data window on the new query.
3. Sort the area column.
4. Select all rows with less than the appropriate area.
5. Delete the selected rows.
The data window and map windows are updated for the deletion.

Analysis Options
You can choose from among the following analysis options for the statistics you need:
• Area—Calculates the area of each feature with an area geometry and stores the value
in a new field called Area. The area is calculated only for those features with an area
geometry; any other geometries are ignored. If the input feature class or query is a
linear geometry, this option is ignored.
• Perimeter—Calculates the perimeter of discontiguous geometries, and holes are
accounted for in the area calculation each feature with an area geometry and stores the
value in a new field called Perimeter. The perimeter is calculated only for those
features with an area geometry; any other geometries are ignored. If the input feature
class or query is a linear geometry, this option is ignored.
• Area/Perimeter2—Calculates the area/perimeter_2 ratio for each instance of the
selected feature class or query with an area geometry. The value is stored in a new
field in the output query set called AreaPerimeterRatio. If the input data contains
compound feature classes, the statistic is calculated only for those features with an area
geometry. The statistic is not calculated for disjoint area geometries. If the feature is a
collection containing area and line or point geometries, the statistic is still calculated
for the area geometry, while the other geometries are ignored. If the input data is a
linear geometry, this option is ignored.
• Length—Calculates the length of discontiguous geometries, and holes are accounted
for in the area calculation each feature with a linear geometry and stores the value in a
new field called Length. The length is calculated only for those features with a linear
geometry; any other geometries are ignored. If the input feature class or query is an
area geometry, this option is ignored. Discontiguous geometries are accounted for in
the length calculation.

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• Azimuth—Calculates the azimuth for each feature with a linear geometry and stores
the value in a new field called Azimuth. The azimuth is calculated only for compound
and linear features.
• Bearing—Calculates the bearing for each feature with a linear geometry and stores the
value in a new field called Bearing. The bearing is calculated only for compound and
linear features.
• Geographic Coordinate—Outputs the geographic coordinate for each feature with a
point or text geometry and stores the values in two new fields called
GeographicFirstCoord and GeographicSecondCoord. The geographic coordinate is
output only for compound, point, and text features.
• Projection Coordinate—Outputs the projection coordinate for each feature with a
point or text geometry and stores the values in two new fields called
ProjectionFirstCoord and ProjectionSecondCord. The projection coordinate is output
only for compound, point, and text features.
• Height—Calculates the height for each feature with a point geometry and stores the
values in a new field called Height. The height is calculated only for compound, point,
and text features.
The output feature class or query contains a new field for each selected analysis option that
applies to the geometry type of the input feature class or query. The default headings of
the new fields are those previously listed. If a column exists with one of these names, the
new name is the same but with a ## symbol appended to the end of the name, where ##
begins at 01 and is incremented until a unique name is found.

To analyze geometry:
1. Open a read-write warehouse.
2. Select Analysis > Analyze Geometry.

3. Select a feature class or query from the Features to analyze drop-down list.
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4. Select the appropriate analysis statistics option(s) from the list in the Analysis options
selection area.

Note: The Analysis options list is populated based on geometry of selected feature
class or query. All available analysis options are off when a feature class or query is
first selected. When the feature class or query is changed, all available analysis
options are again turned off. However, if the geometry type of the new feature class or
query matches that of the old feature class or query, the user-selected options are
retained.

5. Type an appropriate name in the Query name field.


6. Optional: Type an appropriate query description in the Description field.
7. Optional: Click Units and Formats, and change the values appropriately on the Units
and Formats tab of the Coordinate System Properties dialog box.
8. Verify that the Display results in map window check box is selected in the Map
window name field, and change, if appropriate, the map window in which to display
the results.
OR
To not display the results in a map window, uncheck the Display results in map
window check box.
9. Optional: Click Style, and change the default style on the Select Style dialog box.
10. Verify that the Display results in data window box is selected in the Data window
name field, and change, if appropriate, the data window in which to display the results.
OR
To not display the results in a data window, uncheck the Display results in data
window check box.
11. Click OK to analyze the geometries.
Analysis processing is performed in the selected feature class or query, and an output
query is produced using the query name from the dialog box.

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If the map window display check box was selected, the map window with the
geometries is displayed. If the data window display check box was selected, the data
window with the geometries is displayed.

Placing Buffer Zones Around Features


A buffer zone is a region around or within one or more features, generally used for spatial
analysis or as input to spatial queries. When you use the Analysis > Buffer Zone
command to place buffer zones, you are creating a query that is associated with an existing
feature class. These buffer zones are inserted as area features. You can define and place
buffer zones around point, linear, area, and compound feature classes (not graphics text,
raster, or nongraphic features) or around the results of a query. Buffer zones work best
when the coordinate systems of the GeoWorkspace and warehouse are matched and set to
an equal area projection. This command outputs the buffer zones to a map window and/or
data window. Buffer Zone is enabled when a map window is active and there is at least
one open warehouse connection.

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You can specify the buffer zone distance (or the name of an attribute containing buffer
zone distances) on a per-feature basis. Many variations of input distance values are
supported, including stacks, rings, and buffer zones in the interior of areas. The buffer
zone distance can be of two kinds, constant or variable.

When using a constant distance, you set the distance value and unit. You must type the
distances as follows:
• Single—A simple number, for example: 10
• Stacked—Numbers separated by semicolons (;), for example: 10;20;30
• Ringed—Numbers separated by colons (:) and semicolons (;), for example:
(start/end) 10:20;30:40
The default value for unit is from the Unit setting on the Units and Formats tab of the
Define Coordinate System File dialog box.
When using a variable distance, you select an attribute that contains distance values that
may vary on a per-feature basis. Only attributes of type text, byte, integer, long, single,
double, and currency are available for selection. These values must be in the ground units
of the coordinates system of the data you are buffer zoning. If this is not the case, you can
construct an expression using the Functional Attributes command, which performs any
required unit conversion and formatting.
See “Working with Functional Attributes” in this chapter.
You have the option of setting the type of end caps to place around the ends of linear or
compound features, either rounded (default) or squared.
You can also set the output of the touching buffer zones as merged or unmerged (default).
Unmerged output contains one output buffer zone placed around or within each feature for
each input feature-distance combination. Overlapping buffer zones are not merged.
Diagram A below shows six unmerged buffer zone features. Merged output contains the
originally resulting output buffer zones merged in such a manner that overlapping sets of
buffer zone features are merged, but discontiguous buffer zones from a single input feature
retain their grouping. Diagram B below shows four buffer zone features, one of which
consists of three previously unmerged buffer zone features.

A B

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In the case of merged output, the resulting query consists of a single output geometry field.
In the case of unmerged output, there is additionally a text attribute containing the distance
value at which the buffer zone was created.
The following diagrams show example buffer zones around different geometries and how
they vary with both positive and negative distance:

Working with Functional Attributes


The Functional Attributes command lets you create new query-based attributes. This
command supports the calculation of on-the-fly, dynamic attributes based on geometry
measurement and/or attribute values for one database table at a time. The command
returns all of the original attributes plus any new attributes defined on the Functional
Attributes dialog box as a new query. You can use this command on read-only data as
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well as read-write data. Calculated output attributes can also be used as input for further
analysis within the same functional query. To use this command, you must have an active
map window or data window and at least one open connection.
After generating the functional attributes, the command stores the query in the
GeoWorkspace and displays the results in the map and/or data window. You can view and
manage queries by using the Analysis > Queries and Legend > Add Query commands.

The workflow for using this command is to first select the feature or query for which you
want to add functional attributes on the Functional Attributes dialog box.

You then use the New button to open the Functional Attribute dialog box to construct the
analysis expression. This second dialog box functions as a calculator that you can use to
provide calculated information for queries. This calculator provides standard operators and
context-sensitive syntax information.

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See the GeoMedia Help for information on this dialog box.


You can also access the Functional Attribute dialog box to create, edit, review, and/or
delete functional attributes through the Aggregation and Analytical Merge commands on
the Analysis menu. The Analysis commands Functional Attributes, Aggregation, and
Analytical Merge are types of queries for forming additional data with the Functional
Attributes dialog box.
See “Aggregating Data” and “Merging Feature Classes and Queries” in this chapter.

Note: To avoid possible confusion, remember that there is a Functional Attributes


command that, when selected, opens the Functional Attributes dialog box. However,
from this dialog box, and from the other commands just discussed, you can access the
Functional Attribute dialog box.

Functional Attribute Expressions


Functional Attribute expressions are similar to the expressions used in Excel. They
consist of operands and operators that are evaluated in order to get a resulting value. An
expression can be just one operand or a combination of operands with one or more
operators. You can use expressions in many ways, for example, as part of the data to
retrieve in a query or as a search condition to look for data meeting a set of criteria.
See the “Functional Attribute Information” topic in GeoMedia Help for detailed
information on the expression components.
You can create or edit an expression by typing values and using operator buttons that
automatically insert the corresponding operator into the Expression field on the

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Functional Attribute dialog box. You can also cut and paste function syntax into the
Expression field.

This dialog box provides categories, functions belonging to a selected function category,
and columns (attributes) that can be used as input parameters for functions. To help in the
creating and editing, the dialog box also displays the syntax definition for the selected
function and a tooltip that provides a brief description of the functionality of the selected
function. Once you insert text, the expression is validated. If there is a problem when
adding the function, an error message is displayed, and the position of the cursor in the
expression indicates the error location.

Note: You can select the syntax statement, displayed at bottom of the dialog box when
you select a function, and paste it elsewhere.

You can share expressions with others by emailing the GeoWorkspace, creating a
GeoWorkspace template file, creating a GeoMedia WebMap website, and cutting and
pasting expression strings.

Output Data Types


The output data type of the functional attribute is displayed in the Output type read-only
field only when the expression is currently valid, thus providing a valuable expression
check. In addition to standard numeric and text data type outputs, some (Geometry)
functions output geometry data types. Output geometry data types include the following:
• Area Geometry • Line Geometry
• Compound Geometry • Point Geometry
• Image Geometry • Text Geometry

Length
You can review and/or edit of the length of the output functional attribute in the Length
field when the output type is Text. The default value is 255, and you can edit this to any
value from 1-255, inclusive.

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Format
You can review and/or edit the format of the output functional attributes in the Format
field for all data types except Geometry data types. The default format/value depends on
the output data type.

Precision
You can review and/or edit the display precision of the output functional attributes when
the format is Fixed, Standard, or Currency and the output type is Single, Double, or
Currency. The default value depends on the output type. For Single default will be 4, for
Double default will be 6 and for Currency default will be 2.

Operands
Operands are manipulated by the operators in an expression. The operands can be the
following:
Identifiers—References to fields in which values vary for each record.
Constants—Fixed values that are constant for each record.
Functions—Operations that take inputs and return values.
You can build an expression from combinations of these operands joined with operators.
For example, an expression can be a calculation, such as: (price * 1.5) or (price +
sales_tax).
In an expression, you enclose character data values in single quotation marks ('). In the
following expression, the character literal B% is used as the pattern for the LIKE clause:
LastName LIKE ‘B%’.
In the following expression, the date value is enclosed in single quotation marks:
OrderDate = 'Sep 28 2001'.

Operators
Operators are symbols specifying an action performed on one or more operands, that is,
how the operands are manipulated. The operator categories are the following:
• Arithmetic • Logical
• Bitwise • String
• Comparison • Unary
An expression can be built from several smaller expressions combined by operators. In
these complex expressions, the operators are evaluated based on operator precedence.
Operators with higher precedence are performed before operators with lower precedence.
Operators with the same precedence are performed from left to right.
The following are example expressions:

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• AssessedVal = Area* Value


• TotalPop = sum(Pop)
• If MeanIncome > 30,000 then sum(Pop)

Functions
The Functional Attributes command provides the following types of functions to perform
operations:
• Scalar functions operate on a single value and then return a single value.
1:1 (1 record in, 1 record out) Example: Using the Functional Attributes command
to calculate the X or Y coordinates of a point geometry feature class.
• Aggregation functions operate on a collection of values but return a single,
summarizing value.
Many:1 (Many records in, 1 out) Example: Using the Analytical Merge command
with CREATEPOLYGON to merge points to a polygon.
• Expansion functions operate on a single value (usually a geometry value) and then
return multiple values.
1:Many (1 record in, Many records out) Example: Using the Functional Attributes
command to calculate SEGMENTS of lines.
In general, Aggregation functions are most often used with the Analytical Merge
command and the Aggregation command. The Functional Attributes command normally
uses only Scalar or Expansion functions.
All functions delivered with GeoMedia have unique names. These functions are organized
in the following categories:
• Date and Time • Miscellaneous
• Geometry • Statistical
• Logical • Text
• Math & Trig • View
The categories on the Functional Attributes dialog box simply organize the functions by
subject. If you select All Functions from the Categories list, all available functions are
displayed for selection in the Functions list. If you select Most Commonly Used
Functions, the Functions list contains only those functions that you have most recently
and most frequently used. The default content consists of fourteen pre-selected functions;
as you use this command, the list adjusts to include your own commonly used functions.
Operators and Constants display a list of operators and constants, respectively.
Attributes that can be used as input parameters for the functions are displayed in the
Attributes list.

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Common Geometry Functions


Some of the most commonly used Geometry functions are AREA, COMPRESS,
CREATEPOLYLINE, MERGE, PERIMETER, and REVERSE.
Their specifications are as follows:
AREA—Returns the area of the specified geometry. The syntax for the AREA function is
similar to other functions such as LENGTH, PERIMETER, X, Y, and others.
Format: AREA(Geometry, RefSpace, UnitOfMeasure)
Geometry: The geometry for which you want to measure the area. The geometry can be
selected from the available input attributes section of the dialog box.
RefSpace: The active reference space used for performing measurements can be set to one
of two constants: Truemeas (True Measure) or Projectedmeas (Projected Measure). The
reference space constant determines if the measurement calculations should be made along
the curvature of the earth or the plane of the feature class projection. This parameter is
optional. If missing, Truemeas is used. Possible values are as follows:

Value Constant Meaning


0 Truemeas Measurements are computed on the surface of the ellipsoid
(taking the earth's curvature into account). Distances are
also referred to as geodesic distances.
1 Projectgedmeas Measurements are computed on the projection plane.
These measurements are affected by projection distortions.
UnitOfMeasure: The area unit in which the geometry is to be measured. This parameter is
optional. If missing, the geometry is measured in square meters. Valid area measurement
values can be selected from functions listed in the category Constants.
Remarks: The return value depends on the geometry type.
If the geometry is not defined (NULL value), the NULL value is returned.
Return Type: gdbDouble
COMPRESS—Returns a compressed form of the given geometry. The geometry does not
change visibly but is instead rewritten with efficient storage. It is sometimes used with
certain data originating from CAD (that is, derived from complexed lines or polygons).
The geometries are rewritten so they are easier to edit in GeoMedia. COMPRESS can be
used in the Update Attributes command to update the geometries in a read-write
warehouse directly. You can review information about a particular geometry by selecting
the geometry in the map window, then right clicking for the Geometry Information
command, as seen in the following examples of an inefficiently stored parcel before and
after COMPRESS:

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BEFORE AFTER

Format: COMPRESS(Geometry)
Geometry: The geometry that you want to compress. The geometry can be selected from
the available input attributes section of the dialog box.
Remarks: The return value depends on the geometry type.
COMPRESS does not change the following geometry types: PointGeometry,
OrientedPointGeometry, LineGeometry, PolylineGeometry, ArcGeometry,
PolygonGeometry, RectangleGeometry, RasterGeometry, or TextPointGeometry. In all
such cases, the input geometry is returned unchanged.
COMPRESS is applicable only to CompositePolylineGeometry,
CompositePolygonGeometry, BoundaryGeometry, and GeometryCollection. These
geometry storage types may contain nested geometries and/or sequences of linear
geometries. In all such cases, the input geometry is returned in an efficiently stored
geometry. There is no loss in accuracy or visible change. See the following:
If the geometry is not defined (NULL value), then a NULL value is returned.
The act of compression involves three different activities:
1. Nested composites/collections are flattened. This eliminates geometry headers,
eliminates recursive processing, and (for composites) sets the stage for further
optimization in the next step.
2. Consecutive endpoint-matched lines/polylines within composites/collections are
stitched together into a single polyline. This eliminates geometry headers and
eliminates redundant vertices.
In the case of composites, it is expected that consecutive geometries match endpoint-
to-startpoint, in which case such geometries (if line/polyline) are stitched together with
the redundant vertex eliminated. In the event that they do not match endpoint-to-
startpoint, it is considered an invalid geometry. In this case there is no redundant
vertex, and no compression occurs between the two geometries.
In the case of collections, there is no expectation that consecutive linear geometries
match endpoint-to-startpoint, but we know from experience that such circumstances do
occur, and that when they occur, they are often meant to be treated as a single
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continuous linear geometry. For this reason, the same processing will occur in this
step for collections as occurs for composites, as stated above.
3. Single-member composites/collections are flattened and replaced with the single
member primitive. This eliminates the parent geometry and simplifies future
processing and editing of the geometries.
Return Type: gdbSpatial
CREATEPOLYLINE—Creates a polyline from an ordered series of points. This is an
aggregating (that is, points stored in multiple records output to one linear record) or a
scalar (that is, multiple points stored in 1 record output to 1 linear record) function. If the
points for a single line are stored in multiple records, you should use CREATEPOLYLINE
with the Analytical Merge command and, more rarely, the Aggregation command. If the
points for a single line are stored in a single record (that is, a feature class or query that has
multiple point geometry columns), you can use Analytical Merge, Functional Attributes,
or Aggregation.
Format: CREATEPOLYLINE(Geometry, OrderBy) or CREATEPOLYLINE(Geometry1,
Geometry2, Geometry3, …)
Geometry: The point geometry that represents vertices from which a polyline is created.
OrderBy: The optional expression that is used for sorting the points. If it is missing, the
order is determined by the recordset and pipe that is hosting this function, and in this case,
the order of the vertices is not guaranteed.
Geometry 1, 2, …: The point geometries that represent vertices from which the polyline is
to be created. In the case of this format, the function becomes scalar.
Remarks: The input geometry type must be type of gdbPoint.
If the input field is a collection, each point of the collection will be handled separately in
the order of the items in the collection.
If the geometry is not defined (NULL value), the NULL value is returned.
If any of the input geometries are not defined, the geometry is ignored. If the number of
points that creates the polyline is less then 2, the NULL value is returned.
Return Type: gdbLinear
MERGE—Returns the merged geometry. Commonly used with the Analytical Merge
command because this is an aggregating type function.
Format: MERGE(Geometry)
Geometry: The geometry for which you want to create merged geometry.
Return Type: gdbSpatial
PERIMETER—Returns the distance around the perimeter of the specified geometry. The
following format is similar to the AREA function (see also the previous AREA function).

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Format: PERIMETER(Geometry, RefSpace, UnitOfMeasure)


Geometry: The geometry for which you want to measure the perimeter.
RefSpace: The active reference space used for performing measurements.
This parameter is optional. If missing, Truemeas is used. For possible values see the
AREA function.
UnitOfMeasure: The linear unit in which the geometry is to be measured. This parameter
is optional. If missing, the geometry is measured in meters. Valid linear units can be
selected from the list of constants (found under the Constants category).
If the geometry is not defined (NULL value), the NULL value is returned.
Return Type: gdbDouble
REVERSE—Returns the original geometry with reversed vertex order. This is a scalar
function.
Format: REVERSE(Geometry)
Geometry: The geometry that you want to reverse. It must be of the subtype gdbLinear,
gdbAreal, or gdbAnySpatial.
Remarks: If the geometry contains point geometry, the point is returned without any
changes.
If the geometry contains linear geometry, the reversed linear geometry is returned.
If the geometry contains areal geometry, the reversed areal geometry is returned
If the geometry contains a collection of geometry, the reversed collection of reversed
geometry is returned. In other words, each individual geometry is reversed, and the items
in the collection are also reordered, from last to first, so that the overall vertex sequence is
retained.
If the geometry is not defined (NULL value), the NULL value is returned.
Return Type: The same as the original geometry type.

Constants
A constant, also known as a literal or a scalar value, represents a specific data value that
does not change during the calculation of an expression. The format of a constant depends
on the data type of the value it represents. A full list of the available constants can be
found under the Constants category.

To create and to display functional attributes:


1. Select Analysis > Functional Attributes.

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2. Select a feature class or query as input from the Add functional attributes for drop-
down list.
3. Click New to open the Functional Attribute dialog box to define at least one functional
attribute.
4. Type an appropriate value in the Functional attribute name field.

Note: The Output type field is read-only, and a Length field is enabled only for the
Text output type. When you create a valid expression, the Output type field is
automatically assigned.

5. Use the Expression field to create the expression to be calculated for the new
functional attribute. Expressions can be created by typing and/or pasting values, by
using the operator buttons, and by selecting values from the Categories,
Functions/Constants, and Attributes lists.
6. When you have completed entering the expression, click Add to create the functional
attribute.

Note: Once a functional attribute has been created, it is added to the list of available
attributes and can used as part of other functional expressions.

7. Optional: Use the Expression field and Add button to create more functional
attributes.
8. Click Close to return to the Functional Attributes dialog box.
9. Accept the default query name, or type an appropriate name in the Query name field.
10. Optional: Type a query description in the Description field.

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11. Choose whether or not to display the resultant functional attribute query in a data
window or map window. You can change in the Map window name field, if
appropriate.
12. Optional: Click Style, and change the map window default style on the Select Style
dialog box.
13. Click OK.

To edit functional attributes:


1. Select Analysis > Queries.
2. Select the appropriate query from the list of query names.
3. Click Properties.
4. Edit the expression for the functional attribute in the Expression field of the
Functional Attribute dialog box by typing and/or pasting values, by using the
operator buttons, and by selecting values from the Categories, Functions/Constants,
and Attributes lists.
5. When you have completed editing, click OK to return to the Queries dialog box.

Merging Feature Classes and Queries


The Analytical Merge command lets you dynamically merge features in a specified
feature class or query, as well as to aggregate the attributes for those features into a single
output feature. This output merge is a query that combines information from one specific
feature class. The output query is stored in the GeoWorkspace, and you can display it in
the map and/or data window. For example, you may have a series of individual line
segments making up an interstate highway alignment, and you would like this to be merged
into one continuous line, while also calculating the length of the merged segment and the
average speed limit along the entire length.
In the merge process, you specify the merge criteria and the output functional attribute(s)
to be computed from the input features. You can merge all feature classes except graphics
text or raster. To use this command, you must have an active map window or a data
window and have at least one warehouse connection open.
The following is an example of a merge of counties by district and population:

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Additional merge examples are the following:


• Merge Parcels by Owner ID and/or Name and calculate the taxes owed.
• Merge Pipe Segments by pressure_zone id, and return the total length of pipes and
average pressure in each pressure zone.
• Merge Streets by street_name and calculate the total length (sum of segments)
• Merge Survey Points by Survey name to connect the stations with a line (connect the
dots) using the CREATEPOLYLINE function.
There are three possible queries, based on the merge criteria: attribute based, spatially
based, or both. You specify the criteria through the following options on the Analytical
Merge dialog box:
• All—Merges all input features.
• Touching—Merges features that touch.
• By attribute—Merges features that share one or more selected equivalent attribute
values.
• By attribute and touching—Merges features that share one or more selected
equivalent attribute values and that touch.
If you select either of the two attribute-based criteria, the Attributes list is populated with
the names of all displayable attributes of type Text, Byte, Integer, Long, Single, Double,
Currency, Boolean, Memo, and Date (but not LongBinary, and GUID), from which you
can select one or more attributes to be used for determining if features should be merged
based on equivalence of attribute values. Attribute-based merging requires that the values
of all attributes match, that is, there is no logical and between comparisons of the various
attribute values. If you select attribute-based merging but do not select an attribute, it is as
if attribute-based merging were not selected. Thus, the command behaves as if the All or
Touching option (as appropriate) were selected.
You must define at least one output functional attribute through the Functional Attributes
dialog box. For all input features except nongraphic, the default attribute name is
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Geometry with the expression “MERGE(<Geometry>)”, where <Geometry> is the name


of the primary geometry field of the input feature class or query. If the input features are
nongraphic, no attribute name is displayed. You can also define additional output
functional attributes and review and/or edit their properties through the Functional
Attributes dialog box, and you can delete functional attributes through the Analytical
Merge dialog box.
See “Working with Functional Attributes” in this chapter for information on functional
attributes.
You can use Analytical Merge to operate on both input and output attributes. The
attribute fields from the input are prefixed by Input in the Functional Attributes dialog
box. When you create a functional attribute, the new attribute is prefixed by Output.
This allows you to perform analytical operations on previously defined functional
attributes with the same operation. For example, you can specify the following
expressions in one run of the command:
MergeGeometry = MERGE(Input.Geometry)
AreaOfMergedGeometry = AREA(Output.MergeGeometry)
SumOfAreas = SUM(AREA(Input.Geometry)
The last two lines give you the same results if the geometries are only touching (not
overlapping). If you have overlapped areas, you get different results, and, in this case, the
SumOfAreas will be greater than AreaOfMergedGeometry.

Using the Right Mouse Menu


In defining a functional attribute, you can use the buttons to the right of the Output
functional attributes field, or you can use its right mouse menu. The menu contains
shortcuts for creating common functional attribute definitions, as in the following example:

New—Opens a submenu with the following items:


• Custom—Opens the Functional Attribute dialog box for creating new functional
attributes, as does the New button.
• Count(*)—Adds a new functional attribute with a default name of
“CountOf<Feature>”, where <Feature> is the name of the feature class or query input
to the command. The expression for the functional attribute is “COUNT(*)”.
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• [Function] > [Attribute]—Adds a new functional attribute with a default name of


“<Function>Of<Attribute>”, where <Function> is the name of the function
(AVERAGE, COUNT, FIRST, MAX, MEDIAN, MIN, SUM), and <Attribute> is
the name of the attribute chosen. For example, to obtain the sum of the “Population”
attribute, the default functional attribute name would be “SumOfPopulation”. The
expression for the functional attribute is “<Function>(<Attribute>)”, for example,
“SUM(Population)”.
• [Function] > Multiple Attributes—Opens the Multiple Attributes dialog box for
creating multiple new functional attributes as in the previous bulleted item, one per
chosen attribute from the list of all attributes from the input feature class or query that
is of a data type valid for the selected function. After checking appropriate attributes,
clicking OK dismisses the dialog box and returns one new output functional attribute
for each attribute chosen.

Properties—Opens the Functional Attribute dialog box for reviewing or editing


functional attributes, as does the Properties button.
Delete—Deletes selected functional attributes, as does the Delete button.

To perform analytical merge:


1. Select Analysis > Analytical Merge.

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2. Select the feature class or query to merge from the Merge features in drop-down list.
3. Select the appropriate Merge criteria option.
4. If you select By attribute or By attribute and touching, select the appropriate
Attributes check box(es).

5. Optional: Click New to define additional functional attributes on the Functional


Attribute dialog box.
6. Optional: Change the default query name, and/or type a description in the Output
merge as query fields.
See the GeoMedia Help for information on this dialog box.
7. Verify that the Display merge in map window check box is checked, and change in
the Map window name field, if appropriate, the map window in which to display the
merge.
OR
To not display the merge in a map window, uncheck the Display merge in map
window check box.
8. Optional: Click Style, and change the default style on the Select Style dialog box.

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9. Verify that the Display merge in data window check box is checked, and change in
the Data window name field, if appropriate, the data window in which to display the
merge.
OR
To not display the nongraphic attributes of the merge in a data window, uncheck the
Display query in data window check box.
10. Click OK to generate the merged features.

Workflow for Dashed and Patterned Linear Features


Applying a dashed line style or a patterned line style to linear features can often produce
undesirable results if the linear network is segmented, as in the following example.

In the preceding example, the railroad pattern is uneven because of the segmented network;
the pattern origin is redefined every time a new segment is encountered. This is easily
overcome using the Analytical Merge command, as in the following example.

In the preceding example, the pattern spacing is consistent, as opposed to the first example,
thereby producing the appropriate symbology, as specified on the Select Style dialog box.
This is because the Analytical Merge command has merged the linear network, thus
eliminating the problems associated with segmented displays. This workflow is also very
useful for multiple-line displays used to show cased road (parallel line) symbology,
especially at intersections.

Aggregating Data
The Aggregation command lets you copy attributes from features, including graphic text
feature classes and queries, in one feature class (the detail feature class) to related features
in another feature class (the summary feature class) in the form of a dynamic query. This
query is based on the spatial relation between two features and/or related table columns
(similar to a join) between two features. The detail feature class attributes are aggregated
into the summary feature class. Both summary and detail feature classes can be point,
linear, area, compound, and nongraphic, but not graphics text or image. The output
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aggregation is a query, which is stored in the GeoWorkspace and which you can display in
the map and/or data window. All summary attributes will be included in the resultant
query, while only the calculated attributes from the detail feature class are included.
An example of using aggregation would be to combine calculated information from a detail
TAX_ASSESSMENT feature class with a summary PARCEL feature class. In another
example, you could have a TAZ (Transportation Analysis Zone) feature class and an
ACCIDENTS feature class, and then you could sum the total number of accidents
occurring in each TAZ and copy it to the TAZ features. Or, given SOILS and
VEGETATION feature classes, you could copy the total number of each type of tree
falling in each soil type and, at the same time, calculate the average age and size of trees in
each soil type.
Other examples for using this command would be providing answers to the following:
• What is the total length of each class of road for each transit zone?
• What is the average income for customers in three-mile market areas for several
proposed business locations?
• What is the total assessed value of parcels affected by a proposed road-widening
project?
• How many houses are located within 300 feet of each road segment?

Aggregation Types
There are three possible types of aggregation based on the merge criteria: attribute based,
spatially based, or both. You specify the criteria through the tabs on the Aggregation
dialog box. On these tabs, you also specify the resolution operator and the definition of
output functional attributes to be computed from the summary features and the detail
features.

Attribute Aggregation
This type of aggregation uses matching attribute values to determine how the information
in the detail table is aggregated into the summary table. For example, you could aggregate
two tables, one with parcel geometry (PARCEL) and one with nongraphic information
(PARCEL_INFO) that is related to the parcel features that have one common (identical)
PARCEL_ID column. Using attribute aggregation would allow you to combine specific
calculated information from the detail table (PARCEL_INFO) to the summary table
(PARCEL), where appropriate, based on the comparison of the common attribute. To this
join, you could use functional attribution to add calculated information between the two
sources.
From the Attribute Aggregation tab, you can select one or more summary and detail
attribute pairs from a list of all displayable attributes, to be used for determining if features
should be aggregated based on the equivalence of attribute values. Values of all attributes
must match, that is, there is a logical and between the comparisons of the various attribute

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values. When you have selected a summary feature class or query, you must select at least
one attribute.

The selection button that lets you select an attribute pair is enabled only if the
conversion between the data types of the selected attributes is possible. This conversion
possibility is described in following table:

gdbCurrenc
gdbBoolean

gdbInteger

gdbDouble
gdbSingle
gdbLong

gdbDate

gdbText
gdbByte

y
gdbBoolean Y N N N N N N N N
gdbByte N Y Y Y Y Y N N N
gdbInteger N Y Y Y Y Y N N N
gdbLong N Y Y Y Y Y N N N
gdbSingle N Y Y Y Y Y N N N
gdbDouble N Y Y Y Y Y N N N
gdbCurrency N N N N N N Y N N
gdbDate N N N N N N N Y N
gdbText N N N N N N N N Y
Y = Selection button enabled. N = Selection button disabled.

Spatial Aggregation
When both summary and detail feature classes do not have a common (identical) database
column and they are spatial feature classes, you can still perform aggregation through
spatial criteria. For example, you could use spatial aggregation to find a site for a new
restaurant based on traffic volume, population income, and distance from a particular
intersection.
For spatial aggregation, you need to check the Aggregate where summary features check
box and to select an appropriate spatial operator on the Spatial Aggregation tab because
this type of aggregation is based on spatial proximity. If you select the are within
distance of operator, you also need to define the distance and distance unit.
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The operators are as follows:


• accumulate nearest • contain
• are contained by • entirely contain
• are entirely contained by • meet
• are nearest to • overlap
• are spatially equal • touch
• are within distance of
accumulate nearest—Aggregates the closest detail feature(s) to each input (summary)
feature.
are nearest to—Aggregates the detail feature to the nearest of the identified input
(summary) features, using the minimum distance between each pair of features. Note that
this operator locates only the one feature that is closest. The minimum distance is zero for
features that actually touch.
See “Defining Spatial Queries” in this chapter for definitions of the other operators.

Attribute/Spatial Aggregation
You can also perform a combination attribute and spatial aggregation when there is at least
one common (identical) database column between the summary and detail features and
when the geometries touch. You perform this aggregation by using input from both the
Attribute Aggregation and Spatial Aggregation tabs.

Output
From the Output tab, you can select the output definition, which consists of an optional
resolution operator and at least one functional attribute.

Resolution operators indicate how to resolve the ambiguous cases in which a detail feature
can be aggregated to more than one summary feature. If both selected summary and detail
feature classes or queries are spatial, and the spatial aggregation check box is checked on
the Spatial Aggregation tab, the available operators are All, None, First, Largest,
Largest Overlap, Nearest, Are Nearest To, and Accumulate Nearest. If the spatial
aggregation check box is unchecked, or if at least one of the selected feature classes or
queries is nongraphic, the available operators are All, None, and First.

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On the Output tab, you also have the option to create functional attributes and to review
and/or edit their properties through the Functional Attribute dialog box or to delete a
functional attribute. The functional attribute adds the calculated information to this join.
You can use Aggregation to operate on both input and output attributes. This allows you
to perform analytical operations on previously defined functional attributes with the same
operation. The summary features appear in the Attributes field of this dialog box as
Input.<attribute name> and the detail features appear as Detail.<attribute name>.
See the “Working with Functional Attributes” section of this chapter for more information
on functional attributes.

Aggregation Examples
The following are examples of using Aggregation with the USA and Madison County
sample data sets that were delivered with this product. The example problems listed here
are hypothetical, and there may be other valid workflow solutions to solve the problem.
Problem 1: Need to transfer the state abbreviation from the state to the counties that are
contained by the state.
Solution:
• Summary Feature: Counties
• Detail Feature: States
• Aggregation defined as Spatial
• Aggregate where summary features are contained by detail features
• Output Resolution Operator: All
• Output Expression: FIRST(Detail.STAABBRV)
Problem 2: Need the number of cities each state contains as an attribute of the state.
Solution:
• Summary Feature: States
• Detail Feature: Cities
• Aggregation defined as Spatial
• Aggregate where summary features touch detail features
• Output Resolution Operator: All
• Output Expression: COUNT(*)
Problem 3: Need to calculate the number of people in each state who do not live in a city.
Solution:
• Summary Feature: States
• Detail Feature: Cities
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• Aggregation defined as Spatial


• Aggregate where summary features touch detail features
• Output Resolution Operator: All
• Output Expression: Input.POP-(SUM(Detail.POP))

Note: The output expression can be thought of as State.Pop-(SUM(City.Pop)).

Problem 4: Need to calculate the total number of miles of interstate in each county.
Solution:
• Must perform analysis on spatial intersection (Analysis > Spatial Intersection) of
Counties with Interstates, that is, Interstates overlap Counties.
• Summary Feature: Counties
• Detail Feature: Spatial Intersection of Interstates and Counties
• Aggregation defined as Spatial
• Aggregate where summary features overlap detail features
• Output Resolution Operator: All
• Output Expression: SUM(LENGTH(Detail.IntersectionGeometry,TrueMeas,Mile))

Note: The value of miles will be expressed using double precision, but the results
could have been rounded using the expression. The following rounds the values to two
significant digits:
ROUND(SUM(LENGTH(Detail.IntersectionGeometry, TrueMeas, Mile)),2)

Using the Right Mouse Menu


In defining a functional attribute, you can use the buttons to the right of the Output
functional attributes field, or you can use its right mouse menu. The menu contains
shortcuts for creating common functional attribute definitions as in the following example:
New—Opens a submenu with the following items:
• Custom—Opens the Functional Attribute dialog box for creating new functional
attributes, as does the New button.
• Count(*)—Adds a new functional attribute with a default name of
“CountOf<Feature>”, where <Feature> is the name of the feature class or query input
to the command. The expression for the functional attribute is “COUNT(*)”.
• [Function] > [Attribute]—Adds a new functional attribute with a default name of
“<Function>Of<Attribute>”, where <Function> is the name of the function

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(AVERAGE, COUNT, FIRST, MAX, MEDIAN, MIN, SUM), and <Attribute> is


the name of the attribute chosen. For example, to obtain the sum of the “Population”
attribute, the default functional attribute name would be “SumOfPopulation”. The
expression for the functional attribute is “<Function>(<Attribute>)”, for example,
“SUM(Population)”.
• [Function] > Multiple Attributes—Opens the Multiple Attributes dialog box for
creating multiple new functional attributes as in the previous bulleted item, one per
chosen attribute from the list of all attributes from the input feature class or query that
is of a data type valid for the selected function. After checking appropriate attributes,
clicking OK dismisses the dialog box and returns one new output functional attribute
for each attribute chosen.

Properties—Opens the Functional Attribute dialog box for reviewing or editing


functional attributes, as does the Properties button.
Delete—Deletes selected functional attributes, as does the Delete button.

To define aggregation:
1. Select Analysis > Aggregation.

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2. Select a summary feature class or query from the Aggregate to summary features in
drop-down list.
3. Select a detail feature class or query from the From detail features in drop-down list.
4. Optional: On the Spatial Aggregation tab for spatial aggregation, check the
Aggregate where summary features check box; then select the appropriate spatial
operator from the drop-down list.
5. Optional: On the Attribute Aggregation tab, select the attribute pair(s) from the
Summary attributes and Detail attributes lists; then click the down arrow to add the
attribute pair(s) to the Selected attribute pairs list.
6. Optional: On the Output tab, select an operator from the Resolution operator drop-
down list.
7. On the Output tab, click New and define at least one output functional attribute on the
Functional Attribute dialog box.
8. Optional: Change the default query name and/or type a description in the Output
aggregation as query field.
See the GeoMedia Help for information on this dialog box.
9. Verify that the Display aggregation in map window check box is checked, and
change in the Map window name field, if appropriate, the map window in which to
display the aggregation.
OR
To not display the aggregation in a map window, uncheck the Display query in map
window check box.
10. Optional: Click Style, and change the default style on the Style Definition dialog box.

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11. Verify that the Display aggregation in data window check box is checked, and
change in the Data window name field, if appropriate, the data window in which to
display the aggregation.
OR
To not display the nongraphic attributes of the aggregation in a data window, uncheck
the Display aggregation in data window check box.
12. Click OK to generate the aggregation.

Aggregation versus Analytical Merge


This section highlights the similarities and differences between Aggregation and
Analytical Merge.

Similarities of Aggregation and Analytical Merge


With both of these commands the following are true:
• The output is a query.
• You assign our own functional attribute name.
• Updates (notification) are dynamic.
• Queries update when the record set is created, when the connection is opened, and
when notification occurs.

Differences between Aggregation and Analytical Merge


The following are true for the Aggregation command:
• Two feature classes are used per query record sets, summary feature and detail feature
• No summary record is left out of the resultant query.
The following are true for the Analytical Merge command:
• One feature class is used per query record.
• The output attributes are limited to Geometry, ID, and user-defined functions.
• Each function takes multiple input, and outputs a single resultant value.

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Generating Base Geometry


Generate Base Geometry generates topological base geometry (edges, faces, and nodes)
for point, linear, area, and compound feature classes; it decomposes these features into
topological pieces. For example, you could input Area boundaries representing Counties
and generate Edges that are lines (as opposed to areas).
The following table shows the topological types enabled for selection, and the default
selection, given the input feature type:
Input feature type Topological types Default selection
selectable
Point Nodes Nodes
Line Edges, Nodes Edges
Area Edges, Nodes, Faces Edges
Compound Edges, Nodes, Faces Edges
You can also select multiple output types when they are enabled.
This command takes a feature class or query as input and outputs a read-only query that is
appended to the query folder. The resultant query has a compound geometry type and
contains the following two attribute fields:
• OutputType (integer) — Indicates the output topological type; 1-Edge, 2-Face, 4-
Node.
• FeatureCount (integer) — Indicates the number of features that contribute to the given
base geometry.
Once you select a feature, a default query name, which you can override, is generated
automatically. You also have the option to display the query in a map window and/or a
data window.

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To generate base geometry:


1. Select Tools > Generate Base Geometry.

2. Select the feature class from the Generate base geometry from drop-down list.
3. Check the appropriate Output types check box(es).
4. Accept or override the default query name (Base Geometry of <featurename>) in the
Query name field, and type an optional Description.
5. To display the base geometry in a map window, verify that the Display in map
window check box is checked.
6. Accept the default, select, or type a Map window name, and optionally the Style.
7. To display the base geometry in a data window, verify that the Display in data
window check box is checked.
8. Accept the default, select, or type a Data window name.
9. Click OK to generate and to display the base geometry in the specified map and/or
data window.

Workflow for Dashed and Patterned Area Boundaries


Applying a dashed line style or a patterned line style to area boundaries can often produce
undesirable results when the area boundaries are coincident, as in the following example.

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In the preceding example, adjacent area boundaries have the boundary line dashed twice
where the coincidence is occurring. The end result is that the coincident boundary lines
rarely appear as defined by their style definition. This can happen within a feature class, or
across feature classes.
This problem can be rectified using the Generate Base Geometry command, as in the
following example.

.
In the preceding example, it is obvious that the coincident area boundaries are only being
dashed once, as opposed to the first example. This is because the Generate Base
Geometry command produces a query composed of compound geometries based on
topological edges; there are no linear duplicates in the output query. Instead of placing
duplicate geometries, a single geometry is placed and attributed with a feature count that
identifies the number of base features encountered.
The following example illustrates the result of running the Generate Base Geometry
command on the States feature class in the sample data set.

In the preceding example, because there are no duplicate geometries, any dashed or
patterned line styles applied will produce the appropriate symbology, as specified on the
Style Properties dialog box. However, you may want to separate the linear instances
based on their feature count, as seen in the following example.

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In the preceding example, an Attribute Query was performed on the Base Geometry of
States query (produced by the Generate Base Geometry command). All interior lines
were coincident boundaries, thus their feature count was greater than one. None of the
exterior lines were coincident, thus their feature count was equal to one. Once the
geometry has been separated, it can be turned on or off as necessary to achieve the
appropriate result. This can be useful if you only want to portray a segment of the area
boundary. An example application of this would be to turn off state boundaries along coast
lines. The Generate Base Geometry command only supports a single feature class or
query as input. When trying to separate coincident boundaries across feature classes, you
can run the Generate Base Geometry command on the two feature classes, and then you
can use the Spatial Difference command to subtract one boundary from another.

Selecting Attributes
The Attribute Selection command lets you output a subset of input attribute fields from a
feature class or query. In addition, you can change the names of the fields and reorder the
fields. Thus, you can tailor your processing so that the results do not contain unnecessary
attribute data. This command will be enabled if at least one open connection exists in the
GeoWorkspace.

To select attributes:
1. Select Analysis > Attribute Selection.

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2. Select the feature class or query whose schema needs to be altered from the Select
attributes from drop-down list.
3. Select the appropriate Attributes check boxes.

Note: You can use the Select/Unselect All buttons to aid the selecting/unselecting
process. Also, when you hover over an entry in the list, a tooltip is displayed
indicating the original name of the field.

4. Optional: Click Rename to rename an attribute.

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Note: Double clicking on an entry in the Attributes list also opens this dialog box.

7. Optional: Change the default query name, and/or type a description in the Output
attribute selection as query fields.
8. Verify that the Display in map window check box is checked, and change in the Map
window name field, if appropriate, the map window in which to display the merge.
OR
To not display the merge in a map window, uncheck the Display in map window
check box.
9. Optional: Click Style, and change the default style on the Select Style dialog box.
10. Verify that the Display in data window check box is checked, and change in the Data
window name field, if appropriate, the data window in which to display the merge.
OR
To not display the nongraphic attributes of the merge in a data window, uncheck the
Display in data window check box.
11. Click OK to generate the attribute selection query.

Editing Attribute Selection Queries through the Queries


Command
You can also edit attribute selection queries through the GeoMedia Analyze > Queries
command. To do this, you first select a attribute selection query from the list of queries
displayed on the Queries dialog box and then click Properties. This displays the
following form of the Queries Properties dialog box.

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Combining Feature Classes and Queries


The Union command lets you combine multiple feature classes, categories, reference
features or queries from different warehouses and with different schemas. You can thus
use this command to combine different data sources into common views for analysis and
integration. For example, you could use this command to combine different sets road
features as in the following figure.

The functionality of this command parallels the union capability provided by SQL and
most relational database management systems. A union provides the ability to record-wise
append multiple tables/views (relations) in query results to create an output that is the
logical union of the input. It can be thought of as appending together the records of many
source inputs. In this sense, it is the record-wise equivalent to the column-wise
concatenation provided by the Join command capability.
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Note: The Union command performs a relational union of the chosen feature classes and
queries. It does not perform a geometric union of features.

You would use the Union command, for example, in the following scenario. You have
feature classes of 100 different counties from 100 different database schemas, and you
would like to merge (record-wise) all 100 different counties records, and output the results
into one feature class. To do this, you would perform a union to create an output query and
then use the Output To Feature Classes command to output the results into a database
warehouse.
The Union command requires that the corresponding attribute columns from the selected
feature classes/queries should be of the same data type. This command raises the
following error when there is a mismatch in the common attributes for the selected feature
classes: “Unable to retrieve output query from union operation. The field’s size does not
match for field FIELD1.”
You need to resolve the disparities in the attribute data-types as raised by the Union
command.
See “Working with Joins” in this chapter.
Specifically, with this command you can perform the following:
• Select multiple feature classes, categories, and reference features from multiple
connections and queries.
• Select the output schema mode.
• Reorder records.
• Select, rename, and reorder output attributes.
You can select multiple feature classes, categories, and reference features across different
connections and queries for output, but you must select at least two feature classes/queries
to use this command.
The Advanced button on the Union dialog box lets you select the output schema mode.
You can do this only after the selected features (any corresponding attribute mismatches
should be resolved) have been determined to be correct for performing a union operation.
The following three output schema modes are available:
• Schema of the first selected feature class/query—The output attributes are
determined by the first of the selected feature classes/queries.

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• Union of schemas from all selected feature classes/queries—The output attributes


are determined by all the features. The attribute appears in the resultant query if it is in
at least one of the selected feature class/queries.

• Intersection of schemas from all selected feature classes/queries—The output


attributes are determined by all the features. The attribute appears in the resultant
query if it is in all the selected features classes/queries.

This command raises an error when there are conflicts arising due to geometry field
mismatch.

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In determining a match in geometry fields, the coordinate system definition of the fields is
disregarded – in other words, fields are allowed to form a union despite a difference in
coordinate system.

To combine feature classes and queries:


1. Select Analysis > Union.

2. Select the appropriate node(s) and/or feature check boxes in the Union features in list.

Note: If you want to output all feature, categories, and reference features classes from
a particular connection or query node, check the parent node. Similarly, if you
uncheck the parent node, all the subordinate nodes are unchecked. Also, each
feature/query node has a bitmap associated with it indicating the geometry type.

3. Optional: Click Attributes.

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4. Select the appropriate Attributes check box(es).


5. Reorder the attributes (use the arrow buttons and/or Select/Unselect All buttons)
and/or Rename (click Rename and use the Rename Attribute box); then click OK on
the Attributes of <feature name> dialog box.

Note: Double clicking on an entry in the Attributes list also opens the Rename
Attributes dialog box.

6. Optional: Click Advanced, which is enabled when you check at least two feature or
query nodes in the Union features in list.

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7. Select the appropriate Output schema mode, reorder the feature classes/queries as
needed by using the arrow buttons, and then click OK.
8. Optional: Click Attributes, which is visible only in query edit workflows. Follow the
workflow on the Attributes of <feature name> dialog box in Step 3.
9. Optional: Change the default query name, and/or type a description in the Output
union as query fields.
10. Verify that the Display in map window check box is checked, and change in the Map
window name field, if appropriate, the map window in which to display the merge.
OR
To not display the merge in a map window, uncheck the Display in map window
check box.
11. Optional: Click Style, and change the default style on the Select Style dialog box.
12. Verify that the Display in data window check box is checked, and change in the Data
window name field, if appropriate, the data window in which to display the merge.
OR
To not display the nongraphic attributes of the merge in a data window, uncheck the
Display in data window check box.
13. Click OK to generate the attribute selection query.

Editing Union Queries through the Queries Command


You can also edit union queries through the GeoMedia Analyze > Queries command. To
do this, you first select a union query from the list of queries displayed on the Queries
dialog box and then click Properties. This displays the following form of the Queries
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Properties dialog box, which you complete with a workflow similar to that used with the
Advanced dialog box and the Attributes of <feature name> dialog box.

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Linear Referencing
This chapter outlines the basic concepts behind the linear referencing capabilities contained
in the LRS Precision Location and Dynamic Segmentation commands. This chapter
also describes the major components of a Linear Referencing System (LRS) and provides
table descriptions. Lastly, it discusses the LRS Precision Location and Dynamic
Segmentation commands
The intent of these commands is to extend the accessibility of basic linear referencing
capabilities within customers’ organizations. The available GeoMedia Transportation
Manager and GeoMedia Transportation Analyst products provide more full-featured linear
referencing capabilities as well as robust routing capabilities.

What is Linear Referencing?


Linear referencing is simply the tracking and analysis of data that is associated with
locations along a linear network. Some road transportation examples include tracking the
location of and condition of signage, the condition of pavement, and the location and
severity of accident occurrences. One of the biggest uses of linear referencing is Asset
Tracking.
Asset Tracking primarily encompasses the following
four items:
• What, where, and when of the assets (for example, a
pothole at kilometer post 41.7 along Route 66,
reported June 6th, 2007)
• Asset conditions (for example, a stretch of pavement
with rutting and cracking)
• Incidents along the network (for example, a traffic
accident)
• Activities along the network (for example,
construction projects)

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LRS Terminology
In order to understand the functioning of the Linear Referencing System, you should
become familiar with its terminology, as follows:
LRS (Linear Reference System)—The total set of data and procedures for determining
specific points along a roadway.
LRS Datum—The basic, linear geometry of an LRS with its key identifiers and measures.
Event—Any feature, characteristic, or occurrence along a road (for example, accident,
bridge, road condition).
LRM (Linear Reference Method)—The technique used to specify where an event occurred
along a road (an accident occurs at kilometer marker 4, stop sign at the intersection of
Main Street and Elm).
Traversal/Route—Set of segments in a certain order and direction.
Milepoint/Kilometer Point/Log Mile—Distance measurement from the beginning of a
route.
Segment—Continuous section of roadway (that is, intersection to intersection).
Marker—Start and endpoint of segments, often Intersections. Events are frequently
measured as an offset of a marker.

Linear Referencing and Geospatial Technology


The main impetus to merge linear referencing with geospatial technology can be summed
up simply: it is often desirable to view location data on a map. It also opens up a lot of
other analysis capabilities, such as summing up data within an area feature (for example,
the kilometers of rail track that require maintenance within a given jurisdiction) or finding
data within a proximity of linearly referenced data (for example, finding residences within
a buffer zone of a construction project).
Using the Dynamic Segmentation command is not the only way to merge linear
referencing and geospatial technology, but it is certainly the easiest. This command
enables you to create map features, including pavement conditions, accident data, and
average daily traffic. This kind of information will help you plan improvements for
deteriorating assets, will identify where your organization is spending its money, and will
provide critical information clearly and accurately to all participants involved in your
projects. This can increase the value of your data by turning it into business-critical,
decision-support information.

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Linear Referencing

The preceding diagram shows a portion of road on the left and its geospatial representation
on the right. The road has kilometer posts that indicate cumulative linear measures along
the road. It also has a road name, Highway 6 in this example. A section of fencing along
the road is also shown in both the left and right views. Based on the kilometer posts, it can
be determined in the field that this stretch of fence runs along Highway 6 from kilometer
measure 2.0 to 2.6.
On the geospatial side we have three linear features, known as LRS Linear Features, that
will all have a road name and begin and end measure attribution. These LRS Linear
Features are the backbone of the LRS and are used in automating the mapping of linearly
referenced data, such as this stretch of fencing, onto a map window.
Of course, this mapping of linearly referenced data does not have to be automated.
Without the Dynamic Segmentation command, you can estimate where kilometer
measures 2.0 and 2.6 are along the road, and then you can digitize a linear feature between
these two points and along the road. This is not too hard for a few features, but what if you
have a tabular report for hundreds or thousands of linearly referenced items that you want
to map? With the Dynamic Segmentation command, all of these items can be mapped
with a single command.
The methodology used to do this bulk mapping of linearly referenced tabular data is called
Dynamic Segmentation (or linear geocoding). This methodology interpolates the location
of linearly referenced data along the LRS Linear Features by making use of the road (or
rail, ferry line, and so on) name and the measurement attributes stored on those features.

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Working with GeoMedia

LRS Linear Features and Event Data


As mentioned before, LRS Linear Features are the backbone of the LRS. But working
with the linearly referenced tabular data, known as Event Data, is the whole reason for
building the LRS in the first place. The following is a brief summary of the data structures
of these two components.
See the “LRS Data Structures” appendix for a detailed description.
The LRS Linear Features represent the network itself. Each LRS Linear Feature table is a
linear feature class that has the following fields:
• ID—This is a long integer value that uniquely identifies each feature within the table.
• LRSKeys1-4—This is one to four fields that together define the route that this feature
belongs to.
• StartMeasure—This is a numeric value that contains the measurement value for the
beginning of this feature.
• EndMeasure or Duration—This is a numeric value that contains either the
measurement value for the end of this feature or the length measurement for this
feature.
• BeginMarker (optional)—This field stores a name for the beginning position of this
feature. This is referred to as an internal marker.
• EndMarker (optional)—This field stores a name for the end position of this feature.
This is referred to as an internal marker.
• ReversedGeometry (optional)—This Boolean (True/False) field declares whether the
software should treat this linear feature as is it is (False) or as if its digitizing direction
were reversed and its beginning were its end, and vice-versa (True).
The Event Data represents the linearly referenced data. Note that Event Data can either be
point data (occurring at just one spot on the linear network) or linear data (occurring at a
span of distance along the linear network). Each Event Data table is (usually) a non-
graphic table that has the following fields:
• ID—This is a long integer value that uniquely identifies each record within the table.
• LRSKeys1-4—This is one to four fields that together define the route that this record
lies along.
• Measurement data (pick one of the following options):
o Measure Option—For point event data, this consists of one numeric Measure field
that indicates the relative location of the point event record on the route defined by
the LRS Key fields. For linear event data, this consists of two numeric fields: a
StartMeasure field and an EndMeasure field. These define the relative location of

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Linear Referencing

the start and end points of the linear event record on the route defined by the LRS
Key fields.
o Marker Offset Option—For point event data, this consists of a Marker name field
and a numeric Offset distance field. The point event data is located by first locating
the marker and then by adding the offset distance to that location. For linear event
data, there are two Marker fields and two Offset fields defining the start and end of
the linear event record.
o Coordinate Option—For point event data, this consists of two fields that, depending
on the referenced Coordinate System File, may be either projected coordinates (for
example, Northing & Easting) or geographic coordinates (Latitude & Longitude).
For linear event data, there are four fields defining the coordinates for both the start
and the end of the linear event record.
o Duration Option—This is a slight variation on the Measurement Option and only
applies to linear event data. It consists of a StartMeasure field and a Duration (or
Length) field that together define the relative location of the record along its route.
• Other Attributes (optional)—These are optional, but they are also the whole reason for
doing linear referencing. For bridge events, these will store bridge data; for accident
events, they will store accident data; and for pavement events, they will store pavement
data.
Other optional components of the LRS are the External Markers. External Markers mark
points along the network just like the Internal Markers discussed earlier, but these are not
bound to just the beginning and end of LRS Linear Features. External Markers can occur
anywhere along the LRS network and are functionally equivalent to point-event data using
the Measure option. They are useful for modeling milestones and monuments that are
commonly used to measure locations from. They can be used, along with Internal
Markers, to locate event data using the Marker Offset option.
Each External Marker table is (usually) a non-graphic table that has the following fields:
• ID—This is a long integer value that uniquely identifies each record within the table.
• LRSKeys1-4—This is one to four fields that together define the route that this record
lies along.
• Measure—This is a numeric field that indicates the relative location of the External
Marker on the route defined by the LRS Key fields.
• MarkerName—This field stores a name for this Marker.

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Working with GeoMedia

The GeoMedia Transportation Manager software, available separately, provides


specialized tools for creating and validating an LRS Linear Feature class as well as tools
for populating Event Data and External Marker tables. GeoMedia Transportation Manager
is an add-on product to GeoMedia.

Linear Referencing Commands


This section briefly describes the major LRS Analysis tools provided in this software.
Detailed instructions on how to use each of these commands is provided in the following
sections of this document.
LRS Precision Location – This command gets real-time LRS locations of your cursor
location in the map window. With it you can also use key-ins of LRS locations to place
points in the map window. You may use these points just for orientation, but you can also
use them for placing vertices of new geometry.
For more information, see the “Working with the LRS Precision Location Command” in
the next section of this chapter.
Dynamic Segmentation – This command, which has already been referred, takes linearly
referenced tabular data and creates a graphic query class from it that can be viewed in the
map window. You can thus visualize your organization's inventory of assets more clearly
than by simply reviewing tabular data.
For more information, see the “Working with the Dynamic Segmentation Command”
section of this chapter.

Working with the LRS Precision Location Command


The LRS Precision Location command allows you to determine the LRS position
corresponding to a point on the map or, alternately, to locate a point on the map according
to the LRS position you keyed in.
For LRS readout, as you move along or click on the LRS feature on the map window, the
corresponding LRS position consisting of LRS key fields, measure value, and marker
name/marker offset (if applicable) will be displayed in the LRS Precision Location
control. Similarly, for LRS key-ins, when you type the LRS information consisting of
LRS key fields, measure value, or marker name/offset in the dockable control, the
corresponding location is highlighted in the map window and is supplied to any active
GeoMedia command.

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Linear Referencing

To perform precision location:


1. Open the GeoWorkspace connected to the data source containing the linear referenced
network.
2. Select Tools > LRS Precision Location.

3. From the LRS features drop-down list, select the appropriate linear network feature
class, reference feature, category, or query to be used for performing LRS Key-in or
Readout.
4. Select the appropriate model from the LRS model drop-down list.

For more information on the different LRS Models supported, see the “LRS Data
Structures” appendix.

Note: If the GeoMedia Transportation product is available, the LRS Model drop-down
list and the LRS properties are automatically filled out when a Display LRM query is
selected from the LRS features drop-down list. These restored properties are not
directly editable. They are defined using the GeoMedia Transportation LRS
Metadata Definition command.

5. Click LRS model > Properties.

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Working with GeoMedia

6. In the LRS key fields, select the Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary
keys of the LRS feature class for as many keys as you use.
7. In the LRS unit field, select the unit for the measures of this LRS feature class.
8. In the LRS definition fields, if you selected a Measure model type, select the names of
the Start measure and End measure from the drop-down lists.
If you selected a Duration model type, select the names of the Start measure and
Duration (length) from the drop-down lists.
If you selected an Internal Marker model type, select the names of the Begin marker
and End marker (End marker is optional) from the drop-down lists.
9. Optional: In the Geometry reversed field, select the Boolean (true or false) field
name that defines whether to use the digitizing direction of each linear feature as its
direction (Geometry Reversed is False) or to assume that the direction of the linear
feature is the opposite of its digitizing direction (Geometry Reversed is True). This
field is optional and, if not used, it is assumed that the digitizing direction of each
linear feature is its direction of increasing measures.
10. Click OK after setting the appropriate values or Cancel to discard your changes.
If, in Step 3, you picked an LRS model that uses external measure markers, continue with
the following step. If not, skip to Step 17.
11. In the Marker features section of the LRS Precision Location dialog box, click
Properties.

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Linear Referencing

12. In the Marker key fields, select the Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary
keys of the Marker feature class for as many keys as you use.
13. In the Name drop-down list, select the marker name for the Marker feature class.
14. In the Measure drop-down list, select the measure for the Marker feature class.
15. In the Marker unit drop-down list,, select the unit of measure for the Marker feature
class.
16. Click OK after setting the appropriate values or Cancel to discard your changes.
You are returned to the LRS Precision Location dialog box.
17. If you are using one of the LRS Models that makes use of Markers (LRS Measure
With Internal Measure Markers, LRS Measure With External Measure Markers,
LRS Duration With Internal Measure Markers, or LRS Duration With External
Measure Markers), select one of the two Marker measure options for Readout
options: Positive or negative offset from nearest marker or Positive offset only.
18. Select the size of the LRS Keys Field and the Measures and Markers Field from the
drop-down lists.
19. Select the Point style settings as follows:
• Check Display point on mouse move to display a point on a mouse move.
• Check Display point on mouse click to display a point on a mouse click.
• Check Display point on key-in to display a point on key-in.
The corresponding Style buttons display a default point style, which you can change
by clicking the appropriate Style button.
20. Check the Display Readout dialog for multiple LRS features check box if you want
to display the Readout dialog box on mouse click when there are multiple LRS
features within the tolerance zone at the specified point on the map.
21. Check the Display errors check box to display any errors on mouse click that may be
found while trying to specify the point on the map window.

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Working with GeoMedia

22. Click OK.

The dialog box is dismissed, and the LRS Precision Location dockable control is
displayed.
23. You can display the LRS Precision Location dialog box again by clicking the dialog
box button . This dialog box lets you change the LRS model, LRS feature, LRS
Properties, the Marker measure options, LRS Keys field size, Measure and Markers
field size, point style settings, and/or Readout options on mouse click.
24. Select the down arrow button to the right end of the LRS Precision Location control,
and check the readout options you want.

The Update LRS position on mouse move option dynamically updates the LRS
readout as you move the cursor across the map window. The Update LRS position on
click option updates the LRS readout when you click the mouse in the map window.
You can select any combination of these options.
25. With the Update LRS position on mouse move option or the Update LRS position
on click option, a point is displayed (or not) based on the symbology chosen in Step
19. LRS keys are displayed in the first field separated by commas. The measure is
displayed in the second field. If the LRS Model selected was one of the Marker
models, the measure is followed by a comma, the marker name, a colon, and the offset
distance.

26. When there are multiple LRS features within the tolerance zone at the specified point
on the map, the LRS Readout dialog box is displayed based on the selection made in
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Linear Referencing

Step 20. You can click Previous and Next to scroll through the various readout
possibilities found within the tolerance zone.

27. You can also use the LRS Precision Location control to supply data points to other
GeoMedia commands. First enter whatever GeoMedia command you want (for
example, Insert Feature). Next select the LRS Keyin button at the far right of the
LRS Precision Location control.

28. Type the Input LRS Key Values and Input Location Values into the LRS Keyin
dialog box. Click Apply when you are ready to process your typed values. The point
defined by your LRS reference is supplied to the GeoMedia command just as if you
had clicked in the map window. Repeat to create additional points. Click Close to exit
the LRS Keyin dialog box.
29. To exit LRS Precision Location and to dismiss the control, select the down arrow
button to the right end of the LRS Precision Location control; then select Exit LRS
Precision Location.

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Working with GeoMedia

Working with the Dynamic Segmentation Command


This section provides an overview of the Dynamic Segmentation command. Dynamic
Segmentation is the process of generating geometry for events (event features) based on a
Linear Referencing System (LRS).

Event features contain sufficient LRS information such that they can be dynamically
segmented to produce geometry based on an LRS feature class. Typically, events do not
contain geometry, so they cannot be displayed in a map window unless dynamic
segmentation is performed. Events can be in a variety of formats, as described in the
following discussion.
The validation and correction of anomalies in the LRS should be performed before the
Dynamic Segmentation command is used. This ensures that the proper analysis results
are returned.

Note: Automated tools for LRS validation are available in the GeoMedia Transportation
Manager product.

The following capabilities are provided with the Dynamic Segmentation command:
• Use any linear feature for dynamic segmentation that exposes a measure from any data
connection that supports graphic features.
• Use a query of a linear feature for dynamic segmentation.
• Support for the LRS Measure, LRS Measure with Internal Markers, LRS Measure with
External Measure Markers, LRS Duration, LRS Duration with Internal Markers, and
LRS External Measure Markers models.
• Create dynamically segmented events that are laterally offset from the source linear
features. The lateral offset can be a distance defined by an entered constant, a variable
distance based on a database attribute, or a combination of both.
• Define up to four key fields for the LRS feature.
• Select an event table from any connection for dynamic segmentation.
• Use a query of an event table for dynamic segmentation.
• Dynamically segment linear and point event data.

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Linear Referencing

• Support of the following event referencing methods:


o Measure o Longitude/Latitude o Duration
o Projected XY coordinates o Marker Offset
• Support of single and multi-level LRS features. For a multilevel LRS, you use a
Display LRM query as the LRS feature. The LRS model and LRS properties are set
using extensions on the Display LRM query and are read only.
• Support of datum-based events. To define datum-based events, you select a Display
LRM query as it has the required extensions to access LRS Metadata details. The
Datum based option on the Dynamic Segmentation dialog box is enabled only if the
selected LRS feature is a multi-level LRS Display LRM query. This option is
disabled if the selected LRS feature is not a Display LRM query or if it is a single level
LRS Display LRM query. The LRM based option is also enabled when the Datum
base option is enabled.
• Resolve multiple events that occur at the same location by assigning a different offset
distance value for each event so that events are not displayed on top of one another,
thus differentiating overlapping event records. Whenever linear or point events
overlap, the value of the Occurrence field is incremented for each successive linear
event. This occurrence value can be used in conjunction with the offset display
capability to show these events side by side to make the results clearer, as in the
following examples:

• Create dynamically segmented events that are laterally offset from the source linear
features. The lateral offset can be a distance defined by an entered constant, a variable
distance based on a database attribute, or a combination of both.
• Create dynamically segmented point events that are rotated. The rotation can be an
angle defined by an entered constant, a variable rotation based on a database attribute,
or a combination of both.
• Choose which of the event data attributes are passed through to the dynamically
segmented events, and to reorder and/or to rename these attributes.
• Choose to take the height (Z coordinates, 2D or 3D) into consideration when
performing linear referencing,
The results are output as a query to a map window and/or a data window.

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To perform dynamic segmentation:


1. Open a GeoWorkspace; then connect to the warehouse containing the linear feature
class to be used for dynamic segmentation. If the event feature class is in a different
warehouse, make a connection to that warehouse also.
2. Select Analysis > Dynamic Segmentation.

3. Select the appropriate linear network feature class, reference feature, category, or
query to be used for dynamic segmentation from the LRS features drop-down list.
4. Select the appropriate model from the LRS Model drop-down list.
For more on the different LRS Models supported, see the “LRS Data Structures”
appendix.

Note: If the GeoMedia Transportation product is available, the LRS Model drop-down
list and the LRS properties are automatically filled out when a Display LRM query is
selected. These properties are not directly editable. They are defined using the
GeoMedia Transportation LRS Metadata Definition command.

5. Click LRS Model > Properties.

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Linear Referencing

6. In the LRS key fields drop-down lists, select the Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and
Quaternary keys of the LRS feature class for as many keys as you use.
7. In the LRS unit drop-down list, select the unit for the measures of this LRS feature
class.
8. In the LRS definition fields drop-down lists, select the names of the Start measure
and End measure if you selected a Measure model type.
If you selected a Duration model type, select the names of the Start measure and
Duration (length).
If you selected an Internal Marker model type, select the names of the Begin marker
and optional End marker.
9. In the Geometry reversed drop-down list, select the Boolean (true or false) name that
defines whether to use the digitizing direction of each linear feature as its direction
(Geometry Reversed is False) or to assume that the direction of the linear feature is the
opposite of its digitizing direction (Geometry Reversed is True). This field is optional
and, if not used, it is assumed that the digitizing direction of each linear feature is its
direction of increasing measures.
10. Click OK after setting the appropriate values or Cancel to discard your changes.
If, in Step 3, you picked an LRS model that uses external measure markers, continue with
the following step. If not, skip to Step 18.
11. In the Marker features section of the dialog box, click Properties.

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12. In the Marker key fields drop-down lists, select the Primary, Secondary, Tertiary,
and Quaternary keys of the Marker feature class for as many keys as you use.
13. In the Name drop-down list, select the marker name for the Marker feature class.
14. In the Measure drop-down list, select the measure for the Marker feature class.
15. In the Unit drop-down list, select the unit of measure for the Marker feature class.
16. Click OK after setting the appropriate values or Cancel to discard your changes.
You are returned to the Dynamic Segmentation dialog box.
17. Select the appropriate Event feature option, LRM based or Datum based.
18. Select the connection and event feature class reference feature, category, or query to be
dynamically segmented from the Event feature drop-down list.
19. Optional: Click Filter to filter event features by specifying a filter string on the Filter
dialog box to select a subset of event features.
20. Click Event feature >