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! Being$a$member,$it$enjoyed$privileges.$We$had$easier$trade$relations$
Intellectual)Property)Law) with$other$member$countries.$But$at$the$same$time,$it$also$obligated$
itself$ to$ comply$ with$ GAPIL$ especially$ in$ the$ field$ of$ trade$ and$
RA)8293)/)THE)INTELLECTUAL)PROPERTY)LAW)
commerce$which$includes$protection$of$IPR$
• There$ are$ already$ several$ amendments$ made$ to$ this$ law:$ RA$ 9150,$ RA$ ! The$ existing$ laws$ were$ examined$ and$ were$ found$ to$ be$ not$ in$
9502,$RA$10372,$RA$10055) conformity$with$the$GAPIL,$more$so$that$the$Phils$was$also$obliged$to$
• It$is$important$to$protect$the$rights$of$IP$owners) enter$into$an$international$agreement$protecting$IPR$known$as$TRIPS$
• More$ importantly,$ also$ the$ enforcement$ of$ the$ law$ and$ protecting$ IP$ Agreement$(Trade$Related$Aspects$of$IPR)$entered$in$Uruguay$
from$illegal$acts$ ! Since$ we$ follow$ GAPIL$ of$ international$ laws$ by$ the$ doctrine$ of$
incorporation,$we$had$to$conform$with$the$TRIPS$agreement$so$they$
INTELLECTUAL)PROPERTY)OFFICE)(IPO))
enacted$RA$8293$
• Agency$ mandated$ by$ law$ to$ issue$ rules$ and$ regulations$ as$ well$ as$ ! When$RA$8293$took$effect,$it$did$not$entirely$repeal$the$existing$laws.$
enforce$these$rights$ Only)those)provisions)that)are)inconsistent)(Samson$Case).$SC)SAID:)
• Protection$ of$ IP$ Rights$ is$ based$ on$ compliance$ with$ the$ registration$ The+ use+ of+ the+ phrase+ “parts+ of+ Acts+ inconsistent+ herewith”+ only+
requirements$ means+ that+ the+ repeal+ pertains+ only+ to+ provisions+ which+ are+
repugnant+and+not+susceptible+to+harmonization$
• The$ website$ provide$ us$ with$ the$ forms$ (SO$ BE$ FAMILIAR$ WITH$ THE$
WEBSITE)$ TANADA)VS)ANGARA)

3)MAJOR)AREAS)OF)IP:) Discussion:$$
• Why$ important?$ This$ questions$ the$ constitutionality$ of$ the$ Senate’s$
• Copyright$
ratification$of$the$TRIPS$Agreement$
! Literary$and$artistic$works:$works$of$art$in$the$field$of$visual$and$the$
performing$arts$ • Under$ Consti:$ An$ international$ agreement$ entered$ into$ by$ the$
government$should$be$ratified$by$the$senate$
• Patent$
! Inventions$ • So$the$ratification$was$questioned$as$unconstitutional$because$of$certain$
provision$ of$ the$ TRIPS$ Agreement$ that$ were,$ according$ to$ petitioners,$
• Trademark$
repugnant$to$some$constitutional$provisions$especially$the$Filipino$First$
! Any$visible$sign$that$is$being$used$to$distinguish$goods$and$services$
policy$
! Technically$speaking,$you$only$refer$to$them$as$mark.$For$goods,$you$
call$it$trademark.$For$services,$it$is$called$as$service$mark.$Collectively,$ • SC$ upheld$ the$ constitutionality$ saying$ that$ the$ provisions$ cited$ by$
Senator$Tanada$are$not$self=executing+provisions.+They$require$enabling$
they$are$known$as$trademarks$
laws;$so$there$is$no$violation$or$inconsistency.$
BACKGROUND)OF)THE)LAW:)INTELLECTUAL)PROPERTY)CODE$ • This$ gives$ us$ a$ comprehensive$ background$ of$ TRIPS$ and$ subsequent$
• Took$effect$January$1,$1998$ enactment$of$RA$8293$
RA)8293)
• Section) 4.$Definitions.$ W$ 4.1.$ The$ term$ "intellectual$ property$ rights"$
consists$of:$ Section) 2:) Declaration+ of+ State+ Policy.+ —+ The+ State+ recognizes+ that, an,
effective, intellectual, and, industrial, property, system+ is+ vital+ to+ the+
a)$Copyright$and$Related$Rights;$
development+ of+ domestic+ and+ creative+ activity,+ facilitates, transfer, of,
b)$Trademarks$and$Service$Marks;$ technology,, attracts, foreign, investments,, and, ensures, market, access, for,
c)$Geographic$Indications;$ our,products.+It+shall+protect,and,secure,the,exclusive,rights,of,scientists,,
inventors,, artists, and, other, gifted, citizens, to, their, intellectual, property,
d)$Industrial$Designs;$ and,creations,+particularly+when+beneficial+to+the+people,+for+such+periods+
e)$Patents;$ as+provided+in+this+Act.+
f)$LayoutWDesigns$(Topographies)$of$Integrated$Circuits;$and$ The+ use+ of+ intellectual+ property+ bears+ a+ social+ function.+ To+ this+ end,+ the+
State+ shall+ promote+ the+ diffusion+ of+ knowledge+ and+ information+ for+ the+
g)$Protection$of$Undisclosed$Information$(n,$TRIPS).$
promotion+of+national+development+and+progress+and+the+common+good.+
• Laws$protecting$IPR$prior$to$1998$
It+is+also+the+policy+of+the+State+to+streamline+administrative+procedures+of+
! PD$49:$Law$on$Copyright$ registering+patents,+trademarks+and+copyright,+to+liberalize+the+registration+
! RA$165:$Patents$ on+ the+ transfer+ of+ technology,+ and+ to+ enhance+ the+ enforcement+ of+
intellectual+property+rights+in+the+Philippines.+(n)+
! RA$166:$Trademarks$
• Why$ is$ it$ important$ to$ examine$ section$ 2?$ Because$ it$ gives$ us$ the$
! Provisions$ under$ RPC$ on$ Copyright$ Infringement$ and$ Unfair$ purpose$of$enacting$the$law$and$to$determine$the$legislative$intent.$This$
Competition$ is$ thus$ important$ when$ we$ interpret$ the$ provisions.$ We$ only$ apply$
• What$happened$to$such$laws?$Were$they$repealed?$$ statutory$ construction$ when$ there$ is$ ambiguity$ in$ the$ language$ of$ the$
provision,$ or$ when$ a$ provision$ is$ susceptible$ of$ 2$ interpretations.$ It$ is$
! RA$ 8293$ provides$ a$ repealing$ clause.$ It$ is$ an$ express$ repeal$ but$ a$ very$ valuable$ when$ we$ are$ called$ upon$ to$ interpret,$ by$ examining$ the$
qualified$repealed:$ purpose.$It$is$also$important$when$the$law$is$insufficient$on$a$given$case.$
“All$ Acts$ and$ parts$ of$ Acts$ inconsistent$ herewith,$ more$ particularly$
• What$ is$ the$ purpose?$ [refer$ to$ bold$ phrases$ above]$ The$ state$ policy$
Republic$ Act$ No.$ 165,$ as$ amended;$ Republic$ Act$ No.$ 166,$ as$
gives$us$two$purposes:$
amended;$ and$ Articles$ 188$ and$ 189$ of$ the$ Revised$ Penal$ Code;$
Presidential$Decree$No.$49,$including$Presidential$Decree$No.$285,$as$ ! Primary$purpose:$to$promote$general$welfare$of$the$people.$The$law$
amended,$are$hereby$repealed.”$ promotes$ the$ development$ of$ domestic,$ creative$ activity…..$ so$ it$ is$
the$public$that$is$benefitted$
• So$if$there$were$already$laws,$why$was$there$a$need$to$enact$RA$8293?$
! Secondary$purpose:$to$protect$individual$rights$$
! Background$ during$ that$ time?$ The$ Philippines$ became$ a$ founding$
member$of$the$WTO$ ! Why$is$there$a$need$to$distinguish?$When$these$rights$compete,$we$
have$ to$ promote$ the$ general$ welfare.$ The$ use$ and$ protection$ of$ IP$
bears$ a$ social$ function$ and$ it$ finds$ support$ in$ the$ Consti$ itself$ in$
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Article$14,$section$13:$The$state$shall$protect$and$secure$the$exclusive) convention,+treaty+or+reciprocal+law,+in+addition+to+the+rights+to+which+any+
rights$of$scientists$ owner+of+an+intellectual+property+right+is+otherwise+entitled+by+this+Act.+(n),
! The$nature$of$IP$rights$are$exclusive,)you$exclude$the$rest$and$include$ • This$ provision$ identifies$ the$ types$ of$ persons$ who$ can$ avail$ of$ the$
the$ IP$ owner;$ so$ that$ the$ ultimate$ end$ will$ be$ promoted;$ to$ benefit$ provisions$of$this$law$
the$people.$The$protection$of$one$will$benefit$the$general$public.$How$ • What$types$of$persons$have$been$identified$here?$$
so?$ When$ laws$ ensure$ the$ protection$ of$ inventors$ and$ authors$ of$
4$persons:$$
works,$he$will$have$no$hesitation$to$share$his$knowledge$because$he$
is$confident$that$his$rights$will$be$protected,$and$that$is$the$essence$ ! a$national$
of$IP$protection.$The$state$will$protect$you$but$you$have$to$share.$$ ! domiciled$
! having$real$and$effective$establishment$in$a$country$which$is$a$party$
! Example:$ one$ of$ the$ requirements$ of$ patent$ registration$ is$ full$
disclosure$ of$ you$ invention.$ If$ you$ are$ not$ willing$ to$ disclose$ your$ to$ any$ convention,$ treaty$ or$ agreement$ relating$ to$ intellectual$
invention,$then$the$state$will$not$protect$you.$$ property$rights$or$the$repression$of$unfair$competition,$to$which$the$
! The$ ultimate$ end$ really$ is$ the$ diffusion$ of$ information$ and$ valuable$ Philippines$is$also$a$party$
knowledge.$Ultimate$end$should$be$superior,$the$primary$purpose.$ ! having$ real$ and$ effective$ establishment$ in$ a$ country$ which$ extends$
reciprocal$rights$to$nationals$of$the$Philippines$by$law$
20TH)CENTURY)VS)AIKEN)
• International$agreementW$an$example$here$is$the$TRIPS$
Discussion:,,
• For$one$to$qualify$as$a$person$who$can$avail$of$the$provisions$of$this$law,$
• In$ both$ cases$ (Feist),$ copyright$ owners$ wanted$ to$ enforce$ their$ he$should$be$one$of$the$three$above$
th
copyright$ for$ the$ work$ they$ claim$ to$ have$ created.$ In$ case$ of$ 20 $ • However$in$the$second$part,$when$the$law$gives$restrictions$to$Filipinos$
century,$ the$ plaintiff$ alleged$ that$ the$ playing$ of$ their$ sound$ recording$
in$their$country,$we$shall$also$impose$the$same$restrictions.$We$call$this$
over$the$radio$station$did$not$extend$to$the$right$of$restaurant$owners$
to$play$the$sound$recording$in$their$establishment.$The$authority$is$only$ reverse)reciprocity,)in$section$231.$
give$ to$ radio$ companies;$ it$ did$ not$ extend$ to$ those$ playing$ it$ in$ the$ • SC$ already$ recognized$ the$ enforcement$ of$ IP$ beyond$ the$ territorial$
establishments.$ Plaintiff$ wanted$ them$ to$ pay$ royalties$ or$ seek$ their$ jurisdiction$even$before$passage$of$law;$it$is$a$borderless$enforcement$of$
authorization$ such$right$(Columbia$vs$CA)$
• SC:$There$is$no$provision$which$defines$the$right$of$a$copyright$owner$to$ • It$ allowed$ certain$ corporations$ who$ are$ not$ doing$ business$ in$ the$
extend$even$to$the$establishment$playing$these$songs;$we$are$left$with$ Philippines,$but$allowed$to$enforce$their$copyright$because$enforcement$
the$interpretation$of$the$copyright$law.$So,$is$the$protection$of$the$right$ of$IP$knows$no$territorial$boundaries$
of$the$author$the$primary$purpose?$NO,$this$is$only$an$individual$right$as$ • The$three$areas$in$the$law$are$separate+and+distinct+from$one$another$
opposed$ to$ allowing$ the$ music$ to$ be$ played$ so$ that$ the$ public$ can$
appreciate$ or$ enjoy$ such$ work$ of$ art$ because$ this$ will$ promote$ PEARL)AND)DEAN)VS)SM)
creativity.$
Discussion,
• SC:$Creative$work,$though$encouraged$and$rewarded$and$therefore$the$
author$is$motivated$to$create,$but$it$would$ultimately$serve$the$cause$of$ • SC:$ there$ are$ four$ major$ concerns$ of$ IP$ Law:$ Patent,$ Copyright,$
promoting$ broad$ public$ availability$ of$ literature,$ music$ and$ the$ other$ Trademark,$and$Unfair$competition$arising$from$infringement$of$any$of$
st
arts.$The$immediate$effect$of$our$copyright$law$is$to$secure$a$fair$return$ the$1 $3$
of$the$author’s$creative$labor$but$the$ultimate$aim$of$this$incentive$is$to$ • Court$ said$ these$ legal$ rights$ are$ completely$ separate$ and$ distinct$ from$
stimulate$artistic$creativity$for$the$general$public$good.$ one$ another.$ The$ protection$ afforded$ by$ one$ cannot$ be$ used$
• So$what$is$the$ruling$of$the$SC?$The$playing$in$the$establishments$should$ interchangeably$to$cover$items$or$works$that$exclusively$pertain$to$the$
not$ be$ considered$ as$ an$ act$ of$ infringement$ applying$ the$ primary$ others.$They$cannot$be$interchanged.$
purpose$ • In$ this$ case,$ Peal$ &$ Dean$ claimed$ to$ have$ invented$ a$ product$ and$
• So$when$these$two$sets$of$rights$clash,$we$have$to$uphold$the$primary$ registered$it$under$the$law$on$copyright$and$claimed$it$was$an$invention,$
purpose$as$superior$to$secondary$rights$ but$ they$ failed$ to$ register$ it$ under$ law$ on$ patent.$ They$ sued$ SM$ for$
FEIST)PUBLICATIONS)VS)RURAL)TELECOMMUNICATIONS) violation$of$copyright,$trademark$and$patent$infringement.$$
Discussion:, • SC$ said$ since$ Pearl$ &$ Dean$ did$ not$ apply$ for$ patent$ registration,$ then$
they$ cannot$ claim$ protection$ from$ patent$ law.$ But$ even$ if$ registered$
• SC:) The+ primary+ objective+ of+ copyright+ is+ not+ to+ reward+ the+ labor+ of+
under$ copyright,$ they$ cannot$ claim$ copyright$ protection$ because$ there+
authors+but+to+promote+the+progress+of+science+and+useful+arts)
are+requirements$which$give$only$limited$protection$
• Feist$ is$ the$ printer$ of$ white$ pages$ covering$ list$ of$ their$ subscribers$ in$
their$ given$ area.$ Part$ of$ this$ area,$ there$ is$ also$ another$ company$ INTELLECTUAL)PROPERTY)OFFICE)(IPO))
servicing$ such$ area$ covered$ by$ Feist.$ They$ covered$ the$ white$ pages$ of$
• Created$for$the$enforcement$of$IPRs)
Feist$and$thereafter,$Feist$sued$for$copyright$infringement)
SECTION)6.The+Organizational+Structure+of+the+IPO.$—$6.1.$The$Office$shall$
• SC:$Is+it+an+act+of+infringement+when+they+copied+the+list+of+subscribers+in+ be$headed$by$a$Director$General$who$shall$be$assisted$by$two$(2)$Deputies$
the+ white+ pages?$ NO.$ Apart$ from$ the$ fact$ that$ the$ work$ itself$ is$ not$
Director$General.$
copyrightable,$ they$ have$ to$ apply$ and$ interpret$ the$ primary$ purpose$
6.2.The$Office$shall$be$divided$into$six$(6)$Bureaus,$each$of$which$shall$be$
which$ is$ to$ diffuse$ useful$ information$ rather$ than$ disallow$ this$
information$to$be$used$by$the$general$public.$$ headed$by$a$Director$and$assisted$by$an$Assistant$Director.$These$Bureaus$
are:$
$
a)The$Bureau$of$Patents;$
Section)3:)International+Conventions+and+Reciprocity.$—$Any,person,who,is, b)The$Bureau$of$Trademarks;$
a, national, or, who, is, domiciled, or, has, a, real, and, effective, industrial,
c)The$Bureau$of$Legal$Affairs;$
establishment,in,a,country,which,is,a,party,to,any,convention,,treaty,or,
agreement, relating, to, intellectual, property, rights, or, the, repression, of, d)The$Documentation,$Information$and$Technology$Transfer$Bureau;$
unfair, competition,, to, which, the, Philippines, is, also, a, party,, or, extends, e)The$Management$Information$System$and$EDP$Bureau;$and$
reciprocal,rights,to,nationals,of,the,Philippines,by,law,+shall+be+entitled+to+ f)The$Administrative,$Financial$and$Personnel$Services$Bureau.)
benefits+ to+ the+ extent+ necessary+ to+ give+ effect+ to+ any+ provision+ of+ such+
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• An$ agency$ having$ regulatory$ powers,$ and$ hear$ disputes$ and$ cases$ Discussion:, Ching$ argued$ that$ his$ work$ is$ copyrightable$ even$ if$ it$ is$ an$
involving$ IPR;$ it$ also$ has$ adjudicatory$ powers$ because$ of$ quasiWjudicial$ automotive$ spare$ part$ having$ utilitarian$ function.$ Still,$ it$ can$ be$
functions$ copyrightable$because$it$has$aesthetic$feature.$He$says$it$should$be$literary$
• There$is$an$amendment:$We$now$have$a$Bureau$of$Copyright$ and$ artistic$ work.$ The$ fact$ of$ aesthetic/decorative$ component$ would$
• RA)10372$gives$additional$power$to$Director$General$and$deputies.$This$ qualify$it$as$a$work$of$applied$art.$$
was$an$issue$because$this$would$violate$some$constitutional$rights—$ SC:$ The$ court$ said$ it$ cannot$ be$ a$ work$ of$ applied$ art$ because$ for$ it$ to$ be$
“(d)Conduct$ visits$ during$ reasonable$ hours$ to$ establishments$ and$ considered$as$applied$art,$the$aesthetic$component$can$be$separable$from$
businesses$ engaging$ in$ activities$ violating$ intellectual$ property$ rights$ its$ utilitarian$ component.$ There$ are$ certain$ items$ or$ tools$ produced$ for$
and$ provisions$ of$ this$ Act$ based$ on$ report,$ information$ or$ complaint$ utilitarian$ purposes.$ However,$ if$ such$ tool$ has$ aesthetic$ or$ decorative$
received$by$the$office;”$ component,$ it$ can$ be$ under$ the$ copyright$ law$ but$ the$ criteria$ is$ that$ it$
• This$ section$ is$ subject$ to$ abuse$ because$ this$ might$ allow$ Director$ should$ be$ separated$ from$ the$ utilitarian$ component$ and$ the$ utilitarian$
General$ to$ conduct$ searches$ without$ a$ warrant$ which$ we$ know$ is$ component$should$still$function.$
unconstitutional$
Example:$MUG.$The$decorative$print$can$be$separated$from$the$mug,$and$
• IPO$has$quasiWjudicial$functions,$but$who$has$original$jurisdiction?$There$
the$ mug$ can$ still$ be$ used$ without$ it.$ That$ particular$ portion,$ the$ print,$ is$
is$ a$ Bureau$ of$ Legal$ Affairs,$ headed$ by$ a$ Director.$ His$ decision$ is$
copyrightable.$$
appealable$to$the$Director$General,$who$has$an$appellate$jurisdiction.$$
• What$happens$when$the$party$wants$to$appeal?$According$to$sec$6$B,$he$ In$this$case$of$Ching,$SC$said$work$can$be$created)when)it)is)original)and)it)
may$appeal$to$CA,$then$to$the$SC$ has)some)minimal)degree)of)creativity.$$$
• Another$function$of$Director$General$transferred$to$Bureau$of$Copyright$ Another$requirement$is$that$it)should)be)expressed)in)its)tangible)form)
• Does$IPO$have$exclusive$authority$to$enforce$IPRs?$NO.$This$is$settled$in$
That’s$ why$ in$ Sec) 172.1,$ it$ is$ stated^^^) “Literary$ and$ artistic$ works,$
Pest+Management+vs+Fertilizer.$SC$said$there$is$no$encroachment$upon$
hereinafter$referred$to$as$"works",$are$original)intellectual)creations)in)the)
the$ powers$ of$ the$ IPO$ under$ 8293.$ Nowhere$ in$ that$ law$ can$ it$ be$
literary)and)artistic)domain$protected$from$the$moment$of$their$creation”$
inferred$that$IPO$has$exclusive$authority.$Same$law$states$that$IPO$shall$
coordinate$ with$ other$ government$ agencies.$ It$ will$ not$ preclude$ other$ 172.2.$Works$are$protected$by)the)sole)fact)of)their)creation,$irrespective$
government$agencies$to$issue$rules$and$regulations$on$copyright$such$as$ of$their$mode$or$form$of$expression,$as$well$as$of$their$content,$quality$and$
broadcasting$rights.$IPO$does$not$have$exclusive$authority$ purpose.$(doctrine)of)automatic)protection)+
st
$ • 1 $principle:$Works$are$protected$by$the$sole$fact$of$their$creation+
nd
• 2 :$Irrespective$of$their$mode$or$form$of$expression+
LAW)ON)COPYRIGHT)
! Example:$ manuscript$ of$ a$ novel$ is$ already$ protected,$ since$ law$ says$
• Works$covered$by$the$law$on$copyright:$literary$and$artistic$works$ irrespective$ of$ its$ mode$ or$ form.$ No$ particular$ format,$ as$ long$ as$
• 2$types$of$work$classified$as$covered$under$this$law:$original+works+and+ expressed$already$in$tangible$form+
derivative+works—both$eligible$for$copyright$protection$ rd
• 3 :$without$taking$into$consideration$the$content,$quality$and$purpose+
• But+when+can+there+be+copyright+protection?+Does+the+law+specify+when?+ ! so$ the$ law$ covers$ any$ type$ of$ work.$ Do$ not$ be$ misled$ by$ the$ terms$
! 172.2.$ Works$ are$ protected$ by) the) sole) fact) of) their) creation,$ literary$and$artistic$because$you$would$have$the$impression$that$only$
irrespective$ of$ their$ mode$ or$ form$ of$ expression,$ as$ well$ as$ of$ their$ those$ works$ appealing$ to$ you$ can$ pass$ for$ protection.$ The$ law$ does$
content,$quality$and$purpose.$+ not$ discriminate.$ Whether$ good$ quality$ work$ or$ not,$ it$ doesn’t$
! But$ when$ can$ we$ say$ that$ a$ work$ is$ created,$ which$ is$ the$ moment$ matter.$ The$ only$ requirements$ for$ copyright$ protection$ are:$
that$they$become$protected?$What$are$the$requirements?+ originality,)expression,)minimal)degree)of)creativity)
! Answer:$ there$ is$ no$ formal$ requirement$ for$ their$ protection.$ That$ is$ ! Why$does$the$law$specify$minimal$degree$of$creativity?$You$have$to$
why$ what’s$ important$ is$ the$ fact$ that$ there$ is$ no$ registration$ judge$a$work$and$say$this$is$a$product$of$intellectual$creation.$There$
requirement$which$was$settled$in$Columbia+Pictures+case.$+ has$ to$ be$ intent) to) create) a) work) of) art.) That’s$ why$ your$ ordinary$
COLUMBIA)PICTURES)vs)CA) text$ messages$ cannot$ qualify.$ The$ law$ is$ very$ liberal$ and$ covers$ all$
types$ of$ work.$ Plus$ in$ case$ of$ Ching,$ it$ characterizes$ copyright) as$
Discussion:, This$ case$ was$ decided$ when$ the$ old$ law$ was$ still$ effective.$
statutory)right+
It’s$ understandable$ that$ the$ ruling$ is$ qualified.$ But$ the$ principle, of$
! In$case$of$Ching,$SC$said$the$work$was$not$copyrightable.$Copyright$is$
automatic, protection$ is$ still$ applicable$ under$ the$ new$ law.$ Works$ are$
a$ statutory$ right,$ meaning$ you+ have+ to+ be+ limited+ to+ what+ the+ law+
protected$ from$ the$ moment) of) their) creation) so$ there$ is$ no$ formal$
provides.$If$the$ law$does$ not$say$that$ your$work$ is$ not$one$of$those$
requirement$ necessary$ for$ their$ protection.$ But$ in$ this$ case,$ SC$ said$
enumerated,$your$work$is$not$copyrightable.$If$it$is$not$included,$you$
registration$ is$ only$ important) when$ plaintiff$ is$ suing$ for$ damages.$ If$
cannot$seek$for$protection.$+
there’s$no$registration,$you$cannot$claim$damages.$Under$the$new$law,$
there$ is$ no$ more$ requirement$ to$ avail$ of$ damages.$ However,$ new$ law$ )
still$ retains$ the$ requirement$ of$ registration.$ Registration$ is$ not$ IDEA)–)EXPRESSION)DICHOTOMY/)PRINCIPLE)
important$ for$ protection$ but$ still$ mandatory$ under$ section$ 191.$ That’s$ SECTION$ 175$ Unprotected+ Subject+ Matter.$ —$ Notwithstanding$ the$
why$you$submitted$the$forms$in$class.$$ provisions$of$Sections$172$and$173,)no)protection)shall)extend,)under)this)
law,) to) any) idea,) procedure,) system,) method) or) operation,) concept,)
What+then+is+the+value+of+registration?$In$litigation,$it$is$very$important$
principle,) discovery) or) mere) data$ as$ such,$ even$ if$ they$ are$ expressed,$
to$have$your$proof.$Your$case$will$not$have$a$valid$cause$of$action$unless$ explained,$ illustrated$ or$ embodied$ in$ a$ work;$ news$ of$ the$ day$ and$ other$
you$ establish$ ownership$ of$ the$ copyright.$ Just$ be$ careful$ in$ this$ case$ miscellaneous$ facts$ having$ the$ character$ of$ mere$ items$ of$ press$
because$it$applies$the$old$law.$ information;$ or$ any$ official$ text$ of$ a$ legislative,$ administrative$ or$ legal$
nature,$as$well$as$any$official$translation$thereof.$
• When$ can$ we$ say$ there$ is$ creation$ so$ that$ a$ work$ can$ be$ protected?$
Refer$to$Ching$case$ • Essence$of$protection$is$that$it$protects$what$the$author$has$created.$He$
is$not$the$author$of$an$idea,$etc.$It$belongs$to$the$public,$that’s$why$it’s$
CHING)vs)SALINAS)
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not$copyrightable.$But$any$work$covers$any$idea.$So$if$someone$uses$the$ WWWchoreographic$ works:$ presented$ before$ the$ public$ for$
same$ idea,$ he$ cannot$ be$ liable$ for$ copyright$ infringement$ when$ the$ performance.$It$can$also$be$transcribed$in$its$written$or$printed$
manner$was$different$in$expressing$it$ form.$
• Example:$ movies$ on$ life$ of$ Jose$ Rizal.$ Each$ movie$ is$ expressed$ (f)Musical$compositions,$with$or$without$words;$
differently,$although$the$same$subject.$Another$example$is$an$art$class,$ WWWmusical$ composition$ may$ be$ with$ or$ without$ words.$ In$ most$
where$ the$ model$ drawn$ is$ the$ same$ but$ how$ each$ draws/paints$ it$ is$ cases,$ the$ author$ of$ the$ composition$ is$ also$ author$ of$ the$
different.$There$are$several$original$works$by$the$painters.$ words,$ except$ in$ some$ instances.$ In$ that$ case,$ there$ are$ 2$
• Example:$ Recently$ someone$ filed$ abroad$ case$ against$ Dan$ Brown$ separate$copyrights$
because$ he$ claims$ they$ have$ the$ same$ subject$ matter$ in$ the$ novel$ of$ (g)Works$ of$ drawing,$ painting,$ architecture,$ sculpture,$ engraving,$
Dan$Brown,$and$his$work$is$the$product$of$investigation$of$several$years.$ lithography$or$other$works$of$art;$models$or$designs$for$works$of$art;$
All$sources$of$Dan$Brown$came$from$his$book.$But$the$UK$Court$said$he$
cannot$ claim$ copyright$ infringement$ since$ Dan$ Brown$ only$ copied$ the$ WWWthese$ works$ can$ be$ classified$ as$ 2dimensional$ or$
subject$ matter$ like$ how$ Jesus$ is$ portrayed$ in$ history.$ The$ one$ used$ by$ 3dimensional.$
Dan$Brown$is$an$unprotected$subject$matter;$it$is$only$an$idea.$ (h)Original$ ornamental$ designs$ or$ models$ for$ articles$ of$ manufacture,$
• Going$ back$ to$ Sec$ 172,$ it$ is$ statutory$ and$ it$ is$ only$ available$ to$ works$ whether$ or$ not$ registrable$ as$ an$ industrial$ design,$ and$ other$ works$ of$
enumerated$ in$ A$ –$ O.$ It$ has$ to$ be$ original,$ expressed$ in$ tangible$ form$ applied$art;$
and$minimal$degree$of$creativity.$$ $ WWWthe$one$cited$in$Ching$case$
• Another$ case$ is$ the$ Feist) Publication,$ where$ SC$ said$ what$ they$ are$ WWWFor$ instance,$ a$ lampshade.$ If$ you$ take$ out$ decorative$
seeking$to$protect$is$the$listing$in$the$telephone$directory.$Rural$TV$sued$ component$and$lamp$can$still$function,$it$is$applied$art$and$thus$
Feist$ because$ it$ copied$ their$ list.$ SC$ said$ these$ facts$ are$ not$ their$ copyrightable$
creation.$They$were$just$data)as$included$in$Sec$175.$Their$contribution$
(i)Illustrations,$maps,$plans,$sketches,$charts$and$threeWdimensional$works$
is$ only$ the$ alphabetical$ arrangement.$ There$ is$ no$ minimal$ degree$ of$
relative$to$geography,$topography,$architecture$or$science;$
creativity$ there.$ No$ matter$ how$ tedious$ the$ work$ was$ in$ collecting$ the$
data,$ there$ is$ no$ copyright$ infringement$ because$ the$ items$ there$ are$ (j)Drawings$or$plastic$works$of$a$scientific$or$technical$character;$
unprotected.$$ (k)Photographic$works$including$works$produced$by$a$process$analogous$to$
• Again$in$Ching,$SC$said$granting$there$is$ornamental$feature,$it$cannot$be$ photography;$lantern$slides;$
separated$and$therefore$cannot$qualify.$But$how$about$letter$O?$SC$said$ WWWas$ long$ as$ photo$ satisfies$ the$ requirements,$ it$ is$
you$cannot$stretch$the$meaning$of$the$law$too$far.$The$work$did$not$fall$ copyrightable.$ Even$ the$ choice$ of$ subject$ of$ photo$ can$ satisfy$
under$any$of$the$items$enumerated$ minimal$degree$of$creativity$
• ITEMS$ENUMERATED:$WWWWWW$ (l)Audiovisual$works$and$cinematographic$works$and$works$produced$by$a$
CHAPTER)II$ORIGINAL)WORKS$ process$ analogous$ to$ cinematography$ or$ any$ process$ for$ making$ audioW
visual$recordings;$
SECTION) 172.) Literary, and, Artistic, Works.$ —$ 172.1.$ Literary$ and$ artistic$
works,$hereinafter$referred$to$as$"works",$are$original$intellectual$creations$ WWW$films$&$movies,$refer$to$Pearl$&$Dean$case$$
in$ the$ literary$ and$ artistic$ domain$ protected$ from$ the$ moment$ of$ their$ (m)Pictorial$illustrations$and$advertisements;$
creation$and$shall$include$in$particular:$
(n)Computer$programs;$and$
(a)Books,$pamphlets,$articles$and$other$writings;$
WWWin$ some$ countries,$ computer$ programs$ are$ inventions$ but$
(b)Periodicals$and$newspapers;$ here$ in$ Phils,$ they$ are$ copyrightable.$ If$ it$ part$ of$ a$ machine$
$ WWWfacts$in$the$newspaper$are$not$copyrightable$ which$ performs$ technical$ functions,$ it$ becomes$ patentable$ not$
as$ a$ computer$ program$ itself$ but$ as$ a$ component$ of$ the$
WWWif$ another$ writer$ copies,$ no$ copyright$ infringement$ if$ he$ machine,$like$the$ATM$machine.$The$ATM$becomes$patentable.$
expresses$it$differently$
(o)Other$literary,$scholarly,$scientific$and$artistic$works$
WWWfootage$of$GMA$was$being$broadcast$by$ABSCBN.$But$this$did$
not$reach$SC.$But$footage$itself$is$copyrightable$ WWWit$covers$all$kinds$of$works$that$can$be$thought$of$now$and$in$
the$future.$How$about$a$tattoo?$It$can$be$work$of$art$as$long$as$
(c)Lectures,$ sermons,$ addresses,$ dissertations$ prepared$ for$ oral$ delivery,$ it$ satisfies$ the$ requirements.$ How$ about$ henna?$ Yes,$ whether$
whether$or$not$reduced$in$writing$or$other$material$form;$ temporary$ or$ permanent$ as$ long$ as$ you$ can$ establish$ the$
$ WWWHere,$ purpose$ of$ author$ is$ oral$ delivery.$ It$ should$ not$ be$ in$ requirements$
written$ form.$ What$ about$ prepared$ speeches?$ If$ written$ but$ not$ yet$ $
delivered,$not$yet$covered$under$paragraph$C.$If$written,$covered$by$letter$
A$as$other$writing.$This$is$only$relevant$when$speech$is$not$written.$ CHAPTER)III$DERIVATIVE)WORKS)
(d)Letters;$ LAKTAW)vs)PAGLINAWAN)

WWWImportant$principle:$Copyright,is,separate,&,distinct,from,the, Discussion:, When$ you$ introduce$ some$ changes$ in$ a$ work,$ that$ will$ be$
material,object,that,embodies,a,work.$ called$ a$ derivative) work) when) it) substantially) copies) the) work) including)
the)expressive)content.,However,$you$should$have$made$some$additional$
WWWExample:$A$book$is$being$sold$and$purchased$by$buyer.$Once$ work$which$has$the$effect$of$transforming)the)work.)
you$purchase$it,$buyer$becomes$owner.$He$is$now$owner,$but$he$
does$not$have$right$to$reproduce.$However,$he$has$the$right$to$ • SO$in$order$for$it$to$be$a$derivative$work:$it+must+substantially+reproduce+
sell)that)book.)That$is$the$material$object.$$ the+original+work,+and+it+must+transform+the+original+work+or+it+must+be+
transformative$
WWWSame$ principle$ with$ letters.$ Who$ is$ author$ of$ letter?$ The$
writer$or$letterWsender.$Once$it$is$delivered,$the$addressee$is$the$ • What$ is$ the$ effect?$ Sec$ 173.2$ says$ it$ is$ protected$ as$ a$ new$ work.$ So$
owner.$ He$ does$ not$ have$ right$ to$ reproduce$ contents,$ but$ he$ meaning,$ there$ is$ a$ separate$ copyright.$ It$ is$ protected$ as$ an$ original$
can$transfer$the$ownership$of$the$material$object$ work,$but$it$is$a$derivative$work.$So$as$not$to$confuse$you,$first$the$one$
that$ which$ is$ based$ upon$ should$ be$ identified$ as$ the$ underlying) work)$
(e)Dramatic$ or$ dramaticoWmusical$ compositions;$ choreographic$ works$ or$
because$the$derivative$work$itself$is$original$
entertainment$in$dumb$shows;$
Room$405$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
• SO$what$are$the$types?$$ • Copyright$are$exclusive$rights;$also$statutory$rights$
SECTION) 173.) Derivative, Works.$ —$ 173.1.$ The$ following$ derivative$ • Copyright$is$an$exclusive$right$which$means$you’re$the$only$one$who$can$
works$shall$also$be$protected$by$copyright:$ invoke/enforce$ to$ the$ exclusion$ of$ the$ rest.$ It$ is$ also$ statutory$ as$ it$ is$
(a)Dramatizations,$ translations,$ adaptations,$ abridgments,$ only$limited$to$what$the$law$provides$
arrangements,$and$other$alterations$of$literary$or$artistic$works;$and$ • Since$ it$ is$ exclusive$ &$ statutory,$ an) act) which) is) a) violation) of) your)
exclusive) right) that) is) defined) by) law—$ a$ particular$ act$ against$ the$
(b)Collections$ of$ literary,$ scholarly$ or$ artistic$ works,$ and$ compilations$
of$ data$ and$ other$ materials$ which$ are$ original$ by$ reason$ of$ the$ exclusive$ right$ is$ an$ encroachment$ especially$ if$ there$ is$ no$ consent$ of$
selection$or$coordination$or$arrangement$of$their$contents$ the$author$
• So$ where$ did$ the$ work$ of$ Mr.$ Paglinawan$ fall?$ It$ was$ a$ dictionary$ or,$ • So$how$many$exclusive$rights$are$there?$7$
other+alterations.$ • To$ emphasize$ that$ it$ is$ a$ statutory$ right,$ example:$ There$ was$ this$ case$
where$an$author$entered$in$to$publication$agreement$with$publisher.$He$
• SO$ if$ you$ make$ a$ translated$ version$ that$ is$ a$ derivative$ work.$ You$ are$
merely$copying$in$a$different$language.$But$you$should$seek$consent)of$ submitted$ his$ only$ copy$ of$ his$ manuscript.$ For$ some$ reason,$ the$
the$ author$ of$ the$ underlying$ work$ because$ the$ right$ to$ make$ a$ agreement$ did$ not$ push$ through.$ Later$ on,$ he$ decided$ to$ enter$ into$
derivative$work$is$exclusive$to$the$author$of$the$underlying$work.$ another$agreement$with$another$publisher.$He$has$no$other$copy$so$he$
st st
• If$ the$ alteration$ is$ trivial$ or$ minimal,$ it$ can$ be$ classified$ as$ a$ mere$ went$back$to$1 $and$demanded$his$only$copy,$but$the$1 $refused$since$
reproduction.$ It$ is$ not$ transformative.$ What$ is$ the$ effect?$ It$ is$ not$ a$ he$ was$ also$ claiming$ for$ damages.$ The$ author$ sued$ the$ publisher$ for$
derivative$ work,$ so$ it$ is$ not$ protected$ by$ copyright$ since$ it$ is$ merely$ a$ infringement.$Would$this$case$prosper?$
reproduction,$even$with$the$consent$of$the$author.$ • So$ go$ back$ to$ the$ principle.$ The$ law$ says$ an$ act$ is$ only$ a$ violation$ if$ it$
• What$ is$ protected$ is$ not$ the$ content$ but$ the$ manner$ of$ selection.$ falls$ under$ any$ exclusive$ rights.$ SO$ what$ act$ is$ in$ the$ example?$ The$
Example$ an$ author$ wants$ to$ make$ a$ compilation$ of$ a$ certain$ famous$ publisher$ only$ withheld,$ he$ did$ not$ reproduce.$ The$ act$ claimed$ of$ was$
poet.$ His$ work$ is$ derivative$ since$ it$ copies$ underlying$ works.$ He$ is$ the$ act$ of$ refusing$ to$ return.$ Is$ that$ act$ an$ violation?$ NO.) It$ is$ not$
eligible$for$protection$but$only$covers$the$selection.$If$another$copies$his$ infringement.$ But$ he$ has$ relief;$ he$ can$ still$ demand$ return$ of$ the$
work,$his$rights$as$author$of$the$derivative$work$is$infringed$upon,$and$
manuscript.$He$can$ask$for$recovery$of$personal$property.$There$was$no$
that$ other$ person$ is$ also$ violating$ the$ right$ of$ the$ author$ of$ the$
underlying$ work$ because$ he$ copied$ the$ expression$ or$ contents.$That$is$ violation$of$his$copyright$since$it$did$not$fall$under$any$of$the$exclusive$
why$Sec$173.2$states$“That$such$new$work$shall$not$affect$the$force$of$ rights$
any$ subsisting$ copyright$ upon$ the$ original$ works$ employed$ or$ any$ part$ • Analyze) a) problem) and) see) to) it) that) the) act) complained) of) can) be)
thereto”.$So$assuming$another$made$a$derivative$work$with$the$consent$ considered) as) falling) under) any) of) those) identified) by) the) law.) It) is)
of$the$author,$that$act$of$giving$consent$will$not$in$any$way$diminish$or$ important)to)know)what)the)specific)acts)are)(dear+friends,+I+think+pina+
prejudice$ his$ own$ copyright.$ So$ if$ one$ copies$ the$ derivative$ work,$ he$
Degoma+ style+ ni+ siya+ if+ na+ under+ mo+ ato+ na+ teacher.+ Memorize+ mo+ sa+
violates$two$copyrights$
acts+and+muhatag+na+siyag+situation+na+magthink+ka+if+infringement+ba+
• Citing$ only$ the$ source,$ without$ consent$ of$ the$ author,$ will$ not$ cure$ it.$ kaha+ni+or+dili))
This$only$applies$to$excerpts.$$
• What$are$the$specific$copyrights$we’re$talking$about?$WWWWWWW)
• There$is$really$no$issue$if$the$copyright$owner$will$not$sue$you$
Copyright,or,Economic,Rights)
• If$he$feels$aggrieved,$like$he$is$being$deprived$of$any$economic$or$moral$
SECTION$177.$Copyright+or+Economic+Rights.$—$Subject$to$the$provisions$of$
right$such$as$the$right$to$be$recognized$as$an$author.$More$importantly$
Chapter$ VIII,$ copyright$ or$ economic$ rights$ shall$ consist$ of$ the$ exclusive$
to$ an$ artist$ or$ the$ one$ who$ makes$ the$ work,$ he$ expects$ economic$
right$to$carry$out,$authorize$or$prevent$the$following$acts:$
return.$So$if$he$is$deprived$of$his$economic$expectation,$he$will$sue.$But$
if$he$feels$an$act$will$promote$his$work,$just$like$in$Youtube$where$there$ 177.1.$Reproduction$of$the$work$or$substantial$portion$of$the$work;$
are$ many$ covers$ and$ he$ becomes$ famous,$ he$ may$ not$ sue$ you.$ WWWone$ author$ said$ this$ right$ is$ the$ most$ elemental$ economic$
However,$ technically,$ that$ act$ is$ infringement$ because$ you$ are$ copying$ right$among$the$7$
the$work$of$another$and$performance$of$a$song$is$a$right$of$the$owner,$
which$is$the$right$to$pubic$performance$ WWWthe$reason$why$there$is$protection$is$because$the$law$wants$
to$ protect$ the$ economic$ expectation$ of$ the$ author,$ Law$
SECTION) 174.) Published, Edition, of, Work.$ —$ In$ addition$ to$ the$ right$ to$ assumes$that$an$author$intends$some$profit$
publish$granted$by$the$author,$his$heirs,$or$assigns,$the$publisher$shall$have$
a$ copyright$ consisting$ merely$ of$ the$ right$ of$ reproduction$ of$ the$ WWWhow$ would$ you$ define$ reproduction?$ Go$ to$ the$ definition.$
typographical$arrangement$of$the$published$edition$of$the$work.$ 171.9."Reproduction"$is$the$making$of$one$(1)$or$more$copies$of$
a$work$or$a$sound$recording$in$any$manner$or$form$
• Right$ of$ the$ publisher$ to$ the$ typographical$ arrangement$ of$ the$
published$edition$of$the$work$ WWWso$ the$ act$ of$ reproduction$ does$ not$ have$ to$ be$ the$ same$
format$like$transforming$the$electronic$form.$$
• This$ belongs$ exclusively$ to$ the$ publisher.$ So$ the$ publisher$ has$ a$
copyright$ WWWnow$amended$as:$"171.9.$‘Reproduction’$is$the$making$of$one$
(1)$ or$ more$ copies,$ temporary$ or$ permanent,$ in$ whole$ or$ in$
• Author$ can$ give$ publisher$ the$ authority$ to$ publisher$ to$ make$ several$ part,$ of$ a$ work$ or$ a$ sound$ recording$ in$ any$ manner$ or$ form$
copies,$so$he$can$license$or$authorize$reproduction$rights$but$he$has$no$ without$ prejudice$ to$ the$ provisions$ of$ Section$ 185$ of$ this$ Act$
control$especially$if$it$is$contractually$stated$that$the$publisher$will$have$ (Sec.$41[E],$P.D.$No.$49a);"$WWW185$refers$to$fair$use$
free$hand$in$making$the$typographical$arrangement$
WWWIn$ whole$ or$ in$ part:$ does$ not$ require$ that$ whole$ work$ be$
• Once$the$book$is$published,$copyright$of$the$typographical$arrangement$ reproduced$
belongs$to$the$publisher$
177.2.$Dramatization,$translation,$adaptation,$abridgment,$arrangement$or$
• What$is$the$implication?$What$if$the$author$makes$another$edition$and$ other$transformation$of$the$work;$
contracts$ with$ other$ publisher?$ That$ second$ publisher$ cannot$ use$ the$
st WWWIn$ Laktaw$ case,$ he$ said$ that$ he$ did$ not$ reproduce$ since$ he$
same$ typographical$ arrangement$ as$ the$ 1 $ publisher$ because$ he$ will$
st introduced$changes.$SC$said$he$still$needed$consent$because$the$
violate$the$copyright$of$the$1 $$
right$ to$ make$ improvement$ is$ still$ exclusive$ right$ of$ author.$
$ Whether$you$make$reproduction$or$not,$there$are$criteria$for$it$
COPYRIGHT:)EXCLUSIVE)&)STATUTORY)RIGHTS) to$be$a$derivative$work:$it$has$to$be$transformative,$and$borrow$
!
Room$405$ $ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
the$ substantial$ expressive$ content,$ also$ use$ minimal$ degree$ of$ otherwise$ performing$ the$ work,$ either$ directly$ or$ by$ means$ of$
creativity$ any$ device$ or$ process;$ in$ the$ case$ of$ an$ audiovisual$ work,$ the$
showing$of$its$images$in$sequence$and$the$making$of$the$sounds$
WWWso$what$is$difference?$If$it$is$not$transformative$or$changes,$it$
is$mere$reproduction$ accompanying$it$audible;$and,$in$the$case$of$a$sound$recording,$
making$ the$ recorded$ sounds$ audible$ at$ a$ place$ or$ at$ places$
WWWwhat$ is$ significance$ of$ differentiating?$ Derivative$ works$ are$ where$ persons$ outside$ the$ normal$ circle$ of$ a$ family$ and$ that$
protected$ as$ new$ works.$ Law$ assumes$ that$ making$ the$ family's$ closest$ social$ acquaintances$ are$ or$ can$ be$ present,$
derivative$ work$ is$ with$ the$ consent.$ What$ if$ there$ was$ no$ irrespective$of$whether$they$are$or$can$be$present$at$the$same$
consent$ and$ satisfied$ all$ the$ requirements?$ Law$ is$ silent,$ but$ place$ and$ at$ the$ same$ time,$ or$ at$ different$ places$ and/or$ at$
you$have$to$cite$Article$5$which$says$no$right$can$spring$from$an$ different$ times,$ and$ where$ the$ performance$ can$ be$ perceived$
illegal$act,$so$it$cannot$be$protected.$Therefore,$the$author$here$ without$ the$ need$ for$ communication$ within$ the$ meaning$ of$
of$the$derivative$work$is$not$protected$even$if$he$satisfied$the$2$ Subsection$171.3$
requirements$(you+remember+this)$
177.7.$Other$communication$to$the$public$of$the$work.$
177.3.$The$first$public$distribution$of$the$original$and$each$copy$of$the$work$
WWW171.3$"Communication$to$the$public"$or$"communicate$to$the$
by$sale$or$other$forms$of$transfer$of$ownership;$
public"$ means$ the$ making$ of$ a$ work$ available$ to$ the$ public$ by$
WWWDiscuss$this$visWàWvis$section$181$ wire$ or$ wireless$ means$ in$ such$ a$ way$ that$ members$ of$ the$
WWW"SEC.$ 181.$Copyright+ and+ Material+ Object.+–$ the$ copyright$ is$ public$ may$ access$ these$ works$ from$ a$ place$ and$ time$
distinct$ from$ the$ property$ in$ the$ material$ object$ subject$ to$ it.$ individually$chosen$by$them$
Consequently,$the$transfer,$assignment$or$licensing$of$the$copyright$ WWWcovers$all$types$of$communication$even$for$the$future$
shall$not$itself$constitute$a$transfer$of$the$material$object.$Nor$shall$ CHAPTER)VI)OWNERSHIP)OF)THE)COPYRIGHT)
a$transfer$or$assignment$of$the$sole$copy$or$of$one$or$several$copies$
• 178.1.Subject$ to$ the$ provisions$ of$ this$ section,$ in$ the$ case$ of$ original$
of$the$work$imply$transfer,$assignment$or$licensing$of$the$copyright.$
literary$ and$ artistic$ works,$ copyright) shall) belong) to) the) author) of) the)
(Sec.$16,$P.D.$No.$49)"$
work)
WWWSo)sale)of)material)object)is)not)sale)of)copyright) • EXCEPTIONS:)
^^^so$in$177,$we$are$talking$about$the$material)object,)not)copyright) ! Work$of$an$employee)

WWWlaw$affords$exclusive$right$to$the$author$with$respect$to$the$first$ 178.3.$In$the$case$of$work$created$by$an$author$during$and$in$the$
public$distribution.$Why?$Ownership$is$transferred$from$the$author$ course$of$his$employment,$the$copyright$shall$belong$to:$
to$buyer$of$material$object.$He$can$do$whatever$he$wants$after$the$ (a)The$employee,$if$the$creation$of$the$object$of$copyright$is$not$a$
sale.$The$exclusive$right$only$extends$to$the$first.$He$does$not$have$ part$ of$ his$ regular$ duties$ even$ if$ the$ employee$ uses$ the$ time,$
any$exclusive$right$anymore$to$the$subsequent$transfers.$$ facilities$and$materials$of$the$employer.$
(b)The$employer,$if$the$work$is$the$result$of$the$performance$of$his$
WWWEXCEPTION:)SECTION$200.$Sale+or+Lease+of+Work$—$In$every$sale$
regularlyWassigned$duties,$unless$there$is$an$agreement,$express$or$
or$lease$of$an$original$work$of$painting$or$sculpture$or$of$the$original$ implied,$to$the$contrary.$
manuscript$ of$ a$ writer$ or$ composer,$ subsequent$ to$ the$ first$
! Commissioned$work$
disposition$thereof$by$the$author,$the$author$or$his$heirs$shall$have$
an$inalienable$right$to$participate$in$the$gross$proceeds$of$the$sale$ 178.4.$In$the$case$of$a$work$commissioned$by$a$person$other$than$
an$ employer$ of$ the$ author$ and$ who$ pays$ for$ it$ and$ the$ work$ is$
or$ lease$ to$ the$ extent$ of$ five$ percent$ (5%).$ This$ right$ shall$ exist$
made$ in$ pursuance$ of$ the$ commission,$ the$ person$ who$ so$
during$ the$ lifetime$ of$ the$ author$ and$ for$ fifty$ (50)$ years$ after$ his$ commissioned$the$work$shall$have$ownership$of$the$work,$but$the$
death.$(Sec.$31,$P.D.$No.$49)$ copyright$ thereto$ shall$ remain$ with$ the$ creator,$ unless$ there$ is$ a$
WWWwhy$is$this$an$exception?$Because$the$rule$is$his$right$only$extends$ written$stipulation$to$the$contrary$
to$ first$ public$ distribution.$ This$ provision$ states$ that$ the$ right$ WWWno$employerWemployee$relationship$
belongs$ to$ copyright$ owner$ but$ only$ with$ respect$ to$ sale) or) lease) WWWauthor$is$the$creator$but$exception$is$if$there$is$stipulation$
and$ only$ limited$ to$ certain) types) of) work) (original$ painting$ or$
$
sculpture,$etc.).$His$right$is$to$participate$in$the$gross$proceeds$and$
shall$ exist$ during$ the$ lifetime$ of$ the$ author$ and$ 50$ years$ after$ his$ • 178.2.$In$the$case$of$works$of$joint$authorship,$the$coWauthors$shall$be$
the$ original$ owners$ of$ the$ copyright$ and$ in$ the$ absence$ of$ agreement,$
death.$This$is$also$the$span$of$protection.$After$his$death,$the$heirs$
their$rights$shall$be$governed$by$the$rules$on$coWownership.$If,$however,$
will$enforce$ a$work$of$joint$authorship$consists$of$parts$that$can$be$used$separately$
177.4.Rental$of$the$original$or$a$copy$of$an$audiovisual$or$cinematographic$ and$ the$ author$ of$ each$ part$ can$ be$ identified,$ the$ author$ of$ each$ part$
work,$ a$ work$ embodied$ in$ a$ sound$ recording,$ a$ computer$ program,$ a$ shall$ be$ the$ original$ owner$ of$ the$ copyright$ in$ the$ part$ that$ he$ has$
compilation$of$data$and$other$materials$or$a$musical$work$in$graphic$form,$ created$
irrespective$ of$ the$ ownership$ of$ the$ original$ or$ the$ copy$ which$ is$ the$ • 178.5.$In$the$case$of$audiovisual$work,$the$copyright$shall$belong$to$the$
subject$of$the$rental;$(n)$ producer,$ the$ author$ of$ the$ scenario,$ the$ composer$ of$ the$ music,$ the$
WWW171.8$"Rental"$is$the$transfer$of$the$possession$of$the$original$ film$director,$and$the$author$of$the$work$so$adapted.$However,$subject$
or$a$copy$of$a$work$or$a$sound$recording$for$a$limited$period$of$ to$contrary$or$other$stipulations$among$the$creators,$the$producer$shall$
time,$for$profitWmaking$purposes$ exercise$ the$ copyright$ to$ an$ extent$ required$ for$ the$ exhibition$ of$ the$
work$ in$ any$ manner,$ except$ for$ the$ right$ to$ collect$ performing$ license$
WWWan$ exclusive$ right;$ If$ there$ are$ establishments$ renting$ out$ fees$ for$ the$ performance$ of$ musical$ compositions,$ with$ or$ without$
types$of$work,$they$need$consent$through$a$license$ words,$which$are$incorporated$into$the$work;$and$
177.5.$Public$display$of$the$original$or$a$copy$of$the$work;$
• 178.6.$ In$ respect$ of$ letters,$ the$ copyright$ shall$ belong$ to$ the$ writer$
177.6.$Public$performance$of$the$work;$and$ subject$to$the$provisions$of$Article$723$of$the$Civil$Code.$
WWW171.6$"Public$performance",$in$the$case$of$a$work$other$than$ • SECTION$179.$Anonymous+and+Pseudonymous+Works.$—$For$purposes$of$
an$audiovisual$work,$is$the$recitation,$playing,$dancing,$acting$or$ this$ Act,$ the$ publishers$ shall$ be$ deemed$ to$ represent$ the$ authors$ of$
Room$405$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
articles$and$other$writings$published$without$the$names$of$the$authors$ ! So$he$can$have$multiple$licenses$but$if$there$is$an$exclusive$license,$he$
or$under$pseudonyms,$unless$the$contrary$appears,$or$the$pseudonyms$ is$now$only$limited$to$one$license$
or$ adopted$ name$ leaves$ no$ doubt$ as$ to$ the$ author's$ identity,$ or$ if$ the$ • 180.5.$ The$ copyright$ owner$ has$ the$ right$ to$ regular$ statements$ of$
author$of$the$anonymous$works$discloses$his$identity.) accounts$ from$ the$ assignee$ or$ the$ licensee$ with$ regard$ to$ assigned$ or$
! The$ copyright$ owner$ is$ still$ the$ author,$ the$ publisher$ only$ licensed$work.$
represents) ! This$is$to$protect$the$interest$of$the$author$especially$when$there$is$
! Problem$is$enforcement.$The$publisher$then$can$sue$in$behalf$ specific$provision$that$the$author$is$entitled$to$royalties.$He$is$entitled$
of$ the$ copyright$ owner$ and$ he$ does$ not$ need$ authorization$ to$demand$statement$of$account$to$monitor$
because$the$law$already$deems$him$as$representative) • Section$ 182.$Filing+ of+ Assignment+ or+ License.$ W$ An$ assignment$ or$
! Exceptions:$3) exclusive$license$may$be$filed$in$duplicate$with$the$National$Library$upon$
1. Contrary$appears) payment$of$the$prescribed$fee$for$registration$in$books$and$records$kept$
2. Pseudonyms$ or$ adopted$ name$ leaves$ no$ doubt$ as$ to$ for$ the$ purpose.$ Upon$ recording,$ a$ copy$ of$ the$ instrument$ shall$ be$
returned$ to$ the$ sender$ with$ a$ notation$ of$ the$ fact$ of$ record.$ Notice$ of$
the$author's$identity)
the$record$shall$be$published$in$the$IPO$Gazette.$
3. Author$of$the$anonymous$works$discloses$his$identity)
• SEC.$183.$Designation+of+Society.+–$the$owners$of$copyright$and$related$
) rights$ or$ their$ heirs$ may$ designate$ a$ society$ of$ artists,$ writers,$
CHAPTER)VII)TRANSFER,)ASSIGNMENT)&)LICENSING)OF)COPYRIGHT) composers$ and$ other$ rightWholders$ to$ collectively$ manage$ their$
• Transfer$involves$conveyance$of$ownership;$licensing$only$means$ economic$ or$ moral$ rights$ on$ their$ behalf.$ For$ the$ said$ societies$ to$
authorizing$ enforce$the$rights$of$their$members,$they$shall$first$secure$the$necessary$
accreditation$from$the$Intellectual$Property$Office)
• SEC.$180.$Rights+of+Assignee+or+Licensee.+–$180.1.$The$copyright$may$be$
assigned$ or$ licensed$ in$ whole$ or$ in$ part.$ Within$ the$ scope$ of$ the$ ! This$ provision$ is$ an$ amendment.$ There$ is$ now$ new$ requirement.$
assignment$or$license,$the$assignee$or$licensee$is$entitled$to$all$the$rights$ Aside$from$designating,$such$society$must$also$be$accredited.$)
and$ remedies$ which$ the$ assignor$ or$ licensor$ had$ with$ respect$ to$ the$
FILIPINO)SOCIETY)
copyright.$
Discussion:) This$ is$ under$ economic$ rights.$ The$ principle$ applied$ is$ the$
! Copyright$ can$ be$ assigned$ in$ whole/in$ part,$ and$ there$ were$ 7$
rights,$ so$ I$ may$ only$ assign$ or$ transfer$ one$ of$ my$ copyright$ like$ definition$of$the$term$public$performance$for$profit.$There$is$no$definition$
only$my$right$of$reproduction$ under$the$new$law.$As$long$as$it$is$performed$before$a$public$or$outside$the$
normal$circle,$there$will$be$a$violation.$What’s$interesting$here$is$that$there$
! He$may$also$transfer$the$7,$or$1$or$2$
is$ a$ requirement$ of$ registration.$ The$ reason$ they$ had$ were$ not$ protected$
! Once,$ there$ is$ valid$ transfer,$ the$ transferee$ now$ owns$ the$
by$copyright$was$that$they$were$not$able$to$register.$
copyright$
! Once$ the$ author$ performs,$ he$ can$ be$ sued$ for$ infringement$ This$is$inconsistent$with$principle$of$automatic$protection.$This$principle$is$
because$there$was$already$valid$transfer$ widely$accepted$because$as$early$as$the$Burn$Convention$in$the$1950’s,$the$
Philippines$was$a$signatory$and$that$was$used.$No$formality$is$required$for$
! If$ you$ authorize$ one$ person,$ are$ you$ prohibited$ from$ authorizing$
another$ person?$ There$ will$ now$ be$ 2$ licenses,$ and$ the$ law$ does$ protection.$But$in$this$decision,$the$Court$departed.$You$can$say$this$is$no$
not$prohibit.$He$can$give$multiple$licenses$over$the$same$copyright$ longer$ applicable$ because$ of$ RA$ 8293.$ There$ is$ no$ more$ requisite$ for$
unless$it$is$an$exclusive$license$ protection.$I$just$included$this$to$highlight$the$fact$that$nothing$is$needed$
! Once$you$are$the$owner,$you$enjoy$all$the$attributes$of$ownership.$ anymore.$We$have$to$be$certain$that$this$ruling$is$no$longer$applicable.$This$
You$can$now$sue$and$enforce,$since$the$transfer$entitled$you$to$all$ is$ just$ to$ differentiate) from) law) on) patent) which) really) relies) on)
rights$and$remedies$ registration)
• 180.2.$ The$ copyright$ is$ not$ deemed$ assigned$ or$ licensed$inter+ vivos,+in$
whole$or$in$part,$unless$there$is$a$written$indication$of$such$intention.$ CHAPTER)VIII)LIMITATIONS)ON)COPYRIGHT)
! Its$validity$depends$on$observance$of$certain$formal$requirements$
• 180.3.$ The$ submission$ of$ a$ literary,$ photographic$ or$ artistic$ work$ to$ a$ • The$copyright$owner$here$cannot$enforce$his$rights,$precisely$why$they$
newspaper,$magazine$or$periodical$for$publication$shall$constitute$only$a$ are$limitations$
license$ to$ make$ a$ single$ publication$ unless$ a$ greater$ right$ is$ expressly$
granted.$If$two$(2)$or$more$persons$jointly$own$a$copyright$or$any$part$ Section) 184.$$ Limitations+ on+ Copyright.$ W$ 184.1.$ Notwithstanding$ the$
thereof,$neither$of$the$owners$shall$be$entitled$to$grant$licenses$without$ provisions$ of$ Chapter$ V,$ the) following) acts) shall) not) constitute)
the$prior$written$consent$of$the$other$owner$or$owners.$ infringement)of)copyright:)
! This$ one$ is$ an$ exception$ because$ there$ has$ to$ be$ a$ valid$ ^^^here$we$have$to$be$strict$on$the$interpretation$because$these$
transfer$ in$ writing,$ but$ in$ this$ case,$ law$ says$ the$ act$ of$ are$limitations$
submitting$will$already$constitute$a$license$BUT$only$a$license$
to$make$a$single$publication$UNLESS$greater$right$is$granted$ ^WWis$ it$ an$ act$ that$ encroaches$ on$ exclusive$ right$ of$ copyright$
nd
owner$ as$ defined$ under$ sec$ 177?$ If$ yes,$ it$ is$ copyright$
! The$2 $part$is$a$misplaced$provision$on$joint$ownership.$ infringement.$BUT$you$can’t$stop$here.$You$then$ask$if$the$act$is$
! This$is$in$keeping$with$rules$of$coWownership.$If$an$act$of$a$coW one$of$the$limitations.$If$it$is,$then$it$is$not$infringement$
owner$will$create$a$burden$on$the$property,$he$has$to$secure$ (a) The$ recitation) or) performance$ of$ a$ work,$ once$ it$ has$ been$
consent$ of$ the$ other.$ But$ if$ an$ act$ is$ not$ a$ burden$ but$ an$ lawfully) made) accessible) to) the) public,$ if$ done$ privately) and$ free) of)
advantage$like$going$after$violators,$consent$is$not$needed$ charge$or$if$made$strictly$for$a$charitable$or$religious$institution$or$society;$$
• 180.4.$ Any$ exclusivity$ in$ the$ economic$ rights$ in$ a$ work$ may$ be) WWWthis$is$a$limitation$because$this$is$not$for$profit$
exclusively) licensed.$ Within$ the$ scope$ of$ the$ exclusive$ license,$ the$
WWWwhat$if$there$is$a$fee$but$made$for$religious$institution?$Still$a$
licensee$is$entitled$to$all$the$rights$and$remedies$which$the$licensor$had$
limitation$because$it$was$for$a$religious$institution$and$there$is$
with$respect$to$the$copyright.$
no$profit$
!
Room$405$ $ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
(b) The$ making) of) quotations$ from$ a$ published$ work$ if$ they$ are$ (l)$The$reproduction)or)distribution)of)published)articles)or)materials)in)a)
compatible$ with$ fair$ use$ and$ only$ to$ the$ extent$ justified$ for$ the$ purpose,$ specialized) format) exclusively) for) the) use) of) the) blind,) visually^) and)
including)quotations)from)newspaper)articles)and)periodicals)in)the)form) reading^impaired) persons:$Provided,+That$ such$ copies$ and$ distribution$
of) press) summaries:$ Provided,$ That$ the$ source) and) the) name) of) the) shall$be$made$on$a$nonprofit$basis$and$shall$indicate$the$copyright$owner$
author,)if)appearing)on)the)work,)are)mentioned;$ and$the$date$of$the$original$publication.$
WWWbottomline$of$these$limitations$is$that$they$are$not$intended$ WWWhere$ you$ are$ transforming$ it$ to$ another$ format$ that$ can$ be$
for$profit$ used$for$the$blind$
)
WWWthe$limitation$only$covers$the$extent$justified$for$the$purpose;$
it$ has$ to$ be$ relevant$ to$ what$ you$ are$ doing$ for$ this$ to$ be$
applicable$ Fair)Use)of)Work)

(c) The$reproduction)or)communication)to)the)public)by)mass)media$of$
Section)185.$Fair+Use+of+a+Copyrighted+Work.)–))
articles$ on$ current$ political,$ social,$ economic,$ scientific$ or$ religious$ topic,$
lectures,$ addresses$ and$ other$ works$ of$ the$ same$ nature,$ which$ are$
delivered$ in$ public$ if$ such$ use$ is$ for$ information) purposes$ and$ has) not) 185.1.$The$fair$use$of$a$copyrighted$work$for$criticism,$comment,$news$
been) expressly) reserved:$ Provided,$ That$ the$ source$ is$ clearly$ indicated;$ reporting,$teaching$including$multiple$copies$for$classroom$use,$
(Sec.$11,$P.D.$No.$49)$ scholarship,$research,$and$similar$purposes$is$not$an$infringement$of$
WWWthe$law$does$not$qualify;$it$could$be$the$entire$work$ copyright.$Decompilation,$which$is$understood$here$to$be$the$reproduction$
of$the$code$and$translation$of$the$forms$of$the$computer$program$to$
WWWagain,$there$is$no$profit$here$
achieve$the$interW$operability$of$an$independently$created$computer$
WWWyou$ will$ notice$ in$ the$ TV$ there$ is$ a$ line$ “ALL$ RIGHTS$ program$with$other$programs$may$also$constitute$fair$use.$In$determining$
RESERVED”.$If$that$is$reserved,$then$par$C$is$not$applicable$
whether$the$use$made$of$a$work$in$any$particular$case$is$fair$use,$the$
(d) The) reproduction) and) communication) to) the) public$ of$ literary,$ factors$to$be$considered$shall$include:$
scientific$or$artistic$works$as$part)of)reports)of)current)events)by$means$of$
photography,)cinematography)or)broadcasting$to$the$extent$necessary$for$
(a)$The$purpose$and$character$of$the$use,$including$whether$such$use$is$of$
the$purpose;$(Sec.$12,$P.D.$No.$49)$
a$commercial$nature$or$is$for$nonWprofit$educational$purposes;$
WWWin$ letter$ C,$ there$ is$ no$ specific$ manner,$ as$ long$ as$ it$ is$ for$
information$purposes$ (b)$The$nature$of$the$copyrighted$work;$
(e)$ The$ inclusion$ of$ a$ work$ in) a) publication,) broadcast,) or) other)
communication)to)the)public,)sound)recording)or)film,$if$such$inclusion$is$ (c)$The$amount$and$substantiality$of$the$portion$used$in$relation$to$the$
made$by$way$of$illustration$for)teaching)purposes$and$is$compatible$with$ copyrighted$work$as$a$whole;$and$
fair$ use:$ Provided,$ That$ the$ source$ and$ of$ the$ name$ of$ the$ author,$ if$
appearing$in$the$work,$are$mentioned;$
(d)$The$effect$of$the$use$upon$the$potential$market$for$or$value$of$the$
$ WWWwork$is$included$in$another$work$ copyrighted$work.$
(f)$The$recording)made)in)schools,)universities,)or)educational)institutions$
of$a$work$included$in$a$broadcast$for$the$use$of$such$schools,$universities$ 185.2.)The$fact$that$a$work$is$unpublished$shall$not$by$itself$bar$a$finding$of$
or$educational$institutions:$Provided,$That$such)recording)must)be)deleted$ fair$use$if$such$finding$is$made$upon$consideration$of$all$the$above$factors.$
within$ a$ reasonable$ period$ after$ they$ were$ first$ broadcast:$ Provided,$
further,$ That$ such$ recording$ may$ not$ be$ made$ from$ audiovisual$ works$ A&M)Records)Inc)vs)Napster)
which$are$part$of$the$general$cinema$repertoire$of$feature$films$except)for) 3$types$of$fair$use$defenses:$
brief)excerpts)of)the)work;$ 1.$Sampling$W$just$sample$songs$W$mere$advertisement$only$
(g)$The$making)of)ephemeral)(or$temporary))recordings$by$a$broadcasting$ 2.$SpaceWShifting$W$even$it$was$SS,$it$is$fair$when$the$files$are$only$for$storing$
organization$ by$ means$ of$ its$ own$ facilities$ and$ for) use) in) its) own) the$work$and$for$PERSONAL$USE$
broadcast;$ 3.$Permissive$Distribution$W$
$
(h)$ The$ use) made) of) a) work) by) or) under) the) direction) or) control) of) the)
The)4)factors:)
Government,$ by$ the$ National$ Library$ or$ by$ educational,$ scientific$ or$
1.)Purpose)of)the)Use)W$whether$or$not$the$act$is$for$commercial$or$non$
professional$ institutions$ where$ such$ use$ is$ in$ the$ public$ interest$ and$ is$
commercial$W$if$they$will$derive$economic$benefit)
compatible$with$fair$use;$
W$in$this$case,$there$was$commercial,$the$users$get$music$for$free,$
(i)$The$public)performance)or)the)communication)to)the)public)of)a)work,$ prejudicing$the$income$of$A&M$
in$ a$ place$ where$ no$ admission$ fee$ is$ charged$ in$ respect$ of$ such$ public$ $
performance$ or$ communication,$ by$ a$ club$ or$ institution$ for$ charitable$ or$ 2.)Nature)of)the)Work)
educational$purpose$only,$whose$aim$is$not$profit$making,$subject$to$such$ • if$a$work$is$incline$to$the$creative$work$instead$of$fact$based$
other$limitations$as$may$be$provided$in$the$Regulations;$(n)$ work$
$ WWWin$ letter$ A,$ it$ is$ private$ performance.$ Here,$ it$ is$ public$ • if$fact$based$W$FAIR$USE$
performance$ • if$purely$creative$(songs,$novels)$W$INFRINGEMENT$
$
(j)$Public)display$of$the$original$or$a$copy$of$the$work$not$made)by)means) 3.)Amount/)Substantiality)of)the)portion)used/))
of) a) film,) slide,) television) image) or) otherwise) on) screen) or) by) means) of) • they$were$distributing$the$complete$song$
any) other) device) or) process:$ Provided,$ That$ either$ the$ work$ has$ been$
• quality$instead$of$quantity$–$IMPORTANT$
published,$or,$that$the$original$or$the$copy$displayed$has$been$sold,$given$
• even$if$it$is$just$a$part$if$the$part$is$the$reason$why$a$song$
away$ or$ otherwise$ transferred$ to$ another$ person$ by$ the$ author$ or$ his$
became$famous.$$
successor$in$title;$and$
$
(k)$Any)use)made$of$a$work$for$the$purpose$of$any$judicial$proceedings$or$ 4.)Effect)on)the)Market$W$prejudice$the$innovative$of$peer$to$peer$
for$the$giving$of$professional$advice$by$a$legal$practitioner.$ transactions$W$rather$than$buying$the$compact$disks$
Vicarious$or$Contributory$Cause$(the$host/$site$itself)$W$impossible$to$go$
after$the$user,$go$to$the$user$of$the$site$instead.$
Room$405$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
Encroachment)of)Economic)Right$W$infringement$except$when$it$falls$under$ missing$tomes$or$pages$of$magazines$or$similar$works,$unless$the$volume,$
the$FAIR$USE$ tome$or$part$is$out$of$stock:$Provided,$That$every$library$which,$by$law,$is$
entitled$to$receive$copies$of$a$printed$work,$shall$be$entitled,$when$special$
) reasons$so$require,$to$reproduce$a$copy$of$a$published$work$which$is$
considered$necessary$for$the$collection$of$the$library$but$which$is$out$of$
stock.$(Sec.$13,$P.D.$49a)$
Sec.)186.$Work+of+Architecture+
• right$to$control$the$erection$of$any$building$which$reproduces$
the$whole$or$a$substantial$part$of$the$work$ (f))Reproduction)of)Computer)Program)Sec.)189$
• it's$original$form$or$in$any$form$recognizably$derived$from$the$
original$ Section$189.$Reproduction$of$Computer$Program.$W$189.1.$Notwithstanding$
W$does$not$include$the$right$to$control$the$reconstruction$or$rehabilitation$ the$provisions$of$Section$177,$the$reproduction$in$one$(1)$backWup$copy$or$
in$the$same$style$as$the$original$of$a$building$to$which$that$copyright$ adaptation$of$a$computer$program$shall$be$permitted,$without$the$
relates$ authorization$of$the$author$of,$or$other$owner$of$copyright$in,$a$computer$
• this$is$just$additional$economic$right$ program,$by$the$lawful$owner$of$that$computer$program:$Provided,$That$
o this$types$of$works$are$commissioned$works$ the$copy$or$adaptation$is$necessary$for:$
o it$does$not$include$the$right$to$control$the$
reconstruction$or$rehabilitation$ (a)$The$use$of$the$computer$program$in$conjunction$with$a$computer$for$
$ the$purpose,$and$to$the$extent,$for$which$the$computer$program$has$been$
Reproduction)of)Published)Work)) obtained;$and$
$
Sec.$187W$187.2$ (b)$Archival$purposes,$and,$for$the$replacement$of$the$lawfully$owned$copy$
Section$187.$Reproduction$of$Published$Work.$W$187.1.$Notwithstanding$the$ of$the$computer$program$in$the$event$that$the$lawfully$obtained$copy$of$
provision$of$Section$177,$and$subject$to$the$provisions$of$Subsection$187.2,$ the$computer$program$is$lost,$destroyed$or$rendered$unusable.$
the$private$reproduction$of$a$published$work$in$a$single$copy,$where$the$
reproduction$is$made$by$a$natural$person$exclusively$for$research$and$
189.2.$No$copy$or$adaptation$mentioned$in$this$Section$shall$be$used$for$
private$study,$shall$be$permitted,$without$the$authorization$of$the$owner$
any$purpose$other$than$the$ones$determined$in$this$Section,$and$any$such$
of$copyright$in$the$work.$
copy$or$adaptation$shall$be$destroyed$in$the$event$that$continued$
187.2.$The$permission$granted$under$Subsection$187.1$shall$not$extend$to$
possession$of$the$copy$of$the$computer$program$ceases$to$be$lawful.$
the$reproduction$of:$

189.3.$This$provision$shall$be$without$prejudice$to$the$application$of$
(a)$A$work$of$architecture$in$the$form$of$building$or$other$construction;$
Section$185$whenever$appropriate.$(n)$

(b)$An$entire$book,$or$a$substantial$part$thereof,$or$of$a$musical$work$in$
(g))Importation)for)Personal)Purposes)Sec.)190$
graphic$form$by$reprographic$means;$

Section$190.$Importation$for$Personal$Purposes.$W$190.1.$Notwithstanding$
(c)$A$compilation$of$data$and$other$materials;$
the$provision$of$Subsection$177.6,$but$subject$to$the$limitation$under$the$
Subsection$185.2,$the$importation$of$a$copy$of$a$work$by$an$individual$for$
(d)$A$computer$program$except$as$provided$in$Section$189;$and$ his$personal$purposes$shall$be$permitted$without$the$authorization$of$the$
author$of,$or$other$owner$of$copyright$in,$the$work$under$the$following$
(e)$Any$work$in$cases$where$reproduction$would$unreasonably$conflict$with$ circumstances:$
a$normal$exploitation$of$the$work$or$would$otherwise$unreasonably$
prejudice$the$legitimate$interests$of$the$author.$(n)$ (a)$When$copies$of$the$work$are$not$available$in$the$Philippines$and:$

(e))Reprographic)Reproduction)by)Libraries)Sec.)188$ (i)$Not$more$than$one$(1)$copy$at$one$time$is$imported$for$strictly$individual$
use$only;$or$
Section$188.$Reprographic$Reproduction$by$Libraries.$W$188.1.$
Notwithstanding$the$provisions$of$Subsection$177.6,$any$library$or$archive$ (ii)$The$importation$is$by$authority$of$and$for$the$use$of$the$Philippine$
whose$activities$are$not$for$profit$may,$without$the$authorization$of$the$ Government;$or$
author$of$copyright$owner,$make$a$single$copy$of$the$work$by$reprographic$
reproduction:$
(iii)$The$importation,$consisting$of$not$more$than$three$(3)$such$copies$or$
likenesses$in$any$one$invoice,$is$not$for$sale$but$for$the$use$only$of$any$
(a)$Where$the$work$by$reason$of$its$fragile$character$or$rarity$cannot$be$ religious,$charitable,$or$educational$society$or$institution$duly$incorporated$
lent$to$user$in$its$original$form;$ or$registered,$or$is$for$the$encouragement$of$the$fine$arts,$or$for$any$state$
school,$college,$university,$or$free$public$library$in$the$Philippines.$
(b)$Where$the$works$are$isolated$articles$contained$in$composite$works$or$
brief$portions$of$other$published$works$and$the$reproduction$is$necessary$ (b)$When$such$copies$form$parts$of$libraries$and$personal$baggage$
to$supply$them,$when$this$is$considered$expedient,$to$persons$requesting$ belonging$to$persons$or$families$arriving$from$foreign$countries$and$are$not$
their$loan$for$purposes$of$research$or$study$instead$of$lending$the$volumes$ intended$for$sale:$Provided,$That$such$copies$do$not$exceed$three$(3).$
or$booklets$which$contain$them;$and$
190.2.$Copies$imported$as$allowed$by$this$Section$may$not$lawfully$be$used$
(c)$Where$the$making$of$such$a$copy$is$in$order$to$preserve$and,$if$ in$any$way$to$violate$the$rights$of$owner$the$copyright$or$annul$or$limit$the$
necessary$in$the$event$that$it$is$lost,$destroyed$or$rendered$unusable,$ protection$secured$by$this$Act,$and$such$unlawful$use$shall$be$deemed$an$
replace$a$copy,$or$to$replace,$in$the$permanent$collection$of$another$ infringement$and$shall$be$punishable$as$such$without$prejudice$to$the$
similar$library$or$archive,$a$copy$which$has$been$lost,$destroyed$or$ proprietor's$right$of$action.$
rendered$unusable$and$copies$are$not$available$with$the$publisher.$
190.3.$Subject$to$the$approval$of$the$Secretary$of$Finance,$the$
188.2.$Notwithstanding$the$above$provisions,$it$shall$not$be$permissible$to$ Commissioner$of$Customs$is$hereby$empowered$to$make$rules$and$
produce$a$volume$of$a$work$published$in$several$volumes$or$to$produce$ regulations$for$preventing$the$importation$of$articles$the$importation$of$
!
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which$is$prohibited$under$this$Section$and$under$treaties$and$conventions$ Section$193.$Scope$of$Moral$Rights.$W$The$author$of$a$work$shall,$
to$which$the$Philippines$may$be$a$party$and$for$seizing$and$condemning$ independently$of$the$economic$rights$in$Section$177$or$the$grant$of$an$
and$disposing$of$the$same$in$case$they$are$discovered$after$they$have$been$ assignment$or$license$with$respect$to$such$right,$have$the$right:$
imported.$(Sec.$30,$P.D.$No.$49)$
Note:$Economic$Rights$is$independent$for$Moral$Rights$
(9))Registration)and)Deposit)with)National)Library)and)Supreme)Court)
Library)Sec.)191;)192;)227;)228$ 193.1.$To$require$that$the$authorship$of$the$works$be$attributed$to$him,$in$
particular,$the$right$that$his$name,$as$far$as$practicable,$be$indicated$in$a$
CHAPTER$IX$DEPOSIT$AND$NOTICE$ prominent$way$on$the$copies,$and$in$connection$with$the$public$use$of$his$
work;$
Section$191.$Registration$and$Deposit$with$National$Library$and$the$
Supreme$Court$Library.$W$After$the$first$public$dissemination$of$ 193.2.$To$make$any$alterations$of$his$work$prior$to,$or$to$withhold$it$from$
performance$by$authority$of$the$copyright$owner$of$a$work$falling$under$ publication;$
Subsections$172.1,$172.2$and$172.3$of$this$Act,$there$shall,$for$the$purpose$
of$completing$the$records$of$the$National$Library$and$the$Supreme$Court$ 193.3.$To$object$to$any$distortion,$mutilation$or$other$modification$of,$or$
Library,$within$three$(3)$weeks,$be$registered$and$deposited$with$it,$by$ other$derogatory$action$in$relation$to,$his$work$which$would$be$prejudicial$
personal$delivery$or$by$registered$mail$two$(2)$complete$copies$or$ to$his$honor$or$reputation;$and$
reproductions$of$the$work$in$such$form$as$the$directors$of$said$libraries$
may$prescribe.$A$certificate$of$deposit$shall$be$issued$for$which$the$
193.4.$To$restrain$the$use$of$his$name$with$respect$to$any$work$not$of$his$
prescribed$fee$shall$be$collected$and$the$copyright$owner$shall$be$exempt$
own$creation$or$in$a$distorted$version$of$his$work.$(Sec.$34,$P.D.$No.$49)$
from$making$additional$deposit$of$the$works$with$the$National$Library$and$
the$Supreme$Court$Library$under$other$laws.$If,$within$three$(3)$weeks$
after$receipt$by$the$copyright$owner$of$a$written$demand$from$the$ Notes:$Right$to$attribution$or$paternity$right$Right$to$alteration$on$non$
directors$for$such$deposit,$the$required$copies$or$reproductions$are$not$ publication$Right$to$preservation$of$integrity$Right$to$be$indentified$with$
delivered$and$the$fee$is$not$paid,$the$copyright$owner$shall$be$liable$to$pay$ work$of$others$with$distorted$work$
a$fine$equivalent$to$the$required$fee$per$month$of$delay$and$to$pay$to$the$
National$Library$and$the$Supreme$Court$Library$the$amount$of$the$retail$ Transfer$or$Licensing$are$different.$
price$of$the$best$edition$of$the$work.$Only$the$above$mentioned$classes$of$
work$shall$be$accepted$for$deposit$by$the$National$Library$and$the$ (b))Breach)of)Contract)Sec.)194$
Supreme$Court$Library.$(Sec.$26,$P.D.$No.$49a)$
Section$194.$Breach$of$Contract.$W$An$author$cannot$be$compelled$to$
Section$192.$Notice$of$Copyright.$W$Each$copy$of$a$work$published$or$ perform$his$contract$to$create$a$work$or$for$the$publication$of$his$work$
offered$for$sale$may$contain$a$notice$bearing$the$name$of$the$copyright$ already$in$existence.$However,$he$may$be$held$liable$for$damages$for$
owner,$and$the$year$of$its$first$publication,$and,$in$copies$produced$after$ breach$of$such$contract.$(Sec.$35,$P.D.$No.$49)$
the$creator's$death,$the$year$of$such$death.$(Sec.$27,$P.D.$No.$49a)$
(c))Waiver)of)Moral)Rights)Sec.)195$
Note:$The$value$of$the$notice$of$copyright$is$enforcing$your$copyright$in$
infringement$case$ Section$195.$Waiver$of$Moral$Rights.$W$An$author$may$waive$his$rights$
mentioned$in$Section$193$by$a$written$instrument,$but$no$such$waiver$shall$
CHAPTER$XX$MISCELLANEOUS$PROVISIONS$ be$valid$where$its$effects$is$to$permit$another:$

Section$227.$Ownership$of$Deposit$and$Instruments.$W$All$copies$deposited$ 195.1.$To$use$the$name$of$the$author,$or$the$title$of$his$work,$or$otherwise$
and$instruments$in$writing$filed$with$the$National$Library$and$the$Supreme$ to$make$use$of$his$reputation$with$respect$to$any$version$or$adaptation$of$
Court$Library$in$accordance$with$the$provisions$of$this$Act$shall$become$the$ his$work$which,$because$of$alterations$therein,$would$substantially$tend$to$
property$of$the$Government.$(Sec.$60,$P.D.$No.$49)$ injure$the$literary$or$artistic$reputation$of$another$author;$or$

Section$228.$Public$Records.$W$The$section$or$division$of$the$National$Library$ 195.2.$To$use$the$name$of$the$author$with$respect$to$a$work$he$did$not$
and$the$Supreme$Court$Library$charged$with$receiving$copies$and$ create.$(Sec.$36,$P.D.$No.$49)$
instruments$deposited$and$with$keeping$records$required$under$this$Act$
and$everything$in$it$shall$be$opened$to$public$inspection.$The$Director$of$ (d))Contribution)to)Collective)Work)Sec.)196$
the$National$Library$is$empowered$to$issue$such$safeguards$and$
regulations$as$may$be$necessary$to$implement$this$Section$and$other$
provisions$of$this$Act.$(Sec.$61,$P.D.$No.$49)$ Section$196.$Contribution$to$Collective$Work.$W$When$an$author$contributes$
to$a$collective$work,$his$right$to$have$his$contribution$attributed$to$him$is$
deemed$waived$unless$he$expressly$reserves$it.$(Sec.$37,$P.D.$No.$49)$
Section$229.$Copyright$Division;$Fees.$W$The$Copyright$Section$of$the$
National$Library$shall$be$classified$as$a$Division$upon$the$effectivity$of$this$
Act.$The$National$Library$shall$have$the$power$to$collect,$for$the$discharge$ (e))Term)of)Moral)Rights)Sec.)198;)199;)226$
of$its$services$under$this$Act,$such$fees$as$may$be$promulgated$by$it$from$
time$to$time$subject$to$the$approval$of$the$Department$Head.$(Sec.$62,$P.D.$ Section$198.$Term$of$Moral$Rights.$W$198.1.$The$rights$of$an$author$under$
49a)$ this$chapter$shall$last$during$the$lifetime$of$the$author$and$for$fifty$(50)$
years$after$his$death$and$shall$not$be$assignable$or$subject$to$license.$The$
(10))Moral)Rights$ person$or$persons$to$be$charged$with$the$posthumous$enforcement$of$
these$rights$shall$be$named$in$writing$to$be$filed$with$the$National$Library.$
In$default$of$such$person$or$persons,$such$enforcement$shall$devolve$upon$
(a))Scope)of)Moral)Rights)Sec.)193$ either$the$author's$heirs,$and$in$default$of$the$heirs,$the$Director$of$the$
National$Library.$
CHAPTER$X$MORAL$RIGHTS$
198.2.$For$purposes$of$this$Section,$"Person"$shall$mean$any$individual,$
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partnership,$corporation,$association,$or$society.$The$Director$of$the$ 202.6.$"Publication$of$a$fixed$performance$or$a$sound$recording"$means$
National$Library$may$prescribe$reasonable$fees$to$be$charged$for$his$ the$offering$of$copies$of$the$fixed$performance$or$the$sound$recording$to$
services$in$the$application$of$provisions$of$this$Section.$(Sec.$39,$P.D.$No.$ the$public,$with$the$consent$of$the$right$holder:$Provided,$That$copies$are$
49)$ offered$to$the$public$in$reasonable$quality;$

Section$199.$Enforcement$Remedies.$W$Violation$of$any$of$the$rights$ 202.7.$"Broadcasting"$means$the$transmission$by$wireless$means$for$the$
conferred$by$this$Chapter$shall$entitle$those$charged$with$their$ public$reception$of$sounds$or$of$images$or$of$representations$thereof;$such$
enforcement$to$the$same$rights$and$remedies$available$to$a$copyright$ transmission$by$satellite$is$also$"broadcasting"$where$the$means$for$
owner.$In$addition,$damages$which$may$be$availed$of$under$the$Civil$Code$ decrypting$are$provided$to$the$public$by$the$broadcasting$organization$or$
may$also$be$recovered.$Any$damage$recovered$after$the$creator's$death$ with$its$consent;$
shall$be$held$in$trust$for$and$remitted$to$his$heirs,$and$in$default$of$the$
heirs,$shall$belong$to$the$government.$(Sec.$40,$P$D$No.$49)$ 202.8.$"Broadcasting$organization"$shall$include$a$natural$person$or$a$
juridical$entity$duly$authorized$to$engage$in$broadcasting;$and$
Section$226.$Damages.$W$No$damages$may$be$recovered$under$this$Act$after$
four$(4)$years$from$the$time$the$cause$of$action$arose.$(Sec.$58,$P$.D.$No.$ 202.9$"Communication$to$the$public$of$a$performance$or$a$sound$
49)$ recording"$means$the$transmission$to$the$public,$by$any$medium,$
otherwise$than$by$broadcasting,$of$sounds$of$a$performance$or$the$
(11))Rights)to)Proceed)in)Subsequent)Transfers$ representations$of$sounds$fixed$in$a$sound$recording.$For$purposes$of$
Section$209,$"communication$to$the$public"$includes$making$the$sounds$or$
(a))Sale)or)Lease)of)Work)Sec.)200;)201$ representations$of$sounds$fixed$in$a$sound$recording$audible$to$the$public.$

Section$200.$Sale$or$Lease$of$Work.$W$In$every$sale$or$lease$of$an$original$ (b))Scope)of)Performers’)Rights)Sec.)203$
work$of$painting$or$sculpture$or$of$the$original$manuscript$of$a$writer$or$
composer,$subsequent$to$the$first$disposition$thereof$by$the$author,$the$ Section$203.$Scope$of$Performers'$Rights.$W$Subject$to$the$provisions$of$
author$or$his$heirs$shall$have$an$inalienable$right$to$participate$in$the$gross$ Section$212,$performers$shall$enjoy$the$following$exclusive$rights:$
proceeds$of$the$sale$or$lease$to$the$extent$of$five$percent$(5%).$This$right$
shall$exist$during$the$lifetime$of$the$author$and$for$fifty$(50)$years$after$his$ 203.1.$As$regards$their$performances,$the$right$of$authorizing:$
death.$(Sec.$31,$P.D.$No.$49)$
(a)$The$broadcasting$and$other$communication$to$the$public$of$their$
Section$201.$Works$Not$Covered.$W$The$provisions$of$this$Chapter$shall$not$ performance;$and$
apply$to$prints,$etchings,$engravings,$works$of$applied$art,$or$works$of$
similar$kind$wherein$the$author$primarily$derives$gain$from$the$proceeds$of$
(b)$The$fixation$of$their$unfixed$performance.$
reproductions.$(Sec.$33,$P.D.$No.$49)$

203.2.$The$right$of$authorizing$the$direct$or$indirect$reproduction$of$their$
(12))Rights)of)Performers,)Producers)of)Sound)Recordings)and)
performances$fixed$in$sound$recordings,$in$any$manner$or$form;$
Broadcasting)Organizations$

203.3.$Subject$to$the$provisions$of$Section$206,$the$right$of$authorizing$the$
(a))Definitions)Sec.)202^)202.)8$
first$public$distribution$of$the$original$and$copies$of$their$performance$fixed$
in$the$sound$recording$through$sale$or$rental$or$other$forms$of$transfer$of$
CHAPTER$XII:$RIGHTS$OF$PERFORMERS,$PRODUCERS$OF$SOUNDS$ ownership;$
RECORDINGS$AND$BROADCASTING$ORGANIZATIONS$
203.4.$The$right$of$authorizing$the$commercial$rental$to$the$public$of$the$
Section$202.$Definitions.$W$For$the$purpose$of$this$Act,$the$following$terms$ original$and$copies$of$their$performances$fixed$in$sound$recordings,$even$
shall$have$the$following$meanings:$ after$distribution$of$them$by,$or$pursuant$to$the$authorization$by$the$
performer;$and$
202.1.$"Performers"$are$actors,$singers,$musicians,$dancers,$and$other$
persons$who$act,$sing,$declaim,$play$in,$interpret,$or$otherwise$perform$ 203.5.$The$right$of$authorizing$the$making$available$to$the$public$of$their$
literary$and$artistic$work;$ performances$fixed$in$sound$recordings,$by$wire$or$wireless$means,$in$such$
a$way$that$members$of$the$public$may$access$them$from$a$place$and$time$
202.2.$"Sound$recording"$means$the$fixation$of$the$sounds$of$a$ individually$chosen$by$them.$(Sec.$42,$P.D.$No.$49a)$
performance$or$of$other$sounds,$or$representation$of$sound,$other$than$in$
the$form$of$a$fixation$incorporated$in$a$cinematographic$or$other$ (c))Moral)Rights)of)Performers)Sec.)204;)204.1$
audiovisual$work;$
Section$204.$Moral$Rights$of$Performers.$W$204.1.$Independently$of$a$
202.3.$An$"audiovisual$work$or$fixation"$is$a$work$that$consists$of$a$series$ performer's$economic$rights,$the$performer,$shall,$as$regards$his$live$aural$
of$related$images$which$impart$the$impression$of$motion,$with$or$without$ performances$or$performances$fixed$in$sound$recordings,$have$the$right$to$
accompanying$sounds,$susceptible$of$being$made$visible$and,$where$ claim$to$be$identified$as$the$performer$of$his$performances,$except$where$
accompanied$by$sounds,$susceptible$of$being$made$audible;$ the$omission$is$dictated$by$the$manner$of$the$use$of$the$performance,$and$
to$object$to$any$distortion,$mutilation$or$other$modification$of$his$
202.4.$"Fixation"$means$the$embodiment$of$sounds,$or$of$the$ performances$that$would$be$prejudicial$to$his$reputation.$
representations$thereof,$from$which$they$can$be$perceived,$reproduced$or$
communicated$through$a$device;$ 204.2.$The$rights$granted$to$a$performer$in$accordance$with$Subsection$
203.1$shall$be$maintained$and$exercised$fifty$(50)$years$after$his$death,$by$
202.$5.$"Producer$of$a$sound$recording"$means$the$person,$or$the$legal$ his$heirs,$and$in$default$of$heirs,$the$government,$where$protection$is$
entity,$who$or$which$takes$the$initiative$and$has$the$responsibility$for$the$ claimed.$(Sec.$43,$P.D.$No.$49)$
first$fixation$of$the$sounds$of$a$performance$or$other$sounds,$or$the$
representation$of$sounds;$ (d))Limitation)on)Performers’)Rights)Sec.)205;)205.2$
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Section$205.$Limitation$on$Right.$W$205.1.$Subject$to$the$provisions$of$ authorize$or$prevent$any$of$the$following$acts:$
Section$206,$once$the$performer$has$authorized$the$broadcasting$or$
fixation$of$his$performance,$the$provisions$of$Sections$203$shall$have$no$ 211.1.$The$rebroadcasting$of$their$broadcasts;$
further$application.$
211.2.$The$recording$in$any$manner,$including$the$making$of$films$or$the$
205.2.$The$provisions$of$Section$184$and$Section$185$shall$apply$mutatis$ use$of$video$tape,$of$their$broadcasts$for$the$purpose$of$communication$to$
mutandis$to$performers.$(n)$ the$public$of$television$broadcasts$of$the$same;$and$

(e))Additional)Remuneration)for)Subsequent)Communications)or) 211.3.$The$use$of$such$records$for$fresh$transmissions$or$for$fresh$
Broadcasts)Sec.)206$ recording.$(Sec.$52,$P.D.$No.$49)$

Section$206.$Additional$Remuneration$for$Subsequent$Communications$or$ (j))Limitations)on)Rights)Sec.)212$
Broadcasts.$W$Unless$otherwise$provided$in$the$contract,$in$every$
communication$to$the$public$or$broadcast$of$a$performance$subsequent$to$
CHAPTER$XV$LIMITATIONS$ON$PROTECTION$
the$first$communication$or$broadcast$thereof$by$the$broadcasting$
organization,$the$performer$shall$be$entitled$to$an$additional$remuneration$
equivalent$to$at$least$five$percent$(5%)$of$the$original$compensation$he$or$ Section$212.$Limitations$on$Rights.$W$Sections$203,$208$and$209$shall$not$
she$received$for$the$first$communication$or$broadcast.$(n)$ apply$where$the$acts$referred$to$in$those$Sections$are$related$to:$

(f))Contract)Terms)Sec.)207$ 212.1.$The$use$by$a$natural$person$exclusively$for$his$own$personal$
purposes;$
Section$207.$Contract$Terms.$W$Nothing$in$this$Chapter$shall$be$construed$to$
deprive$performers$of$the$right$to$agree$by$contracts$on$terms$and$ 212.2.$Using$short$excerpts$for$reporting$current$events;$
conditions$more$favorable$for$them$in$respect$of$any$use$of$their$
performance.$(n)$ 212.3.$Use$solely$for$the$purpose$of$teaching$or$for$scientific$research;$and$

(g))Scope)of)Right)on)Sound)Recordings)Sec.)208;)210$ 212.4.$Fair$use$of$the$broadcast$subject$to$the$conditions$under$Section$
185.$(Sec.$44,$P.D.$No.$49a)$
CHAPTER$XIII$PRODUCERS$OF$SOUND$RECORDINGS$
13))Term)of)Protection)in)General$
Section$208.$Scope$of$Right.$W$Subject$to$the$provisions$of$Section$212,$
producers$of$sound$recordings$shall$enjoy$the$following$exclusive$rights:$ (a))Term)of)Protection)Sec.)213$

208.1.$The$right$to$authorize$the$direct$or$indirect$reproduction$of$their$ Section$213.$Term$of$Protection.$W$213.1.$Subject$to$the$provisions$of$
sound$recordings,$in$any$manner$or$form;$the$placing$of$these$ Subsections$213.2$to$213.5,$the$copyright$in$works$under$Sections$172$
reproductions$in$the$market$and$the$right$of$rental$or$lending;$
and$173$shall$be$protected$during$the$life$of$the$author$and$for$fifty$(50)$
208.2.$The$right$to$authorize$the$first$public$distribution$of$the$original$and$ years$after$his$death.$This$rule$also$applies$to$posthumous$works.$(Sec.$21,$
copies$of$their$sound$recordings$through$sale$or$rental$or$other$forms$of$ first$sentence,$P.D.$No.$49a)$
transferring$ownership;$and$
(i))Joint)Authorship)Sec.)213.2$
208.3.$The$right$to$authorize$the$commercial$rental$to$the$public$of$the$
original$and$copies$of$their$sound$recordings,$even$after$distribution$by$ 213.2.$In$case$of$works$of$joint$authorship,$the$economic$rights$shall$be$
them$by$or$pursuant$to$authorization$by$the$producer.$(Sec.$46,$P.D.$No.$ protected$during$the$life$of$the$last$surviving$author$and$for$fifty$(50)$years$
49a)$ after$his$death.$(Sec.$21,$second$sentence,$P.D.$No.$49)$

Section$210.$Limitation$of$Right.$W$Sections$184$and$185$shall$apply$mutatis$ (ii))Anonymous)or)Pseudonymous)Works)Sec.)213.3$
mutandis$to$the$producer$of$sound$recordings.$(Sec.$48,$P.D.$No.$49a)$
213.3.$In$case$of$anonymous$or$pseudonymous$works,$the$copyright$shall$
(h))Communication)to)the)Public)on)Sound)Recordings)Sec.)209$ be$protected$for$fifty$(50)$years$from$the$date$on$which$the$work$was$first$
lawfully$published:$Provided,$That$where,$before$the$expiration$of$the$said$
Section$209.$Communication$to$the$Public.$W$If$a$sound$recording$published$ period,$the$author's$identity$is$revealed$or$is$no$longer$in$doubt,$the$
for$commercial$purposes,$or$a$reproduction$of$such$sound$recording,$is$ provisions$of$Subsections$213.1.$and$213.2$shall$apply,$as$the$case$may$be:$
used$directly$for$broadcasting$or$for$other$communication$to$the$public,$or$ Provided,$further,$That$such$works$if$not$published$before$shall$be$
is$publicly$performed$with$the$intention$of$making$and$enhancing$profit,$a$ protected$for$fifty$(50)$years$counted$from$the$making$of$the$work.$(Sec.$
single$equitable$remuneration$for$the$performer$or$performers,$and$the$ 23,$P.D.$No.$49)$
producer$of$the$sound$recording$shall$be$paid$by$the$user$to$both$the$
performers$and$the$producer,$who,$in$the$absence$of$any$agreement$shall$ (iii))Works)of)Applied)Art)Sec.)213.)4$
share$equally.$(Sec.$47,$P.D.$No.$49a)$
213.4.$In$case$of$works$of$applied$art$the$protection$shall$be$for$a$period$of$
(i))Scope)of)Right)of)Broadcasting)Organizations)Sec.)211$ twentyWfive$(25)$years$from$the$date$of$making.$(Sec.$24(B),$P.D.$No.$49a)$

CHAPTER$XIV$BROADCASTING$ORGANIZATIONS$ (iv))Photographic)Works)Sec.)213.5$

Section$211.$Scope$of$Right.$W$Subject$to$the$provisions$of$Section$212,$ 213.5.$In$case$of$photographic$works,$the$protection$shall$be$for$fifty$(50)$
broadcasting$organizations$shall$enjoy$the$exclusive$right$to$carry$out,$ years$from$publication$of$the$work$and,$if$unpublished,$fifty$(50)$years$from$
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the$making.$(Sec.$24(C),$P.D.$49a)$ (i)Circumvents$effective$technological$measures;$or$
(ii)Having$reasonable$grounds$to$know$that$it$will$induce,$enable,$facilitate$
(v)Audio^visual)Works)Sec.)213.6$ or$conceal$the$infringement,$remove$or$alter$any$electronic$rights$
management$information$from$a$copy$of$a$work,$sound$recording,$or$
fixation$of$a$performance,$or$distribute,$import$for$distribution,$broadcast,$
213.6.$In$case$of$audioWvisual$works$including$those$produced$by$process$
or$communicate$to$the$public$works$or$copies$of$works$without$authority,$
analogous$to$photography$or$any$process$for$making$audioWvisual$
knowing$that$electronic$rights$management$information$has$been$removed$
recordings,$the$term$shall$be$fifty$(50)$years$from$date$of$publication$and,$if$
or$altered$without$authority.$
unpublished,$from$the$date$of$making.$(Sec.$24(C),$P.D.$No.$49a)$
$
If)you)circumvent$W$it$is$a$basis$for$double$the$amount$of$damages$and$
(vi))Calculation)of)Terms)Sec.)214$
maximum$penalty$will$be$imposed$

Section$214.$Calculation$of$Term.$W$The$term$of$protection$subsequent$to$ Remedies:)Art.)216)
the$death$of$the$author$provided$in$the$preceding$Section$shall$run$from$
1.)Injunction)restraining)such)infringement)
the$date$of$his$death$or$of$publication,$but$such$terms$shall$always$be$
$ W$the$right$to$prevent$
deemed$to$begin$on$the$first$day$of$January$of$the$year$following$the$event$ 2.$to$pay$actual$damages$
which$gave$rise$to$them.$(Sec.$25,$P.D.$No.$49)$ $ W$court$will$declare$JUST$damages$W$not$regarded$as$penalty$
$
(b))Term)of)Protection)for)Performers,)Producers)and)Broadcasting) 3.)Deliver)under)oath)
Organizations)Sec.)215;)215.2$ $ W$impounding$W$sales$invoices$and$other$documents$evidencing$
sales,$all$articles$and$their$packaging$alleged$to$infringe$a$copyright$
Section$215.$Term$of$Protection$for$Performers,$Producers$and$ $
Broadcasting$Organizations.$W$215.1.$The$rights$granted$to$performers$and$ 4.)Deliver)under)oath)for)destruction)without)any)compensation)
producers$of$sound$recordings$under$this$law$shall$expire:$ $
5.)payment)of)moral)and)exemplary)damages)
(a)$For$performances$not$incorporated$in$recordings,$fifty$(50)$years$from$ $
the$end$of$the$year$in$which$the$performance$took$place;$and$ They$can$also$claim$STATUTORY$DAMAGES$
"The$copyright$owner$may$elect,$at$any$time$before$final$judgment$is$
rendered,$to$recover$instead$of$actual$damages$and$profits,$an$award$of$
(b)$For$sound$or$image$and$sound$recordings$and$for$performances$
statutory$damages$for$all$infringements$involved$in$an$action$in$a$sum$
incorporated$therein,$fifty$(50)$years$from$the$end$of$the$year$in$which$the$
equivalent$to$the$filing$fee$of$the$infringement$action$but$not$less$than$Fifty$
recording$took$place.$
thousand$pesos$(Php50.000.00).$In$awarding$statutory$damages,$the$court$
may$consider$the$following$factors:$
215.2.$In$case$of$broadcasts,$the$term$shall$be$twenty$(20)$years$from$the$ (1)The$nature$and$purpose$of$the$infringing$act;$
date$the$broadcast$took$place.$The$extended$term$shall$be$applied$only$to$ (2)The$flagrancy$of$the$infringement;$
old$works$with$subsisting$protection$under$the$prior$law.$(Sec.$55,$P.D.$No.$ (3)Whether$the$defendant$acted$in$bad$faith;$
49a)$ (4)The$need$for$deterrence;$
(5)Any$loss$that$the$plaintiff$has$suffered$or$is$likely$to$suffer$by$reason$of$
(14))Infringement)(a))How)committed$ the$infringement;$and$
(6)Any$benefit$shown$to$have$accrued$to$the$defendant$by$reason$of$the$
Microsoft)Corp)vs)Hwang) infringement.)
$
INFRINGEMENT$W$act$of$violating$his$exclusive$rights$without$his$authority$ Hanna)vs)Robles)
$
3)ways)in)committing:) "In$case$the$infringer$was$not$aware$and$had$no$reason$to$believe$that$his$
SECTION$22.Section$216$of$Republic$Act$No.$8293$is$hereby$amended$to$ acts$constitute$an$infringement$of$copyright,$the$court$in$its$discretion$may$
read$as$follows:$ reduce$the$award$of$statutory$damages$to$a$sum$of$not$more$than$Ten$
SEC.$216.Infringement.$—$A$person$infringes$a$right$protected$under$this$ thousand$pesos$(Php10,000.00):$Provided,$That$the$amount$of$damages$to$
Act$when$one:$ be$awarded$shall$be$doubled$against$any$person$who:$
$ $
1.$Directly$commits$an$infringement;$ (i)Circumvents$effective$technological$measures;$or$
$ (ii)Having$reasonable$grounds$to$know$that$it$will$induce,$enable,$facilitate$
2.$Benefits$from$the$infringing$activity$of$another$person$who$commits$an$
or$conceal$the$infringement,$remove$or$alter$any$electronic$rights$
infringement$if$the$person$benefiting$has$been$given$notice$of$the$
infringing$activity$and$has$the$right$and$ability$to$control$the$activities$of$ management$information$from$a$copy$of$a$work,$sound$recording,$or$
the$other$person;$ fixation$of$a$performance,$or$distribute,$import$for$distribution,$broadcast,$
$ or$communicate$to$the$public$works$or$copies$of$works$without$authority,$
3.$With$knowledge$of$infringing$activity,$induces,$causes$or$materially$ knowing$that$electronic$rights$management$information$has$been$removed$
contributes$to$the$infringing$conduct$of$another.$ or$altered$without$authority.)
$
Infringement$act$is$not$only$limited$to$sales$ Court$shall$have$the$power$to$order$the$seizure$and$impounding$of$any$
$ W$act$of$installation,$offering$to$sale$is$also$act$of$infringement.)
article$which$may$serve$as$evidence$in$the$court$proceedings.)

Infringement)
(c))Criminal)Penalties)Sec.)217;)217.3$
When$can$infringement$be$committed?$
GR:)Mere)possession)not)evidence)of)Infringement)
When$can$possession$be$infringement?$ Section$217.$Criminal$Penalties.$W$217.1.$Any$person$infringing$any$right$
Question)of)Fact) secured$by$provisions$of$Part$IV$of$this$Act$or$aiding$or$abetting$such$
$ infringement$shall$be$guilty$of$a$crime$punishable$by:$
Can)he)be)allowed)to)claim)double)damages?)
(a)$Imprisonment$of$one$(1)$year$to$three$(3)$years$plus$a$fine$ranging$from$
!
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Fifty$thousand$pesos$(P50,000)$to$One$hundred$fifty$thousand$pesos$ (15))Points)of)Attachment)of)Rights$
(P150,000)$for$the$first$offense.$
(a)For)Literary)and)Artistic)Works)and)Derivative)Works)Sec.)221;)221.1$
(b)$Imprisonment$of$three$(3)$years$and$one$(1)$day$to$six$(6)$years$plus$a$
fine$ranging$from$One$hundred$fifty$thousand$pesos$(P150,000)$to$Five$ CHAPTER$XVIII$SCOPE$OF$APPLICATION$
hundred$thousand$pesos$(P500,000)$for$the$second$offense.$
Section$221.$Points$of$Attachment$for$Works$under$Sections$172$and$173.$W$
(c)$Imprisonment$of$six$(6)$years$and$one$(1)$day$to$nine$(9)$years$plus$a$ 221.1.$The$protection$afforded$by$this$Act$to$copyrightable$works$under$
fine$ranging$from$five$hundred$thousand$pesos$(P500,000)$to$One$million$ Sections$172$and$173$shall$apply$to:$
five$hundred$thousand$pesos$(P1,500,000)$for$the$third$and$subsequent$
offenses.$
(a)$Works$of$authors$who$are$nationals$of,$or$have$their$habitual$residence$
in,$the$Philippines;$
(d)$In$all$cases,$subsidiary$imprisonment$in$cases$of$insolvency.$
(b)$AudioWvisual$works$the$producer$of$which$has$his$headquarters$or$
217.2.$In$determining$the$number$of$years$of$imprisonment$and$the$ habitual$residence$in$the$Philippines;$
amount$of$fine,$the$court$shall$consider$the$value$of$the$infringing$
materials$that$the$defendant$has$produced$or$manufactured$and$the$
(c)$Works$of$architecture$erected$in$the$Philippines$or$other$artistic$works$
damage$that$the$copyright$owner$has$suffered$by$reason$of$the$
incorporated$in$a$building$or$other$structure$located$in$the$Philippines;$
infringement.$

(d)$Works$first$published$in$the$Philippines;$and$
217.3.$Any$person$who$at$the$time$when$copyright$subsists$in$a$work$has$in$
his$possession$an$article$which$he$knows,$or$ought$to$know,$to$be$an$
infringing$copy$of$the$work$for$the$purpose$of:$ (e)$Works$first$published$in$another$country$but$also$published$in$the$
Philippines$within$thirty$days,$irrespective$of$the$nationality$or$residence$of$
the$authors.$
(a)$Selling,$letting$for$hire,$or$by$way$of$trade$offering$or$exposing$for$sale,$
or$hire,$the$article;$
221.2.$The$provisions$of$this$Act$shall$also$apply$to$works$that$are$to$be$
protected$by$virtue$of$and$in$accordance$with$any$international$convention$
(b)$Distributing$the$article$for$purpose$of$trade,$or$for$any$other$purpose$to$
or$other$international$agreement$to$which$the$Philippines$is$a$party.$(n)$
an$extent$that$will$prejudice$the$rights$of$the$copyright$owner$in$the$work;$
or$
Pearl)&)Dean)Inc.)vs.)Shoemart)Inc.)G.R.)No.)148222,)August)15,)2003$
(c)$Trade$exhibit$of$the$article$in$public,$shall$be$guilty$of$an$offense$and$
shall$be$liable$on$conviction$to$imprisonment$and$fine$as$above$mentioned.$ Facts)Issues)Held$
(Sec.$29,$P.D.$No.$49a)$
(b))For)Performers)Sec.)222$
Affidavit)Evidence)Sec.)218)
1.$copyright$subsisted$in$the$work$or$other$subject$matter$ Section$222.$Points$of$Attachment$for$Performers.$W$The$provisions$of$this$
2.$person$named$is$the$owner$of$the$copyright$ Act$on$the$protection$of$performers$shall$apply$to:$
WNEED$NOT$BE$PROVEN,$ONLY$NEED$THE$CERTIFICATE$OF$
REGISTRATION$ 222.1.$Performers$who$are$nationals$of$the$Philippines;$
3.$subject$matter$annexed$is$a$true$copy$
$ W$prema$facie$proof$of$the$matters$until$contrary$is$proved$ 222.2.$Performers$who$are$not$nationals$of$the$Philippines$but$whose$
W$if$the$defendant$cannot$raise$it$in$the$issue,$IT$BECOMES$ performances:$
CONCLUSIVE$
$
(a)$Take$place$in$the$Philippines;$or$
When)the)defendant)has)no)proof)the)copyright,)and)raise)the)
ownership?)
$ W$made$liable$for$making$unnecessary$questions.$ (b)$Are$incorporated$in$sound$recordings$that$are$protected$under$this$Act;$
$ or$
Presumption)of)Authorship)(219))
W$whose$name$is$indicated$on$a$work$in$the$usual$manner$as$the$ (c)$Which$has$not$been$fixed$in$sound$recording$but$are$carried$by$
author) broadcast$qualifying$for$protection$under$this$Act.$(n)$
W$presumed$to$be$the$author$of$the$work)
) (c))Of)Sound)Recordings)Sec.)223$
(f))International)Registration)of)Works)Sec.)220$
Section$223.$Points$of$Attachment$for$Sound$Recordings.$W$The$provisions$
Section$220.$International$Registration$of$Works.$W$A$statement$concerning$ of$this$Act$on$the$protection$of$sound$recordings$shall$apply$to:$
a$work,$recorded$in$an$international$register$in$accordance$with$an$
international$treaty$to$which$the$Philippines$is$or$may$become$a$party,$
223.1.$Sound$recordings$the$producers$of$which$are$nationals$of$the$
shall$be$construed$as$true$until$the$contrary$is$proved$except:$
Philippines;$and$

220.1.$Where$the$statement$cannot$be$valid$under$this$Act$or$any$other$
223.2.$Sound$recordings$that$were$first$published$in$the$Philippines.$(n)$
law$concerning$intellectual$property.$

(d))For)Broadcast)Sec.)224;)224.2$
220.2.$Where$the$statement$is$contradicted$by$another$statement$
recorded$in$the$international$register.$(n)$
Section$224.$Points$of$Attachment$for$Broadcasts.$W$224.1.$The$provisions$of$
Room$405$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
this$Act$on$the$protection$of$broadcasts$shall$apply$to:$ has$validly$claimed$the$filing$date$of$an$earlier$
application$under$Section$31$of$this$Act,$shall$be$
(a)$Broadcasts$of$broadcasting$organizations$the$headquarters$of$which$are$ prior$art$with$effect$as$of$the$filing$date$of$such$
situated$in$the$Philippines;$and$ earlier$application:$Provided$further,$That$the$
applicant$or$the$inventor$identified$in$both$
applications$are$not$one$and$the$same.$$(Sec.+24,+IPC)$
(b)$Broadcasts$transmitted$from$transmitters$situated$in$the$Philippines.$
$
(B) involves$an$inventive$step$W$An$invention$involves$
224.2.$The$provisions$of$this$Act$shall$also$apply$to$performers$who,$and$to$ an$inventive$step$if,$having$regard$to$prior$art,$it$is$
producers$of$sound$recordings$and$broadcasting$organizations$which,$are$ not$ obvious$ to$ a$ person$ skilled$ in$ the$ art$ at$ the$
to$be$protected$by$virtue$of$and$in$accordance$with$any$international$ time$ of$ the$ filing$ date$ or$ priority$ date$ of$ the$
convention$or$other$international$agreement$to$which$the$Philippines$is$a$ application$claiming$the$invention.$$(Sec.+26,+IPC)$
party.$(n)$ • A$ person$ skilled$ in$ the$ art$ –$ an$ ordinary$
practitioner$ aware$ of$ what$ was$ common$
) general$ knowledge$ in$ the$ art$ at$ the$ relevant$
date.$$He$is$presumed$to$have$knowledge$of$all$
Law)on)Patents) references$ that$ are$ sufficiently$ related$ to$ one$
another$ and$ to$ the$ pertinent$ art$ and$ to$ have$
" The$ element$ of$ novelty$ is$ an$ essential$ requisite$ of$ the$ knowledge$ of$ all$ arts$ reasonably$ pertinent$ to$
patentability$of$an$invention$or$discovery.$$If$a$device$or$process$ the$ particular$ problems$ with$ which$ the$
has$ been$ known$ or$ used$ by$ others$ prior$ to$ its$ application$ or$ inventor$was$involved.$
discovery$by$the$applicant,$an$application$for$a$patent$therefore$ • Thus,$ one$ who$ merely$ draws$ obvious$
should$be$denied,$and$if$the$application$has$been$granted,$the$ conclusions$ from$ already$ existing$ inventions$
court,$in$a$judicial$proceeding$in$which$the$validity$of$the$patent$ and$ then$ actualizes$ them$ does$ not$ make$ any$
is$ drawn$ in$ question,$ will$ hold$ it$ void$ and$ ineffective.$ $ It$ has$ significant$ contribution$ to$ the$ state$ of$ the$ art$
been$ repeatedly$ held$ that$ an$ invention$ must$ possess$ the$ and$is$not$eligible$for$patent$protection.$
essential$ elements$ of$ novelty,$ originality$ and$ precedence,$ and$ $
for$the$patentee$to$be$entitled$to$the$protection$the$invention$ (C) industrially$applicable$W$$An$invention$that$can$be$
must$be$new$to$the$world.$$(Manzano,vs.,CA,+G.R.+No.+113388,+ produced$ and$ used$ in$ any$ industry$ shall$ be$
September+5,+1997)$ industrially$applicable.$(Sec.+27,+IPC)$
$ • An$ invention$ is$ industrially$ applicable$ when$ it$
" It$has$been$repeatedly$held$that$an$invention$must$possess$the$ can$be$produced$and$used$in$any$industry.$
essential$ elements$ of$ novelty$ ,$ originality$ and$ precedence$ and$ • Thus,$ under$ the$ law,$ the$ applicant$ of$ a$ patent$
for$ the$ patentee$ to$ be$ entitled$ to$ protection,$ the$ invention$ shall$ disclose$ the$ invention$ in$ a$ manner$
must$ be$ new$ to$ the$ world.$ Accordingly,$ a$ single$ instance$ of$ sufficiently$ clear$ and$ complete$ for$ it$ to$ be$
public$ use$ of$ the$ invention$ by$ a$ patentee$ for$ more$ than$ two$ carried$out$by$a$person$skilled$in$the$art.$
years$ (now$ for$ more$ than$ one$ year$ only$ under$ Sec.$ 9$ of$ the$ - These$criteria$may$apply$to:$
Patent$Law)$before$the$date$of$his$application$for$his$patent,$will$ (a) products$
be$fatal$to,$the$validity$of$the$patent$when$issued.$$(Maguan,vs., (b) processes$
CA,+146+SCRA+107+[1986])$ (c) improvements$of$either$products$and$processes$
$ $
" A$ person$ or$ entity$ who$ has$ not$ been$ granted$ patent$ over$ an$ $
invention$and$has$not$acquired$any$right$or$title$thereto$either$ " The$ FirstWtoWfile$ Rule$ W$ In$ case$ two$ or$ more$ inventors$ of$ the$
as$ assignee$ or$ as$ licensee,$ has$ no$ cause$ of$ action$ for$ same$invention$separately$and$independently$from$each$other,$
infringement$ which$ depends$ on$ the$ existence$ of$ the$ patent.$ the$ patent$ shall$ belong$ to$ the$ person$ who$ first$ filed$ an$
(Creser,Precision,Systems,vs.,CA,+286+SCRA+13+[1998]).$ application.$ $ If$ there$ are$ two$ or$ more$ applications,$ the$ patent$
$ shall$belong$to$the$applicant$who$has$the$earliest$filing$date$or$
" Patentable$Inventions$ the$earliest$priority$date.$$(Sec.+29,+IPC)$
Any$technical$solution$of$a$problem$in$any$field$ $
of$ human$ activity$ which$ is$ new,) involves) an) " Unlike$in$the$law$on$copyright$the$person$who$commissions$the$
inventive) step) and) is) industrially) applicable) work$owns$the$patent,$not$the$creator.$This$is$different$from$the$
shall$be$patentable.$It$may$be,$or$may$relate$to,$ law$on$copyright.$If$you$remember,$copyright$belongs$to$the$
a$ product,$ or$ process,$ or$ an$ improvement$ of$ author.$
any$of$the$foregoing.$(Sec.+21,+IPC)+ $
" Patent$has$something$to$do$with$disclosure.$The$term$patent$
" The$elements$of$patentability$are$as$follows:$ came$from$the$Latin$word$‘patere’$which$means$to$lay$open.$
(A) it$ must$ be$ new$ (novel)$ W$ An$ invention$ shall$ not$ be$ Why$is$this$important?$Because$a$patent$system$necessarily$
considered$ new$ if$ it$ forms$ part$ of$ a$ prior$ art.(Sec.+ includes$disclosure.$Unlike$in$the$law$on$copyright,$registration$
23,+IPC)$ is$very$relevant$in$the$law$on$patent.$In$the$law$on$copyright,$
• What$is$prior$art?$$$Prior$art$shall$consist$of:$ protection$commences$at$the$moment$of$invention$while$in$the$
• Everything$which$has$been$made$available$to$the$ law$on$patent$registration$is$important$before$you$can$enforce$
public$anywhere$in$the$world,$before$the$filing$date$
your$right$over$the$patent.$You$must$be$a$patent$holder$or$a$
or$the$priority$date$of$the$application$claiming$the$
invention;$and$ patentee.$
• The$whole$contents$of$an$application$for$a$patent,$ " The$term$patent$could$be$understood$in$two$senses.$First,$
utility$model,$or$industrial$design$registration,$ patent$may$refer$to$the$scope$of$your$right$or$the$scope$of$your$
published$in$accordance$with$this$Act,$filed$or$ protection$or$it$could$be$understood$as$the$document$
effective$in$the$Philippines,$with$a$filing$or$priority$ evidencing$your$right$just$like$the$title$of$your$real$property.$
date$that$is$earlier$than$the$filing$or$priority$date$of$
the$application:$Provided,$That$the$application$which$
!
Room$405$ $ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
When$you$say$title,$it$could$mean$ownership,$right$of$ownership$ • Must$relate$to$a$technical$field$
or$the$document$evidencing$your$ownership$just$like$patent.$ • Must$be$concerned$with$a$technical$problem$
$ • Must$have$technical$features$in$terms$of$which$the$matter$for$
" If$we$talk$about$patent,$it$may$refer$to$any$of$the$three:$$ which$protection$is$sought$can$be$defined$in$the$claim$$
invention,)utility)model,)industrial)design.$It$must$include$ THIS)TERM)CLAIM)IS)VERY)IMPORTANT)BECAUSE)WHEN)YOU)
disclosure.$It$is$a$grant$given$to$an$individual$for$him$to$exercise$ TRY)TO)APPLY)FOR)A)PATENT)REG.,YOU)MUST)INCLUDE)IN)
exclusive$rights$over$his$invention$in$exchange$for$the$disclosure$ YOUR)REGISTRATION)YOUR)CLAIM.)WHAT)DOES)YOUR)
on$his$invention.$Disclosure$is$very$important.$In$fact,$before$ INVENTION)SOLVES?)BEC.)THE)DEFINITION)IS,)THE)INVENTION)
you$can$be$issued$a$patent$you$must$give$a$full$description$of$ MUST)BE)A)SOLUTION)TO)A)PROBLEM.)FIRST,)YOU)HAVE)TO)
what$your$invention$is$all$about.$Otherwise$you$will$not$comply$ ESTABLISH)WHAT)IS)THE)PROBLEM)AND)THEN)YOU)PRESENT)
with$the$formal$requirements.$In$the$registration$process$it$has$ THAT)YOUR)INVENTION)CAN)SOLVE)THAT)PROBLEM.)THAT)
2$phases:$formality)examination)and)substantive)examination.$ SOLUTION)IS)THE)CLAIM.)WHAT)DOES)YOUR)INVENTION)
The$requirements$is$quite$stringent$unlike$in$copyright$wherein$ CLAIM?)IT)CAN)SOLVE)THIS)PARTICULAR)PROBLEM.)IN)ONE)
you$only$prove$that$it$is$a$creation$but$in$patent$you$have$to$ APPLICATION,)YOU)CAN)HAVE)AS)MANY)CLAIMS)AS)YOU)
prove$that$your$invention$is$novel,$involves$an$inventive$step$ WANT.)CLAIM)AND)SUBCLAIMS.))
and$industrially$applicable.$Compared$to$the$law$on$copyright,$
the$term$of$protection$of$patent$is$shorter.$It$is$only$good$for$20) PURELY$AESTHETIC$CREATIONS$eg.$sculpture$and$paintings$)
years$from)the)time)of)filing$(old$patent$lawW$17years$from$the$
time$of$the$grant).$The$law$limits$the$term$of$protection$ Binding/pasting$of$books:$Not$purely$an$aesthetic$creation$but$
because$the$primary$purpose$is$really$to$disseminate$valuable$ gives$a$technical$solution$to$a$problem.$$
information$because$this$information$can$be$used$as$a$platform$
for$the$advances$of$the$art.$The$important$thing$is$the$ WHEN)YOU)SAY)AESTHETIC,)IT)IS)ON)THE)DOMAIN)OF)
information$you$can$get$from$the$invention$and$secondary$na$ COPYRIGHT.)SUBJECT)MATTER)IS)COVERED)ON)COPYRIGHT)SO)WHEN)
lang$ang$protection$of$individual$rights.$ YOU)CREATE)SOMETHING)THAT)IS)AESTHETIC)THEN)IT)IS)COVERED)ON)
$ THE)LAW)ON)COPYRIGHT)AND)THEY)ARE)NOT)PATENTABLE.)PERHAPS)
" What$happens$after$20$years?$The$invention$becomes$free$to$be$ YOU)ALREADY)HEARD)SOMEONE)TALKING.)“YOU)PATENT)YOUR)WORK.)“)
used$by$the$public.$It$belongs$to$the$public$domain.$In$the$case$ WHAT)KIND)OF)WORK)ARE)YOU)TALKING)ABOUT?)IF)IT)IS)
of$utility$models,$shorter$pa$gyud.$How$long?$7years.$No$ LITERARY/ARTISTIC)WORK)THEN)IT)IS)NOT)PATENTABLE.)IT)SHOULD)BE)
renewal$of$term,$only$1$term.$ COPYRIGHTED)NOT)PATENTED.)PROBABLY)THIS)IS)THE)EFFECT)OF)THE)
PREVIOUS)LAW)BECAUSE)WHEN)YOU)FILE)YOUR)PATENT)APPLICATION,)
PATENTABLE$INVENTION$ YOU)FILE)IT)IN)THE)BUREAU)OF)PATENT,)TRADEMARK)AND)TECHNOLOGY)
TRANSFER)INCLUDING)YOUR)CLAIMS)FOR)COPYRIGHT)ENFORCEMENT.)
Any$technical$solution$of$a$problem$in$any$field$of$human$ PROBABLY)THEY)THOUGHT)THAT)THE)BUREAU)OF)PATENT)COVERS)
activity$which$is$new,$involves$an$inventive$step,$and$is$industrially$ COPYRIGHTED)WORKS)BUT)UNDER)THE)NEW)SET^UP,)THE)IPO,)BEING)THE)
applicable$(Sec.$21).$ AGENCY)FOR)THE)ENFORCEMENT)AND)PROTECTION)OF)INTELLECTUAL)
PROPERTY)HAS)UNDER)IT)SEVERAL)BUREAUS)AND)ONE)OF)IT)IS)THE)
May$be$or$may$relate$to:$product,$process,$improvement$ BUREAU)OF)PATENT)WHERE)YOU)FILE)YOUR)PATENT)APPLICATION.)
PURELY)AESTHETIC)CREATION)IS)NOT)PATENTABLE)BUT)IT)IS)UNDENIABLE)
REQUIREMENTS$OF$PATENTABILITY$ ALSO)THAT)THERE)ARE)CREATIONS)HAVING)AESTHETIC)FEATURES)BUT)
THEY)ARE)PRIMARILY)HAVING)SOME)TECHNICAL)FEATURES.))
New$or$novel;$inventive$step;$and$industrially$applicable$
US$PATENT$5.255.452$invented$by$Michael$Jackson,$et.$al.$filed$on$29$June$
THIS)IS)NOT)A)REQUIREMENT)FOR)COPYRIGHT.)WHAT)IS) 1992.$THIS)IS)A)PATENT)ISSUED)BY)THE)OFFICE)OF)US)PATENT)ISSUED)TO)
REQUIRED)IS)ORIGINALITY.)BUT)WITH)RESPECT)TO)PATENT)IT)MUST)BE) MICHAEL)JACKSON)AND)OTHERS.)HE)IS)NOT)THE)ONLY)INVENTOR.$
SOMETHING)THAT)IS)NEW)TO)THE)WHOLE)WORLD.)
Invention:$Method$and$means$for$creating$antiWgravity$illusion$
CLASSES$OF$INVENTION$ (US$PATENT$5.255.452)$

a) Useful$machine;$ ONE)OF)THE)FORMAL)REQUIREMENTS)OF)PATENT)REGISTRATION)IS)
b) A$product;$ INCLUDED)ABSTRACT.)ABSTRACT)IS)A)GENERAL)OVERVIEW)OR)IDEA)OF)
c) Or$process$or$an$improvement$of$any$of$the$foregoing;$ WHAT)TO)GIVE)TO)THE)OFFICE)OF)WHAT)YOUR)INVENTION)IS)ALL)ABOUT.)
d) Improvement$of$a$product$ FROM)THERE)YOU)CAN)ALREADY)PROVIDE)THAT)YOUR)INVENTION)IS)A)
e) Improvement$of$a$process$ SOLUTION)TO)A)TECHNICAL)PROBLEM.)
f) Microorganisms;$and$
g) Nonbiological$and$microbiological$processes$ $ Abstract:$A$system$for$allowing$a$shoe$wearer$to$lean$forwardly$
(Rule$201,$Rules$and$Regulations$on$Inventions)$ beyond$his$center$of$gravity$by$virtue$of$wearing$a$specially$designed$pair$
of$shoes$which$will$engage$with$a$hitch$member$movably$projectable$
TECHNICAL$SOLUTION$(IT)MUST)NOT)BE)MERELY)THEORETICAL)$ through$a$stage$surface.$$The$shoes$have$a$specially$designed$heel$slot$
which$can$be$detachably$engaged$with$the$hitch$member$by$simply$the$
Technical$Character:$
shoe$wearer’s$foot$forward,$thereby$engaging$with$the$hitch$member.))

$ Wof$the$contribution$of$the$art$
Room$405$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
)HE)PLANNED)TO)EXECUTE)A)DANCE)MOVE)THAT)WOULD)SOMEHOW) The$details$of$a$demonstration$of$a$manufacturing$process$in$a$
APPEAR)THAT)HE)DEFIED)GRAVITY.)THAT)IS)HIS)PROBLEM,)IT)IS)HUMANLY) factory$
IMPOSSIBLE)TO)DEFY)GRAVITY.)THE)SOLE)OF)HIS)SHOES)IS)SPECIALLY) The$delivery$and$sale$of$a$product$may$well$provide$information$
DESIGNED)FOR)HIM)TO)ENGAGE)ON)A)RETRACTABLE)HITCH)NAILED)ON)A) as$regards$the$possibility$of$the$subjectWmatter$having$made$available$to$
PLATFORM)SO)THAT)IT)CAN)BE)INSERTED)AND)IT)WILL)SOMEHOW) the$public.$$
APPEAR)THAT)HE)WAS)ABLE)TO)DEFY)GRAVITY.)THAT)IS)HIS)INVENTION)
AND)IT)IS)PATENTED.)) PUBLIC$AVAILABILITY$OF$THE$SUBJECT$MATTER$

NOVELTY$(FIRST)ELEMENT)$ 1. A$written$description,$i.e.$a$document,$should$be$regarded$as$
made$available$to$the$public,$if,$at$the$relevant$date,$it$was$
“An$invention$shall$not$be$considered$new$if$it$forms$part$of$a$ possible$for$members$of$the$public$to$gain$knowledge$of$the$
prior$art.”$(Sec$23)$ content$of$the$document$and$there$was$no$bar$of$
confidentiality$restricting$the$use$or$dissemination$of$the$
WHAT$IS$PRIOR$ART$ knowledge.$
2. Object$–$if$an$object$is$sold$unconditionally$to$a$member$of$the$
All$information$that$has$been$disclosed$to$the$public$at$any$ public,$the$buyer$thereby$acquires$unlimited$possession$of$any$
given$form$before$a$given$date.$ knowledge$which$may$be$obtained$from$the$objectWthus,$the$
object$is$said$to$have$been$made$available$to$the$public.$
SEC$24.1$OF$IP$CODE$ Example:$laser$pointer$$

“Everything$which$has$been$made$available$to$the$public$and$to$ EXAMPLE$
the$world,$before$the$filing$date$or$the$priority$of$the$application$claiming$
the$invention.”$$ An$undergraduate$thesis$sometimes$cannot$be$considered$as$a$
printed$publication$because$usually$the$same$is$not$catalogued$,$indexed$or$
EVRYTHING)THAT)IS)DISCLOSED)TO)THE)PUBLIC)AND)SUCH)DISCLOSURE) shelved.$$
CAN)BE)MADE)ANYWHERE)IN)THE)WORLD)BEFORE)THE)FILING)DATE)OR)
THE)PRIORITY)DATE)OF)THE)APPLICATION.)IN)HERE)THERE)ARE)2)TYPES)OF) UNLESS)THIS)HAPPENS)AN)UNDERGRAD)THESIS)CAN)BE)
DATE)MENTIONED.)FILING)DATE)AND)PRIORITY)DATE.)ESSENTIALLY)OR) PRIVATE)AND)CANNOT)BE)A)PRIOR)ART)REFERENCE.)
TECHNICALLY)THEY)ARE)THE)SAME)BUT)DIFFERENT)IN)APPLICATION.)SO)
WHEN)WE)TALK)ABOUT)PRIOR)ART,)IT)MAYBE)IN)THE)FORM)OF)ALL) NONWDISCLOSURE$AGREEMENTS$
INFORMATION,)WHETHER)WRITTEN)OR)OTHERWISE)AS)LONG)AS)IT)IS)
PUBLICLY)DISCLOSED.)WHAT)ARE)SOME)OF)THE)EXAMPLES?) The$information$has$not$been$made$available$to$the$public$by$
use$or$in$any$other$way$if$there$is$an$express$or$tacit$agreement$on$secrecy$
EXAMPLES:$ which$has$not$been$broken.$$

• Patents$Marketing$brochures$Lectures$ ENABLING$DISCLOSURE$
• Technical$publications$$Textbooks$Demonstrations$
• Conference$papers$Newspapers$Exhibitions$ )THE)LAW)SAYS)IT)MUST)BE)AVAILABLE)TO)THE)PUBLIC)SO)THAT)
INFORMATION)MUST)BE)SUFFICIENT)ENOUGH)TO)PROVIDE)WITH)THE)
IT)IS)VERY)IMPORTANT)FOR)AN)INVENTOR)TO)CONDUCT)PRIOR)ART) NEEDED)ELEMENTS)TO)CREATE/DUPLICATE)THE)INVENTION.)SO)IT)
SEARCH)EVEN)BEFORE)STARTING)HIS)INVENTION)SO)THAT)HE)CAN) SHOULD)BE)CLASSIFIED)AS)AN)ENABLING)DISCLOSURE.)
BE))ASSURED)THAT)HIS)INVENTION)IS)NOT)COVERED)UNDER)A)
PRIOR)ART.) A$patent$application$for$the$invention$may$still$be$validly$
obtained$if$the$disclosure$is$not$enabling.$$
CAN)A)USE)OF)THE)INVENTION)ITSELF)BE)USED)AS)A)BASIS)FOR)
PRIOR)ART)REFERENCE?)YES.)SO,)PRIOR)USE)AS)LONG)AS)IT)IS) Example:$sciWfi$novel$
PRESENT)HERE)IN)THE)PHILIPPINES)CAN)BE)A)PRIOR)ART)
REFERENCE.)IF)USE)IS)MADE)OUTSIDE,)THE)LAW)REQUIRES)THAT)IT) The$prior$art$communication$must$enable$an$ordinary$
CAN)ONLY)BE)USED)AS)A)REFERENCE)AS)LONG)AS)IT)IS)IN)PRINTED) mechanic,$without$the$exercise$of$any$ingenuity$and$special$skill$on$his$
DOCUMENTS.)THE)USE)MUST)BE)AVAILABLE)TO)THE)PUBLIC.)THE) part,$to$construct$and$put$the$improvement$in$successful$operation.$
MOST)COMMON)USE)IS)THE)DELIVERY)AND)SALE)OF)THE)PRODUCT) Communication$at$complete$conception$must$be$sufficient$to$enable$one$
ITSELF)TO)THE)MARKET.) of$ordinary$skill$in$the$art$to$construct$and$successfully$operate$the$
invention.$$
PRIOR$USE$ $
$ Prior$use$which$is$not$present$in$the$Philippines,$even$if$ NOT)NECESSARILY)ANY)TYPE)OF)PERSON)BUT)A)PERSON)THAT)IS)SKILLED)
widespread$in$a$foreign$country,$cannot$form$part$of$the$prior$art$if$such$ IN)THAT)PARTICULAR)ART/FIELD)WHERE)THE)INVENTION)BELONGS)TO)BE)
use$is$not$disclosed$in$printed$documents$or$in$any$tangible$form.$ ABLE)TO)PUT)THE)INVENTION)TO)SUCCESSFUL)INVENTION.)SO,)
$ Prior$use$may$be$constituted$by$producing,$offering,$marketing$ INDEPENDENT)FROM)THE)INVENTOR)ITSELF,)THE)ORDINARY)PERSON)
or$otherwise$exploiting$a$product$or$marketing$a$process$or$applying$the$ MUST)BE)ABLE)TO)DUPLICATE)THE)INVENTION)OR)REPLICATE)IT,)IF)IT)IS)A)
process.$$ PROCESS)INVENTION.)
$
EXAMPLE$ NONWPREJUDICIAL$DISCLOSURES$$
!
Room$405$ $ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
EVEN)IF)THE)INFORMATION)IS)MADE)AVAILABLE)TO)THE)PUBLIC)IT) EARLIEST)FILING)DATE)BUT)BECAUSE)OF)THIS)PROVISION)THE)FOREIGN)
ST
WOULD)NOT)BE)DISQUALIFIED)ON)THE)GROUND)OF)LACK)OF)NOVELTY.$ APPLICANT)CAN)AVAIL)OF)A)PRIORITY)DATE)AND)APPLYING)THE)1 ^TO^
FILE)RULE)ALTHOUGH)FILED)SUBSEQUENTLY)IN)THE)PHILS.,)HIS)FOREIGN)
The$disclosure$within$12months$preceding$the$effective$date$shall$not$ FILING)DATE)SHOULD)BE)CONSIDERED)AS)THE)FILING)DATE)HERE)IN)THE)
prejudice$the$applicant$on$the$ground$of$lack$of$novelty$if$such$disclosure$ PHILS.)SO)WHO)BETWEEN)THEM)HAS)THE)RIGHT)TO)THE)PATENT?)THE)
was$made$by:$$ FOREIGN)APPLICANT)BEC.)ALTHOUGH)HIS)LOCAL)APPLICATION)WAS)FILED)
LATER,)HIS)FOREIGN)APPLICATION)WILL)BE)CONSIDERED)AS)HIS)FILING)
1) the$inventor;$$ DATE.))
2) a$patent$office$and$the$information$was$published$by$mistake;$
3) a$third$party$which$obtained$the$information$directly$or$ WHAT)ARE)THE)REQUIREMENTS)BEFORE)ONE)CAN)AVAIL)THIS)RIGHT)OF)
indirectly$from$the$inventor.$(Sec.$25)$ PRIORITY?)FIRST,)THERE)MUST)BE)A)LOCAL)APPLICATION.)YOU)CANNOT)
IN)OTHER)WORDS)IF)THE)INVENTOR)CHOOSES)TO)SHARE)HIS) ASSERT)A)PRIORITY)DATE)W/O)FILING)A)LOCAL)APPLICATION)AND)YOUR)
INVENTION)AND)HE)DID)NOT)IMMEDIATELY)FILE)A)PATENT) LOCAL)APPLICATION)MUST)EXPRESSLY)CLAIM)PRIORITY.)SECOND,)THE)
APPLICATION)NOTWITHSTANDING)THE)DISCLOSURE)IT)IS)STILL) LOCAL)APPLICATION)MUST)BE)FILED)W/IN)12)MONTHS)FROM)THE)
CONSIDERED)AS)NON^PREJUDICIAL)DISCLOSURE.)FOR) FOREIGN)APPLICATION.)THIRD,)A)COPY)OF)THE)FOREIGN)APPLICATION)
INSTANCE)HE)WANTS)TO)JOIN)IN)AN)EXHIBIT)AND)HE)DID)NOT) MUST)BE)SUBMITTED)W/IN)6)WEEKS.)
FILE)FOR)A)PATENT)APPLICATION)STILL)HIS)PATENT)
APPLICATION)WOULD)QUALIFY)THE)REQUIREMENT)OF) An$application$for$patent$filed$by$any$person$who$has$previously$
NOVELTY)BECAUSE)THAT)INFORMATION)IS)GIVEN)BY)THE) applied$for$the$same$invention$in$another$country$which$by$treaty,$
INVENTOR)BUT)IT)IS)IMPORTANT)TO)NOTE)THAT)THE) convention$or$law$affords$similar$privileges$to$Filipino$citizens,$shall$be$
APPLICATION)MUST)BE)FILED)WITHIN)12)MONTHS.)AFTER)12) considered$as$filed$as$of$the$date$of$filing$the$foreign$application$provided,$
MONTHS,)IT)FORMS)PART)OF)A)PRIOR)ART)ALREADY.)THIS)IS)
AN)EXEPTION)WHEREIN)AN)INFORMATION)HAS)BEEN)MADE) a) the$local$application$expressly$claims$priority$
AVAILABLE)TO)THE)PUBLIC)AND)IT)WILL)NOT)FORM)PART)OF)A) b) it$is$filed$w/in$12$months$from$date$of$filing$of$foreign$
PRIOR)ART)FOR)AS)LONG)AS)AN)APPLICATION)WILL)BE)FILED) application$$
WITHIN)12)MONTHS.) c) certification$that$the$foreign$application$filed$w/in$6$
months$of$local$application$(Sec.$31)$
PRIORITY$DATE$
ND
INVENTIVE$STEP$(2 )ELEMENT)OF)PATENTABILITY)$
WHEN)WE)TALK)ABOUT)PRIOR)ART,)IT)IS)MADE)AVAILABLE)TO)THE)
PUBLIC)BEFORE)FILING)DATE)OR)THE)PRIORITY)DATE.)THE)FILING)DATE) An$invention$involves$an$inventive$step,$if$having$regard$to$prior$art$
MEANS)THAT)IT)IS)THE)ACTUAL)DATE)OF)FILING)BEFORE)THE)BUREAU)OF)
PATENTS.)ONCE)YOU)COMPLY)WITH)THE)FORMAL)REQUIREMENTS,)YOU) • it$is$not$obvious$to$a$person$skilled$in$the$art$(Sec$26,$RA$8293)$
WILL)BE)GIVEN)A)FILING)DATE.)WHY)IS)IT)IMPORTANT)TO)BE)ACCORDED) This$is$also$known$as$the$NONWOBVIOUSNESS$TEST$$
WITH)A)FILING)DATE?)BEC.)WE)FOLLOW)THE)FIRST^TO^FILE)SYSTEM.) NOT)OBVIOUS)TO)PERSONS)SKILLED)IN)THE)ART)AND)NOT)JUST)ANY)
WHOEVER)IS)GIVEN)THE)EARLIEST)FILING)DATE)WILL)BE)GIVEN)THE) ORDINARY)PERSON.)THE)PERSON)WHO)HAS)GENERAL)KNOWLEDGE)
RIGHT.)HE)HAS)THE)PRIORITY)OVER)THE)GRANT)OF)THE)PATENT.)IT)IS) IN)THAT)PARTICULAR)FIELD.)SO)IF)THE)INVENTION)BELONGS)TO)A)
ALSO)THE)START)OF)THE)2OTH)YEAR^PERIOD)COMPUTATION)ALTHOUGH) SPECIFIC)FIELD,)FOR)INSTANCE)AERODYNAMIC)EQUIPMENT)OR)
YOU)ARE)NOT)CONSIDERED)A)PATENTEE)YET)BEC.)YOUR)APPLICATION)IS) MACHINE,)THE)PERSON)SKILLED)IN)THE)ART)MUST)BE)AN)
STILL)PENDING)BUT)YOU)ARE)AFFORDED)SOME)RIGHTS)ALREADY.)) AERONAUTICS)ENGINEER.)
)
SO)WHAT)IS)THIS)PRIORITY)DATE)ALL)ABOUT?)IT)HAPPENS)WHEN)THE) WHY)IS)THIS)CALLED)NON^OBVIOUSNESS)TEST?)IF)IT)IS)NOT)
APPLICANT)HERE)IN)THE)PHILS.)ALSO)HAS)A)FOREIGN)APPLICATION.)IT)IS) OBVIOUS)TO)THIS)SKILLED)PERSON,)THEN)IT)IS)AN)INVENTIVE)STEP)
ND
A)REQUIREMENT)THAT)BEFORE)YOU)AVAIL)THE)RIGHT)OF)PRIORITY)YOU) THEREFORE)IT)COMPLIES)WITH)THE)2 )ELEMENT.)
MUST)ALSO)HAVE)A)LOCAL)APPLICATION)AND)A)FOREIGN)APPLICATION.)
WHERE?)IN)ANOTHER)COUNTRY)BY)WHICH)A)TREATY,)CONVENTION) OBVIOUSNESS$$
AFFORDS)SIMILAR)PRIVILEGES)TO)FILIPINO)CITIZENS.)THE)FOREIGN)
APPLICATION)MUST)BE)EARLIER)THAN)YOUR)LOCAL)APPLICATION)BEC.) • Not$beyond$normal$progress$of$technology$$
WHEN)YOU)WANT)TO)AVAIL)YOUR)RIGHT)OF)PRIORITY,)THE)EFFECT)IS) • Follows$plainly$or$logically$from$the$prior$art$
THE)DATE)OF)THE)FOREIGN)APPLICATION)WILL)BE)CONSIDERED)AS)THE) • Does$not$require$any$skill$or$ability$beyond$that$to$be$expected$
DATE)OF)THE)FILING)HERE)IN)THE)PHILS.)SO)THAT)IS)NOW)YOUR)FILING) of$the$person$skilled$in$the$art$
DATE.)SO)AS)NOT)TO)BE)CONFUSED,)YOU)HAVE)TO)INDICATE)A)PRORITY)
DATE.)THE)DATE)WHICH)IS)THE)FOREIGN)DATE)AND)IS)CONSIDERED)IN) SKILLED$PERSON$
THE)PHILS)OR)IN)THE)IPL)HERE)IN)THE)PHILS.)AS)THE)FILING)DATE.)SINCE)
ST Ordinary$Practitioner$
WE)FOLLOW)THE)1 ^TO^FILE)RULE,)WHAT)IS)NOW)THE)EFFECT?)FOR)
INSTANCE,)THE)APPLICANT)HERE)FILED)HIS)PATENT)APPLICATION)ON)
• Aware$of$common$general$knowledge$in$specific$art$
MAR.)2013)AND)HE)DISCLOSED)IN)HIS)APPLICATION)THAT)HE)HAS)A)
• Has$access$to$everything$disclosed$as$the$state$of$the$art$
FOREIGN)APPLICATION)FILED)ON)JAN.)2013.)WHEN)IS)HIS)FILING)DATE?)
• Observes$developments$in$related$technical$field$
JAN.)2013.)HOWEVER)IN)THE)MEANTIME,)THERE)IS)ANOTHER)APPLICANT)
INVOLVING)THE)SAME)INVENTION)WHO)FILED)HIS)APPLICATION)ON)FEB)
ND DETERMINATION$OF$INVENTIVE$STEPS$
2013)AND)SO)FAR)AS)THIS)2 )APPLICANT)IS)CONCERNED)HE)HAS)THE)
Room$405$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
ProblemWsolving$approach$ ACTUALLY)SOLVES)A)PROBLEM)BEC.)IF)IT’S)A)CLAIM)BUT)IT)
CANNOT)BE)EXECUTED)IN)ANY)INDUSTRY)THEN)IT’S)MERELY)A)
• Developed$in$order$to$have$a$decision$making$procedure$more$ THEORY.)))
objective$in$view$of$the$risk$that$the$invention$(after$examining$ )
the$application)$may$appear$simple,$trivial$and$obvious.$ THE)TERM)INVENTIVE)STEP)HAS)ALREADY)BEEN)AMENDED)
AND)THE)AMENDING)LAW)IS)RA)9502,)CHEAPER)MEDICINES)
THREE$MAIN$STAGES$(PROBLEM$SOLUTION$APPROACH)$ ACT.)SEC)26)NOW)HAS)2)SUBSECTIONS.)SEC)26.1)IS)JUST)THE)
OLD)DEFINITION.)SEC)26.2)STATES)IN)CASE)OF)DRUGS)AND)
• Determining$the$closest$prior$art;$ MEDICINES,)THERE)IS)NO)INVENTIVE)STEP)IF)THE)INVENTION)
• Establishing$the$technical$problem$to$be$solved;$ RESULTS)FROM)THE)MERE)DISCOVERY)OF)A)NEW)FORM)OR)
• Deciding$whether$invention$is$obvious$ NEW)PROPERTY)OF)A)KNOWN)SUBSTANCE)WHICH)DOES)NOT)
RESULT)IN)THE)ENHANCEMENT)OF)THE)KNOWN)EFFICACY)OF)
EXAMPLE$ THAT)SUBSTANCE)OR)THE)MERE)DISCOVERY)OF)ANY)NEW)
PROPERTY)OR)ANY)NEW)USE)FOR)A)KNOWN)SUBSTANCE)OR)
Problem:$The$earWlike$handles$of$coffee$cups$are$often$quite$slippery.$You$
THE)MERE)USE)OF)A)KNOWN)PROCESS)UNLESS)SUCH)KNOWN)
can$therefore$easily$drop$the$cup.$The$result$can$be$a$stained$carpet,$table$
PROCESS)RESULTS)IN)A)NEW)PRODUCT)THAT)EMPLOYS)
cloth,$wooden$floor…$Such$coffee$stains$are$usually$very$difficult$or$
ATLEAST)ONE)NEW)REACTANT.)IT)COVERS)ONLY)DRUGS)AND)
impossible$to$remove$completely.$
MEDICINES.)DRUGS)AND)MEDS)ARE)PATENTABLE,)THAT’S)
WHY)SEVERAL)DRUG)COMPANIES)ARE)APPLYING)FOR)PATENT)
Solution:$$Rubber$is$used$as$material$for$the$handle.$This$increases$the$
FOR)THEIR)MEDICINES.)FOR)EXAMPLE,)ASPIRIN)WHICH)IS)
friction$between$the$handle$and$the$fingers$of$the$user.$
USED)AS)A)PAINKILLER.)THE)CLAIM)OF)THE)DRUG)IS)THAT)IT)
RELIEVES)PAIN)BUT)IT)WAS)FOUND)OUT)THAT)THE)DRUG)HAS)
Claim:$Coffee$cup$with$an$earWlike$handle$characterized$in$that$the$handle$
OTHER)EFFECTS)WHICH)IS,)IT)THINS)YOUR)BLOOD)OR)IT)ACTS)
is$made$of$rubber.$
AS)AN)ANTICOAGULANT.)THE)DISCOVERY)HAS)BEEN)MADE)
^THESE)ARE)THE)3)CLOSEST)PRIOR)ART)AVAILABLE) AFTER)THE)PATENT.)THE)NEW)PROPERTY)DOES)NOT)ENHANCE)
THE)EFFICACY)OF)THE)SUBSTANCE)OR)THE)KNOWN)USE)OF)
Prior$Art:$(Illustration)$Coffee$cup$with$earWshaped$handle$ THE)DRUG.)IT)IS)NOT)IN)ANY)WAY)CONNECTED)TO)ITS)PAIN^
RELIEVING)EFFECT)BUT)IN)THE)FLOW)OF)THE)BLOOD.)SO,)THAT)
$ (Illustration)$Sauce$pan$with$earWlike$rubber$handles$that$ NEW)PROPERTY)IS)NOT)AN)INVENTIVE)STEP.)IN)THE)US,)THEY)
reduces$the$temperature$for$the$handles$ ARE)USING)THIS)AS)ANOTHER)INVENTION.)THE)NEW)EFFECT)
OF)THE)DRUG)WILL)NOT)BE)COVERED)IN)THE)CLAIM)AND)WILL)
$ (Illustration)$Thermos$bottle$with$rubberWcovered$handle.$– NOT)BE)PROTECTED)BEC)IT)IS)NOT)AN)INVENTIVE)STEP.)JUST)
FROM)THE)3,)THIS)IS)THE)CLOSEST)PRIOR)ART)SINCE)IT)PROVIDE) LIKE)THE)CREATION)OF)VIAGRA.)IT)WAS)INITIALLY)INTENDED)
SOLUTION)TO)THE)PROBLEM.) AS)A)CURE)FOR)HEART)CONDITION)BUT)IT)WAS)DISCOVERED)
THAT)IT)HAS)SOME)“GOOD”)SIDE)EFFECTS)AND)THEY)LEARN)
THE)CASE)OF)GRAHAM)PROVIDES)FOR)THE)GUIDELINES)IN)HELPING)THE) THIS)BEFORE)APPLYING)FOR)THE)PATENT)SO)IT)WAS)
ARBITER)OR)EXAMINER)IN)DETERMINING)WHETHER)THE)INVENTION)IS) CONSIDERED)AS)AN)INVENTIVE)STEP.)))
AN)INVENTIVE)STEP)OR)NOT.)THE)US)COURT)SAID)THAT,)THE)
DETERMINATION)OF)THE)FOLLOWING)QUESTIONS)OF)FACT)SHOULD)BE)
WHAT$ARE$THE$NONWPATENTABLE$INVENTIONS?$
USED)TO)RESOLVE)THE)ISSUES)OF)OBVIOUSNESS:))
1.)SCOPE)AND)CONTENT)OF)THE)PRIOR)ART.))
2.)THE)DIFFERENCE)BETWEEN)THE)CLAIM)AND)INTENTION)OF) SECTION$22.Non=Patentable+Inventions.$—$The$following$shall$be$excluded$
THE)PRIOR)ART.)) from$patent$protection:$
3.)LEVEL)OF)ORDINARY)SKILL)OF)THE)PRIOR)ART.)
SO)IF)IT)IS)W/IN)HIS)CAPACITY)TO)DETERMINE)THAT)THE)IMPROVEMENT)
22.1.Discoveries,$scientific$theories$and$mathematical$
IS)W/IN)THE)LOGICAL)ADVANCEMENT)OF)THAT)PARTICULAR)INVENTION)
methods;$
THEN)IT)IS)OBVIOUS)BUT)IF)IT)IS)BEYOND)HIS)GENERAL)KNOWLEDGE)
THEN)IT)IS)NOT)OBVIOUS.) 22.2.Schemes,$rules$and$methods$of$performing$mental$
) acts,$playing$games$or$doing$business,$and$programs$for$computers;$
)IN)ADDITION)TO)THE)REQUIREMENTS)THERE)ARE)ALSO)SECONDARY)
22.3.Methods$for$treatment$of$the$human$or$animal$body$
CONSIDERATIONS)WHICH)COULD)SERVE)AS)EVIDENCE)OF)NON^
ST by$surgery$or$therapy$and$diagnostic$methods$practiced$on$the$
OBVIOUSNESS.)1 ,)IT)INCLUDES)COMMERCIAL)SUCCESS)MEANING)IT)IS)
human$or$animal$body.$This$provision$shall$not$apply$to$products$and$
ATTRACTIVE.)2ND,)LONG)ATTEMPT)BUT)UNSOLVED)MEANS.)3RD,)
composition$for$use$in$any$of$these$methods;$
FAILURE)OF)OTHERS.)
$ 22.4.Plant$varieties$or$animal$breeds$or$essentially$
PATENTABILITY:$INDUSTRIAL$APPLICATION$(LAST)ELEMENT)$ biological$process$for$the$production$of$plants$or$animals.$This$
provision$shall$not$apply$to$microWorganisms$and$nonWbiological$and$
• Invention$is$“industrially$applicable”$if$ microbiological$processes.$
Wit$can$be$produced$and$used$in$any$kind$of$industry$or$any$ Provisions$under$this$subsection$shall$not$preclude$
activity$$ Congress$to$consider$the$enactment$of$a$law$providing$sui+
Wwhich$belongs$to$the$useful$or$practical$arts$ generis$protection$of$plant$varieties$and$animal$breeds$and$a$system$
IF)YOU)CLAIM)THAT)YOUR)INVENTION)CAN)SOLVE)A) of$community$intellectual$rights$protection:$
PARTICULAR)PROBLEM,)YOU)MUST)BE)ABLE)TO)PROVE)THAT) 22.5.Aesthetic$creations;$and$
IN)YOUR)DESCRIPTION)SO)THAT)THE)EXAMINER)WILL)NOW)
22.6.Anything$which$is$contrary$to$public$order$or$
DETERMINE)WHETHER)THIS)PARTICULAR)INVENTION) morality.$(Sec.$8,$R.A.$No.$165a)$
!
Room$405$ $ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$ SUBSTANTIVE$EXAMINATION$
Was$distinct$from$the$aesthetic$arts$(Sec.$27,$MSEP,$IV,$4.1)$
$ Applications$prosecuted$ex$parte$
• Industry$used$in$the$broadest$sense$to$include$physical$activity$
of$technical$character$$ WProceeding$is$a$law$contest$between$the$Examiner,$representing$the$
public$and$trying$to$give$the$applicant$the$least$possible$monopoly,$and$the$
INDUSTRIAL$APPLICATION$$ applicant,$on$the$other$hand,$trying$to$get$as$much$monopoly$as$possible.$

Winvention$cannot$be$purely$theoretical$ SUBSTANTIVE$EXAMINATION$PROCESS$FLOW$

Wit$must$be$an$invention$that$can$be$carried$out$in$practice$ (insert$flowchart$here)!!!$

Thus,$if$the$invention$is$intended$to$be$a$product,$that$product$must$be$ TERM$OF$PROTECTION$
capable$of$being$made.$And$if$the$invention$is$a$process$it$must$be$capable$
of$being$carried$out$in$practice.$ 20$years$from$the$date$of$filing$of$the$application,$provided$

Wthat$the$annual$fee$is$paid.$$$

Wthat$patent$is$not$cancelled.$

ANNUAL$FEES$

! First$annual$feeW$due$on$the$expiration$of$4$years$from$the$date$
st
of$1 $publication.$
! Subsequent$annual$feesW$due$on$the$each$anniversary$of$such$
date.$
$ ! Payment$may$be$made$within$3$months$before$the$due$date.$
! An$application$shall$be$deemed$withdrawn,$or$a$patent$be$
PUBLICATION$OF$AN$APPLICATION$ considered$lapsed$if$annual$fees$are$not$paid$on$the$due$date.$
! Grace$period$of$6$months$shall$be$granted$if$annual$fee$is$paid$
Application$is$published$in$the$IPO$Official$Gazette$after$18months$from$ with$a$surcharge.$
filing$ $
UNITY$OF$INVENTION$
• Withdrawn$application$shall$not$be$published$ Sec$38.1$THE$APPLICATION$SHALL$RELATE$TO$ONE$INVENTION$ONLY$OR$TO$
• Publication$shall$contain$the$bibliographic$data,$drawing,$ A$GROUP$OF$INVENTIONS$FORMING$A$SINGLE$GENERAL$INVENTIVE$
abstract$and$search$report$ CONCEPT.$
• Applicant$is$notified$of$the$publication$and$remind$him$to$ $
request$for$substantive$examination$within$6months$from$ SPECIAL$TECHNICAL$FEATURES$
publication$$ $ The$expression$special$technical$feature$shall$mean$those$
rd
• Published$application$are$laid$open$for$3 $party$observation$ features$which$define$a$contribution$with$each$of$the$claimed$inventions$
considered$as$a$whole$makes$over$the$prior$art.$
REQUEST$FOR$EARLY$PUBLICATION$ $
CONSIDERATION$FOR$UNITY$OF$INVENTION$
Applicant$may$request$for$the$early$publication$of$the$application,$Provided+
The$same$filing$date$is$granted$to$the$later$application$provided$that:$
that,$$
$ a)$The$later$application$is$filed$within$4$months$after$the$
restriction$requirement$becomes$final;$and$
• Applicant$submits$a$written$waiver$of$the$$
$ b)$Each$divisional$application$shall$not$go$beyond$the$disclosure$
Wabove$mentioned$18$month$period,$and$$ st
in$the$initial$or$1 $application.$
Westablishment$of$a$search$report$
The$fact$that$a$patent$has$been$granted$on$an$application$that$did$not$
• Publication$should$not$be$earlier$than$6$months$from$filing$date,$
comply$with$the$requirement$of$unity$of$invention$shall$not$be$a$ground$to$
and$
cancel$the$patent.$
• Payment$of$the$Fee$(Php$5550)$
$
THE$SAME$TECHNICAL$FEATURE$
RIGHTS$OF$THE$APPLICANT$AFTER$PUBLICATION$
If$2$or$more$inventions$have$the$same$technical$feature,$the$requirement$
of$unity$of$invention$is$met.$
An$applicant$shall$have$all$the$rights$of$a$patentee,$as$if$a$patent$has$been$
Example:$$
granted$for$the$application.$Provided,$
$ Claim$1W$Polymeric$compound$A$(transparent$substance$having$
Wthat$a$written$notice$is$sent$to$a$person$using$the$published$invention,$ improved$oxygen$barrier$characteristics)$
$ Claim$2W$A$food$packaging$container$composed$of$polymeric$
Wthat$the$action$may$not$be$filed$until$after$grant$of$a$Patent,$ compound$A.$
Example:$
Wthat$it$should$be$within$4$years$from$the$commission$of$the$act.$
Room$405$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$ Claim$1W$A$process$for$treating$textiles$comprising$spraying$the$
material$with$a$particular$coating$composition$under$special$conditions$
(e.g.$as$to$temperature,$irradiation).$
$ Claim$2W$A$textile$material$coated$according$to$the$process$of$
claim$1.$
$ Claim$3W$A$spraying$machine$for$use$in$the$process$of$claim$1$
and$characterized$by$a$new$nozzle$arrangement$providing$a$better$
distribution$of$the$composition$being$sprayed.$
The$process$according$to$claim$1$imparts$unexpected$properties$
to$the$product$of$claim$2.$
The$special$technical$feature$in$claim$1$is$the$use$of$special$
process$conditions$corresponding$to$what$is$made$necessary$by$the$choice$
of$the$particular$coating.$Unity$exists$between$claims$1$and$2.$
The$spraying$machine$in$claim$3$does$not$correspond$to$the$
above$identified$special$technical$feature.$Unity$does$not$exist$between$
claim$3$and$claims$1$and$2.$$

Right)to)Patent)

Who$has$the$right$to$a$patent?$$

" The$right$to$patent$belongs$to$the$inventor,$his$heirs$or$assigns.$$
(Sec.+28,+IPC).$$$

What$if$there$are$2$or$more$owners?$

" JointWowners$ W$ If$ two$ (2)$ or$ more$ persons$ jointly$ own$ a$ patent$
and$the$invention$covered$thereby,$either$by$the$issuance$of$the$
patent$in$their$joint$favor$or$by$reason$of$the$assignment$of$an$
undivided$share$in$the$patent$and$invention$or$by$reason$of$the$
succession$in$title$to$such$share,$each$of$the$joint$owners$shall$
be$entitled$to$personally$make,$use,$sell,$or$import$the$invention$
for$his$own$profit:$Provided,$however,$That$neither$of$the$joint$
owners$shall$be$entitled$to$grant$licenses$or$to$assign$his$right,$
title$or$interest$or$part$thereof$without$the$consent$of$the$other$
owner$ or$ owners,$ or$ without$ proportionally$ dividing$ the$
proceeds$with$such$other$owner$or$owners.$$(Sec.+107,+IPC)$
$
What$is$the$firstWtoWfile$rule?$

" The$ FirstWtoWfile$ Rule$ W$ In$ case$ two$ or$ more$ inventors$ of$ the$
same$invention$separately$and$independently$from$each$other,$
the$ patent$ shall$ belong$ to$ the$ person$ who$ first$ filed$ an$
application.$ $ If$ there$ are$ two$ or$ more$ applications,$ the$ patent$
shall$belong$to$the$applicant$who$has$the$earliest$filing$date$or$
the$earliest$priority$date.$$(Sec.+29,+IPC)$
$
PATENT$GRANT$PROCEDURE.$IT$IS$IMPORTANT$$

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