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Volume 2010, Article ID 703513, 13 pages

doi:10.1155/2010/703513

Research Article

The Alamouti Scheme with CDMA-OFDM/OQAM

1 CNAM, Laetitia group, 292, rue Saint Martin, 75141 Paris, France

2 Orange Labs, 4, rue du Clos Courtel, BP 91226, 35512 Cesson Sévigné Cedex, France

Copyright © 2010 Chrislin Lélé et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,

which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

This paper deals with the combination of OFDM/OQAM with the Alamouti scheme. After a brief presentation of the

OFDM/OQAM modulation scheme, we introduce the fact that the well-known Alamouti decoding scheme cannot be

simply applied to this modulation. Indeed, the Alamouti coding scheme requires a complex orthogonality property; whereas

OFDM/OQAM only provides real orthogonality. However, as we have recently shown, under some conditions, a transmission

scheme combining CDMA and OFDM/OQAM can satisfy the complex orthogonality condition. Adding a CDMA component can

thus be seen as a solution to apply the Alamouti scheme in combination with OFDM/OQAM. However, our analysis shows that

the CDMA-OFDM/OQAM combination has to be built taking into account particular features of the transmission channel. Our

simulation results illustrate the 2 × 1 Alamouti coding scheme for which CDMA-OFDM/OQAM and CP-OFDM are compared in

two diﬀerent scenarios: (i) CDMA is performed in the frequency domain, (ii) CDMA is performed in time domain.

a poor (sinc(x)) behavior in the frequency domain. Thus CP-

Increasing the transmission rate and/or providing robustness OFDM gives rise to two drawbacks: loss of spectral eﬃciency

to channel conditions are nowadays two of the main research and sensitivity to frequency dispersion, for example, Doppler

topics for wireless communications. Indeed, much eﬀort spread.

is done in the area of multiantennas, where Space Time These two strong limitations may be overcome by some

Codes (STCs) enable to exploit the spatial diversity when other OFDM variants that also use the exponential base

using several antennas either at the transmitting side or of functions. But then, in any case, as it can be deduced

at the receiving side. One of the most known and used from the Balian-Low theorem, see, for example, [2], it is not

STC technique is Alamouti code [1]. Alamouti code has possible to get at the same time (i) Complex orthogonality;

the nice property to be simple to implement while provid- (ii) Maximum spectral eﬃciency; (iii) A well-localized pulse

ing the maximum channel diversity. On the other hand, shape in time and frequency. With CP-OFDM conditions

multicarrier modulation (MCM) is becoming, mainly with (ii) and (iii) are not satisfied, while there are two main

the popular Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing alternatives that satisfy two of these three requirements

(OFDM) scheme, the appropriate modulation for transmis- and can be implemented as filter bank-based multicarrier

sion over frequency selective channels. Furthermore, when (FBMC) modulations. Relaxing condition (ii) we get a

appending the OFDM symbols with a Cyclic Prefix (CP) modulation scheme named Filtered MultiTone (FMT) [3],

longer than the maximum delay spread of the channel to also named oversampled OFDM in [4], where the authors

preserve the orthogonality, CP-OFDM has the capacity to show that the baseband implementation scheme can be seen

transform a frequency selective channel into a bunch of flat as the dual of an oversampled filter bank. But if one really

fading channels which naturally leads to various eﬃcient wants to avoid the two drawbacks of CP-OFDM the only

combinations of the STC and CP-OFDM schemes. However, solution is to relax the complex orthogonality constraint. The

the insertion of the CP yields spectral eﬃciency loss. In transmission system proposed in [5] is a pioneering work

addition, the conventional OFDM modulation is based on that illustrates this possibility. Later on an eﬃcient Discrete

2 EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing

Fourier Transform (DFT) implementation of the Saltzberg of CDMA and OFDM/OQAM (CDMA-OFDM/OQAM) can

system [5], named Orthogonally Quadrature Amplitude provide the complex orthogonality property; this interesting

Modulation (O-QAM), has been proposed by Hirosaki [6]. property is first recalled in Section 3.1. Then, two diﬀerent

To the best of our knowledge, the acronym OFDM/OQAM, approaches with Alamouti coding are proposed, by consid-

where OQAM now corresponds to Oﬀset QAM, appeared ering either a spreading in the frequency (in Section 3.2)

for the first time in [7]. In [7] the authors also present an or in the time domain (in Section 4.2). When spreading

invention of Alard, named Isotropic Orthogonal Transform in time is considered, 2 strategies of implementing the

Algorithm (IOTA), and explicitly use a real inner product Alamouti coding are proposed. Some simulation results

to prove the orthogonality of the OFDM/OQAM-IOTA finally show that, using particular channel assumptions, the

modem. A formal link between these continuous-time mod- Alamouti CDMA-OFDM/OQAM technique achieves similar

ulation models and a precise filter bank implementation, performance to the Alamouti CP-OFDM system.

the Modified Discrete Fourier Transform (MDFT) [8], is

established in [9].

It is now recognized in a large number of applications, 2. OFDM/OQAM and Alamouti

with cognitive radio being the most recent and important 2.1. The OFDM/OQAM Transmultiplexer. The baseband

one [10], that appropriate OFDM/OQAM pulse shapes equivalent of a continuous-time multicarrier OFDM/OQAM

which satisfy conditions (ii) and (iii) can be designed, signal can be expressed as follows [7]:

and these can lead to some advantages over the CP-

OFDM. However, most of these publications are related to

M −1

a single user case and to Single-Input-Single-Output (SISO)

s(t) = am,n g(t − nτ0 )e j2πmF0 t νm,n (1)

systems. On the contrary, only a few results are available m=0 n∈Z

concerning more general requirements being related either to gm,n (t)

multiaccess techniques or multiantenna, that is, of Multiple

Input Multiple Output (MIMO) type. In a recent publication with Z the set of integers, M = 2N an even number of

[11], we have shown that, under certain conditions, a subcarriers, F0 = 1/T0 = 1/2τ0 the subcarrier spacing, g

combination of Coded Division Multiple Access (CDMA) the prototype function assumed here to be a real-valued and

with OFDM/OQAM could be used to provide the complex even function of time, and νm,n an additional phase term such

orthogonal property. On the other hand, it has also been that νm,n = j m+n e jφ0 , where φ0 can be chosen arbitrarily.

shown in [12] that spatial multiplexing MIMO could be The transmitted data symbols am,n are real-valued. They

directly applied to OFDM/OQAM. However, in the MIMO are obtained from a 22K -QAM constellation, taking the real

case there is still a problem which has not yet found a fully and imaginary parts of these complex-valued symbols of

favorable issue: It concerns the combined use of the popular duration T0 = 2τ0 , where τ0 denotes the time oﬀset between

STBC Alamouti code together with OFDM/OQAM. Basically the two parts [2, 6, 7, 9].

the problem is related to the fact that OFDM/OQAM Assuming a distortion-free channel, the Perfect Recon-

by construction produces an imaginary interference term. struction (PR) of the real data symbols is obtained owing to

Unfortunately, the processing that can be used in the SISO the following real orthogonality condition:

case, for cancelling it at the transmitter side (TX) [13]

or estimating it at the receiver side (RX) [14], cannot

∗

be successfully extended to the Alamouti coding/decoding R gm,n , g p,q =R gm,n (t)g p,q (t)dt = δm,p δn,q , (2)

scheme. Indeed, the solutions proposed so far are not fully

satisfactory. The Alamouti-like scheme for OFDM/OQAM

where ∗ denotes conjugation, ·, · denotes the inner

proposed in [15] complicates the RX and introduces a

product, and δm,p = 1 if m = p and δm,p = 0 if

processing delay. The pseudo-Alamouti scheme recently

m= / p. Otherwise said, for (m, n) = / (p, q), gm,n , g p,q is a

introduced in [16] is less complex but requires the appending

pure imaginary number. For the sake of brevity, we set

of a CP to the OFDM/OQAM signal which means that p,q

g m,n = − j gm,n , g p,q . The orthogonality condition for the

condition (ii) is no longer satisfied.

prototype filter can also be conveniently expressed using its

The aim of this paper is to take advantage of the orthog-

ambiguity function

onality property resulting from the CDMA-OFDM/OQAM

combination introduced in [11] to get a new MIMO Alam- ∞

outi scheme with OFDM/OQAM. The contents of our paper Ag (n, m) = g(u − nτ0 )g(u)e2 jπmF0 u du. (3)

is as follows. In Section 2, after some general descriptions −∞

of the OFDM/OQAM modulation in Section 2.1 and the

MIMO Alamouti scheme in Section 2.2, we will combine It is well-known [7] that to satisfy the orthogonality

both techniques. However, as we will see in Section 2.3, condition (2), the prototype filter should be chosen such that

the MIMO decoding process is very diﬃcult because Ag (2n, 2m) = 0 if (n, m) =

/ (0, 0) and Ag (0, 0) = 1.

of the orthogonality mismatch between Alamouti and In practical implementations, the baseband signal is

OFDM/OQAM. In Section 3, we propose to combine Alam- directly generated in discrete time, using the continuous-

outi and CDMA-OFDM/OQAM in order to solve the prob- time signal samples at the critical frequency, that is, with

lem. Indeed, in [11], we have shown that the combination Fe = MF0 = 2NF0 . Then, based on [9], the discrete-time

EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing 3

a0,n Re{}

Post demodulation

a1,n Re{}

Premodulation

Polyphase

Polyphase

.

FFT

IFFT

. P/S S/P .

. .

.

aM −1,n Re{}

OQAM modulator OQAM demodulator

a0,n a0,n

R

..

. OQAM Channel OQAM .

Equalization .

modulator demodulator .

aM −1,n aM −1,n

R

baseband signal taking the causality constraint into account, delivers a signal denoted s(t), but keeping in mind that this

is expressed as modulator corresponds to an FBMC modulator as shown in

Figure 1.

M −1 The block diagram in Figure 2 illustrates our OFDM/

s[k] = am,n g(k − nN)e j2πm(k−(Lg −1)/2) νm,n . (4) OQAM transmission scheme. Note that compared to

m=0 n∈Z

gm,n [k] Figure 1, here a channel breaks the real orthogonality

condition thus an equalization must be performed at the

The parallel between (1) and (4) shows that the overlap- receiver side to restore this orthogonality.

ping of duration τ0 corresponds to N discrete-time samples. Let us consider a time-varying channel, with maximum

For the sake of simplicity, we will assume that the prototype delay spread equal to Δ. We denote it by h(t, τ) in time,

filter length, denoted Lg , is such that Lg = bM = 2bN, with b and it can also be represented by a complex-valued number

being a positive integer. With the discrete time formulation, (c)

Hm,n for subcarrier m at symbol time n. At the receiver

the real orthogonality condition can also be expressed as: side, the received signal is the summation of the s(t) signal

⎧ ⎫ convolved with the channel impulse response and a noise

⎨ ⎬

R gm,n , g p,q =R ∗

gm,n [k]g p,q [k]⎭ = δm,p δn,q . (5) component η(t). For a locally invariant channel, we can

⎩ define a neighborhood, denoted ΩΔm,Δn , around the (m0 , n0 )

k∈Z

position, with

As shown in [9], the OFDM/OQAM modem can be

realized using the dual structure of the MDFT filter bank. ΩΔm,Δn

A simplified description is provided in Figure 1, where it has

to be noted that the premodulation corresponds to a single = p, q , p ≤ Δm, q ≤ Δn | Hm(c)0 +p,n0 +q ≈ Hm(c)0 ,n0 ,

multiplication by an exponential whose argument depends (6)

on the phase term νm,n and on the prototype length. Note

also that in this scheme, to transmit QAM symbols of a given and we also define Ω∗Δm,Δn = ΩΔm,Δn − {(0, 0)}.

duration, denoted T0 , the IFFT block has to be run twice Note also that Δn and Δm are chosen according to the

faster than for CP-OFDM. The polyphase block contains the time and bandwidth coherence of the channel, respectively.

polyphase components of the prototype filter g. At the RX Then, assuming g(t − τ − nτ0 ) ≈ g(t − nτ0 ), for all τ ∈ [0, Δ],

side, the dual operations are carried out. the demodulated signal can be expressed as [13, 14, 17]

The prototype filter has to be PR, or nearly PR. In this

(c) (c)

paper, we use a nearly PR prototype filter, with length Lg = ym 0 ,n0

= Hm 0 ,n0

am0 ,n0 + ja(i)

m0 ,n0 + Jm0 ,n0 + ηm0 ,n0 (7)

4M, resulting from the discretization of the continuous time

function named Isotropic Orthogonal Transform Algorithm with ηm0 ,n0 = η, gm0 ,n0 the noise component, a(i)

m0 ,n0 , the

(IOTA) in [7]. interference created by the neighbor symbols, given by

Before being transmitted through a channel the baseband m0 ,n0

signal is converted to continuous-time. Thus, in the rest of a(i)

m0 ,n0 = am0 +p,n0 +q g m0 +p,n0 +q, (8)

this paper, we present an OFDM/OQAM modulator that (p,q)∈Ω∗

Δm,Δn

4 EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing

and Jm0 ,n0 the interference created by the data symbols operation. Thus, using the Maximum Ratio Combining

outside ΩΔm,Δn . (MRC) equalization, the estimates s2k and s2k+1 are obtained

It can be shown that, even for small size neighborhoods, as

if the prototype function g is well localized in time and ⎡ ⎤ √ ⎡ ∗ ⎤⎡ ⎤

s2k 2 h2k,0 h2k,1 y2k

frequency, Jm0 ,n0 becomes negligible when compared to the ⎣ ⎦= ⎣

⎦ ⎣ ⎦

noise term ηm0 ,n0 . Indeed a good time-frequency localization

s2k+1 h2k,0 2 + h2k,1 2 h2k,1 ∗ − h2k,0 y2k+1

[7] means that the ambiguity function of g, which is directly ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤

related to the g m 0 ,n0

m0 +p,n0 +q terms, is concentrated around its s2k μ2k

origin in the time-frequency plane, that is, only takes small =⎣ ⎦+⎣ ⎦,

s2k+1 μ2k+1

values outside the ΩΔm,Δn region. Thus, the received signal

(13)

can be approximated by

where,

(c) (c)

ym 0 ,n0

≈ Hm 0 ,n0

am0 ,n0 + ja(i)

m0 ,n0 + ηm0 ,n0 . (9) ⎡ ⎤ √ ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤

μ2k 2 h∗2k,0 h2k,1 n2k

⎣ ⎦= 2 2 ⎣ ∗ ⎦⎣ ∗ ⎦.

For the rest of our study, we consider (9) as the μ2k+1

h2k,0 + h2k,1 h2k,1 − h2k,0 n2k+1

expression of the signal at the output of the OFDM/OQAM (14)

demodulator.

Since the noise components n2k and n2k+1 are uncorrelated,

2.2. Alamouti Scheme: General Case. In order to describe the E(|μ2k |2 ) = E(|μ2k+1 |2 ) = 2N0 /(|h2k,0 |2 + |h2k,1 |2 ), where

Alamouti scheme [1], let us consider the one-tap channel N0 denotes the monolateral noise density. Thus, assuming a

model described as QPSK modulation, based on [18], the bit error probability,

denoted pb , is given by

yk = hk,u sk,u + nk , (10) ⎛# ⎞

$& 2 2 '

⎜$

h2k,0 + h2k,1 ⎟

where, at time instant k, hk,u is the channel gain between pb = Q⎝% SNRt ⎠, (15)

2

the transmit antenna u and the receive antenna and nk

is an additive noise. We assume that hk,u is a complex-

valued Gaussian random process with unitary variance. One where SNRt denotes the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) at

transmit antenna and one receive antenna are generally the transmitter side. When the two channel coeﬃcients are

referred as SISO model. We consider coherent detection, that uncorrelated, we will have a diversity gain of two [18].

is, we assume that the receiver has a perfect knowledge of hk,u .

The Alamouti scheme is implemented with 2 transmit 2.3. OFDM/OQAM with Alamouti Scheme. Equation

and one receive antennas. Let us consider s2k and s2k+1 to (9) indicates that we can consider the transmission

be the two symbols to transmit at time (time and frequency of OFDM/OQAM on each subcarrier as a flat fading

axis can be permuted in multicarrier modulation.) instants transmission. Moreover, recalling that in OFDM/OQAM

(c)

2k and 2k + 1,√respectively. At time instant 2k, the antenna √0 each complex data symbol, dm,n , is divided into two real

transmits s2k / 2 whereas the antenna 1 transmits s2k+1 / √2. (c) (c)

symbols, R{dm,n } and I{dm,n }, transmitted at successive

At time instant 2k + 1, the antenna 0 transmits

√ −√(s2k+1 )∗ / 2 time instants, transmission of a pair of data symbols,

∗

whereas the antenna 1 transmits s2k / 2. The 1/ 2 factor is according to Alamouti scheme, is organized as follows:

added to normalize the total transmitted power. The received

(c)

signal samples at time instants 2k and 2k + 1 are given by am,2n,0 = R dm,2n ,

1 (c)

y2k = √ h2k,0 s2k + h2k,1 s2k+1 + n2k , am,2n,1 = R dm,2n+1 ,

2

(11)

1 (c)

am,2n+1,0 = I dm,2n ,

y2k+1 = √ −h2k+1,0 (s2k+1 )∗ + h2k+1,1 (s2k )∗ + n2k+1 .

2

(c)

am,2n+1,1 = I dm,2n+1 ,

Assuming the channel to be constant between the time

∗

am,2n+2,0 = −R dm,2n+1 = −R dm,2n+1 = −am,2n,1 ,

⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤

y2k h2k,0 h2k,1 s2k n2k ∗

⎣ ⎦ = √1 ⎣ ∗ ∗ ⎦⎣ ⎦+⎣ ⎦. (c)

(c)

∗

y2k+1 2 h2k,1 − h2k,0 s2k+1 n∗2k+1 am,2n+2,1 = R dm,2n = R dm,2n = am,2n,0 ,

H 2k ∗

(c) (c)

(12) am,2n+3,0 = −I dm,2n+1 = I dm,2n+1 = am,2n+1,1 ,

∗

dm,2n (c)

= −I dm,2n = −am,2n+1,0 .

(1/2)(|h2k,0 |2 + |h2k,1 |2 )I 2 , where I 2 is the identity matrix

of size (2, 2) and H stands for the transpose conjugate (16)

EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing 5

is a constant between the time instants 2n and 2n + 3. Let ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤⎡ (c)

⎤

zm,2n hm,2n,0 hm,2n,1 dm,2n

us denote the channel gain between the transmit antenna i ⎣ ∗ ⎦ = ⎣ ∗ ∗ ⎦⎣ (c) ⎦

and the receive antenna at subcarrier m and time instant n zm,2n+1 hm,2n,1 − hm,2n,0 dm,2n+1

by hm,n,i . Therefore, at the single receive antenna we have

z2n Q2n d2n

⎡ ⎤

ym,2n = hm,2n,0 am,2n,0 + ja(i) hm,2n,0 hm,2n,1 0 0

m,2n,0

+⎣ ∗ ∗ ⎦

0 0 hm,2n,1 − hm,2n,0

+ hm,2n,1 am,2n,1 + ja(i)

m,2n,1 + nm,2n,0 ,

K 2n

⎡ ⎤

ym,2n+1 = hm,2n,0 am,2n+1,0 + ja(i)

m,2n+1,0 xm,2n,0

⎢ ⎥ ⎡ ⎤

⎢ x ⎥ κm,2n

⎢ m,2n,1 ⎥

+ hm,2n,1 am,2n+1,1 + ja(i) ⎢

×⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ∗ ⎦.

m,2n+1,1 + nm,2n+1,1 , ⎥+

⎢xm,2n+2,0 ⎥ κ

⎣ ⎦ m,2n+1

ym,2n+2 = hm,2n,0 am,2n+2,0 + ja(i) xm,2n+2,1 κ2n

m,2n+2,0

x2n

+ hm,2n,1 am,2n+2,1 + ja(i)

m,2n+2,1 + nm,2n+2,0 , (21)

We note that Q2n is an orthogonal matrix which is

ym,2n+3 = hm,2n,0 am,2n+3,0 + ja(i)

m,2n+3,0 similar to the one found in (12) for the conventional 2 × 1

Alamouti scheme. However, the K 2n x2n term appears, which

+ hm,2n,1 am,2n+3,1 + ja(i)

m,2n+3,1 + nm,2n+3,1 . is an interference term due to the fact that OFDM/OQAM

(17) has only a real orthogonality. Therefore, even without noise

and assuming a distortion-free channel, we cannot achieve

a good error probability since K 2n x2n is an inherent “noise

Setting interference” component that, diﬀerently from the one

expressed in (9), cannot be easily removed. (in a particular

zm,2n = ym,2n + j ym,2n+1 , case, where hm,2n,0 = hm,2n,1 , one can nevertheless get rid of

(18) the interference terms.)

zm,2n+1 = ym,2n+2 + j ym,2n+3 , To tackle this drawback some research studies are being

carried out. However, as mentioned in the introduction,

the first one [15] significantly increases the RX complexity,

and using (16), we obtain

while the second one [16] fails to reach the objective of

theoretical maximum spectral eﬃciency, that is, does not

(c)

zm,2n = hm,2n,0 dm,2n (c)

+ hm,2n,1 dm,2n+1 satisfy condition (ii). The one we propose hereafter is based

on a combination of CDMA with OFDM/OQAM and avoids

+ hm,2n,0 xm,2n,0 + hm,2n,1 xm,2n,1 + κm,2n,0 , these two shortcomings.

∗ ∗

(c)

zm,2n+1 = −hm,2n,0 dm,2n+1 (c)

+ hm,2n,1 dm,2n 3. CDMA-OFDM/OQAM and Alamouti

∗ ∗ 3.1. CDMA-OFDM/OQAM. In this section we summarize

− hm,2n,0 xm,2n+2,0 +hm,2n,1 xm,2n+2,1 +κm,2n+2,0 ,

the results obtained, assuming a distortion-free channel, in

(19)

[19] and [11] for CDMA-OFDM/OQAM schemes transmit-

ting real and complex data symbols, respectively. Then, we

where, show how this latter scheme can be used for transmission

over a realistic channel model in conjunction with Alamouti

coding.

xm,2n,0 = −a(i) (i)

m,2n+1,0 + jam,2n,0 ,

xm,2n,1 = −a(i) (i)

m,2n+1,1 + jam,2n,1 ,

Nc the length of the CDMA code used and assume that

κm,2n,0 = nm,2n,0 + jnm,2n+1,0 , NS = M/Nc is an integer number. Let us denote by cu =

(20) [c0,u · · · cNc −1,u ]T , where (·)T stands for the transpose

κm,2n,0 = nm,2n+2,0 + jnm,2n+3,0 , operation, the code used by the uth user. When applying

spreading in the frequency domain such as in pure MC-

xm,2n+2,0 = a(i) (i)

m,2n+3,0 + jam,2n+2,0 , CDMA (Multi-Carrier-CDMA) [20], for a user u0 at a

given time n0 , NS diﬀerent data are transmitted denoted

xm,2n+2,1 = −a(i) (i)

m,2n+3,1 − jam,2n+2,1 . by: du0 ,n0 ,0 , du0 ,n0 ,1 , . . . , du0 ,n0 ,NS −1 . Then by spreading with

6 EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing

Re{}

x0,n

demodulator

Equalization

du,n

modulator

Spreading

OQAM

Despreading

OQAM

Real data

in Channel in

du,n

frequency frequency

xM −1,n

Im{}

iu,n

Figure 3: Transmission scheme for the CDMA-OFDM/OQAM system with spreading in frequency of real data.

the cu codes, we get the real symbol am0 ,n0 transmitted at For a maximum spreading length, that is, M = 2N =

frequency m0 and time n0 by Nc , based on [11, Equation (18)], the interference term when

transmitting real data can be expressed as

−1

U ⎛ ⎞

−1

U

2b −1

2N −1 2N

−1

am0 ,n0 = cm0 /Nc ,u du,n0 ,

m0 /Nc , (22)

dn+n0 ,u ⎝

(p,n0 ) ⎠

u=0 iu,n = c p,u0 cm,u γm,n+n 0 .

u=0 n=−2b+1, n =

/0 p=0 m=0

and

the floor operator. From the am0 ,n0 term, the It is shown in [11] that if U ≤ M/2 spreading codes are

reconstruction of du,n0 ,p (for p ∈ [0, NS − 1]) is insured properly selected then the iu,n interference is cancelled. The

thanks to the orthogonality of the code, that is, cTu1 cu2 = W-H matrix being of size M = 2N = 2n can be divided into

δu1,u2 ; see [21] for more details. Therefore, noise taken apart, two subsets of column indices, Sn1 and Sn2 , with cardinal equal

the despreading operator leads to to M/2 making a partition of all the index set. To guarantee

the absence of interference between users, the construction

c −1

N rule for theses two subsets is as follows.

du,n0 ,p = cm,u a pNC +m,n0 . (23) For n0 = 1, each subset is initialized by setting: S11 = {0}

m=0

and S12 = {1}.

Let us now assume that, for a given integer n = n0 , the

In [19], it is shown that, since no CP is inserted, the two subsets contain the following list of indices:

transmission of these spread real data (du,n0 ,p ) can be insured

- .

at a symbol rate which is more than twice the one used Sn1 0 = i1,1 , i1,2 , i1,3 , . . . , i1,2n0 −1 ,

for transmitting complex MC-CDMA data. Figure 3 depicts - . (27)

the real CDMA-OFDM/OQAM transmission scheme for Sn2 0 = i2,1 , i2,2 , i2,3 , . . . , i2,2n0 −1 .

real data and a maximum spreading length (limited by

the number of subcarriers), where after the despreading These subsets are used to build two new subsets of identical

operation, only the real part of the symbol is kept whereas size such that

the imaginary component iu,n is not detected. This scheme n - .

S1 0 = i2,1 + 2n0 , i2,2 + 2n0 , i2,3 + 2n0 , . . . , i2,2n0 −1 + 2n0 ,

satisfies a real orthogonality condition and can work for a (28)

number of users up to M. n - .

S2 0 = i1,1 + 2n0 , i1,2 + 2n0 , i1,3 + 2n0 , . . . , i1,2n0 −1 + 2n0 .

3.1.2. Interference Cancellation. A closer examination of the Then, we get the subsets of higher size, n = n0 + 1, as

interference term is proposed in [11] assuming that the follows:

CDMA codes are Walsh-Hadamard (W-H) codes of length n n

S1n0 +1 = Sn1 0 ∪ S1 0 , S2n0 +1 = Sn2 0 ∪ S2 0 . (29)

M = 2N = 2n , with n an integer. The prototype filter

being of length Lg = bM, its duration is also given by the Applying this rule one can check that for n = 5, as an

indicating function I|n−n0 |<2b , equal to 1 if |n − n0 | < 2b and example, we get

0 elsewhere. Then, the scalar product of the base functions

can be expressed as S51 = {1, 4, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 24, 25, 28, 30, 31},

(p,n ) S52 = {2, 3, 5, 8, 9, 12, 14, 15, 17, 20, 22, 23, 26, 27, 29, 32}.

gm,n , g p,n0 = δm− p,n−n0 + jγm,n 0 I|n−n0 |<2b , (24)

(30)

(p,n )

where γm,n 0 is given by Hence, for a given user and at a given time, we get du,n =

du,n and iu,n = 0 and these equalities hold for a number of

(p,n )

U users up to M/2. The complete proof given in [11] takes

γm,n 0 = I (−1)m(n+n0 ) j m+n− p−n0 Ag n − n0 , m − p . (25) advantage of three properties of W-H codes.

EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing 7

x0,n a0,n

Equalization

demodulator

modulator

Spreading sF (t) y(t) Despreading

OQAM

OQAM

Complex data (c)

(c) in Channel in Zu,n

du,n frequency frequency

xM −1,n aM −1,n

Figure 4: Transmission scheme for the CDMA-OFDM/OQAM system with spreading in frequency of complex data.

3.1.3. Transmission of Complex Data Symbols. As the imag- channel is no longer distortion-free. So, we assume now that

inary component can be cancelled when transmitting real we are in the case of a wireless Down-Link (DL) transmission

data through a distortion-free channel when using CDMA- and perfectly synchronized.

OFDM/OQAM, one can imagine to extend this scheme to

the transmission of complex data. Indeed, the transmission 3.2.1. Problem Statement. Before trying to apply Alam-

system being linear, real and imaginary parts will not outi scheme to CDMA-OFDM/OQAM, one must notice

interfere if the previous rule is satisfied. that the channel equalization process is replaced by the

(c)

Then, denoting by dn,u the complex data to transmit, Alamouti decoding. When adapting Alamouti scheme to

the OFDM/OQAM symbols transmitted at time nτ0 over the CDMA-OFDM/OQAM, the equalizer component, depicted

carrier m and for the code u are complex numbers, that is, in Figure 4, must be replaced by the Alamouti decoding

a(c) (c)

m,n,u = cm,u dn,u are complex symbols. The corresponding process and the despreading operation must be carried out

complex CDMA-OQAM transmission scheme is depicted in just after the OFDM/OQAM modulator. Then, contrary

Figure 4. The baseband equivalent of the transmitted signal, to the DL conventional MC-CDMA case, the despreading

with a spreading in frequency, can be written as operation must be performed before the Alamouti decoding.

Indeed, with OFDM/OQAM, we can only recover a complex

2N

−1 −1

U

orthogonality property at the output of the despreading

sF (t) = xm,n gm,n (t) with xm,n = a(c)

m,n,u . (31) block. This point is critical since it rises the question: does

n∈Z m=0 u=0

complex orthogonality hold in CDMA-OFDM/OQAM if we

In this expression, as in [11], we assume that the phase term perform despreading operation before equalization? and if yes,

is νn,m = j n+m (−1)nm , that is, φ0 = πnm. Then, if the U codes at which cost? The first point leads to the following problem:

are all in Sn1 , or Sn2 , the interference terms are cancelled and we let us consider complex quantities ti , βi , λi . Does it sound

/ −1

get possible to obtain M i=0 βi (ti /λi ) (equalization + despread-

/M −1

(c) (c)

ing) from i=0 βi ti (despreading)? Here, equalization is

∀n, u, zn,u = dn,u . (32) materialized by ei = ti /λi and the despreading operation

/ −1

by M i=0 βi ei . The answer is in general (obviously) NO,

Otherwise said, this CDMA-OFDM/OQAM scheme satisfies

except if all the λi are the same, that is, λi = λ j = λ.

a complex orthogonality condition, that is, the back-to-

That is the case if we are in the presence of a constant

back transmultiplexer is a PR system for the transmission

channel over frequencies. Indeed, only in this case the

of complex data. Note also that, diﬀerently from what we

order of the equalization and despreading operations can be

saw for the transmission of real data symbols, as explained

exchanged without impairing the transmission performance.

in Section 3.1.2, here the maximum number of users is M/2

Conversely, applying despreading before equalization should

instead of M. In both cases the overall data rate is therefore

have an impact in terms of performance for a channel

the same.

being nonconstant in frequency. So, let us consider at first

In the presence of a channel, an equalization must be

a flat channel. Then the subset of subcarriers where a given

performed before the despreading since the signal at the

spreading code is applied will be aﬀected by the same channel

output of the equalization block is supposed to be free from

coeﬃcient.

any channel distortion or attenuation. Then, the signal at the

equalizer output is somewhat equivalent to the one obtained

with a distortion-free channel. Then, despreading operation 3.2.2. Implementation Scheme. In a SISO configuration, if

will recover the complex orthogonality. we denote by hn,i the single channel coeﬃcient between the

Now, the question is: “Can we use this complex orthogo- transmit antenna i and the single receive antenna at time

nality for combining Alamouti coding scheme and CDMA- instant n, the despreaded signal is given by:

OFDM/OQAM?”. Let us analyze this problem assuming a

one-tap equalization. zn(c)0 ,u0 = hn0 ,i dn(c)0 ,u0 ,i , (33)

3.2. Alamouti with CDMA-OFDM/OQAM with Spreading in where dn(c)0 ,u0 ,i is the complex data of user u0 being transmitted

the Frequency Domain. In a realistic transmission scheme the at time instant n0 by antenna i. Now, if we consider a system

8 EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing

sn,0 100

.

.. OQAM

Spreading

modulator

Alamouti 10−1

processing

. per

.

. user

per

BER

10−2

sub-carrier

sn,M/2−1 or time

OQAM

. Spreading

. modulator 10−3

.

0 5 10 15 20

SNR

sn,0

Alamouti with CDMA-OFDM/OQAM

Alamouti with CP-OFDM

. . Alamouti .

OQAM . Despreading . CDMA-OQAM . OFDM/OQAM with spreading in frequency domain, versus Alam-

. . .

demodulator decoding outi CP-OFDM for transmission over a flat fading channel.

sn,M/2−1

Alamouti CDMA-OFDM/OQAM transmitter and receiver,

Figure 6: An Alamouti CDMA-OFDM/OQAM receiver. respectively.

with 2 antennas with indexes 0 and 1, respectively, and if we 3.2.3. Performance Evaluation. We compare the proposed

apply Alamouti coding scheme to every user u data, denoting Alamouti CDMA-OFDM/OQAM scheme with the Alamouti

by sk,u the main stream of complex data for user u, we have OFDM using the following parameters:

d2k,u,0 = √

2 (iii) maximum spreading length, implying that the W-H

(c) s2k+1,u spreading codes are of length Nc = 128,

d2k,u,1 = √ ,

2

(iv) flat fading channel (one single Rayleigh coeﬃcient for

(34)

at time 2k + 1, all 128 subcarriers);

∗ (v) the IOTA prototype filter with length 512,

(c) − s2k+1,u

d2k+1,u,0 = √

2 (vi) zero forcing one tap equalization for both transmis-

s ∗ sion schemes,

(c)

d2k+1,u,1 = √2k .

2 (vii) no channel coding.

For a flat fading channel, ignoring noise, the despreaded

Figure 7 gives the performance results. As expected, both

signal for user u is given by

systems perform the same.

(c) (c) (c)

zn,u = hn,0 dn,u,0 + hn,1 dn,u,1 . (35)

Hence,

4. Alamouti and CDMA-OFDM/OQAM with

⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤

Time Domain Spreading

(c)

⎢

z2k,u ⎥ √1 ⎣ h2k,0 h2k,1 s2k,u

⎣ ∗ ⎦ = ∗ ∗ ⎦⎣ ⎦. In this section, we keep the same assumptions as the ones

(c)

z2k+1,u 2 h2k+1,1 − h2k+1,0 s2k+1,u used for the transmission of complex data with a spreading

(36) in frequency. Firstly, we again suppose that the prototype

function is a real-valued symmetric function and also that

This is the same decoding equation as in the Alamouti the W-H codes are selected using the procedure recalled in

scheme presented in Section 2.2. Hence, the decoding could Section 3.1.2.

EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing 9

x0,n a0,n

Equalization

demodulator

sT (t) y(t)

modulator

Spreading Despreading

OQAM

OQAM

Complex data (c)

(c) in Channel in Zu,n

du,n time time

xM −1,n aM −1,n

Figure 8: Transmission scheme for the CDMA-OFDM/OQAM system with spreading in time of complex data.

4.1. CDMA-OFDM/OQAM with Spreading in the Time In (39), we assume that the phase term is νm,n = j m+n as in

Domain. Let us first consider a CDMA-OFDM/OQAM [7]. Let us also recall that the prototype function g satisfies

system carrying out a spreading in the time domain, that the real orthogonality condition (2) and is real-valued and

is, on each subcarrier m the data are spread over the time symmetric, that is, g(t) = g(−t). To express the complex

duration frame length. Let us consider L f the length of the inner product of the base functions gm,n , using a similar

frame, that is, the frame is made of M data in the frequency procedure that led to (24), we get

domain and L f data in time domain. Nc is the length of the

spreading code. We assume that NS = L f /Nc is an integer gm,n , g p,n0 = δm− p,n−n0 + jλm,n 0 I|n−n0 |<2b ,

(p,n )

(40)

number. Let us denote by: cu = [c0,u · · · cNc −1,u ]T the

code used by the uth user. Then, for a user u0 at a given (p,n )

where λm,n 0 is given by

frequency m0 , NS diﬀerent data are transmitted denoted

by: du0 ,m0 ,0 , du0 ,m0 ,1 , . . . , du0 ,m0 ,NS −1 . By spreading with the cu (p,n )

codes, we get the real symbol am0 ,n0 transmitted at frequency λm,n 0 = I (−1)n(p+m) j m+n− p−n0 Ag n − n0 , m − p .

m0 and time n0 by (41)

−1

U

As the channel is distortion-free, the received signal is y(t) =

am0 ,n0 = cn0 /Nc ,u du,m0 ,

n0 /Nc , (37)

u=0

s(t) and the demodulated symbols are obtained as follows:

where U is the number of users. From the am0 ,n0 term, the (c)

ym 0 ,n0

= y, gm0 ,n0 . (42)

reconstruction of du,m0 ,p (for p ∈ [0, NS − 1]) is insured

thanks to the orthogonality of the code, that is, cTu1 cu2 = In this configuration, the demodulation operation only

δu1,u2 , see [21] for more details. Therefore, the despreading takes place when the whole frame is received. Then, the

operator leads to despreading operation gives us the despreaded data for the

c −1

N code u0 as

du,m0 ,p = cn,u am0 ,pNc +n . (38)

n=0

2L−1

2L−1

2L−1 2N

−1

(c) (c)

zm 0 ,u0

= cq,u0 ym 0 ,q

= cq,u0 xm,n gm,n , gm0 ,q .

We now propose to consider the transmission of complex

(c) q=0 q=0 n=0 m=0

data, denoted dm,u,p , using U well chosen W-H codes. In (43)

order to establish the theoretical features of this complex

CDMA-OFDM/OQAM scheme, we suppose that the trans- Replacing xm,n and gm,n , gm0 ,q by their expression given in

mission channel is free of any type of distortion. Also, for (39) and (40), respectively, we get:

the sake of simplicity, we now assume a maximum spreading

(c)

length (in time domain, L f = Nc ). We denote by dm,u the

2L−1

2L−1 2N

−1 U

−1 (m ,q)

(c) (c)

(c) (c)

complex data and by am,n,u = cn,u dm,u the complex symbol zm 0 ,u0

= cq,u0 cn,u dm,u δm−m0 ,n−q + jλm,n0 .

q=0 n=0 m=0 u=0

transmitted at time nτ0 over the carrier m and for the code

u. As usual, the length of the W-H codes are supposed to be (44)

a power of 2, that is, L f = 2L = 2q with q an integer.

Splitting the summation over m in two parts, with m equal

The block diagram of the transmitter is depicted in

to m0 or not to m0 , (44) can be rewritten as:

Figure 8. For a frame containing 2L OFDM/OQAM data

symbols, the baseband signal spread in time, can be written −1

U −1

2L

as (c)

zm = (c)

dm c p,u0 c p,u

0 ,u0 0 ,u

2L−1 2N

−1 u=0 q=0

sT (t) = xm,n gm,n (t) ⎛ ⎛ ⎞⎞

n=0 m=0 −1

U

2N −1

2L−1 2L

−1

j⎝ (c) ⎝

cq,u0 cn,u λm,n0 ⎠⎠.

(m ,q)

(39) + dm,u

−1

U −1

U u=0 m=0, m =

/ m0 q=0 n=0

with xm,n = a(c)

m,n,u =

(c)

cn,u dm,u . (45)

u=0 u=0

10 EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing

Considering the W-H codes, we obtain (1) Strategy 1. Alamouti performed over pairs of frequencies. If

we consider a system with 2 transmit antennas, 0 and 1, and

(c) (c)

zm 0 ,u0

= dm 0 ,u0 if we apply the Alamouti coding scheme to every user u data,

⎛ ⎛ ⎞⎞ that is, if we denote by sm,u the main stream of complex data

−1

U

2N −1

2L−1 2L

−1

for user u, then we have the following at subcarrier 2m:

+ j⎝ (c) ⎝

cq,u0 cn,u λm,n0 ⎠⎠.

(m ,q)

dm,u

u=0 m=0, m =

/ m0 q=0 n=0 (c) s2m,u

d2m,u,0 = √

(46) 2

(51)

(c) s2m+1,u

In [11], for W-H codes of length 2L, we have shown that for d2m,u,1 = √

n= 2

/ n0 ,

−1 2L−1

and at subcarrier 2m + 1,

2L (p,n0 )

c p,u0 cm,u γm,n+n = 0, (47) ∗

0

(c) − s2m+1,u

p=0 m=0 d2m+1,u,0 = √

2

(p,n )

(52)

∗

where γm,n 0 is given by (c) s

d2m+1,u,1 = √2m .

2

(p,n )

γm,n 0 = I (−1)m(n+n0 ) j m+n− p−n0 Ag n − n0 , m − p . (48)

Then, considering a flat fading channel, the despreaded

signal for user u is given by

To prove the result given in (47), we had the following

requirements: (c) (c) (c)

zm,u = hm,0 dm,u,0 + hm,1 dm,u,1 . (53)

(i) W-H codes satisfy the set of mathematical properties

Therefore, we get

that are proved in [11].

⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤

(ii) Since g is a real-valued function, Ag (n, 0) is real (c)

⎢

z2m,u ⎥ √1 ⎣ h2m,0 h2m,1 s2m,u

valued and the ambiguity function of the prototype ⎣ ∗ ⎦ = ∗ ∗ ⎦⎣ ⎦.

function g also satisfies the identities Ag (−n, m) =

(c)

z2m+1,u 2 h2m+1,1 − h2m+1,0 s2m+1,u

(−1)nm Ag (n, m) and Ag (n, m) = A∗g (n, −m). (54)

Using these results, (47) can be proved straighforwardly. That means, when assuming the channel to be flat over two

It is worth mentioning that the above requirements are consecutive subcarriers, that is, h2m,i = h2m+1,i for all i, we

independent of the phase term and thus are satisfied in the have exactly the same decoding equation as the Alamouti

case of the CDMA-OFDM/OQAM system with spreading in scheme presented in Section 3.2, by permuting the frequency

time. It can also be shown that the modification of the phase and time axis. Then, the decoding is performed in the same

term νm,n leads to the substitutions n → m and p + m → way.

n + n0 , in obtaining (48) from (41). Accordingly the second

term on the right hand side of (46) vanishes and we obtain (2) Strategy 2. Alamouti performed over pairs of spreading

(c) (c) codes. In this second strategy, we apply the Alamouti scheme

∀m0 , u0 , zm 0 ,u0

= dm 0 ,u0

. (49)

on pairs of codes, that is, we divide the U codes in two groups

(assuming U to be even). That is, we process the codes by pair

4.2. Alamouti with CDMA-OFDM/OQAM with Spreading in (u0 , u1 ). We denote by sm,u0 ,u1 the main stream of complex

Time. Now, if we consider the CDMA-OFDM/OQAM with data for user pair (u0 , u1 ). At subcarrier m, antennas 0 and 1

spreading in time, contrary to the case of a spreading in transmit

frequency domain, as long as the channel is constant during

(c) sm,u ,u

the spreading time duration, we can perform despreading dm,u 0 ,0

= √0 1 ,

before equalization. At the equalizer output we will have a 2

complex orthogonality. Indeed, considering at first a SISO (c) sm+1,u0 ,u1

dm,u 0 ,1

= √ ,

case, if we denote by hm,i the channel coeﬃcient between 2

a single transmit antenna i and the receive antenna at ∗ (55)

subcarrier m, the despreaded signal is given by (c) − sm+1,u0 ,u1

dm,u 1 ,0

= √ ,

2

(c) (c)

zm,u = hm,i dm,u,i , (50) s∗m,u0 ,u1

(c)

dm,u 1 ,1

= √ .

(c) 2

where dm,u,i is the complex data of user u being transmitted

at subcarrier m by antenna i. Thus, we can easily apply the At the receiver side we get,

Alamouti decoding scheme knowing the channel is constant ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤

for each antenna at each frequency. Otherwise said, the z(c)

⎢ m,u0 ⎥ 1 hm,0 hm,1 sm,u0 ,u1

method becomes applicable for a frequency selective channel. ⎣ ∗ ⎦ = √ ⎣ ∗ ∗ ⎦⎣ ⎦. (56)

(c)

zm,u1 2 hm,1 − hm,0 sm+1,u0 ,u1

Actually two strategies can be envisioned.

EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing 11

time the same channel profile, but with diﬀerent realizations,

between the 2 transmit antennas and one receive antenna.

10−1

The Guard Interval (GI) is adjusted to take into account the

delay spread profiles corresponding to a 4-path and to a 7-

10−2 path channel. The 4-path channel is characterized by the

BER

following parameters:

10−3

(i) power profile (in dB): 0, −6, −9, −12,

(iii) GI for CP-OFDM: 5 samples,

10−5

0 5 10 15 20 25 and the 7-path by

SNR

Alamouti-CDMA-OFDM/OQAM (strategy2)

(i) power profile (in dB): 0, −6, −9, −12, −16, −20, −22,

Alamouti-CDMA-OFDM/OQAM (strategy1)

(ii) delay profile (in samples): 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8,

Alamouti CP-OFDM

Figure 9: BER for two complex versions of the Alamouti CDMA- (iii) GI for CP-OFDM: 9 samples;

OFDM/OQAM with spreading in time domain, versus Alamouti

CP-OFDM for transmission over the 4-path frequency selective We also consider the following system parameters:

channel.

(i) QPSK modulation,

100

(ii) M = 128 subcarriers,

(iii) time invariant channel (no Doppler),

(iv) the IOTA prototype filter of length 512,

10−1

(v) spreading codes of length 32, corresponding to the

frame duration (32 complex OQAM symbols),

(vi) number of CDMA W-H codes equals to 16 in

BER

and this corresponds to 32 codes in OFDM, with

symbol duration 2τ0 , leading to the same spectral

eﬃciency

10−3

(vii) zero forcing, one tap equalization,

(viii) no channel coding.

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 CDMA-OFDM/OQAM technique for the two proposed

SNR strategies are presented.

Alamouti-CDMA-OFDM/OQAM (strategy1) The two strategies perform the same until a BER of

Alamouti-CDMA-OFDM/OQAM (strategy2) 10−3 or 10−2 for the 4 and 7-path channel, respectively.

Alamouti CP-OFDM For lower BER the strategy 2 performs better than the

strategy 1. This could be explained by the fact that strategy

Figure 10: BER for two complex versions of the Alamouti CDMA- 1 makes the approximation that the channel is constant

OFDM/OQAM with spreading in time domain, versus Alamouti

over two consecutive subcarriers. This approximation leads

CP-OFDM for transmission over the 7-path frequency selective

channel. to a degradation of the performance whereas the strategy

2 does not consider this approximation. If we compare the

performance of Alamouti CDMA-OFDM/OQAM strategy

2 with the Alamouti CP-OFDM, we see that both system

Then, we do not need to consider the channel constant perform approximately the same. It is worth mentioning

over two consecutive subcarriers. We have exactly the same that however the corresponding throughput is higher for the

decoding equation as the Alamouti scheme presented in OFDM/OQAM solutions (no CP). Indeed, it is increased

Section 3.2. Hence, the decoding is performed in the same by approximately 4 and 7% for the 4 and 7-path channels,

way. respectively.

12 EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing

transmission system,” IEEE Transactions on Communication

In this paper, we showed that the well-known Alam- Technology, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 805–811, 1967.

outi decoding scheme cannot be directly applied to the [6] B. Hirosaki, “An orthogonally multiplexed QAM system

OFDM/OQAM modulation. To tackle this problem, we using the discrete Fourier transform,” IEEE Transactions on

proposed to combine the MIMO Alamouti coding scheme Communications Systems, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 982–989, 1981.

with CDMA-OFDM/OQAM. If the CDMA spreading is [7] B. Le Floch, M. Alard, and C. Berrou, “Coded orthogonal

carried out in the frequency domain, the Alamouti decoding frequency division multiplex,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 83,

scheme can only be applied if the channel is assumed pp. 982–996, 1995.

to be flat. On the other hand, for a frequency selec- [8] T. Karp and N. J. Fliege, “MDFT filter banks with perfect

tive channel, the CDMA spreading component has to be reconstruction,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Sympo-

applied in the time domain. For the Alamouti scheme with sium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS ’95), vol. 1, pp. 744–747,

time spreading CDMA-OFDM/OQAM, we elaborate two Seattle, Wash, USA, May 1995.

strategies for implementing the MIMO space-time coding [9] P. Siohan, C. Siclet, and N. Lacaille, “Analysis and design

scheme. Strategy 1 implements the Alamouti over pairs of of OFDM/OQAM systems based on filterbank theory,” IEEE

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2002.

2 processes the Alamouti coding scheme over pairs of

spreading codes from two successive time instants. Strategy [10] B. Farhang-Boroujeny and R. Kempter, “Multicarrier commu-

nication techniques for spectrum sensing and communication

2 appears to be more appropriate since it requires less

in cognitive radios,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 46,

restrictive assumptions on the channel variations across no. 4, pp. 80–85, 2008.

the frequencies. We also made some performance compar-

[11] C. Lélé, P. Siohan, R. Legouable, and M. Bellanger, “CDMA

isons with Alamouti CP-OFDM. It was found that, under transmission with complex OFDM/OQAM,” EURASIP Jour-

some channel hypothesis, the combination of Alamouti nal on Wireless Communications and Networking, vol. 2008,

with complex CDMA-OFDM/OQAM is possible without Article ID 748063, 12 pages, 2008.

increasing the complexity of the Alamouti decoding process. [12] M. El Tabach, J.-P. Javaudin, and M. Hélard, “Spatial data

Furthermore, in the case of a frequency selective channel, multiplexing over OFDM/OQAM modulations,” in Proceed-

OFDM/OQAM keeps its intrinsic advantage with a SNR ings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications

gain in direct relation with the CP length. To find a (ICC ’07), pp. 4201–4206, Glasgow, Scotland, June 2007.

simpler Alamouti scheme, that is, without adding a CDMA [13] J.-P. Javaudin, D. Lacroix, and A. Rouxel, “Pilot-aided channel

component, remains an open problem. Naturally, some other estimation for OFDM/OQAM,” in Proceedings of the IEEE

alternative transmit diversity schemes for OFDM/OQAM, as Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC ’03), vol. 3, pp. 1581–

for instance cyclic delay diversity, could also deserve further 1585, Jeju, South Korea, April 2003.

investigations. [14] C. Lélé, J.-P. Javaudin, R. Legouable, A. Skrzypczak, and P.

Siohan, “Channel estimation methods for preamble-based

OFDM/OQAM modulations,” in Proceedings of the 13th

Acknowledgments European Wireless Conference (EW ’07), Paris, France, April

2007.

The authors would like to thank the reviewers and Pro- [15] M. Bellanger, “Transmit diversity in multicarrier transmission

fessor Farhang-Boroujeny for their careful reading of our using OQAM modulation,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Interna-

manuscript and for their helpful suggestions. This work tional Symposium on Wireless Pervasive Computing (ISWPC

was partially supported by the European ICT-2008-211887 ’08), pp. 727–730, Santorini, Greece, May 2008.

project PHYDYAS. [16] H. Lin, C. Lélé, and P. Siohan, “A pseudo alamouti transceiver

design for OFDM/OQAM modulation with cyclic prefix,”

in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Signal Processing

Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC ’09), pp. 300–

References 304, Perugia, Italy, June 2009.

[1] S. M. Alamouti, “A simple transmit diversity technique for [17] D. Lacroix-Penther and J.-P. Javaudin, “A new channel esti-

wireless communications,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in mation method for OFDM/OQAM,” in Proceedings of the

Communications, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1451–1458, 1998. 7th International OFDM Workshop (InOWo ’02), Hamburg,

[2] H. Bölcskei, “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing Germany, September 2002.

based on oﬀset QAM,” in Advances in Gabor Analysis, [18] D. Tse and P. Viswanath, Fundamentals of Wireless Communi-

Birkhäuser, Boston, Mass, USA, 2003. cation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA,

[3] G. Cherubini, E. Eleftheriou, and S. Ölçer, “Filtered multitone 2004.

modulation for very high-speed digital subscriber lines,” IEEE [19] C. Lélé, P. Siohan, R. Legouable, and M. Bellanger,

Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. “OFDM/OQAM for spread spectrum transmission,” in Pro-

1016–1028, 2002. ceedings of the International Workshop on Multi-Carrier

[4] R. Hleiss, P. Duhamel, and M. Charbit, “Oversampled OFDM Spread-Spectrum (MCSS ’07), Herrsching, Germany, May

systems,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on 2007.

Digital Signal Processing (DSP ’97), vol. 1, pp. 329–331, [20] K. Fazel and L. Papke, “On the performance of convolu-

Santorini, Greece, July 1997. tionnally-coded CDMA/OFDM for mobile communication

EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing 13

and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC ’93), pp. 468–472,

Yokohama, Japan, September 1993.

[21] E. H. Dinan and B. Jabbari, “Spreading codes for direct

sequence CDMA and wideband CDMA cellular networks,”

IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 48–54,

1998.

Photographȱ©ȱTurismeȱdeȱBarcelonaȱ/ȱJ.ȱTrullàs

Preliminaryȱcallȱforȱpapers OrganizingȱCommittee

HonoraryȱChair

The 2011 European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCOȬ2011) is the MiguelȱA.ȱLagunasȱ(CTTC)

nineteenth in a series of conferences promoted by the European Association for GeneralȱChair

Signal Processing (EURASIP, www.eurasip.org). This year edition will take place AnaȱI.ȱPérezȬNeiraȱ(UPC)

in Barcelona, capital city of Catalonia (Spain), and will be jointly organized by the GeneralȱViceȬChair

Centre Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC) and the CarlesȱAntónȬHaroȱ(CTTC)

Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC). TechnicalȱProgramȱChair

XavierȱMestreȱ(CTTC)

EUSIPCOȬ2011 will focus on key aspects of signal processing theory and

TechnicalȱProgramȱCo

Technical Program CoȬChairs

Chairs

applications

li ti as listed

li t d below.

b l A

Acceptance

t off submissions

b i i will

ill be

b based

b d on quality,

lit JavierȱHernandoȱ(UPC)

relevance and originality. Accepted papers will be published in the EUSIPCO MontserratȱPardàsȱ(UPC)

proceedings and presented during the conference. Paper submissions, proposals PlenaryȱTalks

for tutorials and proposals for special sessions are invited in, but not limited to, FerranȱMarquésȱ(UPC)

the following areas of interest. YoninaȱEldarȱ(Technion)

SpecialȱSessions

IgnacioȱSantamaríaȱ(Unversidadȱ

Areas of Interest deȱCantabria)

MatsȱBengtssonȱ(KTH)

• Audio and electroȬacoustics.

• Design, implementation, and applications of signal processing systems. Finances

MontserratȱNájarȱ(UPC)

Montserrat Nájar (UPC)

• Multimedia

l d signall processing andd coding.

d

Tutorials

• Image and multidimensional signal processing. DanielȱP.ȱPalomarȱ

• Signal detection and estimation. (HongȱKongȱUST)

• Sensor array and multiȬchannel signal processing. BeatriceȱPesquetȬPopescuȱ(ENST)

• Sensor fusion in networked systems. Publicityȱ

• Signal processing for communications. StephanȱPfletschingerȱ(CTTC)

MònicaȱNavarroȱ(CTTC)

• Medical imaging and image analysis.

Publications

• NonȬstationary, nonȬlinear and nonȬGaussian signal processing. AntonioȱPascualȱ(UPC)

CarlesȱFernándezȱ(CTTC)

Submissions IIndustrialȱLiaisonȱ&ȱExhibits

d i l Li i & E hibi

AngelikiȱAlexiouȱȱ

Procedures to submit a paper and proposals for special sessions and tutorials will (UniversityȱofȱPiraeus)

be detailed at www.eusipco2011.org. Submitted papers must be cameraȬready, no AlbertȱSitjàȱ(CTTC)

more than 5 pages long, and conforming to the standard specified on the InternationalȱLiaison

EUSIPCO 2011 web site. First authors who are registered students can participate JuȱLiuȱ(ShandongȱUniversityȬChina)

in the best student paper competition. JinhongȱYuanȱ(UNSWȬAustralia)

TamasȱSziranyiȱ(SZTAKIȱȬHungary)

RichȱSternȱ(CMUȬUSA)

ImportantȱDeadlines: RicardoȱL.ȱdeȱQueirozȱȱ(UNBȬBrazil)

P

Proposalsȱforȱspecialȱsessionsȱ

l f i l i 15 D 2010

15ȱDecȱ2010

Proposalsȱforȱtutorials 18ȱFeb 2011

Electronicȱsubmissionȱofȱfullȱpapers 21ȱFeb 2011

Notificationȱofȱacceptance 23ȱMay 2011

SubmissionȱofȱcameraȬreadyȱpapers 6ȱJun 2011

Webpage:ȱwww.eusipco2011.org

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