Sie sind auf Seite 1von 9 Design of Structural Timber Elements
B
B
≤ 0.25 × span
centre to centre of holes ≥ 3d
diameter of the holes
≤ 0.25h
≤ 0.4 × span

Figure 7.15 (b)

h 250 mm

459 Section BB

7.7.7 Example 7.1: Suspended Timber Floor System

Consider the design of a suspended timber floor system in a domestic building in which the joists at 500 mm centres are simply supported by timber beams on load-bearing brickwork, as shown in Figure 7.16 (a). The support beams are notched at the location of the wall, as shown in Figure 7.16(b).

Determine a suitable section size for the tongue and groove floor boards.

Determine a suitable section size for the joists.

Check the suitability of the main support beams.

Design data:

 Centre of timber joists 500 mm Distance between the centre-lines of the brickwork wall 4.5 m Strength class of timber for joists and tongue and groove boarding and beams C22 Imposed loading (long-term) 3.0 kN/m 2

Exposure condition

Service Class 1 Beam span
= 4.5 m
Joist span = 3.6 m

Timber joists at 500 mm centres

Timber support beams

Figure 7.16 (a)

460

Design of Structural Elements

100 mm wide × 475 mm deep beam 50 mm

End bearing length = 100 mm

Support wall

Figure 7.16 (b)

7.7.7.1 Solution to Example 7.1 Contract : Solid Beams Job Ref. No. : Example 7.1
Part of Structure :
Suspended floor system
Calcs. by : W.McK.
Checked by :
Calc. Sheet No. :
1
of
8
Date :
References
Calculations
Output
Clause 2.6
6.8 N/mm 2
σ m,g, =
Table 8
Bending parallel to grain
Compression perpendicular to grain
(assume wane is permitted)
Shear parallel to grain
Modulus of elasticity
Modulus of elasticity
Average density
= 1.7 N/mm 2
σ c,g,⊥
0.71 N/mm 2
τ m,g, =
= 9700 N/mm 2
E mean
= 6500 N/mm 2
E min
ρ k
=
410 kg/m 3
Note: A value of characteristic density is also given for use
when designing joints.
Tongue and groove floor boarding:
Consider 1.0 m width of flooring and 19 mm thick boarding:
1000 mm width
)
× 9.81
Self-weight = ( 0.019× 410
=
0.08 kN/m 2
3
10
=
=
(3.0 + 0.08)
=
3.0 kN/m 2
3.08 kN/m 2
Clause 2.10
Bending:
Permissible stress
=
σ m,g, × K 2 × K 3 × K 6 × K 7 × K 8
Clause 2.6.2
Clause 2.8
Table 17 (note a)
K 2 − wet exposure
does not apply in this case
for uniformly distributed imposed
K 3 = 1.0

Design of Structural Timber Elements

461

 Contract : Solid Beams Job Ref. No. : Example 7.1 Calcs. by : W.McK. Checked by : Part of Structure : Suspended floor system Calc. Sheet No. : 2 of 8 Date : References Calculations Output Clause 2.10.5 K 6 Clause 2.10.6 K 7 Clause 2.9 − shape factor does not apply in this case − depth of section < 72 mm K 7 = 1.17 K 8 − load sharing stresses tongue and groove boarding has adequate provision for lateral load distribution K 8 = 1.1 σ m,adm, = (6.8 × 1.0 × 1.17 × 1.1) = 8.75 N/mm 2 span of boards = joist spacing = 500 mm Allowing for the continuity of the boards over the supports reduces the bending moment M x , maximum ≈ 2 wL = 3.08 × 0.5 2 = 0.077 kNm 10 10 Minimum section modulus required: Z min ≥ maximum bending moment 0.077 × 10 6 = permissible stress 8.75 ≈ 8.8 × 10 3 mm 3 /metre width Z = bh 2 ∴ h ≥ 6Z ∴ h ≥ 6 × 8.8 × 10 3 6 b 1000 h ≥ 7.3 mm; assume an additional 3 mm for wear h ≥ 7.3 + 3 = 10.3 mm Try 16 mm thick Clause 2.10.7 Deflection: Clause 2.9 Since load-sharing exists use E mean to calculate deflection. Since the boards are continuous, assume the end span deflection (i.e. a propped cantilever) is approximately equal to 50% of a simply supported span: δ max ≈ (0.5 × δ simply supported span ) = 1 2     5 W total 384 EI 3 L     δ max = 0.5 × 5 × 3.08 × 0.5 × 10 3 × 500 3 ≈ 0.38 mm δ permissible ≤ 384 × 9700 0.003 × 500= ×     1000 × 12 16 1.5 mm 3     Adopt a minimum thickness of 16 mm for the tongue and groove boarding δ max << δ permissible

462

Design of Structural Elements

Design of Structural Timber Elements

463 Contract : Solid Beams Job Ref. No. : Example 7.1
Part of Structure :
Suspended floor system
Calcs. by : W.McK.
Checked by :
Calc. Sheet No. :
4
of
8
Date :
References
Calculations
Output
3
5
W
L
total
,
=
9700 N/mm 2
δ maximum
E mean
384
E
I
mean
(
3
)
3
6
5
×
3.6
×
1.64
×
10
×
3600
369.8
×
10
=
=
384
×
9700 × I
I
xx
xx
6
369.8
×
10
since
10.8,
10.8
δ maximum
I
xx
369.8
×
10 6
I xx ≥
=
34.2 × 10 6 mm 4
10.8
Try a 75 mm × 200 mm joist:
Cross-sectional area A =
(75 × 200) =
15.0 × 10 3 mm 2
75
×
200 2
Section modulus
Z xx =
= 0.5 × 10 6 mm 3
6
> 0.36 × 10 6 mm 3
75
×
200 3
Second moment of area
I xx =
= 50 × 10 6 mm 4
12
> 34.2 × 10 6 mm 4
h
225
Clause 2.10.8
=
=
3.0
<
5.0
b
75
Lateral support is
Table 19
Clause 2.10.2
Bearing:
75.mm
End reaction
100 mm
End reaction
=
=
(1.64 × 3.6)/2.0
(100 × 75)
=
Bearing area
=
2.95 kN
7.5 × 10 3 mm 2
3
2.95
×
10
=
=
0.39 N/mm 2
σ c,a,⊥
3
7.5
×
10
=
σ c,g,⊥ × K 2 × K 3 × K 4 × K 8

464

Design of Structural Elements

Contract : Solid Beams Job Ref. No. : Example 7.1

Part of Structure :

Calc. Sheet No. :

Suspended floor system

of

8

5

Calcs. by : W.McK. Checked by :

Date :

References

Calculations

Clause 2.6.2 Clause 2.8 Table 17 (note a) Clause 2.10.2

As before K 2 does not apply

K 3

bearing length

For any length at the end of a member

= 1.0

=

100 mm

K 4 does not apply.

Clause 2.9

Section 7.6.1 of

this text

K 8

=

1.1

 = (1.7 × 1.0 × 1.1) = 1.87 N/mm 2 ≥ 0.39 N/mm 2

Shear:

Maximum shear stress on rectangular section

design value of shear force =

where V

=

τ a,

τ

2.95 kN

=

15.

V

A

τ g, × K 2 × K 3 × K 5 × K 8

As before K 2 does not apply and K 3 =

Since the end of the beam is not notched, K 5 does not apply

1.0

 Clause 2.9 Load-sharing applies K 8 = 1.1 = 0.78 N/mm 2 > 0.39 N/mm 2

(0.71 × 1.1)

Main beams: 100 mm × 475 mm deep

Output

respect to bearing

Joist is adequate with respect to shear

Grade C22 Timber Joists at 500 mm centres

Joists at 500 mm centres

Span L = 4.5 m

 Cross-sectional area A = (100 × 475) = Section modulus Z xx = 100 × 475 2 = 6 Second moment of area I xx = 100 × 475 3 12
 47.5 × 10 3 mm 2 3.76 × 10 6 mm 3 = 893 × 10 6 mm 4

=

1.5

×

2.95

×

10

3

= 0.295 N/mm 2

15

× 10

3

Design of Structural Timber Elements

465

 Contract : Solid Beams Job Ref. No. : Example 7.1 Calcs. by : W.McK. Checked by : Part of Structure : Suspended floor system Calc. Sheet No. : 6 of 8 Date : References Calculations Output Self-weight = ( 0.0475× 410 ) × 9.81 = 0.19 kN/m 10 3 Point loads at 500 mm centres = 2.95 kN Vertical reaction at the supports = (9 × 2.95) /2 + (0.19 × 2.25) = 13.70 kN (8 × 2.95) /2 + (0.19 × 2.25) Shear force at the supports = = 12.23 kN Clause 2.10 Bending: Permissible stress σ m,adm, = σ m,g, × K 2 × K 3 × K 6 × K 7 × K 8 Clause 2.6.2 K 2 − wet exposure K 3 − load duration (long-term) K 6 − shape factor does not apply in this case loading can be assumed to be uniformly distributed does not apply in this case Clause 2.8 Table 17 K 3 = 1.0 Clause 2.10.5 Clause 2.10.6 K 7 − depth of section; h > 300 mm K 7 = 0.81 ( ( h h 2 2 + + ) 92300 56800) = 0.81 ( 475 (475 2 2 ) 92300 + + 56800) = 0.91 K 7 = 0.91 Clause 2.9 K 8 − load sharing does not apply in this case σ m,adm, = (6.8 × 1.0 × 0.91) = 6.19 N/mm 2 wL 2 0.19 × 4.5 2 Self-weight bending moment = = 8 8 = 0.48 kNm M x , maximum = {(12.23 × 2.25) − [2.95 × (0.25 + 0.75 + 1.25 + 1.75)]} + 0.48 = 16.2 kNm Z min ≥ 16.2 × 10 6 = 2.62 × 10 6 mm 3 Section is adequate with respect to bending 6.19 < 3.76 × 10 6 mm 3 Clause 2.10.7 Deflection: δ permissible ≤ 0.003 × span = (0.003 × 4500) = 13.5 mm 14.0 mm Since load-sharing does not exist use E minimum to calculate the deflection. ≤

466

Design of Structural Elements Contract : Solid Beams Job Ref. No. : Example 7.1
Part of Structure :
Suspended floor system
Calcs. by : W.McK.
Checked by :
Calc. Sheet No. :
7
of
8
Date :
References
Calculations
Output
(See Chapter 1 Use the equivalent uniform distributed load method to estimate
Section 1.7) the deflection.
2
0.104 M
L
maximum
=
6500 N/mm 2
δ maximum
, E min
with respect to
=
5.9 mm
6
6500
×
893
×
10
<
13.5 mm
h
475
Clause 2.10.8
=
= 4.75
<
5.0
b
100
Lateral support is
Table 19
Clause 2.10.2
Bearing:
100 mm wide × 475 mm deep beam
100 mm
50 mm
Support wall
End reaction
=
Bearing area
=
13.7 kN
(100 × 100)
=
10.0 × 10 3 mm 2
3
13.7
× 10
=
=
1.37 N/mm 2
σ c,a,⊥
3
10.0
× 10
=
σ c,g,⊥ × K 2 × K 3 × K 4 × K 8
Clause 2.6.2
Clause 2.8
Table 17 (note a)
Clause 2.10.2
As before K 2 does not apply
K 3
= 1.0
bearing length
=
100 mm
For any length at the end of a member
K 4 does not apply.
Clause 2.9
(i.e. Ignore K 8 )

E

minimum

I

=

0.104

×

16.2

×

10

6

×

4500

2

deflection

Design of Structural Timber Elements

467 Contract : Solid Beams Job Ref. No. : Example 7.1
Part of Structure :
Suspended floor system
Calcs. by : W.McK.
Checked by :
Calc. Sheet No. :
8
of
8
Date :
References
Calculations
Output
=
1.7 × 1.0
=
1.7 N/mm 2
>
1.37 N/mm 2
length ≥ 100 mm
Shear:
15.
V
Section 7.6.1 of
Maximum shear stress on rectangular section
τ
=
A
this text
where V
=
design value of shear force =
12.23 kN
Clause 2.10.4
Effective depth h e
=
(475 − 50)
=
425 mm
1.5 ×
12.23
×
10 3
=
= 0.43 N/mm 2
τ a,
(425
× 100)
=
τ g,
× K 2 × K 3 × K 5 × K 8
As before K 2 does not apply and K 3 =
1.0
Since the end of the beam is notched, K 5 does apply
with respect to shear
K 5
h
h e
425
=
=
=
0.89
475
(0.71 × 0.89)
=
0.63 N/mm 2