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Hindawi Publishing Corporation

EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing


Volume 2010, Article ID 703513, 13 pages
doi:10.1155/2010/703513

Research Article
The Alamouti Scheme with CDMA-OFDM/OQAM

Chrislin Lélé,1 Pierre Siohan,2 and Rodolphe Legouable2


1 CNAM, Laetitia group, 292, rue Saint Martin, 75141 Paris, France
2 Orange Labs, 4, rue du Clos Courtel, BP 91226, 35512 Cesson Sévigné Cedex, France

Correspondence should be addressed to Pierre Siohan, pierre.siohan@orange-ftgroup.com

Received 23 June 2009; Revised 4 October 2009; Accepted 29 December 2009

Academic Editor: Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

Copyright © 2010 Chrislin Lélé et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

This paper deals with the combination of OFDM/OQAM with the Alamouti scheme. After a brief presentation of the
OFDM/OQAM modulation scheme, we introduce the fact that the well-known Alamouti decoding scheme cannot be
simply applied to this modulation. Indeed, the Alamouti coding scheme requires a complex orthogonality property; whereas
OFDM/OQAM only provides real orthogonality. However, as we have recently shown, under some conditions, a transmission
scheme combining CDMA and OFDM/OQAM can satisfy the complex orthogonality condition. Adding a CDMA component can
thus be seen as a solution to apply the Alamouti scheme in combination with OFDM/OQAM. However, our analysis shows that
the CDMA-OFDM/OQAM combination has to be built taking into account particular features of the transmission channel. Our
simulation results illustrate the 2 × 1 Alamouti coding scheme for which CDMA-OFDM/OQAM and CP-OFDM are compared in
two different scenarios: (i) CDMA is performed in the frequency domain, (ii) CDMA is performed in time domain.

1. Introduction a rectangular windowing in the time domain which leads to


a poor (sinc(x)) behavior in the frequency domain. Thus CP-
Increasing the transmission rate and/or providing robustness OFDM gives rise to two drawbacks: loss of spectral efficiency
to channel conditions are nowadays two of the main research and sensitivity to frequency dispersion, for example, Doppler
topics for wireless communications. Indeed, much effort spread.
is done in the area of multiantennas, where Space Time These two strong limitations may be overcome by some
Codes (STCs) enable to exploit the spatial diversity when other OFDM variants that also use the exponential base
using several antennas either at the transmitting side or of functions. But then, in any case, as it can be deduced
at the receiving side. One of the most known and used from the Balian-Low theorem, see, for example, [2], it is not
STC technique is Alamouti code [1]. Alamouti code has possible to get at the same time (i) Complex orthogonality;
the nice property to be simple to implement while provid- (ii) Maximum spectral efficiency; (iii) A well-localized pulse
ing the maximum channel diversity. On the other hand, shape in time and frequency. With CP-OFDM conditions
multicarrier modulation (MCM) is becoming, mainly with (ii) and (iii) are not satisfied, while there are two main
the popular Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing alternatives that satisfy two of these three requirements
(OFDM) scheme, the appropriate modulation for transmis- and can be implemented as filter bank-based multicarrier
sion over frequency selective channels. Furthermore, when (FBMC) modulations. Relaxing condition (ii) we get a
appending the OFDM symbols with a Cyclic Prefix (CP) modulation scheme named Filtered MultiTone (FMT) [3],
longer than the maximum delay spread of the channel to also named oversampled OFDM in [4], where the authors
preserve the orthogonality, CP-OFDM has the capacity to show that the baseband implementation scheme can be seen
transform a frequency selective channel into a bunch of flat as the dual of an oversampled filter bank. But if one really
fading channels which naturally leads to various efficient wants to avoid the two drawbacks of CP-OFDM the only
combinations of the STC and CP-OFDM schemes. However, solution is to relax the complex orthogonality constraint. The
the insertion of the CP yields spectral efficiency loss. In transmission system proposed in [5] is a pioneering work
addition, the conventional OFDM modulation is based on that illustrates this possibility. Later on an efficient Discrete
2 EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing

Fourier Transform (DFT) implementation of the Saltzberg of CDMA and OFDM/OQAM (CDMA-OFDM/OQAM) can
system [5], named Orthogonally Quadrature Amplitude provide the complex orthogonality property; this interesting
Modulation (O-QAM), has been proposed by Hirosaki [6]. property is first recalled in Section 3.1. Then, two different
To the best of our knowledge, the acronym OFDM/OQAM, approaches with Alamouti coding are proposed, by consid-
where OQAM now corresponds to Offset QAM, appeared ering either a spreading in the frequency (in Section 3.2)
for the first time in [7]. In [7] the authors also present an or in the time domain (in Section 4.2). When spreading
invention of Alard, named Isotropic Orthogonal Transform in time is considered, 2 strategies of implementing the
Algorithm (IOTA), and explicitly use a real inner product Alamouti coding are proposed. Some simulation results
to prove the orthogonality of the OFDM/OQAM-IOTA finally show that, using particular channel assumptions, the
modem. A formal link between these continuous-time mod- Alamouti CDMA-OFDM/OQAM technique achieves similar
ulation models and a precise filter bank implementation, performance to the Alamouti CP-OFDM system.
the Modified Discrete Fourier Transform (MDFT) [8], is
established in [9].
It is now recognized in a large number of applications, 2. OFDM/OQAM and Alamouti
with cognitive radio being the most recent and important 2.1. The OFDM/OQAM Transmultiplexer. The baseband
one [10], that appropriate OFDM/OQAM pulse shapes equivalent of a continuous-time multicarrier OFDM/OQAM
which satisfy conditions (ii) and (iii) can be designed, signal can be expressed as follows [7]:
and these can lead to some advantages over the CP-
OFDM. However, most of these publications are related to

M −1 
a single user case and to Single-Input-Single-Output (SISO)
s(t) = am,n g(t − nτ0 )e j2πmF0 t νm,n (1)
systems. On the contrary, only a few results are available m=0 n∈Z
  
concerning more general requirements being related either to gm,n (t)
multiaccess techniques or multiantenna, that is, of Multiple
Input Multiple Output (MIMO) type. In a recent publication with Z the set of integers, M = 2N an even number of
[11], we have shown that, under certain conditions, a subcarriers, F0 = 1/T0 = 1/2τ0 the subcarrier spacing, g
combination of Coded Division Multiple Access (CDMA) the prototype function assumed here to be a real-valued and
with OFDM/OQAM could be used to provide the complex even function of time, and νm,n an additional phase term such
orthogonal property. On the other hand, it has also been that νm,n = j m+n e jφ0 , where φ0 can be chosen arbitrarily.
shown in [12] that spatial multiplexing MIMO could be The transmitted data symbols am,n are real-valued. They
directly applied to OFDM/OQAM. However, in the MIMO are obtained from a 22K -QAM constellation, taking the real
case there is still a problem which has not yet found a fully and imaginary parts of these complex-valued symbols of
favorable issue: It concerns the combined use of the popular duration T0 = 2τ0 , where τ0 denotes the time offset between
STBC Alamouti code together with OFDM/OQAM. Basically the two parts [2, 6, 7, 9].
the problem is related to the fact that OFDM/OQAM Assuming a distortion-free channel, the Perfect Recon-
by construction produces an imaginary interference term. struction (PR) of the real data symbols is obtained owing to
Unfortunately, the processing that can be used in the SISO the following real orthogonality condition:
case, for cancelling it at the transmitter side (TX) [13]
or estimating it at the receiver side (RX) [14], cannot 


be successfully extended to the Alamouti coding/decoding R gm,n , g p,q =R gm,n (t)g p,q (t)dt = δm,p δn,q , (2)
scheme. Indeed, the solutions proposed so far are not fully
satisfactory. The Alamouti-like scheme for OFDM/OQAM
where ∗ denotes conjugation, ·, · denotes the inner
proposed in [15] complicates the RX and introduces a
product, and δm,p = 1 if m = p and δm,p = 0 if
processing delay. The pseudo-Alamouti scheme recently
m= / p. Otherwise said, for (m, n) = / (p, q), gm,n , g p,q  is a
introduced in [16] is less complex but requires the appending
pure imaginary number. For the sake of brevity, we set
of a CP to the OFDM/OQAM signal which means that p,q
g m,n = − j gm,n , g p,q . The orthogonality condition for the
condition (ii) is no longer satisfied.
prototype filter can also be conveniently expressed using its
The aim of this paper is to take advantage of the orthog-
ambiguity function
onality property resulting from the CDMA-OFDM/OQAM
combination introduced in [11] to get a new MIMO Alam- ∞
outi scheme with OFDM/OQAM. The contents of our paper Ag (n, m) = g(u − nτ0 )g(u)e2 jπmF0 u du. (3)
is as follows. In Section 2, after some general descriptions −∞
of the OFDM/OQAM modulation in Section 2.1 and the
MIMO Alamouti scheme in Section 2.2, we will combine It is well-known [7] that to satisfy the orthogonality
both techniques. However, as we will see in Section 2.3, condition (2), the prototype filter should be chosen such that
the MIMO decoding process is very difficult because Ag (2n, 2m) = 0 if (n, m) =
/ (0, 0) and Ag (0, 0) = 1.
of the orthogonality mismatch between Alamouti and In practical implementations, the baseband signal is
OFDM/OQAM. In Section 3, we propose to combine Alam- directly generated in discrete time, using the continuous-
outi and CDMA-OFDM/OQAM in order to solve the prob- time signal samples at the critical frequency, that is, with
lem. Indeed, in [11], we have shown that the combination Fe = MF0 = 2NF0 . Then, based on [9], the discrete-time
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing 3

a0,n Re{}

Post demodulation
a1,n Re{}

Premodulation

Polyphase

Polyphase
.

FFT
IFFT
. P/S S/P .
. .
.

aM −1,n Re{}
OQAM modulator OQAM demodulator

Figure 1: Transmultiplexer scheme for the OFDM/OQAM modulation.

a0,n a0,n
R
..
. OQAM Channel OQAM .
Equalization .
modulator demodulator .
aM −1,n aM −1,n
R

Figure 2: The transmission scheme based on OFDM/OQAM.

baseband signal taking the causality constraint into account, delivers a signal denoted s(t), but keeping in mind that this
is expressed as modulator corresponds to an FBMC modulator as shown in
Figure 1.

M −1  The block diagram in Figure 2 illustrates our OFDM/
s[k] = am,n g(k − nN)e j2πm(k−(Lg −1)/2) νm,n . (4) OQAM transmission scheme. Note that compared to
m=0 n∈Z
  
gm,n [k] Figure 1, here a channel breaks the real orthogonality
condition thus an equalization must be performed at the
The parallel between (1) and (4) shows that the overlap- receiver side to restore this orthogonality.
ping of duration τ0 corresponds to N discrete-time samples. Let us consider a time-varying channel, with maximum
For the sake of simplicity, we will assume that the prototype delay spread equal to Δ. We denote it by h(t, τ) in time,
filter length, denoted Lg , is such that Lg = bM = 2bN, with b and it can also be represented by a complex-valued number
being a positive integer. With the discrete time formulation, (c)
Hm,n for subcarrier m at symbol time n. At the receiver
the real orthogonality condition can also be expressed as: side, the received signal is the summation of the s(t) signal
⎧ ⎫ convolved with the channel impulse response and a noise

⎨ ⎬
R gm,n , g p,q =R ∗
gm,n [k]g p,q [k]⎭ = δm,p δn,q . (5) component η(t). For a locally invariant channel, we can
⎩ define a neighborhood, denoted ΩΔm,Δn , around the (m0 , n0 )
k∈Z
position, with
As shown in [9], the OFDM/OQAM modem can be
realized using the dual structure of the MDFT filter bank. ΩΔm,Δn
A simplified description is provided in Figure 1, where it has      

to be noted that the premodulation corresponds to a single = p, q ,  p ≤ Δm, q ≤ Δn | Hm(c)0 +p,n0 +q ≈ Hm(c)0 ,n0 ,
multiplication by an exponential whose argument depends (6)
on the phase term νm,n and on the prototype length. Note
also that in this scheme, to transmit QAM symbols of a given and we also define Ω∗Δm,Δn = ΩΔm,Δn − {(0, 0)}.
duration, denoted T0 , the IFFT block has to be run twice Note also that Δn and Δm are chosen according to the
faster than for CP-OFDM. The polyphase block contains the time and bandwidth coherence of the channel, respectively.
polyphase components of the prototype filter g. At the RX Then, assuming g(t − τ − nτ0 ) ≈ g(t − nτ0 ), for all τ ∈ [0, Δ],
side, the dual operations are carried out. the demodulated signal can be expressed as [13, 14, 17]
The prototype filter has to be PR, or nearly PR. In this  
(c) (c)
paper, we use a nearly PR prototype filter, with length Lg = ym 0 ,n0
= Hm 0 ,n0
am0 ,n0 + ja(i)
m0 ,n0 + Jm0 ,n0 + ηm0 ,n0 (7)
4M, resulting from the discretization of the continuous time
function named Isotropic Orthogonal Transform Algorithm with ηm0 ,n0 = η, gm0 ,n0  the noise component, a(i)
m0 ,n0 , the
(IOTA) in [7]. interference created by the neighbor symbols, given by
Before being transmitted through a channel the baseband   m0 ,n0
signal is converted to continuous-time. Thus, in the rest of a(i)
m0 ,n0 = am0 +p,n0 +q g m0 +p,n0 +q, (8)
this paper, we present an OFDM/OQAM modulator that (p,q)∈Ω∗
Δm,Δn
4 EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing

and Jm0 ,n0 the interference created by the data symbols operation. Thus, using the Maximum Ratio Combining
outside ΩΔm,Δn . (MRC) equalization, the estimates s2k and s2k+1 are obtained
It can be shown that, even for small size neighborhoods, as
if the prototype function g is well localized in time and ⎡ ⎤ √ ⎡ ∗ ⎤⎡ ⎤

s2k 2 h2k,0 h2k,1 y2k
frequency, Jm0 ,n0 becomes negligible when compared to the ⎣ ⎦=    ⎣
    ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
noise term ηm0 ,n0 . Indeed a good time-frequency localization 
s2k+1 h2k,0 2 + h2k,1 2 h2k,1 ∗ − h2k,0 y2k+1
[7] means that the ambiguity function of g, which is directly ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
related to the g m 0 ,n0
m0 +p,n0 +q terms, is concentrated around its s2k μ2k
origin in the time-frequency plane, that is, only takes small =⎣ ⎦+⎣ ⎦,
s2k+1 μ2k+1
values outside the ΩΔm,Δn region. Thus, the received signal
(13)
can be approximated by
  where,
(c) (c)
ym 0 ,n0
≈ Hm 0 ,n0
am0 ,n0 + ja(i)
m0 ,n0 + ηm0 ,n0 . (9) ⎡ ⎤ √ ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤
μ2k 2 h∗2k,0 h2k,1 n2k
⎣ ⎦=  2   2 ⎣ ∗  ⎦⎣ ∗ ⎦.
For the rest of our study, we consider (9) as the μ2k+1   
h2k,0 + h2k,1  h2k,1 − h2k,0 n2k+1
expression of the signal at the output of the OFDM/OQAM (14)
demodulator.
Since the noise components n2k and n2k+1 are uncorrelated,
2.2. Alamouti Scheme: General Case. In order to describe the E(|μ2k |2 ) = E(|μ2k+1 |2 ) = 2N0 /(|h2k,0 |2 + |h2k,1 |2 ), where
Alamouti scheme [1], let us consider the one-tap channel N0 denotes the monolateral noise density. Thus, assuming a
model described as QPSK modulation, based on [18], the bit error probability,
denoted pb , is given by
yk = hk,u sk,u + nk , (10) ⎛# ⎞
$&  2  2 '
⎜$   
h2k,0 + h2k,1  ⎟
where, at time instant k, hk,u is the channel gain between pb = Q⎝% SNRt ⎠, (15)
2
the transmit antenna u and the receive antenna and nk
is an additive noise. We assume that hk,u is a complex-
valued Gaussian random process with unitary variance. One where SNRt denotes the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) at
transmit antenna and one receive antenna are generally the transmitter side. When the two channel coefficients are
referred as SISO model. We consider coherent detection, that uncorrelated, we will have a diversity gain of two [18].
is, we assume that the receiver has a perfect knowledge of hk,u .
The Alamouti scheme is implemented with 2 transmit 2.3. OFDM/OQAM with Alamouti Scheme. Equation
and one receive antennas. Let us consider s2k and s2k+1 to (9) indicates that we can consider the transmission
be the two symbols to transmit at time (time and frequency of OFDM/OQAM on each subcarrier as a flat fading
axis can be permuted in multicarrier modulation.) instants transmission. Moreover, recalling that in OFDM/OQAM
(c)
2k and 2k + 1,√respectively. At time instant 2k, the antenna √0 each complex data symbol, dm,n , is divided into two real
transmits s2k / 2 whereas the antenna 1 transmits s2k+1 / √2. (c) (c)
symbols, R{dm,n } and I{dm,n }, transmitted at successive
At time instant 2k + 1, the antenna 0 transmits
√ −√(s2k+1 )∗ / 2 time instants, transmission of a pair of data symbols,

whereas the antenna 1 transmits s2k / 2. The 1/ 2 factor is according to Alamouti scheme, is organized as follows:
added to normalize the total transmitted power. The received 

(c)
signal samples at time instants 2k and 2k + 1 are given by am,2n,0 = R dm,2n ,


1   (c)
y2k = √ h2k,0 s2k + h2k,1 s2k+1 + n2k , am,2n,1 = R dm,2n+1 ,
2
(11) 

1   (c)
am,2n+1,0 = I dm,2n ,
y2k+1 = √ −h2k+1,0 (s2k+1 )∗ + h2k+1,1 (s2k )∗ + n2k+1 .
2 

(c)
am,2n+1,1 = I dm,2n+1 ,
Assuming the channel to be constant between the time
 ∗ 

instants 2k and 2k + 1, we get (c) (c)


am,2n+2,0 = −R dm,2n+1 = −R dm,2n+1 = −am,2n,1 ,
⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
y2k h2k,0 h2k,1 s2k n2k  ∗
⎣ ⎦ = √1 ⎣ ∗  ∗ ⎦⎣ ⎦+⎣ ⎦. (c)

(c)


y2k+1 2 h2k,1 − h2k,0 s2k+1 n∗2k+1 am,2n+2,1 = R dm,2n = R dm,2n = am,2n,0 ,
  
H 2k  ∗ 

(c) (c)
(12) am,2n+3,0 = −I dm,2n+1 = I dm,2n+1 = am,2n+1,1 ,
 ∗ 

Note that H 2k is an orthogonal matrix with H 2k H H 2k = am,2n+3,1 = I (c)


dm,2n (c)
= −I dm,2n = −am,2n+1,0 .
(1/2)(|h2k,0 |2 + |h2k,1 |2 )I 2 , where I 2 is the identity matrix
of size (2, 2) and H stands for the transpose conjugate (16)
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing 5

We also assume that in OFDM/OQAM the channel gain This results in


is a constant between the time instants 2n and 2n + 3. Let ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤⎡ (c)

zm,2n hm,2n,0 hm,2n,1 dm,2n
us denote the channel gain between the transmit antenna i ⎣ ∗ ⎦ = ⎣ ∗  ∗ ⎦⎣ (c) ⎦
and the receive antenna at subcarrier m and time instant n zm,2n+1 hm,2n,1 − hm,2n,0 dm,2n+1
by hm,n,i . Therefore, at the single receive antenna we have        
z2n Q2n d2n

  ⎡ ⎤
ym,2n = hm,2n,0 am,2n,0 + ja(i) hm,2n,0 hm,2n,1 0 0
m,2n,0
+⎣  ∗  ∗ ⎦
  0 0 hm,2n,1 − hm,2n,0
+ hm,2n,1 am,2n,1 + ja(i)
m,2n,1 + nm,2n,0 ,
  
K 2n
  ⎡ ⎤
ym,2n+1 = hm,2n,0 am,2n+1,0 + ja(i)
m,2n+1,0 xm,2n,0
⎢ ⎥ ⎡ ⎤
  ⎢ x ⎥ κm,2n
⎢ m,2n,1 ⎥
+ hm,2n,1 am,2n+1,1 + ja(i) ⎢
×⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ∗ ⎦.
m,2n+1,1 + nm,2n+1,1 , ⎥+ 
⎢xm,2n+2,0 ⎥ κ
⎣ ⎦  m,2n+1
 
 
ym,2n+2 = hm,2n,0 am,2n+2,0 + ja(i) xm,2n+2,1 κ2n
m,2n+2,0   
  x2n
+ hm,2n,1 am,2n+2,1 + ja(i)
m,2n+2,1 + nm,2n+2,0 , (21)
  We note that Q2n is an orthogonal matrix which is
ym,2n+3 = hm,2n,0 am,2n+3,0 + ja(i)
m,2n+3,0 similar to the one found in (12) for the conventional 2 × 1
  Alamouti scheme. However, the K 2n x2n term appears, which
+ hm,2n,1 am,2n+3,1 + ja(i)
m,2n+3,1 + nm,2n+3,1 . is an interference term due to the fact that OFDM/OQAM
(17) has only a real orthogonality. Therefore, even without noise
and assuming a distortion-free channel, we cannot achieve
a good error probability since K 2n x2n is an inherent “noise
Setting interference” component that, differently from the one
expressed in (9), cannot be easily removed. (in a particular
zm,2n = ym,2n + j ym,2n+1 , case, where hm,2n,0 = hm,2n,1 , one can nevertheless get rid of
(18) the interference terms.)
zm,2n+1 = ym,2n+2 + j ym,2n+3 , To tackle this drawback some research studies are being
carried out. However, as mentioned in the introduction,
the first one [15] significantly increases the RX complexity,
and using (16), we obtain
while the second one [16] fails to reach the objective of
theoretical maximum spectral efficiency, that is, does not
(c)
zm,2n = hm,2n,0 dm,2n (c)
+ hm,2n,1 dm,2n+1 satisfy condition (ii). The one we propose hereafter is based
on a combination of CDMA with OFDM/OQAM and avoids
+ hm,2n,0 xm,2n,0 + hm,2n,1 xm,2n,1 + κm,2n,0 , these two shortcomings.
 ∗  ∗
(c)
zm,2n+1 = −hm,2n,0 dm,2n+1 (c)
+ hm,2n,1 dm,2n 3. CDMA-OFDM/OQAM and Alamouti
 ∗  ∗ 3.1. CDMA-OFDM/OQAM. In this section we summarize
− hm,2n,0 xm,2n+2,0 +hm,2n,1 xm,2n+2,1 +κm,2n+2,0 ,
the results obtained, assuming a distortion-free channel, in
(19)
[19] and [11] for CDMA-OFDM/OQAM schemes transmit-
ting real and complex data symbols, respectively. Then, we
where, show how this latter scheme can be used for transmission
over a realistic channel model in conjunction with Alamouti
coding.
xm,2n,0 = −a(i) (i)
m,2n+1,0 + jam,2n,0 ,

3.1.1. Transmission of Real Data Symbols. We denote by


xm,2n,1 = −a(i) (i)
m,2n+1,1 + jam,2n,1 ,
Nc the length of the CDMA code used and assume that
κm,2n,0 = nm,2n,0 + jnm,2n+1,0 , NS = M/Nc is an integer number. Let us denote by cu =
(20) [c0,u · · · cNc −1,u ]T , where (·)T stands for the transpose
κm,2n,0 = nm,2n+2,0 + jnm,2n+3,0 , operation, the code used by the uth user. When applying
spreading in the frequency domain such as in pure MC-
xm,2n+2,0 = a(i) (i)
m,2n+3,0 + jam,2n+2,0 , CDMA (Multi-Carrier-CDMA) [20], for a user u0 at a
given time n0 , NS different data are transmitted denoted
xm,2n+2,1 = −a(i) (i)
m,2n+3,1 − jam,2n+2,1 . by: du0 ,n0 ,0 , du0 ,n0 ,1 , . . . , du0 ,n0 ,NS −1 . Then by spreading with
6 EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing

Re{}
x0,n

demodulator

Equalization
du,n

modulator
Spreading

OQAM
Despreading

OQAM
Real data
in Channel in
du,n
frequency frequency
xM −1,n
Im{}
iu,n

Figure 3: Transmission scheme for the CDMA-OFDM/OQAM system with spreading in frequency of real data.

the cu codes, we get the real symbol am0 ,n0 transmitted at For a maximum spreading length, that is, M = 2N =
frequency m0 and time n0 by Nc , based on [11, Equation (18)], the interference term when
transmitting real data can be expressed as
−1
U ⎛ ⎞
−1
U 
2b −1 
2N −1 2N
 −1
am0 ,n0 = cm0 /Nc ,u du,n0 ,
m0 /Nc , (22)
dn+n0 ,u ⎝
(p,n0 ) ⎠
u=0 iu,n = c p,u0 cm,u γm,n+n 0 .
u=0 n=−2b+1, n =
/0 p=0 m=0

where U is the number of users, / the modulo operator, (26)


and
the floor operator. From the am0 ,n0 term, the It is shown in [11] that if U ≤ M/2 spreading codes are
reconstruction of du,n0 ,p (for p ∈ [0, NS − 1]) is insured properly selected then the iu,n interference is cancelled. The
thanks to the orthogonality of the code, that is, cTu1 cu2 = W-H matrix being of size M = 2N = 2n can be divided into
δu1,u2 ; see [21] for more details. Therefore, noise taken apart, two subsets of column indices, Sn1 and Sn2 , with cardinal equal
the despreading operator leads to to M/2 making a partition of all the index set. To guarantee
the absence of interference between users, the construction
c −1
N rule for theses two subsets is as follows.
du,n0 ,p = cm,u a pNC +m,n0 . (23) For n0 = 1, each subset is initialized by setting: S11 = {0}
m=0
and S12 = {1}.
Let us now assume that, for a given integer n = n0 , the
In [19], it is shown that, since no CP is inserted, the two subsets contain the following list of indices:
transmission of these spread real data (du,n0 ,p ) can be insured
- .
at a symbol rate which is more than twice the one used Sn1 0 = i1,1 , i1,2 , i1,3 , . . . , i1,2n0 −1 ,
for transmitting complex MC-CDMA data. Figure 3 depicts - . (27)
the real CDMA-OFDM/OQAM transmission scheme for Sn2 0 = i2,1 , i2,2 , i2,3 , . . . , i2,2n0 −1 .
real data and a maximum spreading length (limited by
the number of subcarriers), where after the despreading These subsets are used to build two new subsets of identical
operation, only the real part of the symbol is kept whereas size such that
the imaginary component iu,n is not detected. This scheme n - .
S1 0 = i2,1 + 2n0 , i2,2 + 2n0 , i2,3 + 2n0 , . . . , i2,2n0 −1 + 2n0 ,
satisfies a real orthogonality condition and can work for a (28)
number of users up to M. n - .
S2 0 = i1,1 + 2n0 , i1,2 + 2n0 , i1,3 + 2n0 , . . . , i1,2n0 −1 + 2n0 .

3.1.2. Interference Cancellation. A closer examination of the Then, we get the subsets of higher size, n = n0 + 1, as
interference term is proposed in [11] assuming that the follows:
CDMA codes are Walsh-Hadamard (W-H) codes of length n n
S1n0 +1 = Sn1 0 ∪ S1 0 , S2n0 +1 = Sn2 0 ∪ S2 0 . (29)
M = 2N = 2n , with n an integer. The prototype filter
being of length Lg = bM, its duration is also given by the Applying this rule one can check that for n = 5, as an
indicating function I|n−n0 |<2b , equal to 1 if |n − n0 | < 2b and example, we get
0 elsewhere. Then, the scalar product of the base functions
can be expressed as S51 = {1, 4, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 24, 25, 28, 30, 31},
 (p,n ) S52 = {2, 3, 5, 8, 9, 12, 14, 15, 17, 20, 22, 23, 26, 27, 29, 32}.
gm,n , g p,n0 = δm− p,n−n0 + jγm,n 0 I|n−n0 |<2b , (24)
(30)
(p,n )
where γm,n 0 is given by Hence, for a given user and at a given time, we get du,n =
du,n and iu,n = 0 and these equalities hold for a number of
(p,n )
  
U users up to M/2. The complete proof given in [11] takes
γm,n 0 = I (−1)m(n+n0 ) j m+n− p−n0 Ag n − n0 , m − p . (25) advantage of three properties of W-H codes.
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing 7

x0,n a0,n

Equalization
demodulator
modulator
Spreading sF (t) y(t) Despreading

OQAM

OQAM
Complex data (c)
(c) in Channel in Zu,n
du,n frequency frequency
xM −1,n aM −1,n

Figure 4: Transmission scheme for the CDMA-OFDM/OQAM system with spreading in frequency of complex data.

3.1.3. Transmission of Complex Data Symbols. As the imag- channel is no longer distortion-free. So, we assume now that
inary component can be cancelled when transmitting real we are in the case of a wireless Down-Link (DL) transmission
data through a distortion-free channel when using CDMA- and perfectly synchronized.
OFDM/OQAM, one can imagine to extend this scheme to
the transmission of complex data. Indeed, the transmission 3.2.1. Problem Statement. Before trying to apply Alam-
system being linear, real and imaginary parts will not outi scheme to CDMA-OFDM/OQAM, one must notice
interfere if the previous rule is satisfied. that the channel equalization process is replaced by the
(c)
Then, denoting by dn,u the complex data to transmit, Alamouti decoding. When adapting Alamouti scheme to
the OFDM/OQAM symbols transmitted at time nτ0 over the CDMA-OFDM/OQAM, the equalizer component, depicted
carrier m and for the code u are complex numbers, that is, in Figure 4, must be replaced by the Alamouti decoding
a(c) (c)
m,n,u = cm,u dn,u are complex symbols. The corresponding process and the despreading operation must be carried out
complex CDMA-OQAM transmission scheme is depicted in just after the OFDM/OQAM modulator. Then, contrary
Figure 4. The baseband equivalent of the transmitted signal, to the DL conventional MC-CDMA case, the despreading
with a spreading in frequency, can be written as operation must be performed before the Alamouti decoding.
Indeed, with OFDM/OQAM, we can only recover a complex
 2N
 −1 −1
U
orthogonality property at the output of the despreading
sF (t) = xm,n gm,n (t) with xm,n = a(c)
m,n,u . (31) block. This point is critical since it rises the question: does
n∈Z m=0 u=0
complex orthogonality hold in CDMA-OFDM/OQAM if we
In this expression, as in [11], we assume that the phase term perform despreading operation before equalization? and if yes,
is νn,m = j n+m (−1)nm , that is, φ0 = πnm. Then, if the U codes at which cost? The first point leads to the following problem:
are all in Sn1 , or Sn2 , the interference terms are cancelled and we let us consider complex quantities ti , βi , λi . Does it sound
/ −1
get possible to obtain M i=0 βi (ti /λi ) (equalization + despread-
/M −1
(c) (c)
ing) from i=0 βi ti (despreading)? Here, equalization is
∀n, u, zn,u = dn,u . (32) materialized by ei = ti /λi and the despreading operation
/ −1
by M i=0 βi ei . The answer is in general (obviously) NO,
Otherwise said, this CDMA-OFDM/OQAM scheme satisfies
except if all the λi are the same, that is, λi = λ j = λ.
a complex orthogonality condition, that is, the back-to-
That is the case if we are in the presence of a constant
back transmultiplexer is a PR system for the transmission
channel over frequencies. Indeed, only in this case the
of complex data. Note also that, differently from what we
order of the equalization and despreading operations can be
saw for the transmission of real data symbols, as explained
exchanged without impairing the transmission performance.
in Section 3.1.2, here the maximum number of users is M/2
Conversely, applying despreading before equalization should
instead of M. In both cases the overall data rate is therefore
have an impact in terms of performance for a channel
the same.
being nonconstant in frequency. So, let us consider at first
In the presence of a channel, an equalization must be
a flat channel. Then the subset of subcarriers where a given
performed before the despreading since the signal at the
spreading code is applied will be affected by the same channel
output of the equalization block is supposed to be free from
coefficient.
any channel distortion or attenuation. Then, the signal at the
equalizer output is somewhat equivalent to the one obtained
with a distortion-free channel. Then, despreading operation 3.2.2. Implementation Scheme. In a SISO configuration, if
will recover the complex orthogonality. we denote by hn,i the single channel coefficient between the
Now, the question is: “Can we use this complex orthogo- transmit antenna i and the single receive antenna at time
nality for combining Alamouti coding scheme and CDMA- instant n, the despreaded signal is given by:
OFDM/OQAM?”. Let us analyze this problem assuming a
one-tap equalization. zn(c)0 ,u0 = hn0 ,i dn(c)0 ,u0 ,i , (33)

3.2. Alamouti with CDMA-OFDM/OQAM with Spreading in where dn(c)0 ,u0 ,i is the complex data of user u0 being transmitted
the Frequency Domain. In a realistic transmission scheme the at time instant n0 by antenna i. Now, if we consider a system
8 EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing

sn,0 100
.
.. OQAM
Spreading
modulator
Alamouti 10−1
processing
. per
.
. user
per

BER
10−2
sub-carrier
sn,M/2−1 or time
OQAM
. Spreading
. modulator 10−3
.

Figure 5: An Alamouti CDMA-OFDM/OQAM transmitter. 10−4


0 5 10 15 20
SNR

sn,0
Alamouti with CDMA-OFDM/OQAM
Alamouti with CP-OFDM

Figure 7: BER for the complex version of the Alamouti CDMA-


. . Alamouti .
OQAM . Despreading . CDMA-OQAM . OFDM/OQAM with spreading in frequency domain, versus Alam-
. . .
demodulator decoding outi CP-OFDM for transmission over a flat fading channel.


sn,M/2−1

be performed in the same way. Figures 5 and 6 present the


Alamouti CDMA-OFDM/OQAM transmitter and receiver,
Figure 6: An Alamouti CDMA-OFDM/OQAM receiver. respectively.

with 2 antennas with indexes 0 and 1, respectively, and if we 3.2.3. Performance Evaluation. We compare the proposed
apply Alamouti coding scheme to every user u data, denoting Alamouti CDMA-OFDM/OQAM scheme with the Alamouti
by sk,u the main stream of complex data for user u, we have OFDM using the following parameters:

at time 2k, (i) QPSK modulation

(c) s2k,u (ii) M = 128 subcarriers


d2k,u,0 = √
2 (iii) maximum spreading length, implying that the W-H
(c) s2k+1,u spreading codes are of length Nc = 128,
d2k,u,1 = √ ,
2
(iv) flat fading channel (one single Rayleigh coefficient for
(34)
at time 2k + 1, all 128 subcarriers);
 ∗ (v) the IOTA prototype filter with length 512,
(c) − s2k+1,u
d2k+1,u,0 = √
2 (vi) zero forcing one tap equalization for both transmis-
s ∗ sion schemes,
(c)
d2k+1,u,1 = √2k .
2 (vii) no channel coding.
For a flat fading channel, ignoring noise, the despreaded
Figure 7 gives the performance results. As expected, both
signal for user u is given by
systems perform the same.
(c) (c) (c)
zn,u = hn,0 dn,u,0 + hn,1 dn,u,1 . (35)
Hence,
4. Alamouti and CDMA-OFDM/OQAM with
⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤
Time Domain Spreading
(c)

z2k,u ⎥ √1 ⎣ h2k,0 h2k,1 s2k,u
⎣ ∗ ⎦ =  ∗  ∗ ⎦⎣ ⎦. In this section, we keep the same assumptions as the ones
(c)
z2k+1,u 2 h2k+1,1 − h2k+1,0 s2k+1,u used for the transmission of complex data with a spreading
(36) in frequency. Firstly, we again suppose that the prototype
function is a real-valued symmetric function and also that
This is the same decoding equation as in the Alamouti the W-H codes are selected using the procedure recalled in
scheme presented in Section 2.2. Hence, the decoding could Section 3.1.2.
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing 9

x0,n a0,n

Equalization
demodulator
sT (t) y(t)

modulator
Spreading Despreading

OQAM

OQAM
Complex data (c)
(c) in Channel in Zu,n
du,n time time
xM −1,n aM −1,n

Figure 8: Transmission scheme for the CDMA-OFDM/OQAM system with spreading in time of complex data.

4.1. CDMA-OFDM/OQAM with Spreading in the Time In (39), we assume that the phase term is νm,n = j m+n as in
Domain. Let us first consider a CDMA-OFDM/OQAM [7]. Let us also recall that the prototype function g satisfies
system carrying out a spreading in the time domain, that the real orthogonality condition (2) and is real-valued and
is, on each subcarrier m the data are spread over the time symmetric, that is, g(t) = g(−t). To express the complex
duration frame length. Let us consider L f the length of the inner product of the base functions gm,n , using a similar
frame, that is, the frame is made of M data in the frequency procedure that led to (24), we get
domain and L f data in time domain. Nc is the length of the 
spreading code. We assume that NS = L f /Nc is an integer gm,n , g p,n0 = δm− p,n−n0 + jλm,n 0 I|n−n0 |<2b ,
(p,n )
(40)
number. Let us denote by: cu = [c0,u · · · cNc −1,u ]T the
code used by the uth user. Then, for a user u0 at a given (p,n )
where λm,n 0 is given by
frequency m0 , NS different data are transmitted denoted
by: du0 ,m0 ,0 , du0 ,m0 ,1 , . . . , du0 ,m0 ,NS −1 . By spreading with the cu (p,n )
  

codes, we get the real symbol am0 ,n0 transmitted at frequency λm,n 0 = I (−1)n(p+m) j m+n− p−n0 Ag n − n0 , m − p .
m0 and time n0 by (41)
−1
U
As the channel is distortion-free, the received signal is y(t) =
am0 ,n0 = cn0 /Nc ,u du,m0 ,
n0 /Nc , (37)
u=0
s(t) and the demodulated symbols are obtained as follows:
where U is the number of users. From the am0 ,n0 term, the (c)
 
ym 0 ,n0
= y, gm0 ,n0 . (42)
reconstruction of du,m0 ,p (for p ∈ [0, NS − 1]) is insured
thanks to the orthogonality of the code, that is, cTu1 cu2 = In this configuration, the demodulation operation only
δu1,u2 , see [21] for more details. Therefore, the despreading takes place when the whole frame is received. Then, the
operator leads to despreading operation gives us the despreaded data for the
c −1
N code u0 as
du,m0 ,p = cn,u am0 ,pNc +n . (38)
n=0 
2L−1 
2L−1 
2L−1 2N
 −1 
(c) (c)
zm 0 ,u0
= cq,u0 ym 0 ,q
= cq,u0 xm,n gm,n , gm0 ,q .
We now propose to consider the transmission of complex
(c) q=0 q=0 n=0 m=0
data, denoted dm,u,p , using U well chosen W-H codes. In (43)
order to establish the theoretical features of this complex
CDMA-OFDM/OQAM scheme, we suppose that the trans- Replacing xm,n and gm,n , gm0 ,q  by their expression given in
mission channel is free of any type of distortion. Also, for (39) and (40), respectively, we get:
the sake of simplicity, we now assume a maximum spreading
(c)
length (in time domain, L f = Nc ). We denote by dm,u the 
2L−1 
2L−1 2N
 −1 U
 −1  (m ,q)

(c) (c)
(c) (c)
complex data and by am,n,u = cn,u dm,u the complex symbol zm 0 ,u0
= cq,u0 cn,u dm,u δm−m0 ,n−q + jλm,n0 .
q=0 n=0 m=0 u=0
transmitted at time nτ0 over the carrier m and for the code
u. As usual, the length of the W-H codes are supposed to be (44)
a power of 2, that is, L f = 2L = 2q with q an integer.
Splitting the summation over m in two parts, with m equal
The block diagram of the transmitter is depicted in
to m0 or not to m0 , (44) can be rewritten as:
Figure 8. For a frame containing 2L OFDM/OQAM data
symbols, the baseband signal spread in time, can be written −1
U −1

2L
as (c)
zm = (c)
dm c p,u0 c p,u
0 ,u0 0 ,u

2L−1 2N
 −1 u=0 q=0
sT (t) = xm,n gm,n (t) ⎛ ⎛ ⎞⎞
n=0 m=0 −1
U 
2N −1

2L−1 2L
−1
j⎝ (c) ⎝
cq,u0 cn,u λm,n0 ⎠⎠.
(m ,q)
(39) + dm,u
−1
U −1
U u=0 m=0, m =
/ m0 q=0 n=0
with xm,n = a(c)
m,n,u =
(c)
cn,u dm,u . (45)
u=0 u=0
10 EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing

Considering the W-H codes, we obtain (1) Strategy 1. Alamouti performed over pairs of frequencies. If
we consider a system with 2 transmit antennas, 0 and 1, and
(c) (c)
zm 0 ,u0
= dm 0 ,u0 if we apply the Alamouti coding scheme to every user u data,
⎛ ⎛ ⎞⎞ that is, if we denote by sm,u the main stream of complex data
−1
U 
2N −1 
2L−1 2L
−1
for user u, then we have the following at subcarrier 2m:
+ j⎝ (c) ⎝
cq,u0 cn,u λm,n0 ⎠⎠.
(m ,q)
dm,u
u=0 m=0, m =
/ m0 q=0 n=0 (c) s2m,u
d2m,u,0 = √
(46) 2
(51)
(c) s2m+1,u
In [11], for W-H codes of length 2L, we have shown that for d2m,u,1 = √
n= 2
/ n0 ,
−1 2L−1
and at subcarrier 2m + 1,

2L  (p,n0 )
c p,u0 cm,u γm,n+n = 0, (47)  ∗
0
(c) − s2m+1,u
p=0 m=0 d2m+1,u,0 = √
2
(p,n )
(52)

where γm,n 0 is given by (c) s
d2m+1,u,1 = √2m .
  
2
(p,n )
γm,n 0 = I (−1)m(n+n0 ) j m+n− p−n0 Ag n − n0 , m − p . (48)
Then, considering a flat fading channel, the despreaded
signal for user u is given by
To prove the result given in (47), we had the following
requirements: (c) (c) (c)
zm,u = hm,0 dm,u,0 + hm,1 dm,u,1 . (53)
(i) W-H codes satisfy the set of mathematical properties
Therefore, we get
that are proved in [11].
⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤
(ii) Since g is a real-valued function, Ag (n, 0) is real (c)

z2m,u ⎥ √1 ⎣ h2m,0 h2m,1 s2m,u
valued and the ambiguity function of the prototype ⎣ ∗ ⎦ =  ∗  ∗ ⎦⎣ ⎦.
function g also satisfies the identities Ag (−n, m) =
(c)
z2m+1,u 2 h2m+1,1 − h2m+1,0 s2m+1,u
(−1)nm Ag (n, m) and Ag (n, m) = A∗g (n, −m). (54)
Using these results, (47) can be proved straighforwardly. That means, when assuming the channel to be flat over two
It is worth mentioning that the above requirements are consecutive subcarriers, that is, h2m,i = h2m+1,i for all i, we
independent of the phase term and thus are satisfied in the have exactly the same decoding equation as the Alamouti
case of the CDMA-OFDM/OQAM system with spreading in scheme presented in Section 3.2, by permuting the frequency
time. It can also be shown that the modification of the phase and time axis. Then, the decoding is performed in the same
term νm,n leads to the substitutions n → m and p + m → way.
n + n0 , in obtaining (48) from (41). Accordingly the second
term on the right hand side of (46) vanishes and we obtain (2) Strategy 2. Alamouti performed over pairs of spreading
(c) (c) codes. In this second strategy, we apply the Alamouti scheme
∀m0 , u0 , zm 0 ,u0
= dm 0 ,u0
. (49)
on pairs of codes, that is, we divide the U codes in two groups
(assuming U to be even). That is, we process the codes by pair
4.2. Alamouti with CDMA-OFDM/OQAM with Spreading in (u0 , u1 ). We denote by sm,u0 ,u1 the main stream of complex
Time. Now, if we consider the CDMA-OFDM/OQAM with data for user pair (u0 , u1 ). At subcarrier m, antennas 0 and 1
spreading in time, contrary to the case of a spreading in transmit
frequency domain, as long as the channel is constant during
(c) sm,u ,u
the spreading time duration, we can perform despreading dm,u 0 ,0
= √0 1 ,
before equalization. At the equalizer output we will have a 2
complex orthogonality. Indeed, considering at first a SISO (c) sm+1,u0 ,u1
dm,u 0 ,1
= √ ,
case, if we denote by hm,i the channel coefficient between 2
a single transmit antenna i and the receive antenna at  ∗ (55)
subcarrier m, the despreaded signal is given by (c) − sm+1,u0 ,u1
dm,u 1 ,0
= √ ,
2
(c) (c)
zm,u = hm,i dm,u,i , (50) s∗m,u0 ,u1
(c)
dm,u 1 ,1
= √ .
(c) 2
where dm,u,i is the complex data of user u being transmitted
at subcarrier m by antenna i. Thus, we can easily apply the At the receiver side we get,
Alamouti decoding scheme knowing the channel is constant ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤
for each antenna at each frequency. Otherwise said, the z(c)
⎢ m,u0 ⎥ 1 hm,0 hm,1 sm,u0 ,u1
method becomes applicable for a frequency selective channel. ⎣ ∗ ⎦ = √ ⎣ ∗  ∗ ⎦⎣ ⎦. (56)
(c)
zm,u1 2 hm,1 − hm,0 sm+1,u0 ,u1
Actually two strategies can be envisioned.
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing 11

100 We have tested two different channels considering each


time the same channel profile, but with different realizations,
between the 2 transmit antennas and one receive antenna.
10−1
The Guard Interval (GI) is adjusted to take into account the
delay spread profiles corresponding to a 4-path and to a 7-
10−2 path channel. The 4-path channel is characterized by the
BER

following parameters:
10−3
(i) power profile (in dB): 0, −6, −9, −12,

10−4 (ii) delay profile (in samples): 0, 1, 2, 3,


(iii) GI for CP-OFDM: 5 samples,
10−5
0 5 10 15 20 25 and the 7-path by
SNR

Alamouti-CDMA-OFDM/OQAM (strategy2)
(i) power profile (in dB): 0, −6, −9, −12, −16, −20, −22,
Alamouti-CDMA-OFDM/OQAM (strategy1)
(ii) delay profile (in samples): 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8,
Alamouti CP-OFDM

Figure 9: BER for two complex versions of the Alamouti CDMA- (iii) GI for CP-OFDM: 9 samples;
OFDM/OQAM with spreading in time domain, versus Alamouti
CP-OFDM for transmission over the 4-path frequency selective We also consider the following system parameters:
channel.
(i) QPSK modulation,

100
(ii) M = 128 subcarriers,
(iii) time invariant channel (no Doppler),
(iv) the IOTA prototype filter of length 512,
10−1
(v) spreading codes of length 32, corresponding to the
frame duration (32 complex OQAM symbols),
(vi) number of CDMA W-H codes equals to 16 in
BER

10−2 complex OFDM/OQAM, with symbol duration τ0


and this corresponds to 32 codes in OFDM, with
symbol duration 2τ0 , leading to the same spectral
efficiency
10−3
(vii) zero forcing, one tap equalization,
(viii) no channel coding.

10−4 In Figures 9 and 10, the BER results of the Alamouti


2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 CDMA-OFDM/OQAM technique for the two proposed
SNR strategies are presented.
Alamouti-CDMA-OFDM/OQAM (strategy1) The two strategies perform the same until a BER of
Alamouti-CDMA-OFDM/OQAM (strategy2) 10−3 or 10−2 for the 4 and 7-path channel, respectively.
Alamouti CP-OFDM For lower BER the strategy 2 performs better than the
strategy 1. This could be explained by the fact that strategy
Figure 10: BER for two complex versions of the Alamouti CDMA- 1 makes the approximation that the channel is constant
OFDM/OQAM with spreading in time domain, versus Alamouti
over two consecutive subcarriers. This approximation leads
CP-OFDM for transmission over the 7-path frequency selective
channel. to a degradation of the performance whereas the strategy
2 does not consider this approximation. If we compare the
performance of Alamouti CDMA-OFDM/OQAM strategy
2 with the Alamouti CP-OFDM, we see that both system
Then, we do not need to consider the channel constant perform approximately the same. It is worth mentioning
over two consecutive subcarriers. We have exactly the same that however the corresponding throughput is higher for the
decoding equation as the Alamouti scheme presented in OFDM/OQAM solutions (no CP). Indeed, it is increased
Section 3.2. Hence, the decoding is performed in the same by approximately 4 and 7% for the 4 and 7-path channels,
way. respectively.
12 EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing

5. Conclusion [5] B. R. Saltzberg, “Performance of an efficient parallel data


transmission system,” IEEE Transactions on Communication
In this paper, we showed that the well-known Alam- Technology, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 805–811, 1967.
outi decoding scheme cannot be directly applied to the [6] B. Hirosaki, “An orthogonally multiplexed QAM system
OFDM/OQAM modulation. To tackle this problem, we using the discrete Fourier transform,” IEEE Transactions on
proposed to combine the MIMO Alamouti coding scheme Communications Systems, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 982–989, 1981.
with CDMA-OFDM/OQAM. If the CDMA spreading is [7] B. Le Floch, M. Alard, and C. Berrou, “Coded orthogonal
carried out in the frequency domain, the Alamouti decoding frequency division multiplex,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 83,
scheme can only be applied if the channel is assumed pp. 982–996, 1995.
to be flat. On the other hand, for a frequency selec- [8] T. Karp and N. J. Fliege, “MDFT filter banks with perfect
tive channel, the CDMA spreading component has to be reconstruction,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Sympo-
applied in the time domain. For the Alamouti scheme with sium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS ’95), vol. 1, pp. 744–747,
time spreading CDMA-OFDM/OQAM, we elaborate two Seattle, Wash, USA, May 1995.
strategies for implementing the MIMO space-time coding [9] P. Siohan, C. Siclet, and N. Lacaille, “Analysis and design
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adjacent frequency domain samples whereas the strategy Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 1170–1183,
2002.
2 processes the Alamouti coding scheme over pairs of
spreading codes from two successive time instants. Strategy [10] B. Farhang-Boroujeny and R. Kempter, “Multicarrier commu-
nication techniques for spectrum sensing and communication
2 appears to be more appropriate since it requires less
in cognitive radios,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 46,
restrictive assumptions on the channel variations across no. 4, pp. 80–85, 2008.
the frequencies. We also made some performance compar-
[11] C. Lélé, P. Siohan, R. Legouable, and M. Bellanger, “CDMA
isons with Alamouti CP-OFDM. It was found that, under transmission with complex OFDM/OQAM,” EURASIP Jour-
some channel hypothesis, the combination of Alamouti nal on Wireless Communications and Networking, vol. 2008,
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increasing the complexity of the Alamouti decoding process. [12] M. El Tabach, J.-P. Javaudin, and M. Hélard, “Spatial data
Furthermore, in the case of a frequency selective channel, multiplexing over OFDM/OQAM modulations,” in Proceed-
OFDM/OQAM keeps its intrinsic advantage with a SNR ings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications
gain in direct relation with the CP length. To find a (ICC ’07), pp. 4201–4206, Glasgow, Scotland, June 2007.
simpler Alamouti scheme, that is, without adding a CDMA [13] J.-P. Javaudin, D. Lacroix, and A. Rouxel, “Pilot-aided channel
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Siohan, “Channel estimation methods for preamble-based
OFDM/OQAM modulations,” in Proceedings of the 13th
Acknowledgments European Wireless Conference (EW ’07), Paris, France, April
2007.
The authors would like to thank the reviewers and Pro- [15] M. Bellanger, “Transmit diversity in multicarrier transmission
fessor Farhang-Boroujeny for their careful reading of our using OQAM modulation,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Interna-
manuscript and for their helpful suggestions. This work tional Symposium on Wireless Pervasive Computing (ISWPC
was partially supported by the European ICT-2008-211887 ’08), pp. 727–730, Santorini, Greece, May 2008.
project PHYDYAS. [16] H. Lin, C. Lélé, and P. Siohan, “A pseudo alamouti transceiver
design for OFDM/OQAM modulation with cyclic prefix,”
in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Signal Processing
Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC ’09), pp. 300–
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Photographȱ©ȱTurismeȱdeȱBarcelonaȱ/ȱJ.ȱTrullàs

Preliminaryȱcallȱforȱpapers OrganizingȱCommittee
HonoraryȱChair
The 2011 European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCOȬ2011) is the MiguelȱA.ȱLagunasȱ(CTTC)
nineteenth in a series of conferences promoted by the European Association for GeneralȱChair
Signal Processing (EURASIP, www.eurasip.org). This year edition will take place AnaȱI.ȱPérezȬNeiraȱ(UPC)
in Barcelona, capital city of Catalonia (Spain), and will be jointly organized by the GeneralȱViceȬChair
Centre Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC) and the CarlesȱAntónȬHaroȱ(CTTC)
Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC). TechnicalȱProgramȱChair
XavierȱMestreȱ(CTTC)
EUSIPCOȬ2011 will focus on key aspects of signal processing theory and
TechnicalȱProgramȱCo
Technical Program CoȬChairs
Chairs
applications
li ti as listed
li t d below.
b l A
Acceptance
t off submissions
b i i will
ill be
b based
b d on quality,
lit JavierȱHernandoȱ(UPC)
relevance and originality. Accepted papers will be published in the EUSIPCO MontserratȱPardàsȱ(UPC)
proceedings and presented during the conference. Paper submissions, proposals PlenaryȱTalks
for tutorials and proposals for special sessions are invited in, but not limited to, FerranȱMarquésȱ(UPC)
the following areas of interest. YoninaȱEldarȱ(Technion)
SpecialȱSessions
IgnacioȱSantamaríaȱ(Unversidadȱ
Areas of Interest deȱCantabria)
MatsȱBengtssonȱ(KTH)
• Audio and electroȬacoustics.
• Design, implementation, and applications of signal processing systems. Finances
MontserratȱNájarȱ(UPC)
Montserrat Nájar (UPC)
• Multimedia
l d signall processing andd coding.
d
Tutorials
• Image and multidimensional signal processing. DanielȱP.ȱPalomarȱ
• Signal detection and estimation. (HongȱKongȱUST)
• Sensor array and multiȬchannel signal processing. BeatriceȱPesquetȬPopescuȱ(ENST)
• Sensor fusion in networked systems. Publicityȱ
• Signal processing for communications. StephanȱPfletschingerȱ(CTTC)
MònicaȱNavarroȱ(CTTC)
• Medical imaging and image analysis.
Publications
• NonȬstationary, nonȬlinear and nonȬGaussian signal processing. AntonioȱPascualȱ(UPC)
CarlesȱFernándezȱ(CTTC)
Submissions IIndustrialȱLiaisonȱ&ȱExhibits
d i l Li i & E hibi
AngelikiȱAlexiouȱȱ
Procedures to submit a paper and proposals for special sessions and tutorials will (UniversityȱofȱPiraeus)
be detailed at www.eusipco2011.org. Submitted papers must be cameraȬready, no AlbertȱSitjàȱ(CTTC)
more than 5 pages long, and conforming to the standard specified on the InternationalȱLiaison
EUSIPCO 2011 web site. First authors who are registered students can participate JuȱLiuȱ(ShandongȱUniversityȬChina)
in the best student paper competition. JinhongȱYuanȱ(UNSWȬAustralia)
TamasȱSziranyiȱ(SZTAKIȱȬHungary)
RichȱSternȱ(CMUȬUSA)
ImportantȱDeadlines: RicardoȱL.ȱdeȱQueirozȱȱ(UNBȬBrazil)

P
Proposalsȱforȱspecialȱsessionsȱ
l f i l i 15 D 2010
15ȱDecȱ2010
Proposalsȱforȱtutorials 18ȱFeb 2011
Electronicȱsubmissionȱofȱfullȱpapers 21ȱFeb 2011
Notificationȱofȱacceptance 23ȱMay 2011
SubmissionȱofȱcameraȬreadyȱpapers 6ȱJun 2011

Webpage:ȱwww.eusipco2011.org