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Design of Structural Timber Elements B B ≤ 0.25 × span centre to centre of
Design of Structural Timber Elements
B
B
≤ 0.25 × span
centre to centre of holes ≥ 3d
diameter of the holes
≤ 0.25h
≤ 0.4 × span

Figure 7.15 (b)

h 250 mm

459

0.25h ≤ 0.4 × span Figure 7.15 (b) h ≤ 250 mm 459 Section B −

Section BB

7.7.7 Example 7.1: Suspended Timber Floor System

Consider the design of a suspended timber floor system in a domestic building in which the joists at 500 mm centres are simply supported by timber beams on load-bearing brickwork, as shown in Figure 7.16 (a). The support beams are notched at the location of the wall, as shown in Figure 7.16(b).

Determine a suitable section size for the tongue and groove floor boards.

Determine a suitable section size for the joists.

Check the suitability of the main support beams.

Design data:

Centre of timber joists

500 mm

Distance between the centre-lines of the brickwork wall

4.5 m

Strength class of timber for joists and tongue and groove boarding and beams

C22

Imposed loading (long-term)

3.0 kN/m 2

Exposure condition

Service Class 1

Beam span = 4.5 m Joist span = 3.6 m
Beam span
= 4.5 m
Joist span = 3.6 m

Timber joists at 500 mm centres

Timber support beams

Figure 7.16 (a)

460

Design of Structural Elements

100 mm wide × 475 mm deep beam

50 mm
50 mm

End bearing length = 100 mm

Support wall

Figure 7.16 (b)

7.7.7.1 Solution to Example 7.1

Contract : Solid Beams Job Ref. No. : Example 7.1 Part of Structure : Suspended
Contract : Solid Beams Job Ref. No. : Example 7.1
Part of Structure :
Suspended floor system
Calcs. by : W.McK.
Checked by :
Calc. Sheet No. :
1
of
8
Date :
References
Calculations
Output
Clause 2.6
6.8 N/mm 2
σ m,g, =
Table 8
Bending parallel to grain
Compression perpendicular to grain
(assume wane is permitted)
Shear parallel to grain
Modulus of elasticity
Modulus of elasticity
Average density
= 1.7 N/mm 2
σ c,g,⊥
0.71 N/mm 2
τ m,g, =
= 9700 N/mm 2
E mean
= 6500 N/mm 2
E min
ρ k
=
410 kg/m 3
Note: A value of characteristic density is also given for use
when designing joints.
Tongue and groove floor boarding:
Consider 1.0 m width of flooring and 19 mm thick boarding:
1000 mm width
)
× 9.81
Self-weight = ( 0.019× 410
=
0.08 kN/m 2
3
10
Imposed loading
=
Total load
=
(3.0 + 0.08)
=
3.0 kN/m 2
3.08 kN/m 2
Clause 2.10
Bending:
Permissible stress
=
σ m,adm,
σ m,g, × K 2 × K 3 × K 6 × K 7 × K 8
Clause 2.6.2
Clause 2.8
Table 17 (note a)
K 2 − wet exposure
K 3 − load duration
does not apply in this case
for uniformly distributed imposed
floor loads
K 3 = 1.0

Design of Structural Timber Elements

461

Contract : Solid Beams Job Ref. No. : Example 7.1

Calcs. by : W.McK. Checked by :

Part of Structure :

Suspended floor system

 

Calc. Sheet No. :

2

of

8

Date :

 

References

 

Calculations

 

Output

Clause 2.10.5 K 6 Clause 2.10.6 K 7 Clause 2.9

shape factor

 

does not apply in this case

 

depth of section

 

< 72 mm

 

K 7 = 1.17

K 8 load sharing stresses

tongue and groove boarding has adequate provision for lateral load distribution

K 8 = 1.1

 

σ m,adm,

=

(6.8 × 1.0 × 1.17 × 1.1) =

 

8.75 N/mm 2

span of boards = joist spacing = 500 mm

 

Allowing for the continuity of the boards over the supports reduces the bending moment

M x , maximum

 

2

wL

=

3.08

×

0.5 2

 

= 0.077 kNm

 
 

10

 

10

 

Minimum section modulus required:

 

Z min

 

maximum bending moment

 

0.077

×

10 6

 

=

 
 

permissible stress

 

8.75

 

8.8 × 10 3 mm 3 /metre width

 

Z

=

bh 2

 

h

6Z

h

 

6

×

8.8

×

10 3

 

6

b

1000

 

h

7.3 mm;

 

assume an additional 3 mm for wear

h

7.3 + 3 =

 

10.3 mm

 

Try 16 mm thick

Clause 2.10.7

Deflection:

 

Clause 2.9

Since load-sharing exists use E mean to calculate deflection. Since the boards are continuous, assume the end span deflection (i.e. a propped cantilever) is approximately equal to 50% of a simply supported span:

δ max

(0.5 × δ simply supported span )

=

 

1

2

5 W

total

384 EI

3

L

δ max

=

0.5 ×

5

×

3.08

×

0.5

×

10

3

×

500

3

0.38 mm

δ permissible

384

×

9700

0.003 × 500=

×

1000

×

12

16

1.5 mm

3

Adopt a minimum thickness of 16 mm for the tongue and groove boarding

 

δ max

<<

δ permissible

 

462

Design of Structural Elements

Contract : Solid Beams Job Ref. No. : Example 7.1

 

Calcs. by : W.McK. Checked by :

Part of Structure :

Suspended floor system

Calc. Sheet No. :

3

of

8

Date :

References

 

Calculations

 

Output

Joists at 500 centres:

 

Dead load due to self-weight of joist: assume

=

0.1 kN/m

Dead load due to t & g boarding = (0.08 × 0.5) =

0.04 kN/m

Imposed loading

=

1.5 kN/m

Total load

=

= (3.0 × 0.5) (0.1 + 0.04 + 1.5)

=

1.64 kN/m

Clause 2.10

Bending:

 

Permissible stress

 

σ m,adm,

=

σ m,g, × K 2 × K 3 × K 6 × K 7 × K 8

 

Clause 2.6.2 Clause 2.8 Table 17 (note a)

K 2 wet exposure K 3 load duration (long-term)

 

does not apply in this case for uniformly distributed imposed floor loads

K 3 = 1.0

Clause 2.10.5

K 6 shape factor; K 7 depth of section;

 

does not apply in this case assume h 300 mm

Clause 2.10.6

K 7 1.0

This assumption should be checked at a later stage and modified if necessary.

Clause 2.9

K 8 load sharing stresses;this applies since tongue and groove boarding provides adequate lateral distribution of loading and the spacing of the joists 610 mm

K 8 = 1.1

σ m,adm, = (6.8 × 1.0 × 1.0 × 1.1)

=

7.48 N/mm 2

 

Span of joists:

assume centre-to-centre of bearings

L

=

3.6 m

 

M x , maximum

=

wL

2

=

1.64

×

3.6 2

= 2.66 kNm

 

8

8

2.66

×

10 6

0.36 × 10 6 mm 3

 
 

Z min

7.48

=

Clause 2.10.7

Deflection:

 

δ permissible

0.003 × span

=

(0.003 × 3600) = 10.8 mm

14.0 mm

 

Clause 2.9

Since load-sharing exists and assuming floor is not intended for mechanical plant and equipment, storage or subject to vibration (e.g. a gymnasium), use E mean to calculate the deflection.

Design of Structural Timber Elements

463

Contract : Solid Beams Job Ref. No. : Example 7.1 Part of Structure : Suspended
Contract : Solid Beams Job Ref. No. : Example 7.1
Part of Structure :
Suspended floor system
Calcs. by : W.McK.
Checked by :
Calc. Sheet No. :
4
of
8
Date :
References
Calculations
Output
3
5
W
L
total
,
=
9700 N/mm 2
δ maximum
E mean
384
E
I
mean
(
3
)
3
6
5
×
3.6
×
1.64
×
10
×
3600
369.8
×
10
=
=
384
×
9700 × I
I
xx
xx
6
369.8
×
10
since
10.8,
10.8
δ maximum
I
xx
369.8
×
10 6
I xx ≥
=
34.2 × 10 6 mm 4
10.8
Try a 75 mm × 200 mm joist:
Cross-sectional area A =
(75 × 200) =
15.0 × 10 3 mm 2
75
×
200 2
Section modulus
Z xx =
= 0.5 × 10 6 mm 3
6
> 0.36 × 10 6 mm 3
75
×
200 3
Second moment of area
I xx =
= 50 × 10 6 mm 4
12
> 34.2 × 10 6 mm 4
h
225
Clause 2.10.8
=
=
3.0
<
5.0
b
75
Lateral support is
adequate
Table 19
Clause 2.10.2
Bearing:
75.mm
End reaction
100 mm
End reaction
=
=
(1.64 × 3.6)/2.0
(100 × 75)
=
Bearing area
=
2.95 kN
7.5 × 10 3 mm 2
3
2.95
×
10
=
=
0.39 N/mm 2
σ c,a,⊥
3
7.5
×
10
=
σ c,adm,⊥
σ c,g,⊥ × K 2 × K 3 × K 4 × K 8

464

Design of Structural Elements

Contract : Solid Beams Job Ref. No. : Example 7.1

Part of Structure :

Calc. Sheet No. :

Suspended floor system

of

8

5

Calcs. by : W.McK. Checked by :

Date :

References

Calculations

Clause 2.6.2 Clause 2.8 Table 17 (note a) Clause 2.10.2

As before K 2 does not apply

K 3

bearing length

For any length at the end of a member

= 1.0

=

100 mm

K 4 does not apply.

Clause 2.9

Section 7.6.1 of

this text

Since load-sharing applies

K 8

=

1.1

σ c,adm,

=

(1.7 × 1.0 × 1.1)

=

1.87 N/mm 2

 

0.39 N/mm 2

Shear:

Maximum shear stress on rectangular section

design value of shear force =

where V

=

τ a,

τ

2.95 kN

=

15.

V

A

τ adm, =

τ g, × K 2 × K 3 × K 5 × K 8

As before K 2 does not apply and K 3 =

Since the end of the beam is not notched, K 5 does not apply

1.0

Clause 2.9

Load-sharing applies

K 8

=

1.1

 

=

0.78 N/mm 2

>

0.39 N/mm 2

τ adm, =

(0.71 × 1.1)

Main beams: 100 mm × 475 mm deep

Output

Joist is adequate with

respect to bearing

Joist is adequate with respect to shear

Adopt 75 × 200

Grade C22 Timber Joists at 500 mm centres

Joists at 500 mm centres

Span L = 4.5 m

Cross-sectional area A

=

(100 × 475)

=

Section modulus

Z xx =

100

×

475 2

=

 

6

 

Second moment of area

I xx =

100

×

475 3

 

12

 

47.5 × 10 3 mm 2

3.76 × 10 6 mm 3

=

893 × 10 6 mm 4

=

1.5

×

2.95

×

10

3

= 0.295 N/mm 2

15

× 10

3

Design of Structural Timber Elements

465

Contract : Solid Beams Job Ref. No. : Example 7.1

 

Calcs. by : W.McK. Checked by :

Part of Structure :

Suspended floor system

 

Calc. Sheet No. :

6

of

8

Date :

 

References

 

Calculations

 

Output

Self-weight = ( 0.0475× 410

)

× 9.81 =

 

0.19 kN/m

 
 

10

3

Point loads at 500 mm centres

 

=

2.95 kN

 

Vertical reaction at the supports =

(9 × 2.95) /2 + (0.19 × 2.25)

 

=

13.70 kN (8 × 2.95) /2 + (0.19 × 2.25)

Shear force at the supports

 

=

 

=

12.23 kN

 

Clause 2.10

Bending:

 

Permissible stress

 

σ m,adm,

=

σ m,g, × K 2 × K 3 × K 6 × K 7 × K 8

 

Clause 2.6.2

K 2 wet exposure K 3 load duration (long-term) K 6 shape factor

 

does not apply in this case loading can be assumed to be uniformly distributed does not apply in this case

 

Clause 2.8

Table 17

K 3 = 1.0

Clause 2.10.5

Clause 2.10.6

K 7 depth of section;

h

> 300 mm

 

K 7

=

0.81

(

(

h

h

2

2

+

+

)

92300

56800)

=

0.81

(

475

(475

2

2

)

92300

+

+ 56800)

=

0.91

K 7 = 0.91

Clause 2.9

K 8 load sharing

does not apply in this case

 

σ m,adm, = (6.8 × 1.0 × 0.91)

=

6.19 N/mm 2

 
 

wL

2

0.19

×

4.5 2

Self-weight bending moment

=

=

 

8

8

 

=

0.48 kNm

M x , maximum = {(12.23 × 2.25) [2.95 × (0.25 + 0.75 + 1.25 + 1.75)]} + 0.48

 

= 16.2 kNm

 

Z min

16.2

×

10 6

= 2.62 × 10 6 mm 3

 

Section is adequate with respect to bending

 

6.19

 
 

< 3.76 × 10 6 mm 3

 

Clause 2.10.7

Deflection:

   

δ permissible

0.003 × span

=

(0.003 × 4500) = 13.5 mm

14.0 mm Since load-sharing does not exist use E minimum to calculate the deflection.

466

Design of Structural Elements

Contract : Solid Beams Job Ref. No. : Example 7.1 Part of Structure : Suspended
Contract : Solid Beams Job Ref. No. : Example 7.1
Part of Structure :
Suspended floor system
Calcs. by : W.McK.
Checked by :
Calc. Sheet No. :
7
of
8
Date :
References
Calculations
Output
(See Chapter 1 Use the equivalent uniform distributed load method to estimate
Section 1.7) the deflection.
2
0.104 M
L
maximum
=
6500 N/mm 2
δ maximum
, E min
Section is adequate
with respect to
=
5.9 mm
6
6500
×
893
×
10
<
13.5 mm
h
475
Clause 2.10.8
=
= 4.75
<
5.0
b
100
Lateral support is
adequate
Table 19
Clause 2.10.2
Bearing:
100 mm wide × 475 mm deep beam
100 mm
50 mm
Support wall
End reaction
=
Bearing area
=
13.7 kN
(100 × 100)
=
10.0 × 10 3 mm 2
3
13.7
× 10
=
=
1.37 N/mm 2
σ c,a,⊥
3
10.0
× 10
=
σ c,adm,⊥
σ c,g,⊥ × K 2 × K 3 × K 4 × K 8
Clause 2.6.2
Clause 2.8
Table 17 (note a)
Clause 2.10.2
As before K 2 does not apply
K 3
= 1.0
bearing length
=
100 mm
For any length at the end of a member
K 4 does not apply.
Clause 2.9
Load-sharing does not apply
(i.e. Ignore K 8 )

E

minimum

I

=

0.104

×

16.2

×

10

6

×

4500

2

deflection

Design of Structural Timber Elements

467

Contract : Solid Beams Job Ref. No. : Example 7.1 Part of Structure : Suspended
Contract : Solid Beams Job Ref. No. : Example 7.1
Part of Structure :
Suspended floor system
Calcs. by : W.McK.
Checked by :
Calc. Sheet No. :
8
of
8
Date :
References
Calculations
Output
=
1.7 × 1.0
=
1.7 N/mm 2
Adopt bearing
σ c,adm,⊥
>
1.37 N/mm 2
length ≥ 100 mm
Shear:
15.
V
Section 7.6.1 of
Maximum shear stress on rectangular section
τ
=
A
this text
where V
=
design value of shear force =
12.23 kN
Clause 2.10.4
Effective depth h e
=
(475 − 50)
=
425 mm
1.5 ×
12.23
×
10 3
=
= 0.43 N/mm 2
τ a,
(425
× 100)
=
τ adm,
τ g,
× K 2 × K 3 × K 5 × K 8
As before K 2 does not apply and K 3 =
1.0
Since the end of the beam is notched, K 5 does apply
Beam is adequate
with respect to shear
K 5
h
h e
425
=
=
=
0.89
475
(0.71 × 0.89)
=
0.63 N/mm 2
τ adm, =
Adopt 100 × 475
Grade C22 Timber
>
0.43 N/mm 2
Beams with ≥ 100 mm
length of bearing on
the brick-wall support.