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Information source

Source Coding Channel Coding Modulator

and input transducer

• Questions to be answered:

Ch6: Channel

Coding

– Motivation: Why do we need channel coding?

Channel

Source Decoding Channel Decoding

and output transducer (Matched Filter)

1

Elec3100 Chapter 6

Ch6: Channel Coding

• Motivation

• Repetition Codes

• Hamming Codes

2

Elec3100 Chapter 6

Channel Coding/ECC

• Provide protection against transmission errors by inserting

redundant data

• The channel encoder inserts redundant information in a very

selective manner.

• Error control coding plays an extremely important role in

communication system design

• Do you know any ECC techniques?

3

Elec3100 Chapter 6

Errors Come from?

• Channel - could be a telephone wire, free space and often

presents distorted signal to demodulator

• Channel Effects include

– Attenuation

– Noise (e.g., thermal noise, additive white Gaussian noise or AWGN.)

– Filtering

• Channel can have a bandwidth that is small compared to the signal

bandwidth (e.g. in a telephone channel).

– Fading

• Signal amplitude can change in a random fashion

– Time Variation

• Channels change with time. (e.g. call on a bus.)

4

Elec3100 Chapter 6

Reliability vs. Signal Power

• One way to get a relatively error-free or reliable signal

would be to use huge amounts of power to blast over the

noise.

at lower powers than others

5

Elec3100 Chapter 6

Information Theory and Coding

Information theory states that

• In any communications system, there is a fundamental limit,

called Channel Capacity C [bits/sec], on the maximum

possible rate of reliable data transmission.

Hertz at a rate R ≤ C with almost no errors.

reliable transmission is impossible.

6

Elec3100 Chapter 6

Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel

(

C = B log 2 1 + S

N

) bits/sec

where

B = Channel Bandwidth (Hz)

S = Signal-to-Noise Ratio

N

7

Elec3100 Chapter 6

Channel Coding

• Error control coding encodes digital data so as to introduce

dependency among a large number of symbols. A decoder

is then able to more accurately detect the transmitted data.

• There are two types of codes:

• Error correcting codes, e.g. repetition codes

• Error detecting codes, e.g. even parity check codes

• The type of coding should be selected on the basis of

• Type of noise in the communication channel

• Available power budget

• Available bandwidth

• Other practical consideration just as the amount of

processing power available.

8

Elec3100 Chapter 6

Ch6: Channel Coding

• Motivation

• Repetition Codes

• Hamming Codes

9

Elec3100 Chapter 6

Repetition Code by Example

• We know that a telephone link using a modem works with

the following conditions:

– The modem can operate up to the speed of 3600 bits/sec

at an error probability of qc = 8 × 10-4

transmit SNR = 13dB.

• Question 2: Can we transmit data at a rate of 1200 bits/sec

with a probability of error 10-4

10

Elec3100 Chapter 6

Repetition Code by Example

• For the above communication link, the channel capacity is

⎛ S⎞

C = B log 2 ⎜1 + ⎟ = 13,000 bits/sec

⎝ N⎠

since B = 3000 and S/N = 20 (13dB = 10log20).

with an arbitrarily small error probability.

modem, criterion Pe = 10-4 is not met.

11

Elec3100 Chapter 6

A Simple Code Design

• Design a simple code which yields an overall probability of

error of 10-4

are transmitted.

to extract the transmitted bits using a Majority-logic

decoding scheme

12

Elec3100 Chapter 6

Code Mapping

Original Bits

Transmitted

Tx bits bk 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

Codewords 000 000 000 000 111 111 111 1111

Rx bits 000 001 010 100 011 101 110 1111

b$k 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

correctly as long as no more than one of the bits

in the codeword is wrong.

13

Elec3100 Chapter 6

Detection Error

• Recall that without channel coding the probability of error

for the given modem is 8 × 10-4. But with error control

coding,

(

Pe = P bk ≠ bˆk )

= P(2 or 3 bits in codeword are in error )

⎛ 3⎞ 2 ⎛ 3⎞ 3

= ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟qc (1 − qc ) + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟qc

⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 3⎠

= 3qc2 − 2qc3

−4 −4

= 0.0192 ×10 ≤ Required Pe of 10

14

Elec3100 Chapter 6

Ch6: Channel Coding

• Motivation

• Repetition Codes

• Hamming Codes

15

Elec3100 Chapter 6

(n,k) t-Error-Correcting Code

• A (n,k) t-error-correcting code encodes k input bits into

an n-bit codeword by adding n-k parity check bits so

that it can correct all up to t-bit errors.

• k/n is called the code rate, which measures the amount

of coding redundancy.

• The code in previous example is called the (3,1) single-

error correcting repetition code.

• In general, the definition of most useful codes are based

on parity check conditions.

• e.g. the well-known single-error correcting code is the

(7,4) Hamming code

16

Elec3100 Chapter 6

(7,4) Hamming Code

• The parity check bits are generated

such that all bits inside the same

circle must have even parity, i.e. 1

0 1

even number of 1’s.

0

1 0

• Can you find out a way to

decode so as to correct all single- 1

bit errors?

• Hint: locate the error by parity

checking. Notation:

• 4 input bits are in blue

• 3 parity checks are in red

17

Elec3100 Chapter 6

Use of Hamming Codes

• Hamming Codes are still widely used in computing,

telecommunication, and other applications.

– Data compression

– Some solutions to the popular puzzle The Hat Game

– Block Turbo Codes

18

Elec3100 Chapter 6

A [7,4] binary Hamming Code

• x5 := x1 + x2 + x3 (mod 2)

• x6 := x2 + x3 + x4

• x7 := x1 + x2 + x4

19

Elec3100 Chapter 6

Generating Matrix

• Given a matrix

⎛1 0 0 0 1 0 1⎞

⎜ ⎟

⎜0 1 0 0 1 1 1⎟

G=⎜

0 0 1 0 1 1 0⎟

⎜ ⎟

⎜0 0 0 1 0 1 1 ⎟⎠

⎝

20

Generating Matrix

• If u=[u1,u2,u3,u4], then we encode it as

1 0 0 0 1 0 1

0 1 0 0 1 1 1

• c , , ,

0 0 1 0 1 1 0

0 0 0 1 0 1 1

• c , , , , , ,

21

Parity Check Matrix

• For a given code generating matrix, we can determine its

corresponding parity check matrix.

• Specifically, if ,

then the check matrix is given by |

⎛ 1 1 1 0 1 0 0⎞

⎜ ⎟

H = ⎜ 0 1 1 1 0 1 0⎟

⎜1 1 0 1 0 0 1⎟

⎝ ⎠

22

Error Check

• Without error, we have

1 1 1 0 1 0 0

0 1 1 1 0 1 0

1 1 0 1 0 0 1

23

Error Check

• If there is an error for the first coded word , we have

1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1

0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0

1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1

indicating there is an error for

24

Ch6: Channel Coding

• Motivation

• Repetition Codes

• Hamming Codes

25

Elec3100 Chapter 6

ECC in GSM Phones

• To improve the reliability of mobile communication, ECC is used in Gobal

System for Mobile Communication (GSM).

• Speech coding algorithm in GSM gives a net data rate of 13kbit/s.

Speech data are divided into 20ms blocks, resulting in a frame size of

260 bits.

• The first 182 bits are in Class 1, and the remaining 78 in Class 2.

• Class 1 bits are more important since errors in these bits cause a greater

degradation in perceived speech quality.

• Within Class 1, the first 50 bits labeled Class 1A are still more important

than the remaining 132 bits labeled Class 1B. If errors occur in Class 1A

bits, it is better to discard the speech data frame.

26

Elec3100 Chapter 6

ECC in GSM Phones

• Different levels of protection are provided by combined use of

error-correcting and error-detecting codes.

• 50 Class 1A bits are protected by the (53,50) CRC error

detecting code, which appends 3 parity check bits.

• 4 tail bits are added to the Class 1 resulting in 189

(=50+3+132+4) bits.

• A rate-1/2 (convolutional) error-correcting code then encodes

all of these Class 1 bits into a 378-bit codeword by appending

189 parity check bits. Overall speaking, it results in a (378,185)

error-correcting code. Note that the tail bits were added to

simplify the decoding of the code.

• 78 Class 2 bits are uncoded and will be transmitted as are.

27

Elec3100 Chapter 6

ECC in GSM Phones

28

Elec3100 Chapter 6

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