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DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF STAIR CLIMBING MECHANISM

FOR DISEABLED

INTRODUCTION

In day today life we may have to carry so many goods and objects of various quantities
through stairs especially in offices, schools, colleges, hotels, industries, apartments etc. where
the lifts may not be available, may be crowded with people or may be under repair .It is
highly tiresome to carry various objects through stairs manually for higher floors for so many
times. The various applications may be carrying bundles of answer sheets in a school or a
college, carrying furniture in different buildings, different apparatus in colleges, in hospitals
etc., carrying electronic items in houses and offices .So there should be a way to carry the
objects through the stairs in a more comfortable and tireless manner without forcing the user
to apply more force. Here comes the application of a stair climber.Lifting objects,loads such
as books, food grains etc. to store above the ground level, or even patients to move upper
level from ground is not easy job, especially where there is no lifting facilities (elevator,
conveyer, etc.) Moreover, in most of the buildings in the world does not have elevators or
escalators. In this case human labours are considered to be the only solution. Labour is
becoming costly as well as time consuming in the developed countries, where growth rate is
getting negative. This problem can be solved if a vehicle can lift loads whiletraveling through
stairs. The project introduces a new option for the transportation of the loads over the stair.
Most of the buildings of the country are structurally congested and unavailing of elevator
facility so it is difficult and laborious to lift up heavy loads. The stair climbing hand truck can
play an important role in those areas to lift loads over a short height, like libraries, hospital,
and in construction area. The vehicle, which can move upper level through stairs, or run in
very rough and rocky surfaces, is called stair climbing hand truck or say stair climbing
vehicle.Stair climber trolleys have a total of six wheels, three on each side. They are set in a
triangular pattern. The uppermost wheel rests on the upper step, with the other two wheels set
on the lower step. This allows you to apply leverage as you pull the trolley up a set of
stairs.Some stair climber trolleys have a locking mechanism on the wheels to lock them in
place. Other trolleys feature a double handle for increased sturdiness. The width of the nose
plate, the base of the trolley where the load sits, may vary from 7 inches to an extra-wide 14
inches. More expensive trolleys are battery powered.As we enter the second millennium since
the time of Christ there is an increasing mindfulness of the need to focus technology on
helping people. This has been in part on account of many countries currently experiencing
what is referred to as an “aging population,” that is the number of children born has
continued to reduce over a long period of time. The result of this along with many other
factors has caused the need for a reducing number of care workers to care for an increasing
number of persons. One specific area of need is that of providing increased freedom in terms
of mobility for the elderly or disabled. To reduce the load on care workers, the two aspects
being closely linked by the conscious sense of being a burden. Autonomy in the area of
mobility has always been highly valued, but is sometimes impaired by some form of
disability. In many cases this results in reliance on some form of external transport
mechanism. In this regard traditional wheelchairs and powered wheelchairs continue to play a
vital role. However wheelchairs to date provide a high level of mobility only in artificial or
“barrier free” environments. That is there remains a significant gap between the obstacle
negotiating ability of a wheelchair and that of the average able bodied person. This aspect is
perhaps most apparent when considering stair-climbing. While modernarchitecture and new
policies continue to make newly built areas as “accessible” as possible to persons with a wide
variety of disabilities steps will always be a reality in the “real world”. This thesis focuses on
the study of stair-climbing capable mechanisms for the elderly or disabled. Common mobility
assistive techniques and devices are outlined in this section and recent advances in curb and
stair climbing devices are outlined.
LITERATURE REVIEW

Bhanje V.C.et al [1]: This article deals with the designing and manufacturing of a trolley,
which can climb stair ormove along very rough surface. The technical issues in designing of
this trolley are the stability and speed of the trolley while climbing stairs. However, the
steepness of the stairs is also the important concern of this study. The uses of this special
trolley are in the frequent lift of goods such as books for library, medicines for hospital,
regular mails for any institutes, or transportation any toxic material for industries and give
freedom to the retarded person or paralyzed patients to move anywhere over flat surface as
well as stairs. Using of this vehicle, the labour cost can be reduced as well as huge amount of
loads can be transferred uniformly with less power consumption.

Mr. Pratik H. Rathod et al [2]: This topic deals with the designing and manufacturing of a
hand truck, which can climb stair with less effort compare to carry it manually. The technical
issues in designing of this vehicle are the stability and speed of the vehicle while climbing
stairs. However, the steepness of the stairs is also the important concern of this study. The
uses of this special vehicle are in the frequent lift of goods such as books for library,
medicines for hospital, regular goods of any technical or non-technical institutes, or
transportation any toxic material for industries and give freedom to the retarded person or
paralyzed patients to move anywhere over flat surface as well as stairs. The vehicle has four
wheels arrangement to support its weight when it moves over the flat surface. Each set wheel
frame consists of three wheels attached with nut and bolt. Using of this vehicle, the labour
cost can be reduced as well as huge amount of loads can be transferred uniformly with less
power consumption. Moreover, considering some drawbacks due to lack of implementation
of all techniques during manufacturing phase the test and trial run showed considerably
significant and encouraging results that might help the future researchers to incorporate a
gear box and steering mechanism to make the vehicle more versatile.

P.Jey Praveen Raj et al [3]: In the modern world though there are many developments in the
field of engineering. Still there are difficulties to carry heavy loads over stairs. Development
of lift simplifies the effort of carrying heavy loads over stairs, it is not possible to use lift in
all places like schools, college’s constructional areas. This project aims at developing a
mechanism for easy transportation of heavy loads over stairs. The need for such arises from
day to day requirements in our society. Devices such as hand trolleys are used to relieve the
stresses of lifting while on flat ground. However these devices usually fail when it comes to
carrying the load over short fleet of stairs .Our project attempts to design a stair climbing
trolley which can carry heavy objects up the stairs with less effort compared to carrying them
manually .The main objective of the project is to find an efficient and user friendly method of
carrying various objects through stairs using minimum effort from the user and to also
provide a smooth movement while climbing the stair. Under this project we have
manufactured a stair climber with tri lobed wheel frames at both sides of the climber and
three wheels on each sides are used in the tri lobed frame. The wheel assembly is rotated by a
gear- motor mechanism where a DC gear motor is used to provide the necessary power for
rotation and a pinion- gear mesh is used for reducing the rotating speed of the wheel. The
motor is connected to a lead acid battery of similar ratings and they are in turn connected to
DPDT switch.

K. Narendra Kumar et al [4]: In the present scenario the application of robots is quite
common to reduce the human effort in several areas. The stair climbing robots are used to
climb the stairs for different applications up to now, but the main disadvantage of the rugged
terrain robots is not adjustable according to the structure of the stairs. To overcome this, we
have developed an adjustable stair climbing robot to climb the stairs up and down according
to the dimensions of the staircase by using adjustable frame. The main features of the robot
include the platform which is attached to the adjustable frame to carry the materials up and
down as per the motor capacity. The main application of this robot is to check the urban areas
by carrying the materials on the platform for rescue operations.
NEED OF ADJUSTABLE TRI-WHEEL TROLLY:

Most of the buildings are structurally congested and do not have elevators or escalators. This
project work can introduce a new option for the transportation of loads over the stairs.
Adjustable tri-wheel trolley can play an important role in those areas to lift loads over a short
height.

WORKING PRINCIPLE

The main function of this trolley is to carry the load not only on the flat surface but also on
the stair case. Inthis, the loads (goods) are simply placed in the trolley or box type
construction. By using handle we can push the trolley forward direction when the trolley is
move on the flat surface that time only one side 2 wheels and another side 2 are rotate easily.
Due to the wheel load can be easily move or carry from one place to another place. When we
want to go by the stairs that time we can pull the trolley backward direction and towards the
stairs. One we can pull the trolley one wheel are restricted by the stairs that time again wecan
apply few amount of effort the second wheel is come on the upward stairs. In this when the
restriction is created that time the all-wheel assembly apart which is connected to the main
shaft with the help of the bearing the main disc and all wheel assembly rotate as like a one
wheel. And three wheels can be move one by one the wheel can be move on the stairs. And
when we are going to top side to bottom side that time only two wheels can be move.
PARTS TO BE USED FOR PROJECT:

1) Frame:

The frame is designed as shown below. The frame is designed for a height of
about 1000mm and is made up of Mild Steel material. The handle is made
perpendicular to the body of the trolley so that the trolley can be inclined to any
angle. The base of the trolley is welded and it is made up of Mild Steel material.

2) Tri-Star Wheel Setup:

The Tri-Star clamp is used for connecting the wheels together. While climbing
the stairs it is tedious to climb with a single wheel. Here, the wheels are
connected to each of the arms of the clamp and while climbing the stairs Tri-
Star setup rotates when it hits the edge of the stairs. The Tri-Star is fabricated
using gas cutting process. The wheels are placed between the two clamps and
are held with the help of the nuts and bolts.

3) Lead screw

We need Lead screw for adjusting wheels depends on stairs depth and length. Its
material is mild steel

3) Wheel and Shaft Assembly:

The wheel which is fixed to the Tri-Star clamp is then assembled to the hollow
shaft as shown below. The Tri-Star wheel setup is fixed at the either ends of the
hollow shaft by welding. The sprocket is fixed on the shaft before the welding
process which connects the small sprocket and motor with the help of chain
drive.

4) Final Assembly of Trolley:

The final assembly of the trolley is done as shown below. The wheel setup and
the shaft assembly are assembled to the body of the trolley with the help of
bearing. Here, ball bearing is used. Now the sprockets are connected to the
hollow shaft and motor shaft with the help of chain drive. As the motor rotates,
the shaft and Tri-Star assembly rotates with the help of the chain drive
mechanism.

5) DC motor

Parameters for DC motor selection

i)The power-requirement for a belt conveyor is a function of five components:

 The power required to run the empty belt,


 The power required to horizontally move the load,
 The power required for vertical lift,
 The power required for friction from additional equipment such as
skirting or side-travel Rollers,
 The power required for acceleration.

ii) THE RUNNING CONVEYOR


Specifications of DC Motor:

 1000RPM 12V DC motors with Gearbox


 6mm shaft diameter with internal hole
 125gm weight
 Stall Torque = 0.5kgcm torque
 No-load current = 60 mA(Max), Load current = 300 mA(Max)
DESIGN MATERIAL

NAME OF PART QUANTITY COST

Fibre Wheel 06 360

Main Shaft 01 50

Bearing 6201 06 120

Bearing 6202 04 100

Short shaft of 12mm diameter 06 300

Leather thread 02 100

Square metal rod 02 240

Lead screw 02 100

DC motor 6 1500
DESIGN CALCULATION

A. Design of Shaft

Outer Diameter, D= 25 mm

Inner Diameter, d =18 mm

Length of the shaft = 700 mm

Shaft Subjected To Simple Torsional Moment:

Shear strength Ʈ = P/A

Assume, load p= 100kg

=100*9.81=981N

Area = (π/4)*(D2-d2)

Area =236.2 mm2

Shear strength

Ʈ = 981/236.2 = 4.153N/mm2

Shaft Subjected To Simple Bending Moment

σ = 32*M*D/ (π*(D4-d4))

M = π/16 * Ʈ * ((D4-d4)/D)

= 9312.457 N mm

σ = (32*9312.457*25)/ (π*(254-184)

σ = 8.305 N/mm2
Material selected is mild steel

For mild steel σ =580N/mm2

Allowable bending moment < permissible bending moment

8.305 N/mm2< 580N/mm2

Design is safe and satisfactory

B. Selection of Motor

Voltage V = 13.5v

Current I = 8A

T = (P*60)/ (2*π*N)

= (60*60)/ (2* π*30)

= 19.10N-m

C. Design of Chain Drive

1. Selection of transmission ratio

From PSG Design data book pg. 7.74

i = (z2/z1) = (n1/n2)

= 50/30

= 1.5

2. Selection of number of teeth on driver sprocket

From PSG Design data book pg.no: 7.74

Select z1 = 12

3. Determination of number of teeth on driven sprocket

i = (z2/z1)
z2 = (i*z1)

= 12*1.5
= 18

4. Selection of standard pitch (P)

Optimum center distance

a= (30 to 50) P

Say a = 30P

a = 381mm

P = (a/30) = 12.7mm

5. Selection of chain

Considering simplex chain ISO 08B-1 R1278 is selected for pitch 12.7mm

6. Calculation of total load on driving side of chain

Total load
(PT) =Pt. + Pc + PS
From PSG Design data book pg. 7.78
Pt. = (1020*n/v)
Pc = mv²
Ps = k*w*a
v = (z2*p*N)/(60*1000)
= (18*12.7*50)/ (60000)
= 0.19 m/s
Pt. = (1020*0.72)/0.19
Pt. = 385.6N
Centrifugal tension
Pc = (w*v²)/g
Pc = (490.5*(0.19)²)/9.81
Pc = 1.085N
From PSG Design data book pg. 7.78
Ps = k*w*a
= 1*490.5*0.381
Ps = 186.88N
PT = 186.88 + 385.6 + 1.085
PT = 573.5N

Calculation of service factor


Ks = K1*K2*K3*K4*K5*K6
K1 = 1 (for constant loads)
K2 = 1.1(Drive using idle sprockets)
K3 = 1 (a = (30 to 50) P)
K4 = 1 (Up to 60º)
K5 = 1 (Drop lubrication)
K6 = 1 (Single shift of 8 hours a day)
Ks = 1.1
8. Calculation of design load
Design load
= Ks*PT
= 1.1*573.5
= 630.85N
9. Calculation of factor of safety:
FOS = Breaking load/ (PT * Ks)
= 981/ (1.1*573.5)
FOS = 1.55
10. Actual length of chain
L P= 2a + ((z1+z2)/2) + ((z2-z1)/ (2*π)) ²/aP
aP = ae/p
= 381/12.7 30
LP = (2*30) + 15 + 0.03
LP = 75.05; LP = 75
Actual length of chain = 75*12.7 = 0.95m
11. Exact Centre distance
a = ((e + (e²-8M) 0.5)/4)*P
M = ((z2 – z1)/ (2*π)) ²

M = 0.911
e = LP – ((z1+z2)/2)
e = 60
a = 379.56mm
12. Pitch diameter of sprocket
From PSG design data book pg.7.78
PCD for small sprocket,
d1 = P/sin (180/z1)
d1 = 12.7/sin (180/12)
d1 = 49.06mm
Sprocket outside (small) diameter:
d01 = d1+0.8dr
dr = 7.75mm
d01 = 56.81mm
PCD for larger sprocket
d2 = P/sin (180/z2)
d2 = 12.7/sin (180/18)
d2 = 73.136mm
Sprocket outside (large) diameter:
d02 = d2+0.8dr
d02 = 80.886mm
V. FABRICATION

The fabrication of stair climbing trolley is begins with the fabrication of Tri-Star
setup. The Tri-Star is made up of mild steel plates with 5mm thickness. The
various links are joined together using welded and bolted joints.

A. Fabrication of Tri-Star Setup


The fabrication of Tri-Star is setup done by the processes that are involved in
are:
 Gas cutting
 Grinding
Drilling
 Boring
The Tri-Star clamp is used for connecting the wheels together. While climbing
the stairs it is tedious to climb with a single wheel. Here, the wheels are
connected to each of the arms of the clamp and while climbing the stairs Tri-
Star setup rotates when it hits the edge of the stairs. The Tri-Star is fabricated
using gas cutting process. The wheels are placed between the two clamps and
are held with the help of the nuts and bolts.

B. Fabrication of Wheel and Shaft Assembly


The fabrication of wheel and shaft assembly is carried out as follows. The axle
shaft is fabricated from hollow rod. The length of the axle shaft is about
700mm. Then the pair of Tri-Star wheel setups is fixed at the ends of the shaft.
The machining processes
Future Work and Improvement:
The future improvements that are possible in the stair climber are:
Firstly, the material of the stair climber parts can be changed because now we
are used mild steel as material as it will increase the weight of the stair climber.
Instead of using steel as material we can use composite materials to reduce
weight.
Secondly, the mechanism of transmission system could be changed to get
efficient output. Instead of using chain drive we can use gear drive.
Thirdly, the power range produced to carry loads could be modified as per
loading conditions by changing motor and battery.
Finally, the size of the Tri-Star plate could be made as adjustable one to climb
all sort of stairs by using bolt and nuts or another adjusting mechanisms.
SUMMARY

Thus the stair climbing trolley will be fabricated in such way that it carry the
heavy loads over stairs and also used for carrying loads on flat surface from one
place to other place with less human effort. This decreases the human effort to
carry heavy loads over stairs and also on flat surfaces and proves to be more
advantages in all places like industries, schools, college etc.

REFERANCES

1) Bhanje V.C. et al [1]“Design and manufacturing of six wheel Staircase


trolley” IJRPET ISSN: 2454-7875 Special Issue, Sept. 2015

2) Mr. Pratik H. Rathod et al [2] “Design and Fabrication of Stair Climbing


Hand Truck” Issue 3, Vol.5 (September 2013) ISSN 2249-6149

3) P.Jey Praveen Raj et al [3] “Design and Fabrication of Stair Climbing


Trolley” Vol.3 Issue June 5 May 2016 ISSN NO 2349-3224

4) Mulik shriniwaset al [4] “Advance Material Handling Trolley Using Tri-


Wheel Mechanism” Ijrrcme Vol. 2, Issue 2, pp: (160-165), Month: October
2015 – March 2016