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Md. Juel Rana1*, M. Shafiul Alam2, Md. Shariful Islam3

1,2

Dept. of EE, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

3

Dept. of EEE, Eastern University Bangladesh

Dhaka, Bangladesh

*

juelrana.eee@gmail.com

Abstract— Low frequency oscillation is a threat to the As found in the literatures, lots of techniques have been

stability of interconnected power system. Proper identification of employed to determine the properties of low frequency

the low frequency oscillation is crucial. In this work continuous oscillations in the power system. The conventional method of

wavelet transform (CWT) with complex morlet wavelet is used to determining oscillation parameters is the eigenvalue analysis

extract modal information of the power system oscillations. The based on linearized model of the power system. The

modal information of the measured signal such as frequency and linearization of the system is done around certain operating

damping is determined from the magnitude and phase plot of the points. Since the operating point of a real power system is

complex valued wavelet coefficients. The proposed technique is varying, this method is not effective outside the predefined

applied to the measured signal of a two area power system to

operating points [2]. Moreover, it is an offline method for

detect inter area mode of oscillation and results are compared

with Eigenvalue analysis method.

observing the disturbances in the system.

The online measurement based techniques are of interest

Keywords—Wavelet transform; low frequency oscillation; as it does not require modeling of system and gives

complex morlet wavelet information in the near real time operations. These methods

identify the system model and operating conditions from the

I. INTRODUCTION measured signal [7].

Electricity is the driving force for the development of Signal processing techniques such as Prony analysis [8]

modern civilization. In the present trend of deregulated and Fourier spectrum analysis [9] have been used for

electricity market environment the power system are more estimation of low frequency oscillations in the power system.

likely to operate closer to their rated capacity due to the Prony analysis suitable for analysis of stationary (time

increased competition among the power producers as well as invariant) signal but the power systems dynamic is time

demand for the large block of power from the consumer side varying and non stationary in nature. Fourier spectrum

[1].These factors increase the vulnerability of power system to analysis gives the information only in the frequency domain

the disturbances. The stability of power system is crucial for and corresponding time domain characteristics of the signal

supplying electrical power to the consumer without loss of are not present.

reliability. The power system stability is defined as the

capability of the system to come back to normal operating Kalman filtering technique has been used to detect the

state after having gone through some sort of disturbances [2, temporal variation of mode parameters of oscillations [10].

3].The poorly damped low frequency electromechanical But, the implementation of Kalman estimator requires prior

oscillation is one of the major disturbances faced by the knowledge of the system transfer function which may not be

synchronous machines of the power system. There are two available in real time.

types of low frequency oscillations in the power system The wavelet transform is a popular signal processing tool

namely local area mode and inter area mode oscillation. Local for analysis of non-stationary signals. It can extract signal

area mode corresponds to swinging of machines of one features both in time and frequency domain. The wavelet

particular area with respect to each other whereas machines of transform has been applied in the analysis of various power

one area swings with respect to machines of others area in system phenomena like fault analysis [11], detection and

inter area mode of oscillations [4]. Typical, this oscillatory identification of power quality problems [12] and detection

phenomenon lies in the range of 0.1 to 1 Hz which can cause and classification of power system transients [13].

the system outage due to the instability if effective preventive

measures are not taken timely [5].So, it is of great importance This work proposes the application of complex morlet

to detect and extract the properties of these oscillations in wavelet based continuous wavelet transform (CWT) to detect

order to provide adequate damping through control [6]. and extract the frequency and damping of low frequency

electromechanical oscillations in a two area four machine

power system.

Where, x(t) is the signal of n damped sinusoids, Ak , ζk , fdk

II. CONTINUOUS WAVELET TRANSFORM and fk are the amplitude, damping ratio, damped natural

Continuous wavelet transform of any signal x (t) is can be frequency and undamped natural frequency of kth mode

expressed mathematically by the following equation [7] ,respectively. The continuous wavelet transform of the signal

x (t) using complex morlet wavelet can be implemented by

∞

W (a, b) = 1 ∫ x(t )ψ * ( t − b )dt

employing equations (1)-(3). The coefficients of wavelet

(1) transform obtained as follows

a −∞ a

a n

∑A e

2 2

Here, W (a, b) and ψ (t) are the wavelet coefficients and W(a, b) = k

−2π fkζ k b −π fb ( af − fc )

e e

j (2π fdk b+θk )

(6)

the mother wavelet function respectively. The parameters a 2 k =1

and b accounts for the scaling factor and translation factor of

the mother wavelet respectively. Scaling and shifting of the The wavelet coefficients are complex number and can

mother wavelet produces son wavelets. The scaling factor represent the multimode signal as a single mode signal [15].

controls the frequency of the son wavelets; higher the scales The value of wavelet coefficient will be maximum when

lower is the frequency and vice versa. Wavelet coefficients are akfk=fc occurs for a certain value of scaling parameter ak and

calculated from the convolution of son wavelets and the this scale ak of wavelet coefficients contains the modal

signal. In order to preserve energy at each scale the information of kth mode of signal. So, kth mode of the signal

with replacing b with t can be written in the amplitude and

convolution sum is multiplied by the factor 1 . The wavelet phase angle form as

a

transform (WT) represents the signal in both time and

frequency domain. The capability of localization of time and ak n

W(ak ,t) =

2

∑Ae π ζ e

k=1

k

−2 fk kt j(2π fdkt+θk )

= W(ak ,t) ejφk (t) (7)

suitable for the analysis of signal having non-stationary

characteristics. ak n

W ( ak , t ) =

2

∑Aek =1

k

−2π f k ζ k t

(8)

Gabor, Morlet, Mexican hat and Haar. It is found that the

complex morlet wavelet provide good results for the analysis φk(t) =arg[Wa

( k,t)]=2π fdkt +θk =2π fk (1−ζk2)t +θk (9)

of ring down signal as it possesses the good time and

frequency localization property to uncover the oscillatory Taking logarithm of the modulus of instantaneous

modes of the signal [14]. Mathematically, the complex morlet amplitude of wavelet coefficient presented above in equation

wavelet is given by the following expression (7), we get,

2

−t ak

1 j 2π fc t fb (2)

ψ (t ) = e e ln W (ak , t ) = −2π f k ζ k t + ln( Ak ) (10)

π fb 2

Where, fb is the bandwidth parameter of the mother Therefore, natural frequency of oscillation fk and damping

wavelet, fc is the center frequency, t is the time, and j is the ratio ζk can be obtained by calculating the slope of ln W (ak , t )

imaginary unit. The bandwidth parameter controls the shape of and arg[W (ak , t )] of equations (9)-(10). The slope can be

the wavelet.

determined using least square regression analysis. The small

The fourier transform of the mother wavelet function is time range in which amplitude and phase plot becomes linear

given by following equation contains the modal information of the signal.

1 2 2

(3)

ψ ( af ) = e − π f b ( af − f c )

π fb IV. POWER SYSTEM MODEL

The value of the ψ (af) will reach to the peak when af=fc. The well known four machines two area power system

The value of localized frequency component of the signal can shown in fig. 1 has been considered to simulate the low

be retrieved as follows frequency oscillation phenomena. The power system model

fc and associated data can be found in [2]. All the generators

f = (4) have been modeled using sub-transients model, static exciter

a Δt and simple turbine governor system. In order to simulate the

Where, ∆t is the sampling period of the signal. inter area mode of oscillation 5% step increase in the exciter

reference voltage of generator 2 (area I) and generator 3 (area

II) has been applied. The Power System Toolbox (PST)

III. PROPOSED METHOD functions have been used for time domain simulation of 20

The electromechanical oscillations of power system can be seconds. The PST is an open source matlab based tool box for

expressed as sum of damped sinusoids as given below. load flow and stability analysis of the power system. For this

n n work Power System Toolbox Version 3.0 has been used.

x(t) = ∑xk (t) = ∑Ak e−2π fkζkt cos(2π fdk t +θk ) (5)

k =1 k =1

0.55 Hz and 15Hz respectively with sampling time 0.01

second. The contour plot of the measured power flow signal is

shown in fig. 4. From the figure it is seen that most of energy

of the wavelet coefficients lies at the starting and end of signal

around scale 107. So, there is only one dominant mode at scale

107 and signal is said to be stationary in this particular case.

The linear amplitude and phase plot of wavelet coefficients are

shown in fig. 5, and fig. 6, respectively.

V. SIMULATION RESULTS

The frequency and damping information of oscillatory

Eigen mode have been calculated and plotted in the fig. 2, the

green marker in the figure corresponds to minimum damping.

Fig. 3. Active power flow

Fig. 4. Contour plot of the energy of wavelet coefficients of the measured

signal

The Eigen mode of 21 exhibits least value of damping

ratio; therefore, it is the dominant mode of oscillation as

shown in Table I.

TABLE I

For the Eigen Mode 21

Eigen value Frequency Damping

(Hz) ratio (%)

-0.0232-3.3212i 0.5286 0.70

The active power flow between the two area measured

at the line between bus 6 and 7 is shown in the fig.3. The

proposed scheme of continuous wavelet transform has been

applied to extract the information of the measured signal. The

Fig. 5. Amplitude plot of the wavelet transform of the measured signal

center frequency (fc) and bandwidth parameter (fb) are taken as

[5] José L. Rueda, Carlos A. Juárez, and IstvánErlich, “Wavelet-Based

Analysis of Power System Low-Frequency Electromechanical

Oscillations,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 26, No. 3,

August 2011.

[6] L. Grigsby, Power System Stability and Control. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor

& Francis, 2007.

[7] Foad Shiri and Behnam Mohammadi-ivatloo, “Identification of inter-

area oscillations using wavelet transform and phasor measurement unit

data,” Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst. (2014)

[8] Shim K, Nam H, Lim Y, “Use of Prony analysis to extract sync

information of low frequency oscillation from measured data,” European

Transactions on Electrical Power 2011; 21(5):1746–1762.

[9] Kakimoto N, Sugumi M, Makino T, Tomiyama K, “Monitoring of inter

area oscillation mode by synchronized phasor measurement,” IEEE

Transactions on Power Systems 2006; 21(1):260–268.

[10] R. A. Wiltshire, G. Ledwich, and P. O’Shea, “A Kalman filtering

approach to rapidly detecting modal changes in power systems,” IEEE

Trans. Power Syst., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 1698–1706, Nov. 2007.

[11] Jaya Bharata Reddy M, Venkata Rajesh D, Mohanta D, “Robust

Fig. 6. Phase plot of the wavelet transform of the measured signal transmission line fault classification using wavelet multi-resolution

analysis,” Computers and Electrical Engineering 2013; 39:1219––1247.

[12] Oleskovicz M, Coury DV, Felho OD, Usida WF, Carneiro AA, Pires

The frequency and damping information obtained from LR, “Power quality analysis applying a hybrid methodology with

the proposed technique are presented in Table II along with wavelet transforms and neural networks,” International Journal of

the result obtained from Eigen analysis. Electrical Power & Energy System 2009;31(5):206–212.

[13] Zhengyou H, Shibin G, Xiaoqin C, Jun Z, Zhiqian B, Qingquan Q,

TABLE II “Study of a new method for power system transients classification based

on wavelet entropy and neural network,” International Journal of

For the Single Mode Signal Electrical Power & Energy System 2011;33(3):402–410.

[14] Addison P, Watson J, Feng T, “Low-oscillation complex wavelets,”

Method Frequency (Hz) Real part Damping Journal of Sound and Vibration 2002; 254(4):733–762.

ratio (%) [15] Yan B, Miyamoto A, “A comparative study of modal parameter

Eigen 0.5286 -0.0232 0.70 identification based on wavelet and Hilbert-Huang transforms,”

Analysis Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering 2006; 21(1):9–23.

Wavelet 0.5088 -0.0226 0.7082

Transform

continuous wavelet transform based technique are very close

to the results of Eigen value analysis method. This proves the

efficacy of proposed method in extracting the modal

information of low frequency oscillations in power system.

VI. CONCLUSION

In this work, continuous wavelet transform has been

applied to find the modal information of the power system low

frequency oscillations. The proposed method has been

presented mathematically. The results obtained from the

proposed method closely matches with the values obtained

from the Eigen value analysis method. This demonstrates the

effectiveness of the continuous wavelet transform based

technique in identifying the low frequency oscillations in

power system.

REFERENCES

[1] V. Vittal, “Consequence and impact of electric utility industry

restructuring on transient stability and small-signal stability analysis,”

Proc.IEEE, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 196–207, Feb. 2000.

[2] P. Kundur, “Power system stability and control,” Toronto,Ontario,

McGraw-Hill, 1994.

[3] P.M. Anderson and A. A. Fouad, “Power System Control and Stability,”

Volume- I, Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, 1977.

[4] K. R. Padiyar, “Power system dynamics stability and control,” 2nd ed.

Hyderabad, India, BS Publications, 2008.

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