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OBD

(On-Board Diagnosis)
OBD

What is OBD ?
OBD is a vehicle emission diagnostic
system created to improve all aspects
of vehicle emissions

The OBD acronym stands for


ON BOARD DIAGNOSTIC system
OBD
Transition of OBD Regulation
The OBD regulation started in USA and has now
expanded globally.
Year 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 06 08 10

USA OBD-I OBD-II Add contents


Review every 2 years

Europe No regulation OBD-II equivalent Criteria change?

Step III Step IV

Japan No regulation OBD-I revised equivalent

Advanced OBD
OBD

Why do we need OBD ?

1. Environmental Protection
2. Awareness of emission related
troubles
3. Improved troubleshooting
OBD

Malfunction indication light


(MIL)
OBD

OBD Diagnostic Trouble Code


(DTC)

OBD Standard Diagnostic Trouble Code MMC Diagnostic Trouble Code


P0100 Air Flow Circuit Malfunction (Non OBD Vehicle)
Intake Air Temperature Circuit 12 Airflow sensor fault.
P0109 13 Intake air temp sensor fault.
Malfunction
Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit 14 Throttle position sensor fault.
P0115 21 Coolant temp sensor fault.
Malfunction
Throttle Position Sensor Circuit 22 Crankshaft position sesnor
P0120 23 Camshaft position sensor fault.
Malfunction
P0128 Coolant Thermostat Malfunction
P0130 O2 Sensor Circuit Malfunction
P0170 Fuel Trim Malfunction (Bank 1)
OBD

OBD Standard DTC (Diagnostic Trouble Code)


Example P0500: Vehicle Speed Sensor Malfunction

P0500
Serial numbering

System or Component

0 or 2: SAE / ISO Standard code


1 or 3: Manufacturer-specific

P: Power train (SAE classification)


B: Body
C: Chassis
U: Network
OBD

“Freeze Frame Data”


Service data at the time
failure
of failure is automatically
recorded
Example of freeze frame data display items
(1) Engine coolant temperature (deg.)
(2) Engine speed (r/min)
(3) Vehicle speed (km/h)
(4) Long-term fuel compensation (%)
(5) Short-term fuel compensation (%)
(6) Fuel control condition (Closed or Open Loop)
(7) Calculation load value (%)
(8) Others
OBD

When a malfunction or deterioration of


components occurs
1.The Malfunction Indicator Light on the
instrument panel will be illuminated.
2. A fault code (DTC) will be stored in
the ECU.
3. Sensors and actuators service data
(Freeze Frame Data) will be recorded.
OBD

OBD access is through the


Generic 16 pin connector

Data Link Connector


(OBD-II Connector)
SCAN TOOL

Scan Tool Functions


1. Read out service data
2. Read out freeze frame data
3. Read out DTC codes
4. Erase failure information
5. Read out O2 sensor monitor results (Read out latest monitor results
for O2 sensor)
6. Read out continuous/non-contiguous monitor results (Read out
latest continuous/non-contiguous monitor results)
7. Read out provisional DTC
8. Forcible drive request (Request ECU to drive a control device)
9. Read out vehicle information (VIN, CAL.ID, CVN)
VIN (Vehicle Identification Number): ID for a vehicle
CAL.ID (Calibration Identification): ID for software
CVN (Calibration Verification Number): Certificate number for
software
OBD TRANSITION

Explanation of Diagnosis Methods


For the diagnosis methods covered the following
definitions are applied.

Diagnosis method Contents


Checks for open or short in an
Circuit diagnosis
electric circuit.
Checks for any functional failure in
Functional diagnosis
sensors and actuators.
Diagnosis which uses specified
Threshold diagnosis numeral values such as emission
level as the judgment criteria
SCAN TOOL
Repair with a scan tool (example)
[Example:P0117 (Low input level from coolant 5v
CONNECTOR
temperature sensor) is displayed] C
(1) • Read out DTC by GST. P
no U
Ì Is P0117 displayed?
To another
diagnosis flow
yes
(2) • Read out the coolant temp. by SENSOR
ECU
GST live data. (THERMISTOR)
no
Ì Approx 180 °C or more?
Temporary
yes
contact failure
(3) • Disconnect the coolant temp.
sensor. • Erase DTC by GST.
• Read out the coolant temp. by no
Replace the coolant • Read out DTC by GST.
GST.
temp. sensor.
Ì Approx 180 °C or more?
♦ No DTC
yes
Repair completed.
(4) • Disconnect ECU. ♦ DTC present
yes Repair the wire
- P0117
Ì Is wire harness connected to harness.
Re-diagnose from (1).
ground?
- DTC other than P0117
To another diagnosis flow
no
Replace ECU.
SCAN TOOL

Identification of Failure Point


Failure points are Defined by SAE/ISO
identified by a scan tool. Standards

Connector standard:
SAE J1962 / ISO15031-3

( Generic Scan Tool )


Scan tool standard:
ECU GST SAE J1978
Diagnosis data ISO15031-4
PO450
standard:
SAE J1979
ISO15031-5 DTC standard:
SAE J2012
ISO15031-6
OBD

OUTLINE of OBD SYSTEM


(STRUCTURE & FUNCTION)
OBD

OUTLINE of OBD SYSTEM


(STRUCTURE & FUNCTION)
OBD

OUTLINE of OBD SYSTEM


(STRUCTURE & FUNCTION)
OBD

OUTLINE of OBD SYSTEM


(STRUCTURE & FUNCTION)
OBD

MIL Illumination Condition


One driving cycle monitor
MIL
Ign SW MIL
illumination

- Stores DTC
Failure
- Stores freeze frame data
Example of freeze frame data
- Fuel control status - Intake vacuum pressure - Intake air temperature
- Calculated load value - Throttle position - F/B correction value
- Engine speed - Coolant temperature - F/B learnt value
OBD

MIL Illumination Condition


Two driving cycle monitor MIL illumination
1DC 2DC

Same item
Failure Failure

Stores provisional DTC Stores DTC


Stores freeze frame data

DC: Driving cycle


OBD

MIL OFF Condition


MIL ON MIL OFF
1DC 2DC 3DC 4DC

Failure record is
Failure Normal Normal Normal held by ECU

Stores Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC)


Stores freeze frame data
OBD

Provisional DTC Clear Condition


Two driving cycle monitor
Failure 1DC after failure 2DC after failure
detection DC detection detection

Clears
Failure Judged as normal memory.

Stores provisional DTC


Stores freeze frame data
OBD

Clear Condition for All Failure Records


MIL illumination MIL OFF
1DC 2DC 3DC

Failure record is
maintained.
Failure Normal Normal Normal
WC:Warm up Cycle (Temp. rise >= 22 ºC/ Resultant coolant temp. >= 71 ºC)

1WC 2WC 3WC 40WC


Clears all
No failure determination memories.
OBD

Readiness Test
The Readiness Test monitors the functions
of the following items and determines
whether the monitor is completed or not.

1. Catalyst
2. Oxygen sensor
3. Oxygen sensor heater
4. EGR system
OBD

Readiness Code Set


Readiness Test Code: Diagnosis completion code
Readiness code set

Readiness code not set

First diagnosis Same item


completion Diagnosis
completes
Judged normal or MIL ON

Provisional DTC Judged normal or MIL ON


OBD

Driving (Drive) cycle pattern (Example 1.)


Monitor item: Catalytic converter and oxygen sensor
OBD

Driving (Drive) cycle pattern (Example 2.)


Monitor item: Fuel trim
OBD

How to complete the Readiness Test ?


The readiness test is a flag
which is used during I/M* to
indicate if the vehicle monitors
have completed their
respective drive cycles to
ensure correct functionality.
In this case, the vehicle must
be operated until all readiness
testing conditions have been
satisfied. (completed)

* I/M: Inspection and Maintenance


MUT-III
Readiness Status
OBD

Forcible Clear of All Records


Eng.-ECU
Disconnect the battery
ECU Memory cable.
DTC
Freeze Frame Data
Send a clear signal
Readiness Test Code from the scan tool.

Cleared!
OBD TRANSITION

Problems in OBD-I System


Scan tool
Because the specifications were not unified,
no compatibility was present across makers.

General workshops had to prepare multiple tools.


OBD TRANSITION

OBD-II Regulation Implementation and


System Feature
Backgrounds for OBD-II regulation
ADDRESS PROBLEMS IN OBD-I SYSTEM
Improve the emission restriction effect upon failure.
Unify the specifications of scan tools.
ATMOSPHERE SIMULATION
A research on latest vehicle models
indicated that approx. 50% of the air
pollutant emission from these vehicles
were due to the failures of emission
related components.
OBD TRANSITION

OBD-II System Features


Item OBD-I OBD-II

Functional diagnosis Basically relies on


only partial threshold/functional diagnosis
Diagnosis
method Uses circuit diagnosis only for
Mainly relies on circuit
items allowing no
diagnosis
threshold/functional diagnosis
Failure
No standards Defined by emission value
judgment

Scan tool No standards Standards established (SAE/ISO)

Service info. No disclosure rules Disclosure rules available

Only established regionally in USA and Europe. Not unified globally.


OBD TRANSITION

Major Diagnosis Request Items in OBD-II


Diagnosis method Diagnosis item Diagnosis contents
Catalyst Deterioration
Misfire Misfire in single/multiple cylinders
Deterioration (abnormal voltage,
O2 sensor
response), inactivity
Threshold
diagnosis EGR system EGR flow rate excessively high/low
Fuel system Overrich/overlean
Secondary air system Secondary airflow
Evaporation system System leak/poor purge
Coolant temperature sensor, intake air
Functional diagnosis of temperature sensor, throttle sensor, intake
Functional
emission related air pressure sensor, airflow sensor,
diagram
electronic parts vehicle speed sensor, crank angle sensor,
cam angle sensor, etc
OBD TRANSITION

Comparison of Diagnosis Contents


Between OBD-I and OBD-II
Diagnosis item Contents in OBD-I Contents in OBD-II
Catalyst -- Deterioration
Misfire -- Misfire in single/multiple cylinders
Inactivity, circuit Deterioration (abnormal voltage,
O2 sensor
diagnosis response), inactivity, circuit diagnosis
EGR system EGR flow rate drop EGR flow rate excessively high/low
Fuel system Overrich/overlean Overrich/overlean
Secondary air system -- Functional/circuit diagnoses
Evaporation system -- System leak/poor purge
Functional diagnosis (or circuit diagnosis
Emission related
Circuit diagnosis for those allowing no functional
electronic parts
diagnosis)
OBD TRANSITION

OBD Diagnosis Requests by Country


U.S.
Item Japan Europe
OBD-I OBD-II
Catalyst -- --

Misfire -- --

O2 sensor
Threshold
Functional Functional
diagnosis
EGR diagnosis diagnosis
Threshold
Fuel system
diagnosis
Circuit
Secondary air system diagnosis -- Functional diagnosis

Evaporation system
Circuit
-- --
diagnosis
Other emission Circuit Circuit
diagnosis diagnosis Functional diagnosis Functional diagnosis
related parts
COMMUNICATION

Specifications of Communication with Scan Tool

For the communication with a scan tool conforming to SAE J1978, any of the
following communication protocols must be adopted.

1 SAE J1850 (Not usable in USA after 2008MY)

ISO 9141-2 (Not usable in USA after 2008MY)


2
Used by MMC for MUT-II

3 ISO 14230-4

ISO 15765-4 (Usable since 2003MY. After 2008MY, adopted to all


vehicles in USA.)
4 Alias name "CAN (Controller Area Network)"
Used by MMC for MUT-III
COMMUNICATION

Communication Protocol
KWP2000 (Diagnosis Protocol)

Keyword Protocol 2000 (KWP2000) is an ISO14230


standardized diagnostics protocol for electronic control
units.
The physical access is possible via a serial connection via
CAN (KWP2000 on CAN).
From the 2008 M/Y, KWP2000 on CAN will be a only
authorized protocol for the OBD-II.
SYSTEM MONITORING

1. CATALYTIC CONVERTER
2. MISFIRE
3. FUEL SYSTEM
4. O2 SENSOR
5. EGR SYSTEM
6. SECONDARY AIR INJECTION SYSTEM
7. EVAPORATIVE EMISSION GAS
8. THERMOSTAT
9. INTAKE MANIFOLD PRESSURE SENSOR
10. CANISTER PURGE SOLENOID
SYSTEM MONITORING

2. MISFIRE DETECTION

Monitoring strategies
Method:
RPM fluctuation analysis
Crank pulley
Crank angle
sensor
Vane

Tn-1 Tn Crank angle sensor

Engine CHECK
ECU ENGINE
Crank shaft

Crank sprocket
SUMMARY

1. OBD informs the driver when an emissions related


system or component malfunctions or
deteriorations to certain thresholds levels.
2. OBD helps to perform the troubleshooting of
electric and electronic parts & components.
3. OBD provides standards and protocols for generic
diagnoses especially in respect to scan tools and
DTC format.
4. Commonality of names, diagnostic connectors &
locations.
5. The vehicle system itself can manage the emission
components… and many other features.
OBD

Current Status in Maintaining Exhaust


Gas Purification Performance (USA)

I/M (Inspection and Maintenance)

Normal I/M: Check HC and CO level at idle/fast idle


speed (2500 rpm)
Enhanced I/M: Check HC, CO and NOx level by a
mode test (e.g. IM240) with a simple
chassis dynamometer.
I/M-OBD:Readiness test code*, check DTC.

* Readiness Test Code: completed code flag


OBD

Current Status in Maintaining Exhaust


Gas Purification Performance (EU)
COMPUTER EXHAUST
ANALYZER COOLING FAN
1. CERTIFICATION
(TYPE CERTIFICATION)
For each type, a
vehicle is tested by
testers invited from a
INERTIA
public laboratory or FLYWHEELS
DYNAMOMETER
research institution.
2. INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE
Check HC, CO, air-fuel ratio (A/F) at idle and fast idle
(2000 rpm or more) as well as confirm the OBD functionality.
OBD

Current Status in Maintaining Exhaust


Gas Purification Performance (JAPAN)
Certification (Type certification)
For each exhaust gas class, a vehicle is tested by Automobile
Type Approval Test Division.
Automobile inspection
Check HC and CO levels at idle
after 3 years from the initial
registration and subsequently
at 2 year intervals.
Maintaining vehicle performance
The responsibility lies with
users according to the
current laws.
OBD

Exhaust Gas Check in Automobile


Inspection and Maintenance
Generally, HC and CO at idle are measured with an exhaust
gas tester.
In USA , the mode drive test with a chassis dynamometer (e.g.
IM240) is also adopted in some regions. However, now that the
OBD tools are widely used and their reliability are improved,
the technical interest is being focused on the scan tool test
utilizing the various OBD functions and requiring no large
equipment.
OBD TRANSITION

Transition of OBD Regulation

Advanced OBD ?

OBD-III ?
OBD-II
E-OBD, J-OBD

OBD-I
Thank you for your attention !