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Bahir Dar University

Bahir Dar Institute of Technology

Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Internship Report

Hosting Company; Dangila substation


Name ID
1 Bekele Tadele 0600338

2 Fekadu Tegegne 0600720


3 Yenewlign Wassie 0601817
4 Zeleke Kassa 0601911

Company Supervisor Academic Mentor


Mr. Giwon Mr. Teketay

June 27, 2017


Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
BDU/BiT/FECE

Declaration
We declare that this report is an original work of us and which is submitted in partial
fulfillment of the internship program in placement of practices during four months. This report
has not been submitted earlier either to these university or any other institute.

Name of intern signature Date

1. Bekele Tadele -------- --------


2. Fekadu Tegegne -------- --------
3. Yenewlign Wassie -------- --------
4. Zeleke Kassa -------- --------

Name of Mentor Signature Date

Mr.Teketay -------- -------- Page | i


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DECLARATION ......................................................................................................................... I

LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................. IV

LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................... IV

LIST OF ACRONYMS ............................................................................................................. V

EXECUTIVE SUMMERY ...................................................................................................... VI

CHAPTER ONE ......................................................................................................................... 1

BACKGROUND OF EEP .......................................................................................................... 1

1.1 HISTORY OF EEP ............................................................................................................. 1

1.1.1 Vision, Mission, and Purpose of EEP’s Establishment .......................................... 2

1.2 MAIN PRODUCTS AND SERVICES OF EEP ...........................................................................


3
1.3 MAIN CUSTOMERS OF EEP ................................................................................................ 3

1.3.1 Interconnection .......................................................................................................... 3

1.4 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF EEP ............................................................................. 4


1.5 WORK FLOW IN EEP .......................................................................................................... 5

1.5.1 Generation Stations and Current Energy Situation ................................................... 5

1.5.2 Transmission and Substation ..................................................................................... 6

1.5.3 Distribution ................................................................................................................ 7

CHAPTER TWO ........................................................................................................................ 9

OVERALL INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE ................................................................................ 9

2.1. OBJECTIVES OF THE INTERNSHIP ....................................................................................... 9

2.1.1. General Objective ..................................................................................................... 9

2.1.2. Specific Objectives ................................................................................................... 9


2.2. HOW DO W E GET IN TO THE
COMPANY? .......................................................................... 9
2.3. WORK SECTION THAT WE HAVE BEEN WORKING ............................................................. 10

2.4. OVERALL SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND OPERATION ........................................................ 10

2.4.1. TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS .......................................................... 10

AN OVERHEAD TRANSMISSION LINES CONSISTS OF CONDUCTORS , INSULATORS, SUPPORT


STRUCTURES, AND IN MOST CASES, SHIELD WIRES. ................................................................ 10
2.4.2 Types of Substations ................................................................................................ 14

2.4.3 Major Components of Transmission Subs .............................................................. 15

2. 5 CONTROL AND PROTECTION ROOM ................................................................................. 29

2.6 MAJOR DUTIES OF THE INTERNSHIP .................................................................................


32
2.6.1 Challenges we have been facing .............................................................................. 32

2.6.2 Measures we have taken .......................................................................................... 32

CHAPTER THREE .................................................................................................................. 33

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BENEFITS GAINED FROM THE INTERNSHIP .................................................................. 33

3.1 I MPROVING OUR PRACTICAL


SKILL................................................................................... 33
3.2. I MPROVING OUR THEORETICAL SKILL
............................................................................. 33
3.3 I MPROVING OUR TEAM PLAYING
SKILL ............................................................................ 34
3.4 I MPROVING OUR LEADERSHIP SKILLS
............................................................................... 34
3.5 UNDERSTANDING ABOUT WORK ETHICS ...........................................................................
35
3.6 ENTREPRENEURSHIP SKILL ............................................................................................... 35

CHAPTER FOUR .................................................................................................................... 36

PROJECT ................................................................................................................................. 36

4.1 UPGRADING POWER TRANSFORMER OF DANGILA 66/ 33/15KV SUBSTATION ................. 36

4.1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 36

4.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT ..................................................................................................... 36

4.3 OBJECTIVE ....................................................................................................................... 36

4.3.1 General objective ..................................................................................................... 36

4.3.2 Specific objective .................................................................................................... 37

4.4 JUSTIFICATION ................................................................................................................. 37

4.5 METHODOLOGY ...............................................................................................................


37
4.6 LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................................................
38
4.7 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM STUDY OF DANGILA SUBSTATION ................................................. 39
CHAPTER FIVE ...................................................................................................................... 40

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ....................................................................... 40

5.1 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................... 40

5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................................................................ 40

5.2.2 Recommendations for the Faculty ........................................................................... 41


5.2.3 Recommendation for the Industrial Linkage ........................................................... 41

REFERENCE ........................................................................................................................... 42

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List of figures
Figure 1. 1: The Over All Organizational Structure of EEP ...................................................... 4

Figure 1. 2: Block diagram of engineering structural organization ........................................... 5

Figure 2. 1: Pin type insulator ………………………………………………………………..12


Figure 2. 2:Suspension type insulator....................................................................................... 12

Figure 2. 3:Strain type insulator ............................................................................................... 13

Figure 2. 4:Shackle insulator .................................................................................................... 13

Figure 2. 5: Lightning arrester .................................................................................................. 16

Figure 2. 6:Silica Gel ................................................................................................................ 20

Figure 2. 7: Current transformer ............................................................................................... 22

Figure 2. 8:Potential transformer (or voltage transformer) ..................................................... 22

Figure 2. 9:Power transformer one 15 kv ................................................................................. 23

Figure 2. 10:power transformer two 15 kv ............................................................................... 24

Figure 2. 11: power transformer three 33 kv ........................................................................... 24

Figure 2. 12: Transformer Tap changer .................................................................................... 25

Figure 2. 13: Disconnector ....................................................................................................... 26

Figure 2. 14: Oil circuit breaker ............................................................................................... 27

Figure 2. 15:SF6 circuit breaker 1 ............................................................................................ 28

Figure 2. 16: Bus Bar ................................................................................................................ 28

Figure 2. 17:Control Room ....................................................................................................... 31

Figure 2. 18:Batteries ............................................................................................................... 31


List of Tables

Table 1.1:Total numbers of customers ....................................................................................... 3

Table 1. 2: Transmission network distance (km) divide by voltage level .................................. 6

Table 1. 3: Distribution substations divided by voltage level .................................................... 6

Table 1. 4: Recent three months’ peak load data ...................................................................... 39

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List of Acronyms
EEPCO Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation
EEP Ethiopian Electric Power

GC Gregorian Calendar
GHz Giga Watt Hertz
KV Kilo Volt
HVAC High Voltage Alternating Current

HVDC High Voltage Direct Current


PMO Portfolio Management Office
Al Aluminum

AAC All Aluminum Conductor


AAAC All Aluminum Alloy Conductor
ACAR Aluminum Conductor Alloy Reinforced
ACSR Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced

MVA Mega Volt Ampere


AC Alternating Current
CT Current Transformer

VT Voltage Transformer
SF6 Sulfur Hexafluoride
I Current

E.C Ethiopian Calendar


OC Operating Coil

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Executive Summery
Internship program is a very essential tool for higher college students to learn and develop
professional skills, and to get more knowledge in practical way on what they knew
theoretically at their colleges. With this regard, we have been working in Ethiopian Electric
Power, under North Western region office, Transmission Engineering Department
Supervision and Design sub department, which is responsible for supervising and monitoring
of substations, transmission lines technical performance and provide feasibility study report, in
Dangila from February 15 to June 15/06/2017 G.C. As we have been four months’ period of
internship program in this company, we have gained a lot of knowledge and professional skills.
In addition to this, we did various activities. Our main concern on this internship period was to
select a problem and provide a feasibility study report on over loaded substations and give
recommendations to solve the problems occurred on selected substations. In this report, we
tried to complete all requirements requested and expected from us. Generally, our
internship period on EEP was great and was useful and it helped us to get experiences that
will be very important to our professions, develop technical and inter personal skills, and

strengthen our social and professional links. Mainly this internship period lets our reasoning,

solving and recommending skills to a higher level.

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Chapter One

Background of EEP
1.1 History of EEP

Electric power was introduced to Ethiopia in the late 19th century, during the regime of
Minilik. The first generator was given to Atse Minilik around the 1898 to give light to the
palace. In addition to the use of generator, Atse Minilik constructed the first Hydro Power Plant
on Akaki River in the year 1912 in order to supply power to small factories that had been
established in Addis Ababa. Consequently, the power supply that had been limited to small
factories, the palace and it was extended to the public places and major roads in the vicinity of
the palace. During this temporary occupation, the Italian company called Coneil overtook the
generation and distribution of electric power. The company installed generators at different
places and extended the power supply to the major towns. After the Italian were driven out
from Ethiopia in the year1941, an organization called Enemy Property Administration
was established and took overalong with other activities the generation and distribution of
power to the public. In the year1948, an organization that had been vested with the enemy
property was evolved to an organization called Shewa Electric Power. This also with limited
capacity, managed to increase the power supply not only in Shewa but also other administrative
regions. In light of its function,its name was changed “Ethiopian Electric Light and Power” in
the 1955. Soon after itsestablishment, the supervision and management of the organization was
vested in the Board of Directors appointed by the government. After eight months of its
establishment the Ethiopia Electric light and power was transformed to the “Ethiopian Electric
Light and power Authority”. The authority was engaged in the business of producing,
transmitting, distributing and selling of electric energy to the people of Ethiopia and carry on
any other lawful business incidentals or appropriate which is calculated directly or indirectly to
promote the interest of the authority or to enhance the value of its properties. At that time the
annual electricity production capacity of the authority was 35 GHz while the number of
customer was 12,500. One of the major changes in the economic sector was the transformation
of centralized command economy to the free market driven economy in the 1987.In order to
accommodate the new changes in the environment, the Ethiopia Electric light and Power
Authority was transformed to the Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation (EEPCo) in 1997 as
public enterprise was established for indefinite duration by regulation No.18/1997, and
conferred with the power Authority. The purpose of the corporation is to engage in the Page | 1
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business of producing, transmitting, distributing and selling electric energy in accordance with
economic and social development policies and priorities of the government and to carry on any
other related activities that would enable it achieve its purpose. Currently the annual electricity
production capacity of the corporation is about 3112 GWH and number of customer 1.1
million. The corporation has been increasing the number of customers by more than 15%
annually, but this does not mean that the corporation has met demand for electric power.
EEPCo is required to think and work strategically to meet the power supply need of the socio-
economy development of country. The corporation has two electric power supplying systems:
The Interconnected System (ICS) and Self Contained System (SCS). The main energy source
of ICS is hydropower plant, and for the SCS mini-hydro and a number of isolated diesels
power generators allocated in various areas of the country are the energy sources. EEPCo is a
government owned corporation and it has two organizations one of this, EEP which is
responsible for the generation, transmission service of electric energy throughout
Ethiopia. The second organization is Ethiopian Electric Utility (EEU) which is responsible for
distributing and selling power to customers. However, Dangila substation is installed in 1976
E.C, which is found in North West region of Amhara.

1.1.1 Vision, Mission, and Purpose of EEP’s Establishment


Vision
to be a first class providing quality universal electrification of the country and regionally
connected as a competitive export industry.
Mission

to provide adequate and quality electricity generation, transmission through continuous


improvement of management practice responsive to the socio-economic development and
environmental protection need of the public.
The purposes for which EEP is established are;
To undertake feasibility studies, design and survey of electricity generation, transmission and
substation; to contract out such activities to consultants as required; to undertake electricity
generation, transmission and substation construction and upgrading;
? To contract out such works to contractors as required;
? To handle electricity generation and transmission operational and maintenance activities.
? To lease electricity transmission lines as required;
? To sell bulk electric power;
? To undertake universal electric access works;

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In line with directives and policy guidelines issued by the Ministry of Finance and Economic
Development, to sell and pledge bonds and to negotiate and sign loan agreements with local
and international financial sources;
? To undertake any other related activities necessary for the attainment of its purposes.

1.2 Main Products and Services of EEP

EEP produces electric power from hydropower, diesel, geothermal, wind, solar, natural gas,
biomass and coal plants that provides the service of selling the electric power to its customers
mainly the Ethiopian people for house hold uses, factories, and the nearby countries like
Kenya, Sudan, and Djibouti.

1.3 Main Customers of EEP


Numbers of customers are those who are connected to the electric energy produced from
generation station. The total number of connected customers at present is 1,900,000. Note: All
our data about EEP’s products, customers, and overall energy situations are up to 2012 GC
Table 1.1:Total numbers of customers

Tariff group 2007\08 2008\09 2009\10 2010\11 2011\12

Domestic 144,304 144,304 1,649,062 1,652,310 1652,062


Commercial 207,986 207,986 222,308 222,746 222,746

Street light 3,060 3,260 2,690 2,695 2,695

Industrial LV 22,908 22,908 20,199 20,199 20,199

Industrial HV 242 242 149 149 149


O 1834 1834 1900 1,900 1,900
1.3.1 Interconnection

Ethiopia is focusing on the development of the huge hydro potential it possesses in the Eastern
African Region. To get the required economy of scale to develop the big hydropower sites in
Ethiopia, it is compulsory to seek foreign demands for export purposes, especially, neighboring
countries of Sudan, Egypt, Djibouti, Yemen, Kenya, Eritrea, and Somalia. There are current
and potential interconnections. Ethiopia-Sudan (Current Interconnections)
Currently, Ethiopia is supplying 100MW of power to Sudan A link of double circuit 230 KV

with transfer capacity of about 400 MW is Constructed. The link starts from Bahir Dar Page | 3
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substation passing through Gondar and Shehedi substations in Ethiopia and ends at Gedaref
substation in Sudan with a total length of 296 km(from Shehedi to gedarif) . Ethiopia-Djibouti
(Current Interconnections) Currently, Ethiopia is supplying 60MW of power to Djibouti a link
of Double circuit 230 KV with transfer capacity of about 400 MW is Construct .The link starts
from Dire Dawa substation in Ethiopia and ends at PK-12 substation in Djibouti with a total
length of 283 km. Ethiopia-Kenya (Potential Interconnections) the export will, possibly, be
based on firm energy. The link may start from Gilgel Gibe-III power plant and passes through
Mega substation in Ethiopia and ends at the towns of Nairobi or Eldorate in Kenya. The link
from Gilgel Gibe-III to Mega will be double circuit 400 KV HVAC. HVDC link of at least 500
KV with transfer capacity of about 600 MW is anticipated from Mega substation to Kenya
(Nairobi or Eldorate).

1.4 Organizational structure of EEP

Figure 1.1: The Over All Organizational Structure of EEP


Under Engineering division there are four subdivisions which are redefined after
theestablishment of EEP enterprise.

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Figure 1.2: Block diagram of engineering structural organization

1.5 Work Flow in EEP

EEP is responsible for generating, transmitting, distributing and selling of electric energy
throughout the country. To fulfill this company, use a wide and interconnected work flow
therefore by using different mechanism power will be generated and this will be transmitted
and will be distributed for customers. We must consider this all system is interconnected by a
system which is called load dispatch center (LDC).

1.5.1 Generation Stations and Current Energy Situation

Ethiopia is a country endowed with abundant, natural recourses such as Hydro power;
Geothermal, natural gas, solar and wind energy etc. that could generate surplus electricity.
Among these only Hydro powers potential of the country is estimated to be up to 45,000 MW.
Since almost all the listed resources not yet tapped the prevailing energy source
that constitutes about 94.1 is biomass. The rest are petroleum 5.2% and electricity 0.8%.

Supply system: - The Ethiopian electric power corporation (EEP) is a sole electricity power

supplier in the country. The corporation has two electric energy supply system. These are the
interconnected system (ICS) and the self-contained system (SCS). The main energy source of
ICS is hydro and also the SCS are mini hydrous and diesel power generators allocated in
various areas of the country. For the record, most diesel power Generators are becoming out
of service because they are too much costly with little amount of power.
Inter Connected System (ICS): - The ICS consists of 12 hydro, 11 diesel standbys, one
geothermal and two wind from power plants with installed capacity of 1939.6MW, 112.3MW,
7.30MW and 81MW respectively which brought a total of 2140.2MW.
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Self-Contained System (SCS): - The SCS consists of three small hydro and several diesel
power plants. Generation in this System is mainly by diesel power plants having an aggregate
capacity of 26.80MW.The contribution from the small hydro power plants is only 6.15MW.

1.5.2 Transmission and Substation


The electric energy generated from the main hydro power plants is transported through high
Voltage transmission lines rated 45, 66,132,230,400KV.The total length of the existing
Transmission lines is about 11,796.32 Km. the existing transmission lines status by voltage
level is categorized. Supply of the distribution network is provided by step down substation
connected to the respective transmission and sub-transmission voltages. Totally there are 143
substations of which 127 are supplying the distribution system the rest 16 are located by the
power house areas (switch yard).The existing substation located in different areas of the
country based on their voltage level are categorized as:

Table 1.2: Transmission network distance (km) divide by voltage level


Year 400KV 230KV 132KV 66KV 45KV Total
2007/08 - 2,175.00 3,983.25 2,234.60 475.93 8,868.78

2008/09 - 2,175.00 3,983.25 2,234.60 475.93 8,968.78


2009/10 211.38 2,235.02 4,170.69 2,234.60 430.15 9,281.8

2010/11 686.701 3,550.90 4,033.21 2,234.60 475.93 10,981.34


2011/12 686.701 4,222.976 4,658.417 1,973.136 1,973.136 11,796.32

Table 1. 3: Distribution substations divided by voltage level


Year 400KV 230KV 132KV 66KV 45KV Total
2007/08 - 12 55 30 23 120

2008/09 - 12 55 30 23 120

2009/10 - 12 55 30 23 120

2010/11 2 14 56 30 23 123

2011/12 5 17 57 30 23 127

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1.5.3 Distribution
Power distribution is both ICS and SCS is effected at primary voltage of 33, and
15KV.Consisting entirely of 3-phases, 3-wire feeders and is stepped down to a utilization
voltage of 380\220 (3-phase, 4-wire) using 3-phase transformers to customer’s level.

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Chapter Two

Overall Internship Experience


2.1. Objectives of the Internship
An internship program has its own general and specific objectives. Both objectives are very
essential to get enough educated and skilled man power in all aspects of Engineering.

2.1.1. General Objective

Bahir Dar Institute of Technology targeted this internship program can enable Engineering
students at their faculty to relate their theoretical knowledges gained from their department to
practical knowledge, and develop their profession skills.

2.1.2. Specific Objectives


? Intern students during internship program are aimed on
? Improving their theoretical, practical, professional, industrial problem solving
capability,
? Developing interpersonal communication skills, team playing and leadership.
? Also, knowing, understanding, practicing work ethics
? Adapting and developing work environment conditions are also parts of specific
? Objectives of internship.

2.2. How Do We Get in To the Company?


After we have taken the request paper of internship paper from the Industrial linkage of Bahir
Dar University Institute of technology at the end of June 2008 E.C, we distribute the request
paper to many companies related to our department. From those companies, Ethiopian
Electric Power Corporation, were the first company which accepted our requesting internship
paper for four months starting from February 15 to June 15 of 2009 E.C. and they announced
us by calling cell phone to Bahir Dar University Institute of technology industrial linkage.
After we got the phone number of the company from the EEP, and they told us that EEP is
divided in to two main organizations, Ethiopian Electric Utility and Ethiopian Electric Power
then informed us that ours name list is on Ethiopian Electric Power. And we submitted it to the
wire business office, and then we met Mr.Shimels, manager of wire business office at Bahir
Dar and he welcomed us tenderly and explains what their office performs and looks
like. And he informed us that we are going to stay the internship period at Super vision and

design sub department and he gave us paper that have been submitted to the supervision office

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with best wishes. Finally we met Mr.Giwon, manager of the supervision office at Dangila
substation, he welcomed us with full of kindness and explained what we will work on the
internship period and informed us that we will be with his office for the next four months and
introduces us to Mr. Fekadie, Mr. Serawdink and other stuff members and we start our intern
with eager on February 15. But to get this placement in the company it was tedious we were
spending a lot of times come and backs.

2.3. Work Section that we have been working

Dangila substation receives power from one incoming line. This incoming line is Gordema
substation (main supply from beles), so receives 66KV. The incoming 66KV stepped down
into 66/33kv, 66/15kv (feeders). Gordema substation (No: 2 substation in Bahir Dar) receives
power mainly from two generations, Tis -sat and Tana Beles 132kv and 400kv respectively. In
addition to this the substation can be received or send through Alamata and Mota lines. Hence,
Gordema substation can be considered as ring system. Ring system is a system that can be
received and sent. In substation 400kv from beles step down into national grid (230kv) and
then distributes into the outgoing lines, these are Gonder-1,Gonder-2,Alamata,Mota and 400kv
into markos,66kv into Bahir Dar No:1 substation and Dangla as well as 33kv into Adet. Since
Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation, EEP is associated with generation, transmission and
distribution system. In fact that after the power is generated; it has to be distributed to the
customers through high voltage transmission lines. But it is impossible to provide the
generated power from generation station directly to the customer due to different reasons. The
first and main reason is voltage drop, because the voltage drop will be high when the
transmission line becomes longer and longer. So that substations have a great role to solve the
occurrence of this problem. Since most of distributions’ fault are occurred due to over loading
and due to lacking of ability of transmission lines to carry the required power when they are
designed and constructed. So, we selected this work section to solve such problems. As a
result, customers such as residents, companies, real estates, factories and interconnected
countries can get enough and suitable power.

2.4. Overall System Components and Operation

2.4.1. Transmission Line Design Considerations


An overhead transmission lines consists of conductors, insulators, support structures, and in
most cases, shield wires.
a. Conductors

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Aluminum is the most common conductor metal for overhead transmission than copper, due to
its lower cost and lighter in weight properties, and its abundant whereas copper is limited.
Most common Al conductors are
? All-Aluminum Conductor, AAC.
? All-Aluminum-Alloy Conductor, AAAC.
? Aluminum Conductor Alloy Reinforced, ACAR.
? Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced, ACSR.

From those Al conductors, Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced, ACSR, is the most
common conductor type, which consists of layers of Al strands surrounding a central core of
steel strands. Stranded conductors are easier to manufacture, since larger conductor size can be
obtained by simply adding successive layers of strands. Stranded conductors are also easier to
handle and more flexible than solid conductors, especially in large size. The use of steel
strands gives ACSR conductors a high strength to weight ratio, and for the purpose of heat
dissipation, overhead lines are bare (no insulator cover).EHV lines often have more than one
conductor per phase, these conductors are called a bundle. Bundle conductors have a lower
electric field strength of the conductor surfaces, thereby controlling corona. They also have a
smaller series reactance.

b. Insulators

Insulators provide electrical insulation between live conductors and earthed structures under
operating and over voltage conditions. Insulators are mainly made of either glazed, porcelain,
or toughened glass.

Most Commonly used Types of Insulators are;

• Pin type

• Suspension type

• Strain insulator and

• Shackle insulator

Pin Type Insulators

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Pin type insulators are used for transmission and distribution of electric power at voltages up
to 33 KV. Beyond operating voltage of 33 KV, the pin type insulators become too bulky and
hence uneconomical.

Figure 2.1: Pin type insulator

Suspension Type Insulators

For high voltages (greater than 33 KV), it is mostly used suspension type insulators shown in
figure below, which consists of a number of porcelain discs connected in series by metal links
in the form of a string.

Figure 2.2:Suspension type insulator


Stain Insulators
When there is a dead end of the line or there is corner or sharp curve, the line is subjected to

greater tension. In order to relive the line of excessive tension, strain insulators are used. For

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low voltage lines (less than 11 KV), shackle insulators are used as strain insulators. However,
for high voltage transmission lines, strain insulators consist of assembly of suspension
insulators as shown in figure below.

Figure 2.3:Strain type insulator


Shackle Insulator
They can be directly fixed to the pole with a bolt or to the cross arm. Figure below shows a
shackle insulator fixed to the pole. The conductor in the groove is fixed with a soft binding
wire.

Figure 2. 4: Shackle insulator


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Insulators for transmission lines above 33KV are suspension type insulator, which consists of
discs, typically porcelain. The standard discs have a 10-inch (0.254-m) diameter, 5.75 inch
(0.146-m) spacing between centers of adjacent discs, and mechanical strength of 7500 Kg. The
number of insulator discs in a string increases with line voltage. Other types of discs include
larger units with higher mechanical strength and fog insulators for use in contaminated
areas.

Support Structures

Transmission lines employ a variety of support structures. Support structures are arranged
either in a triangular configuration to reduce tower height or in a vertical configuration to
reduce tower width. Shield Wires Shield wires located above phase conductors protect the
phase conductors against lightning. They are usually high or extreme high strength steel,
ACSR with much smaller cross section than phase conductors. The number and location of the
shield wires are selected so that almost all lightning strokes terminate on the shield wires than
on the phase conductors. Shield wires are grounded to the tower. As such, when
lightning strike shields wires, it flows harmlessly to ground, provided that the tower
impedance and tower footing resistance are small.

2.4.2 Types of Substations


Substations may be categorized as distribution substation, transmission substation, switching
Substation or any combination of them.
Distribution Substations
Distribution substation is a combination of switching, controlling, and voltage step- down
equipment arranged to reduce transmission voltage to primary distribution voltage for
residential, farm, commercial, and industrial loads. Typical distribution substation capacities
vary. Substation generally include one 1.5 MVA to three 5 MVA transformers. These
substations may be supplied radially, tapped from a sub transmission line, or may have two
source of supply.
Switching Substations

A switching substation is a combination of switching and controlling equipment arranged to


Provide circuit protection and system switching flexibility. Switching stations are becoming
Common on cooperatives transmission systems. Flexible switching arrangements in a
transmission network can be aided in maintaining reliable service under certain abnormal or
Maintenance conditions.

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Transmission Substations

A transmission substation is a combination of switching, controlling, and voltage step-down


Equipment arranged to reduce transmission voltage to sub transmission voltage for
distribution of electrical energy to distribution substations. Transmission substations
frequently have two or more large transformers. Transmission substations function as bulk
power distribution centers, and their importance in the system often justifies bus and
switching arrangements that are much more elaborative than distribution substations.

2.4.3 Major Components of Transmission Subs


Surge arrester
A surge arrester is a product installed near the end of any conductor which is long enough
before the conductor lands on its intended electrical component. The purpose is to divert
damaging lighting-induced transients safely to ground through property changes to its arrestor
in parallel arrangement to the conductor inside the unit. Also, called a surge protection device
(SPD) or transient voltage surge suppressor (TVSS), they are only designed to protect against
electrical transients resulting from the lightning flash, not a direct lightning termination to the
conductors. Surge arrestors or other surge protective equipment are located at the line
entrances and exits. In these instances, it is best to locate the arrestor or other protective
equipment on the line side of the substation equipment to be protected to limit the lightning
and switching surges to acceptable levels. As they enter the substations locating the arrestors
on the line side of the circuit breaker will also protect the gap in the breakers when in the open
position.
Lightning arrester
A lightning arrester, also known as lightning conductor, is a device used on electrical power
Systems and telecommunication systems to protect the insulation and conductors of the
system from the damaging effects of lightning. The typical lightning arrester has a high –
voltage terminal and a ground terminal. When a lightning surge (or switching surge, which is
very similar) travels along the power line to the arrester, the current from the surge is diverted
through the arrestor, in most cases to earth.

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Figure 2. 5: Lightning arrester

If protection fails or is absent lightning that strikes the electrical system introduces thousands
of kilo volts that may damage the transmission lines, and can also cause severe damage to
Transformers and other electrical or electronic devices. Lightning-produced extreme voltage
Spikes in incoming power lines can damage electrical home appliances.
Transformer
Transformer is generally a four-terminal device that can transform an AC input voltage into a
relatively higher or lower AC output voltage. A transformer usually consists of two closely
coupled coils that are designed to transfer energy between its winding circuits. A typical
transformer has two or more coils that share a common laminated iron core. One of the coils is
referred to as the primary (containing NP turns), while the other coil is called secondary
(containing NS turns). Primary coils are defined as those coils whose current is driven by an
external alternating-current source, whereas secondary coils are defined as those coils whose
voltage is induced by the varying magnetic field produced by the primary coil.
Transformer Cooling System and Methods
The main source of heat generation in transformer is its copper loss or loss and core loss.
Although there are other factors contribute heat in transformer such as hysteresis & eddy
current losses but contribution of loss dominates them. If this heat is not dissipated properly,
the temperature of the transformer will rise continually which may cause damages in paper
insulation and liquid insulation medium of transformer. So, it is essential to control the
temperature with in permissible limit to ensure the long life of transformer by reducing
thermal degradation of its insulation system. In electrical power transformer, we use external
transformer cooling system to accelerate the dissipation rate of heat of transformer. There are
different transformers cooling methods available for transformer.

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Transformers immersed in the following transformer cooling methods.


? Air natural (AN) cooling
? Air Natural Air Natural (ANAN)
? Air Blast or Air Forced (AB or AF)
? Oil Natural Air Natural (ONAN)
? Oil Natural Air Forced (ONAF)
? Oil Forced Air Natural (OFAN)
? VII. Oil Natural Air Forced (ONAF
But in Dangila substation the cooling system is oil natural air natural (ONAN) or oil natural air
forced (ONAF). The transformer has an oil level indicator and winding temperature
indicator.
Oil level indicator : - For indicating a change of oil in the conservator, any change in the oil

level is detected by a float converted in to rotary motion by gear and transmitted to the external
pointer through magnet. If the indicator tilted downward then the oil should change. Oil
temperature indicator is also shows the heating up of transformer.
Winding temperature indictor: - The temperature of winding is measured and determined
indirectly. The temperature difference between the winding and coolant is the actual current in
the winding. The transformer secondary current is proportional to the current transformer
winding. The secondary current feeds a heating resistor in thermometer and so produces a
display reading of transformer load. Generally, when the loss is happened on the winding, the
heat has been developed; transformer becomes heated up and because of thermostat starts
rotating for cooling the transformer.
ONAN Cooling of Transformer
This is the simplest transformer cooling system. The full form of ONAN is "Oil Natural Air
Natural". Here natural convectional flow of hot oil is utilized for cooling. In convectional
circulation of oil, the hot oil flows to the upper portion of the transformer tank and the vacant
Place is occupied by cold oil. This hot oil which comes to upper side will dissipate heat in the
Atmosphere by natural conduction, convection & radiation in air and will become cold. In this
Way the oil in the transformer tank continually circulate when the transformer put into load.
As the rate of dissipation of heat in air depends upon dissipating surface of the oil tank, it is
essential to increase the effective surface area of the tank. So, additional dissipating surface in
the form of tubes or radiators connected to the transformer tank. This is known as radiator of
transformer or radiator.

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ONAF Cooling of Transformer


Heat dissipation can obviously be increased, if dissipating surface is increased but it can be
make further faster by applying forced air flow on that dissipating surface. Fans blowing air on
cooling surface is employed. Forced air takes away the heat from the surface of radiator and
provides better cooling than natural air. The full form of ONAF is "Oil Natural Air Forced". As
the heat dissipation rate is faster and more in ONAF transformer cooling method than ONAN
cooling system, electrical power transformer can be put into more load without crossing the
permissible temperature limits.
Radiator
The radiator of transformer accelerates the cooling rate of transformer. Thus, it plays a vital
role in increasing loading capacity of a transformer. This is basic function of radiator of an
electrical power transformer. Oil immersed power transformer is generally provided with
detachable pressed sheet radiator with isolating valves. But in case of small size distributing
transformer, the radiators are generally integrated parts of transformer body and projected from
the main tank. The working principle of radiator is very simple. It just increases the surface area
for dissipating heat of the oil. In case of electrical power transformer, due to the transport
limitation, these units are sent separately and assembled at site with transformer main body. At
the time of dispatching, the flings of radiator are blanketed by gasket and blanketing plates.
The radiator valves on the main tank are also blanketed by gasket and blanketing plates.

Operation of Transformer Radiator


Under loaded condition, warm oil increases in volume and comes to the upper portion of the
main tank. Then this oil enters in the radiator through top valve and cools down by dissipating
heat through the thin radiator wall. This cold oil comes back to the main tank through the
bottom radiator valve. This cycle is repeated continuously till the load is connected to the
transformer. Dissipation of heat in the transformer radiator; can be accelerated further by force
air provided by means of fans. These fans are fitted either on the radiator bank itself or fitted
nearby the bank but all the fans must be faced towards the radiator. Sometime, the cooling rate
of convectional circulation of oil is not sufficient. That time an oil pump may be used for
speeding up oil circulation.

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Conservator
Conservator tank, where fitted should be assembled with its pipe work, etc. making sure that
Skated joints are oil tight and the pipe work is clean and free from moisture. The mechanism of
the float type oil gauge inside the conservator is locked to prevent damage during transit. After
placing the conservator in position, it should be released by turning the locking bolt in the
direction indicated on the plate. While feeling the conservator with transformer oil, it should
be ensured that the oil filled up to the level indicated by the oil gauge on the
conservator. On the oil gauge’s dial, there is an indication of temperature, this tells the
prescribed level of oil in the conservator at that temperature. For example, if temperature is
30°C. But during actual oil filling in conservator tank, we should commensurate with the oil
temperature at that time.

The function of conservator tank is giving the space to the oil expanded during the ambient
temperature rises. When transformer is loaded and ambient temperature rises, the volume of oil
inside transformer increases. A conservator tank of transformer provides adequate space to this
expanded transformer oil. It also acts as a reservoir for transformer insulating oil.
Silica Gel
Silica gel breather always comes as loose item. The plastic plug sealing on the top of the
breather should be removed and fitted to the associated pipe work. The oil cup at the bottom of
the breather should be removed, filled with transformer oil to the level indicated on it and then
re fitted to the position. Thus, the silica gel is prevented from absorbing moisture from
atmosphere. When the oil becomes depreciate the silica gel color becomes change from pink to
the blue this indicates the oil should be changed and silica gel itself changed into new.

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Figure 2. 6: Silica Gel


Buchholz relay
Buchholz which is part of transformer that connected across the pipe work between
conservator tank and main tank of the transformer. It is considered as buchholz relay. There is
generally a Stop Valve between Buchholz relay and conservator tank. The Buchholz relay
should be mounted on the pipe work only after the oil level inside the transformer is above the
tank cover. The Buchholz relay is provided with an arrow marked on its housing and this arrow
should always point towards the conservator. If the gas release pipe is provided, it must be fitted
to the top pocket of the Buchholz relay. In this case, the top pockets of Buchholz relay should
be opened and gas release pipes should be full of oil during normal operation of transformer.
When the gas is to be collected through the gas release pipe, oil will flow out initially followed
by the gas. But when gas release pipe is not provided with Buchholz relay, the top pockets are
generally screwed tightly. During fittings of Buchholz relay in the pipe work, the relay should
be mechanically locked with the locking screw provided in the relay. It prevents any
mechanical damage inside the relay due to transit. The alarm and trip contacts provided on the
relay should be properly identified from the control drawings of the relay before connecting
the control wires on those terminals of the relay. The ‟ NO’’ contacts for alarm and trip should
be checked for their proper functioning. Therefore, buchholz relay is used as protective and
cooling systems.

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Auxiliary Transformer
Auxiliary transformer is types of transformer which gives service only the compound of the
Substations. Auxiliary transformer is used to supply low voltage for AC power system inside
substation such as lighting, air conditioners and other AC supply system and DC power
system such as protection relays, batteries.
Earthing Transformer
Earthing transformer is used stabilize an external earth fault on the delta side of star -delta
power transformer. In cases where the neutral point of three phase system is not accessible like
the system connected to the delta connected side of an electrical power transformer, an
artificial neutral point may be created with help of a zigzag connected earthing transformer. In
normal condition of the system, the voltage across the winding of the earthing transformer is
1/√3 times of rated per phase voltage of the system. But when single line to ground fault
occurs on any phase of the system, zero sequence component of the earth fault current flows in
the earth and returns to the electrical power system by way of earth star point of the earthing
transformer. The rated voltage of an earthing or grounding transformer is the line to line
voltage on which it is intended to be used. Current rating of this transformer is the maximum
neutral current in Amperes that the transformer is designed to carry in fault condition
for a specific time. Generally,the time interval, for which transformer designed to carry the
maximum fault current through it safely, is taken as 30 second.
Instrument transformers

Instrument transformers are high accuracy class electrical devices used to isolate or transform
voltage or current levels. The most common usage of instrument transformers is to operate
instruments or metering from high voltage or high current circuits, safely isolating secondary
Control circuitry from the high voltages or currents. The primary winding of the transformer is
connected to the high voltage or high current circuit, and the meter or relay is connected to the
secondary circuit. The two types of instrument transformers are discussed below.
Current transformer

A current transformer works on the same principle as that of a simple transformer however it
Steps down the high current into a low level so that the range can be measured. In some
current transformers, extra cores are provided. This is done to prevent the faulty currents i.e.
the over currents, earth faults, differential protections. The extra cores of a C.T. gets saturated
as soon as the faulty currents starts flowing and thereby does not harm the main core of the

transformer and the ammeter connected. The C.T. is always connected in the line carrying Page
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current. It first steps down the current to measurable form and further gives this current to the
ammeter.

Figure 2. 7: Current transformer


Potential transformer (voltage transformer)

A potential transformer (or voltage transformer) is used to reduce high-voltages to values that
Can be remotely monitored with ordinary voltmeters, or to provide inputs to protective relays.
It also electrically-isolates meters/relays from the high-voltage systems. They are mutual
transformers which work on the same principle as any other step-down transformer i.e. a
voltage applied to the primary winding results in a lower voltage induced into its secondary.

Figure 2. 8: Potential transformer (or voltage transformer)

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Power transformer
Power transformer is a device that is used to convert inbound electricity or voltage to a higher
or lower value in order to accommodate the current flow needed for specific purposes. Power
transformers are a normal component in the power grids of many nations, making it possible to
regulate the transfer of power to residences and commercial building without overloading the
circuit in those structures. From this perspective, the transformer can also be viewed as a safety
feature that reduces some of the risk associated with utilizing electrical current in those
settings. The two main functions of a power transformer are to transfer electrical current from
a source to a destination, and to regulate the voltage of that current before it reaches the
intended destination. In Dangila substation there three power transformers.
1. Power transformer one 15kv
2. power transformer two 15kv
3. Power transformer three 33kv

Figure 2. 9:Power transformer one 15kv

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Figure 2. 10:power transformer two 15kv

Figure 2. 11: power transformer three 33kv


Tap changer

A tap changer is a device fitted to power transformers for regulation of the output voltage to
required levels. This is normally achieved by changing the ratios of the transformers on the
system by altering the number of turns in one winding of the appropriate transformer/s. Supply
authorities are under obligation to their customers to maintain the supply voltage between
certain limits. Tap changers can be on load or off load. On load tap changers generally consist
of a diverter switch and a selector switch operating as a unit to effect transfer current from one
voltage tap to the next. On load tap changers were introduced to power transformers as a
means of on load voltage control.

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Figure 2. 12: Transformer Tap changer


Isolator (Disconnector)

A switching device which can be opened or closed only under no current condition it provides
isolation of a circuit for maintenance. A disconnector, disconnect switch or isolator switch is
used to ensure that an electrical circuit is completely de-energized for service or maintenance.
High-voltage isolation switches are used in electrical substations to allow isolation of
apparatus such as circuit breakers, transformers and transmission lines, for

maintenance. The disconnector is usually not intended for normal control of the circuit, but
only for safety isolation. Disconnector can be operated either manually or automatically
(motorized disconnector). Unlike load break switches and circuit breaker, disconnectors lack a
mechanism for suppression of electric arc, which occurs when conductors carrying high
currents are electrically interrupted. Thus, they are off load devices, intended to be opened only
after current has been interrupted by some other control device. Safety regulations of the utility
must prevent any attempt to open the disconnector while it supplies a circuit. Standards in
some countries for safety may require either local motor isolators or lockable overloads (which
can bepadlocked). Substation class group operated air disconnect switches can be
defined quite simply as mechanical devices which conduct electrical current and provide an

open point in a circuit for isolation of one of the following devices: circuit breaker, circuit Page
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switcher, power transformer, capacitor bank, or other. The most important functions that
disconnect switches must perform are: -
a. To open and close reliably when called upon to do so,
b. To carry current continuously without overheating
Depending upon the position in power system, the isolators can be categorized as
1. Bus side isolator: - the isolator is directly connected with main bus
2. Line side isolator: - the isolator is situated at line side of any feeder

Figure 2. 13: Disconnector


Circuit breaker

Electrical Circuit Breaker is a switching device which can be operated manually as well as
automatically for controlling and protection of electrical power system respectively. It is a
device capable of making, breaking and electric circuit under normal and abnormal conditions
such as short circuits. The circuit breaker can protect the circuit from a high current short
circuit and through its thermal trip it can protect the circuit from overload condition. Working
Principle of Circuit Breaker,the circuit breaker mainly consists of fixed contacts and moving
contacts. In normal "on" condition of circuit breaker, these two contacts are physically
connected to each other due to applied mechanical pressure on the moving contacts. There is
an arrangement stored potential energy in the operating mechanism of circuit breaker which is
realized if switching signal given to the breaker.

Types of Circuit Breaker


According different criteria there are different types of circuit breaker. According to their arc
quenching media, the circuit breaker can be divided as;
? Oil circuit breaker
? Air blast circuit breaker
? SF6 circuit breaker
? Vacuum circuit breaker

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In Dangila substation oil and type circuit breakers are used.


Oil Type Circuit Breaker
The switch contacts are immersed in oil to quench (to minimize) any spark that might occur
when the current is interrupted. The oil used as dielectric materials insulating the current
conducting parts.

•Low-oil content circuit breakers: - which operate with minimum amount of oil used
only for arc extinction.

•Bulk oil breakers: - these types of breaker use a large quantity of oil used for arc
extinguishing and insulating the current conducting part.

Figure 2. 14: Oil circuit breaker


SF6 (Sulphur hexafluoride) Type Circuit Breaker
In most substations SF6 circuit breakers work through arc interruption. The main function of
SF6 circuit breakers is to interrupt power during faults, which work through arc interruption.
When electrical current exceeds a certain level (called a rating), the breaker will trip and
contacts within the circuit breaker will open to interrupt the circuit. When the current is
interrupted, an electrical arc is created. An arc contains heat and voltage, so it must be
contained and extinguished. The SF6 circuit breaker uses compressed sulfur hexafluoride
(SF6) gas to cool the arc and absorb free conducting electrons. The electrons captured by the
gas form mostly immobile negative ions, creating dielectric insulation and extinguishing the
arc.Advantages of SF6 gas are extremely efficient at extinguishing or "quenching" electrical
arcs.This ensures shorter arc times, allowing less damage to occur. The dielectric strength of
sulfur hexafluoride gas is also much higher than air, so SF6 breakers can interrupt much larger
currents than other types of breakers. Sulfur hexafluoride is inflammable, so there is no danger
of fire.Additionally, SF6 circuit breakers are completely enclosed and sealed so they may be
used in many environments.

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Figure 2. 15:SF6 circuit breaker 1


Bus bar
Bus bars receive power from incoming circuits and deliver power to outgoing circuits. It is
made of copper bar, Aluminum tube etc. In Dangila substation bus bar is energized from
Gordema substation (Bahir Dar), Incoming 66kv by using transmission line. Bus bars may be
used to carry phase voltage in which case they must be suitably insulated. Such insulation may
either surround the bus bar, or alternatively the bus bar itself may be un insulated but
physically mounted using an insulating material to keep it electrically separate from its
support.

Figure 2. 16: Bus Bar


Relays

The function of relays is to discriminate between normal operation and fault conditions. The
OC relay has an operating coil, which is connected to the CT secondary winding, and a set of
contacts. When / I’/ exceeds a specified “pick up” value, the operating coil causes the
normally open contacts to close. When the relay contacts close, the trip coil of the circuit
breaker is energized, which then causes the circuit breaker to open. Note that the circuit
breaker doesn’t open until its operating coil is energized, either manually or by relay
operation. Based on information from instrument transformers, a decision is made and

“relayed” to the trip coil of the breaker, which opens the power circuit-hence the name relay.
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Different types of relay

Over Current Relay

The CT secondary I’ is the input to the over current relay operating coil. Instantaneous over
current relays respond to the magnitude of their input current. If the current magnitude I=/I’/
exceeds a specified adjustable current magnitude Ip, called the pickup current, then the relay
contacts close “ instantaneously ” to energize the circuit breaker trip coil. If I’ is less than the
pickup current Ip, then the relay contacts remain open, blocking the trip coil. Time-delay over
current relay also respond to the magnitude of their input current, but with an intentional time
delay. The time delay depends on the magnitude of the relay input current. If I’ is a large
multiple of the pickup current Ip, then the relay operates (or trips) after a small-time delay.
Differential Relay

Is a current operated relay that responds to the difference between two or more current above a
set value. Differential relays are commonly used for protecting generators, buses, and
transformers. And there are many relays used in a transmission substation. Such as: -
? Over voltage relay
? Under voltage relay
? Power relay
? Directional relay
? Thermal relay
? Auxiliary relay…etc.

2. 5 Control and Protection Room


The Purpose of an electrical power system is to generate and supply electrical energy to
consumers. But during this time the safety should be concerned. This safety concerning is
known as protection. The purpose of Protection is to minimize the adverse effects of faults on a
power system. Protection does this by detecting faults and causing appropriate power switch
devices to isolate the faulted system elements from the healthy system as quickly as possible.
The detection of a fault and disconnection of a faulty section or apparatus can be achieved by
using relays in conjunction with circuit breakers. Common terms used in protections
? Protection system: - All those devices and components needed to detect and isolate a
faulted system element including instrument transformers.
? Protection Relay: - Thus an electronic or electro-mechanical device that decides if there
is a fault and then initiate’s action to clear that fault.
? Protection Zone: -That portion of the power system of system elements protected by a
protection system as defined by the location of the sensing devices, usually CTs.

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? Power System Zone: - A System element or group of elements protected by a particular


Protection system as defined by the location of the isolating device, usually circuit
breakers.
? Differential Protection: - This is a way of protection based on the principle that under

normal conditions and neglecting internal losses, the power entering a protection zone must
be equal to the power leaving that protected zone. Any difference in these quantities
indicates a fault within the protected zone. Because of its simplicity and selectivity,
differential protection is the most common form of equipment protection. Over current
Protection:- his is a protection which mainly used as a back-up protection for transmission
lines and transformers and main protection for distribution lines. It mainly analyzes the
current on the system and act when the current is above the setting value. In substations,
there are various panels such as protective panels, measuring panels, SCADA system,
Central unit panel, AC panel and DC panels as well as batteries. But SCADA system is not
available in Dangila substation because of its establishment time (it is not modern).
Substations control room has following functions.

1. Protection
2. Metering
3. Communication with the neighbor substation and generation
4. Controlling
5. Monitoring and operating
6. Tap-Changer control
7. Control of shunt reactor for voltage control in control panel

Generally, protection, Control, monitoring and operation are performed in the control room
automatically or manual. The control panels, Protection panels etc. are housed in the control
room building of the substation. The protection functions are performed automatically by
protective relaying system and the circuit breakers.

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Figure 2. 17:Control Room


Rectifiers and Batteries
In substation, the electric power is required for the auxiliaries such as lighting circuit such that
Indoor and outdoor light, battery charging sets, and emergency lighting. The auxiliary battery
of rated voltage is 125V (DC) and AC voltage is 380V. If there is no AC voltage, battery works
in floating system. When the power is available the batteries are charged and they used to
supply to the substation compound during power supply off or when sudden power shut down
is occurred. The rectifier is a device that can converts AC into DC current at the time of power
available. DC Auxiliary system Low voltage DC sources is essential in a substation for the
following purpose for control, communication, Protection, Remote indication, operation of CB
Signaling and emergency lighting.

Figure 2. 18:Batteries

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2.6 Major Duties of the Internship

During our internship period, we have been performing different tasks in transmission and
distribution substations from being punctual, loyal, and attended every day to our office. The
other duties we have been performed is knowing how the working flow seems and
discovering all the equipment used in each substation we went with our supervisor. When we
have been working on Dangila substation, we read a primary design, and discovering the
arrangement of each equipment on the substation while the control room and how it is work
out. In general, we have been working on what we must know on all aspects, and that was very
useful and helping to our profession even for the future.

2.6.1 Challenges we have been facing


The first challenge we have been facing on our first sight working was sunset and thorn. The
second challenge was missing our supervisor. Since he was too busy, we couldn’t meet him.
The third and the most challenging problem we have faced was not being able to get well
combined data about the EEP’s current customer number, transmission line distance, number
of substations. The last challenge we have been facing was delaying of our monthly fee.

2.6.2 Measures we have taken


The first measurement we took to solve our first problem was using helmet and eye glasses.
For solving the problem of missing our supervisor, we met him and discussed about it and
finally we reach on decision by setting time. But for our third problem we tried to
communicate all public relation officers but they couldn’t give us well organized data. And
delaying our monthly fee was unsolved.

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Chapter Three

Benefits gained from the internship

Internship provides real world experience to those looking to explore or gain the relevant
knowledge and skills required to enter a particular career field. Internships are relatively short
term in nature with the primary focus on getting some on the job training and taking what’s
learned in the classroom and applying it to the real world. An experience should enhance a
student’s academic career and personal development.

3.1 Improving our practical skill


Since from elementary our mind loaded with theoretical concepts even in campus. Having a
good practical skill is not that much available due to lack of materials but, in this internship
program we have got lots of practical skills and experiences. Also, it can assist students to
bridge the gap between the academic learning process and the Practical world. There are many
benefits that we get from our internship program. These includes: -
? Site selection.
? General design consideration.
? Substation drawing reading.
? Arrangement of equipment in the substation.
? How to use working materials.
? Develop the habit of safe working.We have improved our practical skills on:
? How to select which major equipment are available for the given substation.
? How to read the incoming voltage at the voltage transformer and current at the

Current transformer. If 400KV is generated from the generation station the voltage
transformer should read 66KV and the current transformer should read 5A, because
66KV is set by5A. But if it is greater or less than the given voltage there is a problem
either at the transmission line or the generation station.
? How to control all substation equipment automatically in control room.
? How to control all substation equipment manually and
? Substation rehabilitation.

3.2. Improving our theoretical skill


The internship program is also beneficial to improve our theoretical skill. We upgrade lots of
our theoretical knowledges about voltage drop, short circuit, faults in circuits with their

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concepts of the courses that we have learnt in class especially power system, installation,
electrical machine, energy conversion and rural electrification and modern control. We have
been thought so many things beyond the course we have taken during our four-year program.
Among these theoretical skills: -
? Understand how the formulas do work and when to use them.
? We understand how transformers do work
? Understand transformer loses like eddy current loose and core loose
? Realize transformer cooling mechanisms.
? How the corona effects occur.
? How to solve problems.
? How to do feasibility study.

3.3 Improving our team playing skill


In addition to specialized skills of our field, transferable skills are generally required at any
job. This can be called inter personal communication or team work. As a result, our internship
Improves team playing, work ethics, respect for each other and working with the engineers for
the common goal. We learn our strengths and weaknesses by creating learning objectives and
receiving feedback from our supervisor. Ask question, observe, take ideas and experiences
from others and take risks. This often leads to increase our creativity, and an inspiring sense of
collaboration and cooperation.

3.4 Improving our leadership skills

Leading a team or an organization holds the most basic and key place of profession, hence
requires well trained person. We have learned a good leading skill from our supervisor and all
be responsible and trusted. The engineers that we work together Some of the leader ship skills
that we have performed are: -
o To share our problems openly and get the team involved in solutions whenever
there is a setback.
o As a leader to be clear, active by working, to have goals, mission and vision in
our ability.
o During our working time, always ready to show smiley face for the workers
and supervisor.
o Respecting differences of all team members.
o Listening and accepting the ideas of our supervisor.
o To recognize, tell and solve mistakes and problems.

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3.5 Understanding about work ethics


Work ethic is a value based on hard work and diligence. During our internship period, we have
learnt about work ethics. Through the last few months we hardly able to know the following
things: -
• Possess a positive attitude at our working place.

• Responsibility and able to respond appropriately to any given situation without having to
be constantly monitored.

• Putting on work clothes, safety shoes and helmet before entering in to the construction
site or the substation.
• We try to adapt hard things at construction sites, like sun and dust.
• Self-motivation to solve problems and to create new ideas.
• Strong self-confidence
• Willingness to do what our profession asks to do without complain.

3.6 Entrepreneurship skill


Entrepreneur means undertake the risk of new enterprises. This creation called
entrepreneurship. Being an intern student built an individual’s knowledgeable in Selection of
the effective way of doing work and develops entrepreneurship skills.
Some of these includes: -
• Risk taking ability.
• Increasing efficiency of work.
• Able to invent new ideas.
• Creative mind in solving the problem of company.
• Work discipline.
• Invent short methods.

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Chapter Four

Project
4.1 Upgrading Power Transformer of Dangila 66/ 33/15KV Substation
Rehabilitation In our four-month internship period we have been able to work a project. The
project selected by us at Dangila substation 66/15KV is Transformer Upgrading Project.

4.1.1 Introduction

Dangila Substation is under North Western region of Amhara with geographic reference
11.16N& 36.50N E where new and old housing developments around the substation with very
Small radius area exists. This substation was built by legislation Engineers 33 years ago, but it
was not maintained and upgraded until January 2017.Substation has incoming of 66KV from
Bahir Dare Substation No. 2, outgoing of 33KV to Arese Gimbha, Quancha-quakureta and
Shawora. This substation also has four 15KV outgoing line to different areas with overhead
distribution lines around the substation. This substation has two 6.3MVA transformers with
two winding. At the time, we went to observe the substation one additional transformer with
6.3MVA capacity is on test to parallel operate with the two existing transformers on the
substation.

4.2 Problem Statement


This substation has lots of problems that affect the loads, the community around the
substation, and the substation workers. The problems we have seen on this substation lead to
shaded hours on customers at peak hours, low evacuation in times of danger and difficult
safety issues. Those problems need to be fixed as soon as possible due to its urgent
conditions. Because firstly the loads on this substation are shaded around peak hours and the
power demand is growing exponentially, secondly the lives of those people around the
substation, the nearby houses and the workers of the substation are in danger, and this
substation has been on operation for 33 years without maintenance and rehabilitation. When
those problems are solved it will be easy to maintain, problems occur on the substation and
transmission line, there will be no shaded customers, and mostly the substation workers and
the people and houses around will be safe.

4.3 Objective

4.3.1 General objective

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4.3.2 Specific objective


• To eliminate (to avoid as much as possible) the occurrence of over loading

• To minimize shaded hours and to strengthen the delivery of power to customers around
Dangila substation and nearby factories through rehabilitation of an existing 66/33/15KV
2x6.3 MVA transformers.
• To updating the substation since it is made 33 years from now.

• To fulfill the system demand supply imbalance that could be happened around Dangila
Substation.

4.4 Justification
To supply the growing demand of electricity reliably, new transformers should be addedand the
transmission line should be changed. It is expected that soon the demand for electric power
around Dangila substation will grow sharply. It is not possible to supply and satisfy the
demand with the only existing 66/33/15KV 2x6.3 MVA transformers due to its limited
capacity. Thus, to supply the factories and domestic customers, the substation should be
upgraded. Secondly to maintain the safety of the people around this substation the grounding
system should be reconstructed, the protection materials should be changed, its overall
materials should be replaced with recently updated materials, and the transmission line should
be free from any kind of contact with living house fences especially iron sheet fences.

4.5 Methodology
In this project, we have used an observation on the transformers, relays, and archives with both
primary and secondary data collection methods to gather data about the overall
substation. Primary data: This rehabilitation and upgrading project has prepared through
extensive use of primary data. It is collected from the group of people related to this
substation and professionals on the substation through the following primary data collection
methods;

a. Direct Interview: We have collected data from the substation officer, guards, and
supervisors

b. Personal Communication: We have gathered data through personal communication with


substation officer.

c. Observation Method: We went to the substation and observe its existing


condition. Secondary data: We have collected secondary data from the following
sources: -
a. Archives of weekly report of the substation
b. The substations primary and secondary drawings.
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4.6 Literature Review


We have reviewed various books, reports and browse some websites regarding what we have
observed on this substation. Due to this a distribution substation, mostly all types of
substation needs an effective and efficient maintenance program for substation equipment
includes scheduled periodic maintenance as well as corrective procedures that address specific
equipment-related problems. Periodic or time interval-based maintenance procedures, more
commonly referred to as preventive maintenance, are developed and instituted to minimize
unscheduled service interruptions. The degree of success of such procedures is generally
reflected by the cooperative’s ability to balance system reliability with accepted levels of risk
of failure or system outage. Periodic maintenance procedures are generally performed in
conjunction with normally scheduled inspection and testing programs. Specific details for the
performance of periodic maintenance varies considerably depending on the make, model, age,
load profile, etc. of the specific equipment. In addition, a maintenance program developed for
substation equipment should consider site environmental conditions, site location and access,
and priority of the substation equipment to overall system reliability. Specific requirements for
the following maintenance tasks should be performed at the time regular visual inspections are
made:
• Eliminate any low spots that have developed in the substation yard.
• Remove trash from the area.
• Replace all burned-out lamps.
• Remove bird nests and other items from the vicinity of energized parts.
• Clean and refinish defects in paint and galvanizing.
• Periodically remove vegetation. If chemical application for removal of vegetation is
required, consult the local farm extension agency or governing authority for proper methods
and chemicals. Additionally, the substation should periodically, depending on the geographic
location, local environment, etc., the equipments, fences, and structures must be repainted. The
following should be considered as minimum requirements:

•Equipment and Other Painted Items: Thoroughly remove all loose paint, blisters, and scales
and paint as soon as possible.

•Galvanized Structures and Fences: The protective coating produced by the galvanizing
process is normally a long-lived coating; however, the coating will eventually fail and rust will
appear. For this reason, substations galvanized structures and fences needs to be painted at
least within 10 years depending on the substations environment. The fundamental goal of
reliability-centered maintenance is to preserve the function or operation of a system.
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Specifically, the function that must be preserved for electric substations is the delivery of safe,
reliable electric power to customers. The concepts of reliability-centered maintenance that
have been used so effectively in other industries can be applied to electric substations in a
viable and effective maintenance approach that proactively addresses the challenges of
improving system reliability and controlling costs in an increasingly competitive energy
delivery market.
4.7 Electrical System Study of Dangila Substation
Based on the gathered data the peak loads on

Table 1. 4: Recent three months’ peak load data


Months
Type February 2017 in March 2017 in MW April 2017 in MW
MW
Transformer 1 198 186 186
Transformer 2 207 189 189
Line 1 69 87.5 99
Line 2 144 135 135
Line 3 94.4 84 81
Line 4 117 126 117

? Total feeder lines February on 2017 =424.5


? Total feeder lines March on 2017 =432.5
? Total feeder lines April on 2017 =432

From the above calculations we have seen that currently the substation is overloaded since
existing load capacity of the transformers is 405,375and375MW respectively but on these
three months the peak load is more than the average capacity of transformer on three months

I. e 385 MW therefore the substation is overloaded. Showing after one 6.3 MVA
transformers is added on the substation; 3 x6.3 MVA x0.8= 15.12 MW which is not
overloaded. Therefore adding one transformer on this substation is mandatory. Though the
transmission line can carry 15.12 MW load because the transmission line Power carrying
capacity is 66KV x 242.5A=.16.005MVA; where 242.5A is maximum capacity of the
transmission line. Therefore, three transformers work parallelly.

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Chapter Five
Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion
Internship provides many benefits not only for interns, but also for hosting companies. Since the
interns could be parts of the employment, they could be an additional man power. And
accepting interns for internship could able to the company to get short-term support from
interns on many tasks. On our internship period, we knew what real world looks like and how
we could relate and practice our theoretical knowledge to the profession. Furthermore, it
helped us to improve our different skills such as leadership skills, inter communication skills,
industrial problem solving capability, and it was very helping even for the future. In the last
four months of our internship period in EEP company, we have been working on transmission
engineering department under supervision and design sub department, we have gained a hint
about substations, transmission, and each equipment of substations and how it be constructed
and how it operates. And this was very mandatory and helpful to relate our theoretical
knowledge with practical. In our stay of internship, we could have met many professions and
workers, engineers and this was very important and helping to get more knowledge and to
improve our practical skills and to understand work ethics.

Generally, our internship period was very interesting and we are satisfied in the program.And it
was successful on achieving its goal.

5.2 Recommendations
The rapid socio-economic growth and development of the Ethiopian economy needs sufficient
supply of Electrical Energy. Which means the EEP plays very great role on the development of
the country.
5.2.1 Recommendations for EEP
As we have clearly put the problems we observed on this internship period, we strongly
Recommend the EEP to:
? Upgrade substations based on their schedule.
? Upgrade substations based on feasibility studies.
? Rehabilitate aged substations, for instance. Dangila substation
? Maintain the safety of aged substations.
? Build substations based on the IEEE regulations. For example, the fences of the
substations have to be as the regulation states, the grounding cables should be
underground and the like.
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? Implement safety rules. For instance, supply of safety shoes and clothes for substation
Operators and guards.
? Make the profile of the office with full data available.
? Make a contract deal with Ethiopian contractors for the construction of substations so
That it helps the country on many aspects.
? Upgrade the Ethiopian contractor’s capacity on building substations, transmission lines,

substations and the like on which first degree electrical engineering contractors can
perform.
? Punctuality should be accounted for all stuff of the office.
? Delaying of payment for intern students should be solved.
5.2.2 Recommendations for the Faculty
We would like to strongly recommend the faculty to:
• Announce the intern students, who their mentor is before the intern period starts,
so that the students can have a smooth relation with their mentor and the mentor
can give slight ideas what the intern’s working place looks like and on which area
the student should focus for project. As a result, students can be effective.
• The Collage should strengthen the relation with companies on which students are
being assigned on their internship period. W
5.2.3 Recommendation for the Industrial Linkage e
? Find the interns working industry around their home town.
? Pay the intern students money on time.

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Reference
[1].Smith,Anthony M., Reliability Centered Maintenance, New York:McGraw-Hill,1993.ISBN
0-07-059046-X.”
[2]. Company manuals how to operate and the working principles of equipments.
[3]. B.L. Theraja, A.K. Theraja; “A textbook of electrical technology volume 2”
[4].IEEE std. C57.106,”Guide for Acceptance and Maintenance of insulating oil in
Equipment.”
[5]. V.K Mehta, R. Mehta; “principle of power system 2”
[6].IEEE std.P1266,”Trial-Use Guide for Evaluation and Development of Substation Life
Extension Programs.”

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