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A REPORT ON IN-PLANT TRAINING AT

THE FERTILIZERS AND CHEMICALS TRAVANCORE LIMITED


(FACT), Udyogamandal

Submitted by
SHEVIN.K.A
JESWIN JOSEPH
ASHWIN STANLY
SUBIN LUKOSE
BTech (2014-2018)
Electrical and Electronics Engg.
Albertian Institute of Science and Technology

Training Period: 19.06.2017 - 01.07.2017

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ABSTRACT
We underwent an in-plant training to acquaint myself for a period of one month
from June 19th to July 1, 2017 to get an industrial exposure in a practical aspect
of electrical engineering. During the course of study we were able to interact
freely with the officials and other employees in the plant and fetch maximum
relevant information from them. We also got an opportunity to visit the work area
and get a ‘hands on’ experience on various industrial devices.

The training helped us to get an idea about the various electrical circuits and
equipment’s which are used in the plant. I also got familiarized with the substation
which play the most crucial role in this chemical industry.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like to take this opportunity to express our sincere gratitude to all those
who have helped us throughout this in-plant training. It gives us immense
pleasure to acknowledge all those who have rendered encouragement and support
for the successful completion of work.

First of all ,We would like to thank my institution-Albertian Institute of Science


and Technology, for allowing me to proceed with the in plant training.

We place our sincere thanks to Dy.Manager(Trg) of FACT Training department,


for permitting me to do the training at FACT.

We express our hearty thanks to all The Employees of THE FERTILIZERS


AND CHEMICALS TRAVANCORE LIMITED for their constant support
during the entire training.

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FACT-An Introduction

Man’s history is replete with revolutions, responsible for molding his system of
thought and shaping his modes of living. Revolutions have, more often than not,
emerged out of crisis-situations it was one such crisis situation that guided the
enlightened perception of a far sighted visionary to form FACT. Yes! The
FERTILISER AND CHEMICALS TRAVANCORELIMITED-popularly known
as FACT-was indeed a revolution when it was established as the first large scale
fertilizer factory in the country. Since then, it has played a major role in creating
fertilizer consciousness among our farmers, and giving a positive direction to the
modernization of agriculture in India. And that, of course is an interesting story-
a story of never ending challenges and constructive responses.

The History
The 1940,s were a time of critical food shortage in our country. The traditional
approach to cultivation was not of much help in finding asolution to this problem.
And nitrogenous fertilizer had not yet arrived on the agriculture scene in sufficient
quantities to make any perceptible impact. A revolution was indeed necessary to
change the status quo. And when it came, it did through the vision of Dr. C.P.
Ramaswami Aiyar, the Dewan of the former Travancore State, who mooted the
idea of increasing food production by the application of fertilizer as a long term
solution to food problem. To give concrete shape to his idea, he sought the help
of Seshayee Brothers Ltd. Industrialist known for their pioneering work. And
India’s first large-scale fertilizer plant was set up in 1944 at Udyogamandal on
the banks of the river periyar in Kerala State. The new venture of course had to
go through many teething troubles. For instance, the raw materials necessary for
the production of ammonium salts were not available in the state. But this
deficiency was overcome by adopting a revolutionary method known as the
FIREWOOD GASIFICATION PROCESS.
However, initial difficulties notwithstanding, the plant at Udyogamandal went
into commercial production in 1947, with the slated capacity to manufacture
50,000 tonnes of Ammonium Sulphate (10,000 tonnes of N). This was followed
by the production of SUPERPHOSPHATE in a new plant with a capacity of
44,000 tones. A sulphuric acid plant of 75 tonnes per day was also installed which
was considered large going standard at that time. Meanwhile the inner dynamics
of FACT was finding another expression in the formation of new unit with the
help of the State Government and Methur Chemical & Industrial Corporation
Ltd., for the

production of caustic soda which later become today’s Travancore-Cochin


Chemical Ltd., a Kerala Government undertaking. This indeed was a big leap
forward as it replaced all the imports of that product, saving a considerable
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amount of foreign exchange. FACT was the first to use its by-product, chlorine,
as hydrochloric acid to produce Ammonium Chloride. These by-products
produced by FACT paved the way for setting up of other industrial units around
the FACT complex viz. Hindustan Insecticide Ltd., Indian Rare Earth Ltd., etc.
Expansion.

In the late 50s, the Udyogamandal Division launched its first expansion with an
outlay of Rs. 3 crores. Highlights of the period were the installation of two plants
to produce Phosphoric Acid and Ammonium Phosphate(16:20 Grade). The
second stage of expansion involving Rs.2 crore saw the replacement of the
Firewood Gasification Process and the Electrolytic Process by the Texaco Oil
Gasification Process for which a new plant was set up. FACT became a Kerala
State Public Sector Enterprise on 15th August1960. On 21st November 1962, the
Government of India became the major share holder. The 2nd stage of expansion
of FACT was completed in 1962.

The 3rd stage of expansion of FACT was completed in 1965 with setting up of a
new Ammonium Sulphate Plant. FACT has been a pace-setter in marketing
evolving a continuous and comprehensive package of effective communication
with farmers and promotional programs to increase the fertilizer consciousness
among our farmers. In fact, FACT was the first fertilizer manufacturer in India to
introduce the village adoption concept since 1968 to improve agricultural
productivity and enhance the overall socio-economic status of farmers. FACT has
a well organized marking net work, capable of distribution over a million tones of
fertilizers. With the licensing of Cochin Division in 1966 FACT further expanded
and by 1976 the production of sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid and Urea was
started. In 1979 Production of NPK was commercialized.

Technical Divisions

FACT Engineering and Design Organization (FEDO) was established in1965 to


meet the emerging need for indigenous capabilities in vital areas of engineering,
design and consultancy for establishing large and modern fertilizer plants. FEDO
has since then diversified into Petrochemicals and other areas also. It offers
multifarious services from project identification and evaluation stage to plant
design, procurement project management, site supervision, commissioning and
operating new plants as well as revamping and modernization of old plants.
FEDO received international accreditation ISO 9001 2004 for quality system
standards covering areas of consultancy, design & engineering services for
construction of large fertilizer, petrochemicals, chemicals and related projects
including purchasing, construction, supervisor, inspection and expediting
services.

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FACT Engineering Works (FEW) was established on 13th April 1966 as a unit to
fabricate and install equipment for fertilizer plants. FEW was originally
conceived as a unit to fabricate and install equipment for FACT’s own plants.
Over the year it developed capabilities in the manufacture of class I pressure
vessels, heat exchangers, rail mounted, LPG tank wagons etc. It has a well
equipped workshop approved by Lloyds Register of Shipping, further; this
division has excelled in laying cross country piping fabrication and installation
of large penstocks for hydel units in Kerala.

The Cochin Division of FACT, the 2nd production unit was set up at Ambalamedu
and the 1st phase was commissioned in 1973. The 2ndphase of FACT Cochin
Division was commissioned in 1976. The project was designed to produce
Ammonia which would be converted to Urea and also to produce high analysis,
water soluble NP fertilizers. This division comprises of a number of large
capacity plants to produce Ammonia, Urea, Sulphuric Acid, Phosphoric Acid and
Fertilizers like FACTAMPHOS 20-20and DAP 18-46.

FACT has also a Research & development Department which carries out research
related to fertilizers. This Division is also capable of doing fundamental research
in areas of fertilizers and chemicals technology. So far FACT R & D has taken
17 patents in areas like Sodium Fluoride, Sulphuric Acid and Ammonium
Phosphate.

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PRODUCTS & PRODUCT MIX

PRODUCTS

Finished products
 Ammonium Sulphate- Udyogamandal Division
 Ammonium Phosphate/ Complex fertilizers / Factamfos – Udyogamandal
Division & Cochin Division
 Caprolactum- Petrochemical Division
 Biofertilizers - Research & Development Division

Exported Products
 Caprolactum - Petrochemical Division
 Ammonium Sulphate - Udyogamandal Division

Byproducts
 Nitric Acid & Soda Ash- Petrochemical Division
 Gypsum - Udyogamandal Division & Cochin Division
 Carbon Dioxide Gas - Udyogamandal

Intermediary Products
 Ammonia - Udyogamandal & Cochin Division
 Synthesis Gas - Udyogamandal Division
 Sulphuric Acid- Udyogamandal & Cochin Division
 Oleum - Udyogamandal Division
 SO2 Gas - Udyogamandal Division
 Phosphoric Acid - Udyogamandal & Cochin Division

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19-6-2017 : MONDAY

As a part of in-plant training we were there to be trained on processing of various


section of electrical department. As the equipment’s are dealing with high voltage
and products are highly dangerous chemicals like sulphuric acid and phosphoric
acid there was necessity beware of safety measurements that we have to adopt
before stepping into the plant.
It has found that the company has a separate safety department to keep the same.
The Fertilizers And Chemicals Travancore has been declared as a Major Hazard
Accidental Industry –MHAI.

There are two methods for classifying an industry into MHAI unit-

i) Process Involved – Fertilizers, petrochemical products, cement, paint, etc.


ii)Quantity of chemical being handled and its commonly specified in tonnes

Fire and safety

 Fire triangle
The fire triangle or combustion triangle is a simple model for understanding the
necessary ingredients for most fires. The triangle illustrates the three elements a
fire needs to ignite: heat, fuel, and an oxidizing agent (usually oxygen). A fire
naturally occurs when the elements are present and combined in the right
mixture, meaning that fire is actually an event rather than a thing. A fire can be
prevented or extinguished by removing any one of the elements in the fire
triangle. For example, covering a fire with a fire blanket removes the oxygen part
of the triangle and can extinguish a fire.

 Classification of fire
 Class A: Ordinary combustibles- Class A fires consist of ordinary
combustibles such as wood, paper, fabric, and most kinds of trash.
 Class B/C: Flammable liquid and gas. These are fires whose fuel is
flammable or combustible liquid or gas. Flammable liquids are designated
"Class B", while burning gases are separately designated "Class C". A solid
stream of water should never be used to extinguish this type because it can
cause the

fuel to scatter, spreading the flames. The most effective way to extinguish a
liquid or gas fueled fire is by inhibiting the chemical chain reaction of the
fire, which is done by dry chemical extinguishing agents, although
smothering with CO2 or, for liquids, foam is also effective.

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 Class C or Class E: Electrical fires are fires involving potentially energized
electrical equipment. This sort of fire may be caused by short-circuiting
machinery or overloaded electrical cables. Electrical fire may be fought in
the same way as an ordinary combustible fire, but water, foam, and other
conductive agents are not to be used. Carbon dioxide CO2, and dry chemical
powder extinguishers such as PKP and even baking soda are especially
suited to extinguishing this sort of fire.
 Class D :Metal - Class D fires consist of combustible metals such
asmagnesium, potassium, titanium, and zirconium.
 Class K or F - Class K fires involve unsaturated cooking oils in well-
insulated cooking appliances located in commercial kitchens.

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20-06-2017: TUESDAY AND 21-06-2017: WEDNESDAY

In this day we had visited Phosphate Plant. The raw material used in this plant is
rock phosphate. Which is crushed and is passed through H2SO4 which results
into P2O5 and Gypsum. To make it into phosphoric acid, Gypsum and p2O5 is
passed through prayon filter and concentrated later prayon filter is worked using
eddy current motor. If there is disturbance in the optimum amount of the granules
crushes which sense it and alarm is rang to indicate if so the speed of conveyor
should be managed according to it. Major parts are,
A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The pressure
vessel of a boiler is usually made of steel (or alloy steel), or historically
of wrought iron. Stainless steel, especially of the austenitic types, is not used in
wetted parts of boilers due to corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. However,
ferritic stainless steel is often used in superheater sections that will not be exposed
to boiling water, and electrically heated stainless steel shell boilers are allowed
under the European "Pressure Equipment Directive" for production of steam for
sterilizers and disinfectors. In live steam models, copper or brass is often used
because it is more easily fabricated in smaller size boilers. Historically, copper
was often used for fireboxes (particularly for steam locomotives), because of its
better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in more recent
times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and
cheaper substitutes (such as steel) are used instead. he source of heat for a boiler
is combustion of any of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or natural
gas. Electric steam boilers use resistance- or immersion-type heating
elements. Nuclear fission is also used as a heat source for generating steam, either
directly (BWR) or, in most cases, in specialised heat exchangers called "steam
generators" (PWR). Heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) use the heat
rejected from other processes such as gas turbine. One of the most
common electrical motor used in most applications which is known as induction
motor. This motor is also called as asynchronous motor because it runs at a speed
less than its synchronous speed.
Here we need to define what is synchronous speed. Synchronous speed is the
speed of rotation of the magnetic field in a rotary machine and it depends upon
the frequency and number poles of the machine. An induction motor always runs
at a speed less than synchronous speed because the rotating magnetic field which
is produced in the stator will generate flux in the rotor which will make the rotor
to rotate, but due to the lagging of flux current in the rotor with flux current in the
stator, the rotor will never reach to its rotating magnetic field speed i.e. the
synchronous speed. We need to give double excitation to make a machine to
rotate. For example if we consider a DC motor, we will give one supply to the
stator and another to the rotor through brush arrangement. But in induction

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motor we give only one supply, so it is really interesting to know that how it
works. It is very simple, from the name itself we can understand that induction
process is involved. Actually when we are giving the supply to the stator winding,
flux will generate in the coil due to flow of current in the coil. Now the rotor
winding is arranged in such a way that it becomes short circuited in the rotor
itself. The flux from the stator will cut the coil in the rotor and since the rotor
coils are short circuited, according to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction,
current will start flowing in the coil of the rotor. When the current will flow,
another flux will get generated in the rotor. Now there will be two flux, one is
stator flux and another is rotor flux and the rotor flux will be lagging w.r.t to the
stator flux. Due to this, the rotor will feel a torque which will make the rotor to
rotate in the direction of rotating magnetic flux. So the speed of the rotor will be
depending upon the ac supply and the speed can be controlled by varying the
input supply. This is the working principle of an induction motor of either type –
single and three phase. A motor control center (MCC) is an assembly of one or
more enclosed sections having a common power bus and principally containing
motor control units. Motor control centers are in modern practice a factory
assembly of several motor starters. A motor control center can include variable
frequency drives, programmable controllers, and metering and may also be the
electrical service entrance for the building. Motor control centers are usually used
for low voltage three-phase alternating current motors from 208 V to 600 V.
Medium-voltage motor control centers are made for large motors running at 2300
V to around 15000 V, using vacuum contactors for switching and with separate
compartments for power switching and control. motor control center consists of
one or more vertical metal cabinet sections with power bus and provision for
plug-in mounting of individual motor controllers. Very large controllers may be
bolted in place but smaller controllers can be unplugged from the cabinet for
testing or maintenance. Each motor controller contains a contactor or a solid-state
motor controller, overload relays to protect the motor, fuses or a circuit breaker
to provide short-circuit protection, and a disconnecting switch to isolate the motor
circuit. Three-phase power enters each controller through separable connectors.
The motor is wired to terminals in the controller. Motor control centers provide
wire ways for field control and power cables. Each motor controller in an MCC
can be specified with a range of options such as separate control transformers,
pilot lamps, control switches, extra control terminal blocks, various types of
thermal or solid-state overload protection relays, or various classes of power fuses
or types of circuit breakers. A motor control center can either be supplied ready
for the customer to connect all field wiring, or can be an engineered assembly
with internal control and interlocking wiring to a central control terminal panel
board or programmable controller. Motor control centers usually sit on floors,
which are often required to have a fire-resistance rating. Firestops may be
required for cables that penetrate fire-rated floors and walls. A motor controller is
a device or group of devices that serves to govern in some predetermined manner
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the performance of an electric motor. A motor controller might include a manual
or automatic means for starting and stopping the motor, selecting forward or
reverse rotation, selecting and regulating the speed, regulating or limiting the
torque, and protecting against overloads and faults. There are many types of
starters :
1) Direct On Line (DOL)
2) Star delta starter
3) Auto transformer starter
A small motor can be started by simply plugging it into an electrical receptacle
or by using a switch or circuit breaker. A larger motor requires a specialized
switching unit called a motor starter or motor contactor. When energized, a direct
on line (DOL) starter immediately connects the motor terminals directly to the
power supply. Reduced-voltage, star-delta or soft starters connect the motor to
the power supply through a voltage reduction device and increases the applied
voltage gradually or in steps. In smaller sizes a motor starter is a manually
operated switch; larger motors, or those requiring remote or automatic control,
use magnetic contactors. Very large motors running on medium voltage power
supplies (thousands of volts) may use power circuit breakers as switching
elements. A direct on line (DOL) or across the line starter applies the full line
voltage to the motor terminals, the starters or cubicle locations, can usually be
found on an ELO drawing. This is the simplest type of motor starter. A DOL
motor starter also contains protection devices, and in some cases, condition
monitoring. Smaller sizes of direct on-line starters are manually operated; larger
sizes use an electromechanical contactor (relay) to switch the motor circuit.
Solid-state direct on line starters also exist.

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22-06-2017:THURSDAY AND 23-06-2017 :FRIDAY

We have visited DCDA Acid plant these two days. The process for the production
is known as contact process. The contact process is the current method of
producing sulfuric acid in the high concentrations needed for industrial
processes. Platinum used to be the catalyst for this reaction; however, as it is
susceptible to reacting with arsenic impurities in the sulfur
feedstock, vanadium(V) oxide (V2O5) is now preferred. In addition to being a far
more economical process for producing concentrated sulfuric acid than the
previous lead chamber process, the contact process also produces oleum. The
process can be divided into five stages:

1. Combining of sulfur and dioxygen (O2) to form sulfur dioxide


2. Purifying the sulfur dioxide in a purification unit
3. Adding an excess of dioxygen to sulfur dioxide in the presence of the
catalyst vanadium pentoxide, under temperatures of 450 °C and pressure
of 1-2 atm
4. The sulfur trioxide formed is added to sulfuric acid which gives rise
to oleum (disulfuric acid)
5. The oleum is then added to water to form sulfuric acid which is very
concentrated
Purification of the air and sulfur dioxide (SO2) is necessary to avoid
catalyst poisoning (i.e. removing catalytic activities). The gas is then washed
with water and dried with sulfuric acid.
To conserve energy, the mixture is heated by exhaust gases from the catalytic
converter by heat exchangers.
Sulfur dioxide and dioxygen then react as follows:
2 SO2(g) + O2(g) ⇌ 2 SO3(g) : ΔH = -197 kJ·mol−1
According to the Le Chatelier's principle, a lower temperature should be used
to shift the chemical equilibrium towards the right, hence increasing the
percentage yield. However too low of a temperature will lower the formation
rate to an uneconomical level. Hence to increase the reaction rate, high
temperatures (450 °C), medium pressures (1-2 atm), and vanadium(V)
oxide (V2O5) are used to ensure an adequate (>95%) conversion. The catalyst
only serves to increase the rate of reaction as it does not change the position
of the thermodynamic equilibrium. The mechanism for the action of the
catalyst comprises two steps:
1. Oxidation of SO2 into SO3 by V5+:

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2SO2 + 4V5+ + 2O2− → 2SO3 + 4V4+
2. Oxidation of V4+ back into V5+ by dioxygen (catalyst regeneration):
4V4+ + O2 → 4V5+ + 2O2−
Hot sulfur trioxide passes through the heat exchanger and is dissolved in
concentrated H2SO4 in the absorption tower to form oleum:
H2SO4 (l) + SO3 (g) → H2S2O7 (l)
Note that directly dissolving SO3 in water is impractical due to the
highly exothermic nature of the reaction. Acidic vapor or mists are formed
instead of a liquid.
Oleum is reacted with water to form concentrated H2SO4.
H2S2O7 (l) + H2O (l) → 2 H2SO4 (l)

The next step to the Contact Process is DCDA or Double Contact Double
Absorption. In this process the product gases (SO2) and (SO3) are passed through
absorption towers twice to achieve further absorption and conversion of SO 2 to
SO3 and production of higher grade sulfuric acid.
SO2-rich gases enter the catalytic converter, usually a tower with multiple catalyst
beds, and are converted to SO3, achieving the first stage of conversion. The exit
gases from this stage contain both SO2 and SO3 which are passed through
intermediate absorption towers where sulfuric acid is trickled down packed
columns and SO3 reacts with water increasing the sulfuric acid concentration.
Though SO2 too passes through the tower it is unreactive and comes out of the
absorption tower.
This stream of gas containing SO2, after necessary cooling is passed through the
catalytic converter bed column again achieving up to 99.8% conversion of SO2 to
SO3 and the gases are again passed through the final absorption column thus
resulting not only achieving high conversion efficiency for SO2 but also enabling
production of higher concentration of sulfuric acid.

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24-06-17: SATURDAY

We have visited Electrical Test bench for maintenance of electrical equipment’s


in these two days. The workshop provide motor windings, transformer
maintenance etc. The three phase induction motor is the most widely
used electrical motor. Almost 80% of the mechanical power used by industries
is provided by three phase induction motors because of its simple and rugged
construction, low cost, good operating characteristics, absence of commutator
and good speed regulation. In three phase induction motor the power is
transferred from stator to rotor winding through induction. The induction
motor is also called a synchronous motor as it runs at a speed other than the
synchronous speed.
Like any other electrical motor induction motor also have two main parts
namely rotor and stator. The stator of an induction motor consists of poles
carrying supply current to induce a magnetic field that penetrates the rotor. To
optimize the distribution of the magnetic field, windings are distributed in slots
around the stator, with the magnetic field having the same number of north and
south poles. Induction motors are most commonly run on single-phase or three-
phase power, but two-phase motors exist; in theory, induction motors can have
any number of phases. Many single-phase motors having two windings can be
viewed as two-phase motors, since a capacitor is used to generate a second
power phase 90° from the single-phase supply and feeds it to the second motor
winding. Single-phase motors require some mechanism to produce a rotating
field on startup. Cage induction motor rotor's conductor bars are typically
skewed to avoid magnetic locking.
Standardized NEMA & IEC motor frame sizes throughout the industry result in
interchangeable dimensions for shaft, foot mounting, general aspects as well as
certain motor flange aspect. Since an open, drip proof (ODP) motor design
allows a free air exchange from outside to the inner stator windings, this style of
motor tends to be slightly more efficient because the windings are cooler. A
lower speed requires a larger frame. Different starting methods are employed
for starting induction motors because Induction Motor draws more starting
current during starting. To prevent damage to the windings due to the high
starting current flow, we employ different types of starters. The simplest
form of motor starter for the induction motor is the Direct On Line starter.
The Direct On Line Motor Starter (DOL) consist a MCCB or Circuit Breaker,
Contactor and an overload relay for protection. Electromagnetic contactor
which can be opened by the thermal overload relay under fault conditions.
Typically, the contactor will be controlled by separate start and stop buttons,
and an auxiliary contact on the contactor is used, across

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the start button, as a hold in contact. I.e. the contactor is electrically latched
closed while the motor is operating. To start, the contactor is closed, applying
full line voltage to the motor windings. The motor will draw a very high inrush
current for a very short time, the magnetic field in the iron, and then the
current will be limited to the Locked Rotor Current of the motor. The motor
will develop Locked Rotor Torque and begin to accelerate towards full speed.

As the motor accelerates, the current will begin to drop, but will not drop
significantly until the motor is at a high speed, typically about 85% of
synchronous speed. The actual starting current curve is a function of the motor
design, and the terminal voltage, and is totally independent of the motor
load.The motor load will affect the time taken for the motor to accelerate to
full speed and therefore the duration of the high starting current, but not the
magnitude of the starting current.

Provided the torque developed by the motor exceeds the load torque at all
speeds during the start cycle, the motor will reach full speed. If the torque
delivered by the motor is less than the torque of the load at any speed during
the start cycle, the motor will stops accelerating. If the starting torque with a
DOL starter is insufficient for the load, the motor must be replaced with a
motor which can develop a higher starting torque.The acceleration torque is
the torque developed by the motor minus the load torque, and will change as
the motor accelerates due to the motor speed torque curve and the load speed
torque curve. The start time is dependent on the acceleration torque and the
load inertia.

This may cause an electrical problem with the supply, or it may cause a
mechanical problem with the driven load. So this will be inconvenient for the
users of the supply line, always experience a voltage drop when starting a
motor. But if this motor is not a high power one it does not affect much.
Whenever three phase supply is given to three phase induction motor
rotating magnetic field is produced which rotates at synchronous speed. In three
phase induction motor emf is induced by induction similar to that
of transformer. Where, K is the winding constant, T is the number of turns per
phase and f is frequency. Now if we change frequency synchronous speed
changes but with decrease in frequency flux will increase and this change in
value of flux causes saturation of rotor and stator cores which will further cause
increase in no load current of the motor . So, its important to maintain flux , φ
constant and it is only possible if we change voltage. i.e if we decrease
frequency flux increases but at the same time if we decrease voltage flux will
also decease causing no change in flux and hence it remains constant. So, here
we are keeping the ratio of V/f as constant. Hence its name is V/ f method.

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26-06-17: MONDAY

We have visited 110kV/11kV Substation in these two days. We spent the whole
day in knowing the 110kV yard of the thermal plant and its single line diagram,
captive power plant alternator, power measurement, TOD and Tariff. The plant
consist of two feeders from KSEB, Brahmapuram, Three Potential transformer
and two 15MVA transformer from which a 15MVA transformer and a 23MVA
transformer is working. Tap changing of 23MVA transformer during varying of
load is an online process which the tap changing of 15MVA transformer is
permanent. The air cooling method used in 23MVA transformer is forced air
cooling. The Circuit breaker used is SF6. The Various equipment’s in this
substation are:

Lightning Arrester
A lightning arrester is a device used on electrical power systems
and telecommunications systems to protect the insulation and conductors of the
system from the damaging effects of lightning. The typical lightning arrester has
a high-voltage terminal and a ground terminal. When a lightning surge (or
switching surge, which is very similar) travels along the power line to the arrester,
the current from the surge is diverted through the arrestor, in most cases to earth.
In telegraphy and telephony, a lightning arrestor is placed where wires enter a
structure, preventing damage to electronic instruments within and ensuring the
safety of individuals near them. Smaller versions of lightning arresters, also
called surge protectors, are devices that are connected between each electrical
conductor in power and communications systems and the Earth. These prevent
the flow of the normal power or signal currents to ground, but provide a path over
which high-voltage lightning current flows, bypassing the connected equipment.
Their purpose is to limit the rise in voltage when a communications or power line
is struck by lightning or is near to a lightning strike.
If protection fails or is absent, lightning that strikes the electrical system
introduces thousands of kilovolts that may damage the transmission lines, and
can also cause severe damage to transformers and other electrical or electronic
devices. Lightning-produced extreme voltage spikes in incoming power lines can
damage electrical home appliances or even produce death
A potential target for a lightning strike, such as a television antenna, is attached
to the terminal labeled A in the photograph. Terminal E is attached to a long rod
buried in the ground. Ordinarily no current will flow between the antenna and the
ground because there is extremely high resistance between B and C, and also
between C and D. The voltage of a lightning strike, however, is many times higher
than that needed to move electrons through the two air gaps. The result is that

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electrons go through the lightning arrester rather than traveling on to the
television set and destroying it.
A lightning arrester may be a spark gap or may have a block of
a semiconducting material such as silicon carbide or zinc oxide. "Thyrite" was
once a trade name for the silicon carbide used in arresters. Some spark gaps are
open to the air, but most modern varieties are filled with a precision gas mixture,
and have a small amount of radioactive material to encourage the gas
to ionize when the voltage across the gap reaches a specified level. Other designs
of lightning arresters use a glow-discharge tube (essentially like a neon glow
lamp) connected between the protected conductor and ground, or voltage-
activated solid-state switches called varistors or MOVs.
Current Transformer
A current transformer (CT) is a type of transformer that is used to measure AC
Current. It produces an alternating current (AC) in its secondary which is
proportional to the AC current in its primary. Current transformers, together with
voltage transformers (VTs) or potential transformers (PTs), which are designed
for measurement, are known as an Instrument transformer.
The main tasks of instrument transformers are:
− To transform currents or voltages from a usually high value to a value easy to
handle for relays and instruments.
− To insulate the metering circuit from the primary high voltage system.
− To provide possibilities of standardizing the instruments and relays to a few
rated currents and voltages.
When the current to be measured is too high to measure directly or the system
voltage of the circuit is too high, a current transformer can be used to provide an
isolated lower current in its secondary which is proportional to the current in the
primary circuit. The induced secondary current is then suitable for measuring
instruments or processing in electronic equipment. Current transformers have
very little effect on the primary circuit.
Current transformers are the current sensing units of the power system. The
output of the current transformers are used in electronic equipment and are widely
used for metering and protective relays in the electrical power industry.
Like any transformer, a current transformer has a primary winding, a core and a
secondary winding, although some transformers, including current transformers,
use an air core. In principle, the only difference between a current transformer
and a voltage transformer (normal type) is that the former is fed with a 'constant'
current while the latter is fed with a 'constant' voltage, where 'constant' has the
strict circuit theory meaning.

18
The alternating current in the primary produces an alternating magnetic field in
the core, which then induces an alternating current in the secondary. The primary
circuit is largely unaffected by the insertion of the CT. Accurate current
transformers need close coupling between the primary and secondary to ensure
that the secondary current is proportional to the primary current over a wide
current range. The current in the secondary is the current in the primary (assuming
a single turn primary) divided by the number of turns of the secondary. In the
illustration on the right, 'I' is the current in the primary, 'B' is the magnetic field,
'N' is the number of turns on the secondary, and 'A' is an AC ammeter.
Current transformers typically consist of a silicon steel ring core wound with
many turns of copper wire as shown in the illustration to the right. The conductor
carrying the primary current is passed through the ring. The CT's primary
therefore consists of a single 'turn'. The primary 'winding' may be a permanent
part of the current transformer, i.e. a heavy copper bar to carry current through
the core. Window-type current transformers (aka zero sequence current
transformers, or ZSCT) are also common, which can have circuit cables run
through the middle of an opening in the core to provide a single-turn primary
winding. To assist accuracy, the primary conductor should be centered in the
aperture.

Potential Transformer
The potential transformer may be defined as an instrument transformer used for
the transformation of voltage from a higher value to the lower value. This
transformer step down the voltage to a safe limit value which can be easily
measured by the ordinary low voltage instrument like a voltmeter, wattmeter and
watt-hour meters, etc. The potential transformer is made with high-quality core
operating at low flux density so that the magnetizing current is small. The
terminal of the transformer should be designed so that the variation of the voltage
ratio with load is minimum and the phase shift between the input and output
voltage is also minimum.

The primary winding has a large number of turns, and the secondary winding has
a much small number of turns. For reducing the leakage reactance, the co-axial
winding is used in the potential transformer. The insulation cost is also reduced
by dividing the primary winding into the sections which reduced the insulation
between

the layers.The potential transformer is connected in parallel with the circuit. The
primary windings of the potential transformer are directly connected to the power
circuit whose voltage is to be measured. The secondary terminals of the potential
transformer are connected to the measuring instrument like the voltmeter,
wattmeter, etc. The secondary windings of the potential transformer are
19
magnetically coupled through the magnetic circuit of the primary windings.
The primary terminal of the transformer is rated for 400V to several thousand
volts, and the secondary terminal is always rated for 400V. The ratio of the
primary voltage to the secondary voltage is termed as transformation ratio or turn
ratio.

Circuit Breakers

A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to


protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by excess current, typically
resulting from an overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to interrupt
current flow after a fault is detected. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and
then must be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or
automatically) to resume normal operation. Circuit breakers are made in varying
sizes, from small devices that protect low-current circuits or individual
household appliance, up to large switchgear designed to protect high
voltage circuits feeding an entire city. The generic function of a circuit
breaker, RCD or a fuse, as an automatic means of removing power from a faulty
system is often abbreviated to ADS (Automatic Disconnection of Supply). All
circuit breaker systems have common features in their operation, but details
vary substantially depending on the voltage class, current rating and type of the
circuit breaker.
The circuit breaker must firstly detect a fault condition. In small mains and low
voltage circuit breakers, this is usually done within the device itself. Typically,
the heating and/or magnetic effects of electric current are employed. Circuit
breakers for large currents or high voltages are usually arranged with protective
relay pilot devices to sense a fault condition and to operate the opening
mechanism. These typically require a separate power source, such as a battery,
although some high-voltage circuit breakers are self-contained with current
transformers, protective relays, and an internal control power source.
Once a fault is detected, the circuit breaker contacts must open to interrupt the
circuit; This is commonly done using mechanically stored energy contained
within the breaker, such as a spring or compressed air to separate the contacts.
Circuit breakers may also use the higher current caused by the fault to separate
the contacts, such as thermal expansion or a magnetic field. Small circuit
breakers typically have a manual control lever to switch off the load or reset a
tripped breaker, while larger units use solenoids to trip the mechanism,
and electric motors to restore energy to the springs.
The circuit breaker contacts must carry the load current without excessive
heating, and must also withstand the heat of the arc produced when interrupting
(opening) the circuit. Contacts are made of copper or copper alloys, silver alloys
and other highly conductive materials. Service life of the contacts is limited by
20
the erosion of contact material due to arcing while interrupting the current.
Miniature and molded-case circuit breakers are usually discarded when the
contacts have worn, but power circuit breakers and high-voltage circuit breakers
have replaceable contacts.
When a high current or voltage is interrupted, an arc is generated. The length of
the arc is generally proportional to the voltage while the intensity (or heat) is
proportional to the current. This arc must be contained, cooled and extinguished
in a controlled way, so that the gap between the contacts can again withstand the
voltage in the circuit. Different circuit breakers use vacuum, air, insulating gas,
or oil as the medium the arc forms in. Different techniques are used to
extinguish the arc including:

 Lengthening or deflecting the arc


 Intensive cooling (in jet chambers)
 Division into partial arcs
 Zero point quenching (contacts open at the zero current time crossing of
the AC waveform, effectively breaking no load current at the time of
opening. The zero crossing occurs at twice the line frequency; i.e., 100 times
per second for 50 Hz and 120 times per second for 60 Hz AC.)
 Connecting capacitors in parallel with contacts in DC circuits.
Finally, once the fault condition has been cleared, the contacts must again be
closed to restore power to the interrupted circuit.
An sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) circuit breaker consists of fixed and moving
contacts enclosed in a chamber. The chamber is called arc interruption
chamber which contains the sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) gas. This chamber
is connected to sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) gas reservoir. A valve mechanism is
there to permit the gas to the arc interruption chamber. When the contacts of
breaker are opened, the valve mechanism permits a high pressure sulphur
hexafluoride (SF6) gas from the reservoir to flow towards the arc interruption
chamber. The fixed contact is a hollow cylindrical current carrying contact fitted
with an arc horn. The moving contact is also a hollow cylinder with rectangular
holes in the sides. The holes permit the sulphur hexafluoride gas (SF6) gas to let
out through them after flowing along and across the arc. The tips of fixed contact,
moving contact and arcing horn are coated with copper-tungsten arc resistant
material. Since sulphur hexafluoride gas (SF6) gas is costly, it is reconditioned
and reclaimed using suitable auxiliary system after each operation of breaker. In
the closed position of the breaker, the contacts remain surrounded by sulphur
hexafluoride gas (SF6) gas at a pressure of about 2.8 kg/cm2. When the breaker
operates, the moving contact is pulled apart and an arc is struck between the

21
contacts. The movement of the moving contact is synchronized with the opening
of a valve which permits sulphur hexafluoride gas (SF6) gas at 14 kg/cm2
pressure from the reservoir to the arc interruption chamber.

The high pressure flow of sulphur hexafluoride gas (SF6) rapidly absorbs the free
electrons in the arc path to form immobile negative ions which are ineffective as
charge carriers. The result is that the medium between the contacts quickly builds
up high dielectric strength and causes the extinction of the arc. After the breaker
operation (i.e. after arc extinction), the valve is closed by the action of a set of
springs.

Isolators
Circuit breaker always trip the circuit but open contacts of breaker cannot be
visible physically from outside of the breaker and that is why it is recommended
not to touch any electrical circuit just by switching off the circuit breaker. So for
better safety there must be some arrangement so that one can see open condition
of the section of the circuit before touching it. Isolator is a mechanical switch
which isolates a part of circuit from system as when required. Electrical
isolators separate a part of the system from rest for safe maintenance works.
So definition of isolator can be rewritten as Isolator is a manually operated
mechanical switch which separates a part of the electrical power. Isolators are
used to open a circuit under no load. Its main purpose is to isolate one portion of
the circuit from the other and is not intended to be opened while current is flowing
in the line. Isolators are generally used on both ends of the breaker in order that
repair or replacement of circuit breaker can be done without and danger.
Types of Electrical Isolators
There are different types of isolators available depending upon system
requirement such as

1. Double Break Isolator


2. Single Break Isolator
3. Pantograph type Isolator.

Depending upon the position in power system, the isolators can be categorized
as
1.Bus side isolator – the isolator is directly connected with main bus
2.Line side isolator – the isolator is situated at line side of any feeder
3.Transfer bus side isolator – the isolator is directly connected with transfer bus.

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23
24
Transformer

A transformer is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two


or more circuits through electromagnetic induction. A varying current in one coil
of the transformer produces a varying magnetic field, which in turn induces
a voltage in a second coil. Power can be transferred between the two coils through
the magnetic field, without a metallic connection between the two
circuits. induction discovered in 1831 described this effect. Transformers are used
to increase or decrease the alternating voltages in electric power applications.
Since the invention of the first constant-potential transformer in 1885,
transformers have become essential for the transmission, distribution, and
utilization of alternating current electrical energy. A wide range of transformer
designs is encountered in electronic and electric power applications.
Transformers range in size from RF transformers less than a cubic centimeter in
volume to units interconnecting the grid weighing hundreds of tons. The reason for
transforming the voltage to a much higher level is that higher distribution voltages
implies lower currents for the same power and therefore lower I2R losses along
the networked grid of cables. These higher AC transmission voltages and currents
can then be reduced to a much lower, safer and usable voltage level where it can
be used to supply electrical equipment in our homes and workplaces, and all this
is possible thanks to the basic Voltage Transformer. The Voltage
Transformer can be thought of as an electrical component rather than an
electronic component. A transformer basically is very simple static (or stationary)
electro-magnetic passive electrical device that works on the principle of
Faraday’s law of induction by converting electrical energy from one value to
another.

The transformer does this by linking together two or more electrical circuits using
a common oscillating magnetic circuit which is produced by the transformer
itself. A transformer operates on the principals of “electromagnetic induction”, in
the form of Mutual Induction.
Mutual induction is the process by which a coil of wire magnetically induces a
voltage into another coil located in close proximity to it. Then we can say that
transformers work in the “magnetic domain”, and transformers get their name
from the fact that they “transform” one voltage or current level into another.
Transformers are capable of either increasing or decreasing the voltage and
current levels of their supply, without modifying its frequency, or the amount of
electrical power being transferred from one winding to another via the magnetic
circuit.
A single phase voltage transformer basically consists of two electrical coils of
wire, one called the “Primary Winding” and another called the “Secondary

25
Winding”. For this tutorial we will define the “primary” side of the transformer
as the side that usually takes power, and the “secondary” as the side that usually
delivers power. In a single-phase voltage transformer the primary is usually the
side with the higher voltage.
These two coils are not in electrical contact with each other but are instead
wrapped together around a common closed magnetic iron circuit called the
“core”. This soft iron core is not solid but made up of individual laminations
connected together to help reduce the core’s losses.
The two coil windings are electrically isolated from each other but are
magnetically linked through the common core allowing electrical power to be
transferred from one coil to the other. When an electric current passed through
the primary winding, a magnetic field is developed which induces a voltage into
the secondary winding as shown.
the two coil windings are not electrically connected but are only linked
magnetically. A single-phase transformer can operate to either increase or
decrease the voltage applied to the primary winding. When a transformer is used
to “increase” the voltage on its secondary winding with respect to the primary, it
is called a Step-up transformer. When it is used to “decrease” the voltage on the
secondary winding with respect to the primary it is called a Step-down
transformer.
However, a third condition exists in which a transformer produces the same
voltage on its secondary as is applied to its primary winding. In other words, its
output is identical with respect to voltage, current and power transferred. This
type of transformer is called an “Impedance Transformer” and is mainly used for
impedance matching or the isolation of adjoining electrical circuits.
The difference in voltage between the primary and the secondary windings is
achieved by changing the number of coil turns in the primary winding ( NP )
compared to the number of coil turns on the secondary winding ( NS ).
As the transformer is basically a linear device, a ratio now exists between the
number of turns of the primary coil divided by the number of turns of the
secondary coil. This ratio, called the ratio of transformation, more commonly
known as a transformers “turns ratio”, ( TR ). This turns ratio value dictates the
operation of the transformer and the corresponding voltage available on the
secondary winding.
It is necessary to know the ratio of the number of turns of wire on the primary
winding compared to the secondary winding. The turns ratio, which has no units,
compares the two windings in order and is written with a colon, such as 3:1 (3-
to-1). This means in this example, that if there are 3 volts on the primary winding
there will be 1 volt on the secondary winding, 3 volts-to-1 volt. Then we can see

26
that if the ratio between the number of turns changes the resulting voltages must
also change by the same ratio, and this is true.
Transformers are all about “ratios”. The ratio of the primary to the secondary, the
ratio of the input to the output, and the turns ratio of any given transformer will
be the same as its voltage ratio. In other words for a transformer: “turns ratio =
voltage ratio”.
They also taught us the substation is earthed using earth pits. Each earth pits are
connected parallel to each other so that the resistance gets negligible to make the
current path circuit. This ensures safety for the panel operation. The different
types of underground cables such as 2 core cable,3core cable , XLPE(cross linked
poly ethylene), Flat armored cable, round armored cable. The main source of heat
generation in transformer is its copper loss or I2R loss. Although there are other
factors contribute heat in transformer such as hysteresis and current losses but
contribution of I2R loss dominate them. If this heat is not dissipated properly, the
temperature of the transformer will rise continually which may cause damages in
paper insulation and liquid insulation medium of transformer. So it is essential to
control the temperature with in permissible limit to ensure the long life of
transformer by reducing thermal degradation of its insulation system. In electrical
power transformer we use external transformer cooling system to accelerate the
dissipation rate of heat of transformer. There are different transformer cooling
methods available for transformer, we will now explain one by one.
Relays
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to
mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such
as solid-state relays. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by
a separate low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one
signal. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control
an electric motor or other loads is called a contactor. relays control power circuits
with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching.
Relays with calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes multiple
operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults; in
modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digital
instruments still called "protective relays". In the field of electric power
distribution and transmission, a Buchholz relay is a safety device mounted on
some oil-filled power transformers and reactors, equipped with an external
overhead oil reservoir called a "conservator".
The Buchholz relay is used as a protective device sensitive to the effects
of dielectric failure inside the equipment. A generic designation for this type of
device is "gas detector relay". Depending on the model, the relay has multiple
methods to detect a failing transformer. On a slow accumulation of gas, due
perhaps to slight overload, gas produced by decomposition of insulating
27
oil accumulates in the top of the relay and forces the oil level down. A float
switch in the relay is used to initiate an alarm signal. Depending on design, a
second float may also serve to detect slow oil leaks.
If an electrical arc forms, gas accumulation is rapid, and oil flows rapidly into the
conservator. This flow of oil operates a switch attached to a vane located in the
path of the moving oil. This switch normally will operate a circuit breaker to
isolate the apparatus before the fault causes additional damage. Buchholz relays
have a test port to allow the accumulated gas to be withdrawn for testing.
Flammable gas found in the relay indicates some internal fault such as
overheating or arcing, whereas air found in the relay may only indicate low oil
level or a leak.
Motor Control Center
A motor control center (MCC) is an assembly of one or more enclosed sections
having a common power bus and principally containing motor control units.
Motor control centers are in modern practice a factory assembly of several motor
starters. A motor control center can include variable frequency drives,
programmable controllers, and metering and may also be the electrical service
entrance for the building. Motor control centers are usually used for low
voltage three-phase alternating current motors from 208 V to 600 V. Medium-
voltage motor control centers are made for large motors running at 2300 V to
around 15000 V, using vacuum contactors for switching and with separate
compartments for power switching and control. Motor control centers have been
used since 1950 by the automobile manufacturing industry which used large
numbers of electric motors. Today they are used in many industrial and
commercial applications. Where very dusty or corrosive processes are used, the
motor control center may be installed in a separate air-conditioned room, but
often an MCC will be on the factory floor adjacent to the machinery controlled.
A motor control center consists of one or more vertical metal cabinet sections
with power bus and provision for plug-in mounting of individual motor
controllers. Very large controllers may be bolted in place but smaller controllers
can be unplugged from the cabinet for testing or maintenance. Each motor
controller contains a contactor or a solid-state motor controller, overload relays
to protect the motor, fuses or a circuit breaker to provide short-circuit protection,
and a disconnecting switch to isolate the motor circuit. Three-phase power enters
each controller through separable connectors. The motor is wired to terminals in
the controller. Motor control centers provide wire ways for field control and
power cables. Each motor controller in an MCC can be specified with a range of
options such as separate control transformers, pilot lamps, control switches, extra
control terminal blocks, various types of thermal or solid-state overload
protection relays, or various classes of power fuses or types of circuit breakers. A
motor control center can either be supplied ready for the customer to connect all
field wiring, or can be an engineered assembly with internal control and
28
interlocking wiring to a central control terminal panel board or programmable
controller.
Capacitor Banks
The demand of active power is expressing Kilo Watt (kw) or mega watt (mw).
This power should be supplied from electrical generating station. All the
arrangements in electrical pomes system are done to meet up this basic
requirement. Although in alternating power system, reactive power always comes
in to picture. This reactive power is expressed in Kilo VAR or Mega VAR.
The demand of this reactive power is mainly originated from inductive load
connected to the system. These inductive loads are generally electromagnetic
circuit of electric motors, electrical transformers, inductance of transmission and
distribution networks, induction furnaces, fluorescent lightings etc. This reactive
power should be properly compensated otherwise, the ratio of actual power
consumed by the load, to the total power i.e. vector sum of active and reactive
power, of the system becomes quite less. This ratio is alternatively known
as electrical power factor, and fewer ratios indicates poor power factor of the
system. If the power factor of the system is poor, the ampere burden of the
transmission, distribution network, transformers, alternators and other
equipment’s connected to the system, becomes high for required active power.
And hence reactive power compensation becomes so important. This is
commonly done by capacitor bank.
Let's explain in details,
we know that active power is expressed = vIcosθ
Where, cost is the power factor of the system. Hence, if this power factor has got
less valve, the corresponding current (I) increases for same active power P.
As the current of the system increases, the Ohmic loss of the system increases.
Ohmic loss means, generated electrical power is lost as unwanted heat originated
in the system. The cross-section of the conducting parts of the system may also
have to be increased for carrying extra ampere burden, which is also not
economical in the commercial point of view. Another major disadvantage, is poor
voltage regulation of the system, which mainly caused due to poor power factor.

29
27-06-17: TUESDAY AND 28-06-17: WEDNESDAY

We have visited Ammonia and Sulphate Plant in these two days. They used
DOL (Direct on line) starter in the plant. The raw materials used in this plant
are sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid and ammonia. They have shown us
SMC(short molding compound). These are used for buses to keep in their
position, compressed water is used to cut the insulator into required shape.
Earlier they used word for this purpose. The distribution control system is used
to start the motor. Earlier two buses where required to start the motor. Now its
reduced to seconds. Ammonia is one of the most highly produced inorganic
chemicals. A typical modern ammonia-producing plant first converts natural
gas (i.e., methane) or LPG (liquefied petroleum gases such
as propane and butane) or petroleum naphtha into gaseous hydrogen. The
method for producing hydrogen from hydrocarbons is known as steam
reforming. Since the KSEB line alone cannot depend much, the plant itself.
So this plant itself have a power generation using steam as source. It is the
power plant which is used to generate electricity by the use steam turbine. The
major components of this power plant are boiler, steam turbine, condenser and
water feed pump. There are so many components present in the steam power
plant which performs their specialized function for the efficient working. The
various component of the steam power plant are:

1. Boiler: It converts the water into high pressure steam. It contains the
furnace inside or outside the boiler shell. The combustion of coal takes
place in the furnace.
2. Air-preheater: It is used to pre-heat the air before entering into the boiler
furnace. The pre heating of air helps in the burning of fuel to a greater
extent. It takes the heat from the burnt gases from the furnace to heat the
air from the atmosphere.
3. Economizer: As its name indicates it economizes the working of the boiler.
It heats the feed water to a specified temperature before it enters into the
boiler drum. It takes the heat from the burnt gases from the furnace to do
so.
4. Turbine: It is the mechanical device which converts the kinetic energy of
the steam to the mechanical energy.
5. Generator: It is coupled with the turbine rotor and converts the mechanical
energy of the turbine to the electrical energy.
6. Dust Collector: It collects the dust particle from the burnt gases before it is
released to the chimney.
7. Condenser: It condensate the steam that leaves out turbine. It converts the
low pressure steam to water. It is attached to the cooling tower.

30
8. Cooling Tower: It is a tower which contains cold water. Cold water is
circulates to the condenser for the cooling of the residual steam from the
turbine.
9. Chimney: It is used to release the hot burnt gases or smoke from the
furnace to the environment at appropriate height. The height of the tower
is very high such that it can easily throw the smoke and exhaust gases at
the appropriate height. And it cannot affect the population living near the
steam power plant.
10.Feed Water pump: It is used to transport the feed water to the boiler.

The water present in the boiler drum changes to high pressure steam. From the
boiler the high pressure steam passed to the super heater where it is again heated
upto its dryness. This super heated steam strikes the turbine blades with a high
speed and the turbine starts rotating at high speed. A generator is attached to the
rotor of the turbine and as the turbine rotates it also rotates with the speed of the
turbine. The generator converts the mechanical energy of the turbine into
electrical energy. After striking on the turbine the steam leaves the turbine and
enters into the condenser. The steam gets condensed with the help of cold water
from the cooling tower. The condensed water with the feed water enters into the
economiser. In the economiser the feed water gets heated up before entering into
the boiler. This heating of water increases the efficiency of the boiler. The exhaust
gases from the furnace pass through the super heater, economiser and air pre-
heater. The heat of this exhaust gases is utilised in the heating of steam in the
super heater, feed water in the economiser and air in the air pre-heater. After
burning of the coal into the furnace, it is transported to ash handling plant and
finally to the ash storage.

Since many of the control equipment’s need 24 hours power supply a diesel
generator is also present in the plant. A diesel generator is the combination of
a diesel engine with an electric generator (often an alternator) to
generate electrical energy. This is a specific case of engine-generator. A diesel
compression-ignition engine often is designed to run on fuel oil, but some types
are adapted for other liquid fuels or natural gas.
Diesel generating sets are used in places without connection to a power grid, or
as emergency power-supply if the grid fails, as well as for more complex
applications such as peak-lopping, grid support and export to the power grid.
Proper sizing of diesel generators is critical to avoid low-load or a shortage of
power. Sizing is complicated by the characteristics of modern electronics,
specifically non-linear loads. In size ranges around 50 MW and above, an open
cycle gas turbine is more efficient at full load than an array of diesel engines, and
far more compact, with comparable capital costs; but for regular part-loading,

31
even at these power levels, diesel arrays are sometimes preferred to open cycle
gas turbines, due to their superior efficiencies.
The packaged combination of a diesel engine, a generator and various ancillary
devices (such as base, canopy, sound attenuation, control systems, circuit
breakers, jacket water heaters and starting system) is referred to as a "generating
set" or a "genset" for short.
Set sizes range from 8 to 30 kW (also 8 to 30 kVA single phase) for homes, small
shops and offices with the larger industrial generators from 8 kW (11 kVA) up to
2,000 kW (2,500 kVA three phase) used for large office complexes, factories. A
2,000 kW set can be housed in a 40 ft (12 m) ISO container with fuel tank,
controls, power distribution equipment and all other equipment needed to operate
as a standalone power station or as a standby backup to grid power. These units,
referred to as power modules are gensets on large triple axle trailers weighing
85,000 pounds (38,555 kg) or more. A combination of these modules are used for
small power stations and these may use from one to 20 units per power section
and these sections can be combined to involve hundreds of power modules. In
these larger sizes the power module (engine and generator) are brought to site on
trailers separately and are connected together with large cables and a control cable
to form a complete synchronized power plant. A number of options also exist to
tailor specific needs, including control panels for autostart and mains paralleling,
acoustic canopies for fixed or mobile applications, ventilation equipment, fuel
supply systems, exhaust systems, etc.

32
29-06-2017: THURSDAY AND 01-07-2017: SATURDAY

We had visited Petrochemical Division on these two days. FACT manufactures


Caprolactam, the raw material for Nylon-6 which is extensively used for the
production of tyre-cord, textile filament yarn and engineering plastics.FACT, one
of the only two manufactures of this product in India, has the capacity to produce
50,000 tonnes of Caprolactam in a year. FACT's Caprolactam exported to
various countries including in USA, not only earns precious foreign exchange,
but also appreciation on account of its excellent quality.The Caprolactam Plant
also produces 2,25,000 tonnes of Ammonium Sulphate per year as co-product
and small quantities of Soda Ash and Nitric Acid as by products.The plant has
been certified ISO 9001:2002 since April 1996 by RWTUV, Germany and ISO-
14001 since December 1999 by DNV, Netherlands.
Since the KSEB line alone cannot depend much, the plant itself. So this plant
itself have a power generation using steam as source. It is the power plant which
is used to generate electricity by the use steam turbine. The major components of
this power plant are boiler, steam turbine, condenser and water feed pump. An
ideal steam turbine is considered to be an isentropic process, or constant entropy
process, in which the entropy of the steam entering the turbine is equal to the
entropy of the steam leaving the turbine. No steam turbine is truly isentropic,
however, with typical isentropic efficiencies ranging from 20–90% based on the
application of the turbine. The interior of a turbine comprises several sets of
blades or buckets. One set of stationary blades is connected to the casing and one
set of rotating blades is connected to the shaft. The sets intermesh with certain
minimum clearances, with the size and configuration of sets varying to efficiently
exploit the expansion of steam at each stage. o maximize turbine efficiency the
steam is expanded, doing work, in a number of stages. These stages are
characterized by how the energy is extracted from them and are known as either
impulse or reaction turbines. Most steam turbines use a mixture of the reaction
and impulse designs: each stage behaves as either one or the other, but the overall
turbine uses both. Typically, lower pressure sections are reaction type and higher
pressure stages are impulse type. The plant contains many Induction motors of
different load capacities. An induction and also synchronous motors, the AC
power supplied to the motor's stator creates a magnetic field that rotates in
synchronism with the AC oscillations. Whereas a synchronous motor's rotor turns
at the same rate as the stator field, an induction motor's rotor rotates at a somewhat
slower speed than the stator field. The induction motor stator's magnetic field is
therefore changing or rotating relative to the rotor. This induces an opposing
current in the induction motor's rotor, in effect the motor's secondary winding,
when the latter is short-circuited or closed through an external impedance. The

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rotating magnetic flux induces currents in the windings of the rotor; in a manner
similar to currents induced in a transformer's secondary winding(s).
The induced currents in the rotor windings in turn create magnetic fields in the
rotor that react against the stator field. Due to Lenz's Law, the direction of the
magnetic field created will be such as to oppose the change in current through the
rotor windings. The cause of induced current in the rotor windings is the rotating
stator magnetic field, so to oppose the change in rotor-winding currents the rotor
will start to rotate in the direction of the rotating stator magnetic field. The rotor
accelerates until the magnitude of induced rotor current and torque balances the
applied mechanical load on the rotation of the rotor. Since rotation at synchronous
speed would result in no induced rotor current, an induction motor always
operates slightly slower than synchronous speed. The difference, or "slip,"
between actual and synchronous speed varies from about 0.5 to 5.0% for standard
Design B torque curve induction motors. The induction motor's essential
character is that it is created solely by induction instead of being separately
excited as in synchronous or DC machines or being self-magnetized as
in permanent magnet motors. For rotor currents to be induced, the speed of the
physical rotor must be lower than that of the stator's rotating magnetic field.
otherwise the magnetic field would not be moving relative to the rotor conductors
and no currents would be induced. As the speed of the rotor drops below
synchronous speed, the rotation rate of the magnetic field in the rotor increases,
inducing more current in the windings and creating more torque. The ratio
between the rotation rate of the magnetic field induced in the rotor and the rotation
rate of the stator's rotating field is called "slip".
For priority loads a diesel generator is also available in plant. A diesel generator is
the combination of a diesel engine with an electric generator (often an alternator)
to generate electrical energy. This is a specific case of engine-generator. A diesel
compression-ignition engine often is designed to run on fuel oil, but some types
are adapted for other liquid fuels or natural gas. The packaged combination of
a diesel engine, a generator and various ancillary devices (such as base, canopy,
sound attenuation, control systems, circuit breakers, jacket water heaters and
starting system) is referred to as a "generating set" or a "genset" for short.
Set sizes range from 8 to 30 kW (also 8 to 30 kVA single phase) for homes, small
shops and offices with the larger industrial generators from 8 kW (11 kVA) up to
2,000 kW (2,500 kVA three phase) used for large office complexes, factories. A
2,000 kW set can be housed in a 40 ft (12 m) ISO container with fuel tank,
controls, power distribution equipment and all other equipment needed to operate
as a standalone power station or as a standby backup to grid power. These units,
referred to as power modules are gensets on large triple axle trailers weighing
85,000 pounds (38,555 kg) or more. A combination of these modules are used for
small power stations and these may use from one to 20 units per power section
and these sections can be combined to involve hundreds of power modules. In
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these larger sizes the power module (engine and generator) are brought to site on
trailers separately and are connected together with large cables and a control cable
to form a complete synchronized power plant. A number of options also exist to
tailor specific needs, including control panels for autostart and mains paralleling,
acoustic canopies for fixed or mobile applications, ventilation equipment, fuel
supply systems, exhaust systems, etc. Diesel generators, sometimes as small as
200 kW (250 kVA) are widely used not only for emergency power, but also many
have a secondary function of feeding power to utility grids either during peak
periods, or periods when there is a shortage of large power generators.
Ships often also employ diesel generators, sometimes not only to provide
auxiliary power for lights, fans, winches etc., but also indirectly for
main propulsion. With electric propulsion the generators can be placed in a
convenient position, to allow more cargo to be carried. Electric drives for ships
were developed prior to World War I. Electric drives were specified in many
warships built during World War II because manufacturing capacity for large
reduction gears was in short supply, compared to capacity for manufacture of
electrical equipment. Such a diesel-electric arrangement is also used in some very
large land vehicles such as railroad locomotives.

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