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# JAIPUR NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR

## School of Distance Education & Learning

Internal Assignment No. 1

## Paper Code: BCA -101

Paper Title: Introduction to Information Technology

## Last Date of submission: Max. Marks: 15

Note: Question No. 1 is of short answer type and is compulsory for all the students. It
carries 5 Marks. (Word limits 50-100)

## (i). What is algorithm ? Explain with example.

Ans.
An algorithm is a detailed series of instructions for carrying out an operation or solving a problem. In a
non-technical approach, we use algorithms in everyday tasks, such as a recipe to bake a cake or a do-it-
yourself handbook.
Technically, computers use algorithms to list the detailed instructions for carrying out an operation. For
example, to compute an employee’s paycheck, the computer uses an algorithm. To accomplish this task,
appropriate data must be entered into the system. In terms of efficiency, various algorithms are able to
accomplish operations or problem solving easily and quickly.

## (ii) What is computer ?Explain uses of personal computer model.

Ans.
(iii). Discuss history of computers in brief ?
Ans.

## (iv). Explain different types of computers.

Ans.
(v). Explain conversion from binary number system to octal hexadecimal with example.

Section-B
Note: Answer any two questions. Each question carries 5 marks (Word limits 500)
Q.5. Explain different data representation methods.

Q.7. Explain different input and output devices with their uses.
Ans.
Input Devices
The devices which are used to give data and instructions to the computer are called Input Devices. Various types of
input devices can be used with the computer depending upon the type of data you want to enter in the computer, e.g.,
keyboard, mouse, joystick, light pen, etc.

Keyboard
It is the most commonly used input device. It is used to enter data and instructions directly into the computer. There
are 104 buttons on the keyboard which are called keys.

Mouse
Mouse is another input device which is commonly found connected with the computers. It is basically a pointing
device which works on the principle of Point and Click. When the mouse is moved on the mouse pad, a light beam
underneath reflect to give motion to the pointer on the screen.

## Joystick and game-pad are also input devices which are

also input devices which are used to control the movement of object on the screen. Just like mouse, these are also
pointing devices. Mostly they are used for playing games on the computer.
The joystick has a vertical stick with a track ball at its bottom. While playing the games on the computer, the user
needs to move the objects quickly on the screen. With the movement of this vertical stick the objects can be moved in
all the directions easily.

Light Pen
Light pen is another pointing type input device. It is a pen shaped device which can be used by directly pointing the
objects on the screen. It can also be used for making drawings directly on the monitor screen.

Scanner
We can store pictures, photographs, diagrams into the computer with the help of scanner. The scanner reads the
image and saves it in the computer as a file.

Touchscreen
Touchscreen is a special computer screen that takes the input by sensing the touch of a human finger, gloved hand,
stylus, pen or any other pointing device. The user gives instructions to the computer just by touching the screen.

Microphone
This is an input device which is used to record sound or voice into the computer system. You can store voice data in
the computer by speaking in front of this device.

Trackball

## A trackball is similar to a mouse but is mounted in a fixed position. The user

spins the ball with fingers to move the pointer on the screen.
A Trackball technology was used in earlier laptop computer which is now replaced with track-pad.

Output Devices
The devices which are used to display the results or information are called Output Devices. You can view the output
on the monitor or you can print it on a paper using a printer. Monitor and the printer are the commonly used output
devices.
Monitor
This is the most common output device connected with the computer to display the processed information. It looks
like a TV and is also know as VDU(Visual Display Unit). Pictures are displayed by using a large number of very
small dots on screen called pixels. The number of pixels that a monitor can show on its screen is referred to as the
resolution of the

screen.

## The two commonly used monitor types are:

1. Cathode Ray Tube(CRT)Monitor
2. Liquid crystal Display(LCD)Monitor

Printer
This is an important output device of the computer system. It gives a printed output of the results that appears on the
monitor screen. Printed output is also called Hard Copy output because unlike monitor, this output can be preserved
even if the computer is switched off.

## Q.8. Explain different types of memories in computer.

Ans.
JAIPUR NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR
School of Distance Education & Learning
Internal Assignment No. 2

## Paper Code: BCA -101

Paper Title: Introduction to Information Technology

## Last Date of submission: Max. Marks: 15

Note: Question No. 1 is of short answer type and is compulsory for all the students. It
carries 5 Marks. (Word limits 50-100)

## (ii) What is computer ?Explain uses of personal computer model.

What is Computer : Computer is an electronic device that is designed to work with Information. The term computer is derived from
the Latin term‘computare’, this means to calculate or programmable machine. Computer can not do anything without a
Program. It represents the decimal numbers through a string of binary digits. The Word 'Computer' usually refers to the Center
Processor Unit plus Internal memory.

## (iii). Discuss history of computers in brief ?

 The first digital computers were developed between 1940 to 1945.

 Konrad Zuse, In 1941 developed “Z3”, the first modern computing machine.
 Konrad Zuse is regarded as “the inventor of computers”.

 ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator & Computer) was the first US-built electronic computer.

##  ENIAC was developed by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert.

 The world’s first stored-program computer was “Manchester Baby” developed in 1948.

 The “Manchester Baby” was a small-scale experimental computer developed in Victoria university of
Manchester.

 In the 1st generation of computers, Computers were built with vacuum tubes.

##  Computers were built with Transistors in the 2nd generation of computers.

 In the 3rd generation of computers, Transistors were replaced with Integrated Circuits.

##  In 1990, Windows 3.0 operating System for PCs was launched.

 In 1991, the World Wide Web was introduced to the general public.

## (iv). Explain different types of computers.

(v). Explain conversion from binary number system to octal hexadecimal with example.

Section-B
Note: Answer any two questions. Each question carries 5 marks (Word limits 500)
Q.1. Explain internal structure of basic processor..

Introduction

Computer Hardware is the physical part of a computer, as distinguished from the computer software that executes or runs on the
hardware. The hardware of a computer is infrequently changed, while software and data are modified frequently. The term soft refers to
readily created, modified, or erased. These are unlike the physical components within the computer which are hard.
Inside Computer

Motherboard

The motherboard is the body or mainframe of the computer, through which all other components interface. It is the central circuit board
making up a complex electronic system. A motherboard provides the electrical connections by which the other components of the system
communicate. The mother board includes many components such as: central processing unit (CPU), random access memory (RAM),
firmware, and internal and external buses.

## Central Processing Unit

The Central Processing Unit (CPU; sometimes just called processor) is a machine that can execute computer programs. It is sometimes
referred to as the brain of the computer.
CPU Diagram

There are four steps that nearly all CPUs use in their operation: fetch, decode, execute, and writeback. The first step, fetch, involves
retrieving an instruction from program memory. In the decode step, the instruction is broken up into parts that have significance to other
portions of the CPU.

## Random Access Memory

Random access memory (RAM) is fast-access memory that is cleared when the computer is power-down. RAM attaches directly to the
motherboard, and is used to store programs that are currently running. RAM is a set of integrated circuits that allow the stored data to be
accessed in any order (why it is called random).

Firmware

Firmware is loaded from the Read only memory (ROM) run from the Basic Input-Output System (BIOS). It is a computer program that is
embedded in a hardware device, for example a microcontroller. As it name suggests, firmware is somewhere between hardware and
software

Power Supply

The power supply as its name might suggest is the device that supplies power to all the components in the computer. Its case holds a
transformer, voltage control, and (usually) a cooling fan. The power supply converts about 100-120 volts of AC power to low-voltage DC
power for the internal components to use

## Removable Media Devices

If your putting something in your computer and taking it out is most likely a form of removable media. There are many different removable
media devices. The most popular are probably CD and DVD drives which almost every computer these days has at least one of. There are
some new disc drives such as Blu-ray which can hold a much larger amount of information then normal CDs or DVDs. One type of
removable media which is becoming less popular is floppy disk.

CD

CDs are the most common type of removable media. They are inexpensive but also have short life-span. There are a few different kinds of
CDs. CD-ROM which stands for Compact Disc read-only memory are popularly used to distribute computer software although any type of
data can be stored on them.

DVD

DVDs (digital versatile discs) are another popular optical disc storage media format. The main uses for DVDs are video and data storage.
Most DVDs are of the same dimensions as compact discs. Just like CDs there are many different variations. DVD-ROM has data which can
only be read and not written

Blu-ray

Blu-ray is a newer optical disc storage media format. Its main uses are high-definition video and data storage. The disc has the same
dimensions as a CD or DVD. The term “Blu-ray” comes from the blue laser used to read and write to the disc. The Blu-ray discs can store
much more data then CDs or DVDs

Floppy Disk

A floppy disk is a type of data storage that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible(“floppy”) magnetic storage medium encased in a square
or rectangular plastic shell. Floppy disks are read and written by a floppy disk drive. Floppy disks are a dying and being replaced by the
optical and flash drives
Internal Storage¶

Internal storage is hardware that keeps data inside the computer for later use and remains persistent even when the computer has no
power. There are a few different types of internal storage. Hard disks are the most popular type of internal storage. Solid-state drives have
grown in popularity slowly. A disk array controller is popular when you need more storage then a single har disk can hold.

## Hard Disk Drive

A hard disk drive (HDD) is a non-volatile storage device which stores digitally encoded data on rapidly rotating platters with magnetic
surfaces. Just about every new computer comes with a hard disk these days unless it comes with a new solid-state drive.

## Q.2.Write short notes on the follwing :

(A) Intel I7 (B) core2 quad (C) Moore's Law (D) OSI model
Q.3. Explain Cyber Laws, Cyber Crime, Cyber contract. Explain different measures to get rid of
the Security problems.

Cyber Law :
Cyber law is the part of the overall legal system that deals with the Internet, cyberspace, and their
respective legal issues. Cyber law covers a fairly broad area, encompassing several subtopics including
freedom of expression, access to and usage of the Internet, and online privacy. Generically, cyber law has
been referred to as the Law of the Internet.

Cyber Crime:
Cybercrime is defined as a crime in which a computer is the object of the crime (hacking, phishing, spamming) or is used as a tool to
commit an offense (child pornography, hate crimes). Cybercriminals may use computer technology to access personal information,
business trade secrets or use the internet for exploitive or malicious purposes. Criminals can also use computers for communication
and document or data storage. Criminals who perform these illegal activities are often referred to as hackers.
Cybercrime may also be referred to as computer crime.

Cyber Contract: