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Flow Through Pipes

1. If H is the total head at inlet and h is the a) 3,1,4,2 b) 1,3,2,4
head lost due to friction, efficieny of c) 1,3,4,2 d) 3,1,2,4
power transimmion through a straight pipe
is given by (IES-95) 6. During the measurement of viscosity of
𝐻−ℎ 𝐻 air flowing through a pipe, we use the
(𝑎) (𝑏) 𝜋𝑑4 𝑑𝑝
𝐻 𝐻+ℎ relation =128𝑄 (− 𝑑𝑥 ) under the condition
𝐻−ℎ 𝐻
(𝑐) (𝑑) that in the measuring section (IES-96)
𝐻+ℎ 𝐻−ℎ
(a) There is a viscous zone near the wall
2. Water hammer in pipelines takes place and an in viscid core persists at the centre
when (IES-95) (b) The entire cross- section is viscous
(a) Fluid is flowing with high velocity (c) The flow can be assumed as potential
(b) Fluid is flowing with high pressure flow
(c) Flowing fluid is suddenly brought to (d) The flows is irrotational
rest by closing a value
(d) Flowing fluid is brought to rest by 7. If the energy grade line and hydraulic
gradually closing a value grade line are drawn for flow through an
inclined pipeline the following four
3. Assertion (A): there will be a quantities can be directly observed:
redistribution of pressure and velocity 1. Static head (IES-96)
from inside of the bend to the outside 2. Friction head
while a fluid flows through a pipe bend. 3. Datum head
Reason (R): The spacing between stream 4. Velocity head
lines will increase towards the outside wall Starting from the arbitrary datum line, the
and decrease towards the inside wall to above types of heads will be in the
inside of the bend. (IES-95) sequence
(a) Both A and R are individually true and a) 3,2,1,4 b) 3,4,2,1
R is the correct explanation of A. c) 3,4,1,2 d) 3,1,4,2
(b) Both A and R are individually true but
R is not the correct explanation of A. 8. Hydrodynamic entrance length for
(c) A is true but R is false (a) Laminar flow is greater than that for
(d) A is false but R is true turbulent flow (IES-96)
(b) Turbulent flow is greater than that for
4. All experiments thus far indicate that laminar flow
there can be a laminar flow in a pipe if the (c) Laminar flow is equal to that for
Reynolds number is below (IES-96) turbulent flow
(a) 2300 (b) 400 (d) a given flow can be determine only if
(c) 2000 (d) 40000 the prandtl number if known

5. Water flow through a pipeline having 9. Which one of the following statements
four different diameters at 4 stations is is true for fully developed flow through
shown in the figure below. (IES-96) pipes? (IES-97)
(a) The flow is parallel, has no inertial
effects, the pressure gradient is of constant
value and the pressure force is balanced by
the viscous force
(b) The flow is parallel, the pressure
The correct sequence of station numbers in gradient is proportional to the inertia force
the decreasing order of pressure is and there is no viscous effect

Flow Through Pipes
(c)The flow is parallel, the pressure
gradient is negligible and the inertia force
is balanced by the viscous force
(d) The flow is not parallel, the core region
accelerates and the viscous drag is far too
less than the inertial force
(a) 3 (b) 8
10. Assertion (A): In the case of flow (c) 15 (d) 24
around pipe bends, there will be
redistribution of pressure and velocity 13. The equivalent length of the stepped
from inside bend to the outside bend. pipeline shown in the figure below, can be
Reason (R): Flow will be such that the expressed in terms of the diameter D as
stream line spacing will decrease towards (IES-98)
the inner bend resulting in decrease of
pressure head and increase of velocity
head at the inner wall. (IES-97)
(a) Both A and R are individually true and
R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A and R are individually true but (a)5.25 L (b) 9.5 L
R is not the correct explanation of A. 1 1
(c) 33 32 𝐿 (d) 33 8 𝐿
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
14. The pipe cross- sections and fluid flow
11. A pipe flow system with flow direction rates are shown in the figure below.
is shown in figure below: (IES-98) (IES-99)

The following table gives the velocities

and the corresponding areas: The velocity in the pipe labeled as (A) is
Pipe No Area (cm)2 Velocity (a) 1.5 m/s (b) 3 m/s
(cm/s) (c) 15 m/s (d) 30 m/s
1. 50 10
2. 50 V2 15. The elbow nozzle assembly shoen in
3. 80 5 the Figure below is in a horizontal plane.
4. 70 5 The velocity of jet issuing from the nozzle
The value of V is is (IES-99)
(a) 2.5 cm/s (b)5.0 cm/s
(c)7.5 cm/s (d)10.0 cm/s

12. A liquid flows downward through at

tapered vertical portion of a pipe. At the
entrance and exit of the pipe, the static
pressures are equal. If for a vertical height
‘h’ the velocity becomes four times, then
the ratio of ‘h’ to the velocity head at (a) 4 m/s (b) 16 m/s
entrance will be (IES-98) (c) 24 m/s (d) 30 m/s

Fluid Mechanics & Fluid Machinery
16. Point A of head HA is at a higher (a) 2.5 cm/s (b) 5 cm/s
elevation than point B of head HB. The (c) 7.5 cm/s (d) 10 cm/s
head loss between these points is HL. The
flow will take place (IES-99) 20. A pipe is connected in series to another
pipe whose diameter is twice and length is
32 times that of the first pipe. The ratio of
frictional head losses for the first pipe to
those for the second pipe is (both the pipes
have the same frictional constant)
(a) 8 (b) 4 (IES-00)
(c) 2 (d) 1

(a) Always form A to B 21. A pipeline connecting two reservoirs

(b) From A to B if HA= HB + HL has its diameter reduced by 20% due to
(c) From B to A if HZ + HL=HB deposition of chemicals. For a givenhead
(d) From B to A if H + HL=HA difference in the reservoirs with unaltered
friction factor, this would cause a
17. The value of friction factor is reduction in discharge of (IES-00)
misjudged by + 25% in using Darcy- (a) 42.8% (b) 20%
Weisbach equation. The resulting error in (c) 17.8% (d) 10.6%
the discharge will be (IES-99)
(a)+ 25% (b) -18.25 22. Which one of the following statements
(c)-12.5% (d) +12.5% is correct? (IES-00)
(a) Hydraulic grade line and energy grade
18. A tank containing water has two line are the same in fluid flow problems.
orifices of the same size at depth of 40 cm (b) Energy grade line lies above the
and 90 cm below the free surface of water. hydraulic grade line and is always parallel
The ratio of discharge through these to it.
orifices is (IES-00) (c) Energy grade line lies above the
(a)1:1 (b)2:3 hydraulic grade line and they are separated
(c) 4:9 (d)16:81 from each other by a vertical distance
equal to the velocity head.
19. The velocities and corresponding flow (d) The hydraulic grade line slopes
areas of the branches labeled 1,2,3,4 and 5 upwards meeting the energy grade line
for a (IES-00) only at the exit of flow.

23. At location –I of a horizontal line, the

fluid pressure head is 32 cm and velocity
head is 4 cm. the reduction in area at
location –II is such that the pressure head
drops down to zero. (IES-01)
Pipe system shown in the given figure are
given in the following table:
Pipe Label Velocity Area
1. 5 cm/s 4cm2
2. 6 cm/s 5 cm2
3. V3 cm/s 2 cm2 The ratio of velocities at location – II to
4. 4 cm/s 10cm2 that at location –I is
5. V5 cm/s 8 cm2 (a) 3 (b) 2.5
The velocity v5 would be (c) 2 (d) 1.5
Flow Through Pipes
24. For maximum transition of power 1
𝐸 2 1
through a pipeline with total head H, the (𝑎) ( ) (𝑏) (𝐸𝜌 )2
head lost due to friction hr is given by 𝜌
(IES-01) 𝜌 1/2 1 1/2
(𝑐) ( ) (𝑑) ( )
(a) 0.1 H (b) H/3 𝐸 𝐸𝜌
(c) H/2 (d) 2H/3
29. A 20 cm diameter 500 m long water
25. Tow pipelines of equal length and with ripe with friction factor ut = 0025, leads
diameters of 15 cm and 10 cm are in from a constant-head reservoir and
paralle and connect two reservoirs. The terminates at the delivery end into a nozzle
difference in water levels in the reservoirs discharging into air. (Neglect all energy
is 3m. if the friction is assumed to be losses other than those due to pipe
equal, the ratio of the discharge due to the friction). What is the approximate
larger diameter pipe to that of the smaller diameter of the jet for maximum power?
diameter pipe is, nearly, (IES-01) (IES-04)
(a) 3.375 (b) 2.756 a. 6.67 mm b. 5.98 mm
(c) 2.25 (d) 1.5 c. 66.7 mm d. 59.8 mm

26. The hydraulic mean depth (where A= 30. A 40 mm diameter 2m long straight
area and P = wetted perimeter) is given by uniform pipe carries a steady flow of water
(IES-02) (viscosity 1 .02 centipoises) at the rate of
𝑃 𝑃2 3.0 liters per minute. What is the
(𝑎) (𝑏)
𝐴 𝐴 approximate value of the shear stress on
𝐴 𝐴 the internal wall of the pipe? (IES-04)
(𝑐) (𝑑)√ a. 0.0166 dyne/cm2
b. 0.0812 dyne/cm2
c. 8.12 dyne/cm2
27. Match List I (Fluid parameters) with d. 0.9932 dyne/cm2
List II (Basic dimensions) and select the
correct answer: (IES-02) 31. Which phenomenon will occur when
List I the value at the discharge end of a pipe
A. Dynamic viscosity connected to a reservoir is suddenly
B. Chews roughness coefficient closed? (IES-05)
C. Bulk modulus of elasticity a. Cavitation b. Erosion
D. Surface tension () c. Hammering d. Surging
List II
1. M/t2 32. A 12 cm diameter straight pipe is laid
2. M/Lt2 at a uniform downgrade and flow rate is
3. M/Lt maintained such that velocity head in the
4. √𝐿 / 𝑡 pipe is 0.5 m. If the pressure in the pipe is
A B C D observed to be uniform along the length
a. 3 2 4 1 when the down slope of the pipe is 1 in 10,
b. 1 4 2 3 what is the friction factor for the pipe?
c. 3 4 2 1 (IES-06)
d. 1 2 4 3 a. 0.012 b. 0.024
c. 0.042 d. 0.050
28. Velocity of pressure waves due to
pressure disturbances imposed in a liquid 33. A compound pipeline consists of two
is equal to (IES-03) pieces of identical pipes. The equivalent
length of same diameter and same friction

Fluid Mechanics & Fluid Machinery
factor, for the compound pipeline is L1 c. To relieve the pressure due to water
when pipes are connected in series, and is hammer
L2 when connected in parallel. What is the d. To reduce cavitation
ratio of equivalent lengths L1/L2?
(IES-06) 38. A penstock pipe of 10m diameter
a. 32 : 1 b. 8 : 1 carries water under a pressure head of 100
c. 2 : l d. √2 : 1 m. If the wall thickness is 9 mm, what is
the tensile stress in the pipe wall in MPa ?
34. The energy grade line (EGL) for (IES-09)
steady flow in a uniform diameter pipe is (a) 2725 (b) 545·0
shown below. (IES-06) (c) 272·5 (d) 1090

39. Three identical pipes of length L,

diameter d and friction factor f are
connected in parallel between two
reservoirs. What is the size of a pipe of
length L and of the same friction factor f
equivalent to the above pipe? (IES-09)
Which of the following items is contained (a) 1.55 d (b) 1.4 d
in the box ? (c) 3 d (d) 1.732 d
a. A pump b. A turbine
c. A partially closed valve 40. Which one of the following statements
d. An abrupt expansion is appropriate for the free surface, the
hydraulic gradient line and energy gradient
35. The head loss in turbulent flow in pipe line in an open channel flow? (IES-09)
varies (IES-07) (a) Parallel to each other but they are
a. Directly as the velocity different lines
b. Inversely as the square of the velocity (b) All coinciding
c. Inversely as the square of the diameter (c) Such that only the first two coincide
d. Approximately as the square of the (d) Such that they are all inclined to each
velocity other

36. Assertion (A): The power transmitted 41. The head loss in a sudden expansion
through a pipe is maximum when the loss from 6 cm diameter pipe to 12 cm
of head due to friction is equal to one-third diameter pipe, in terms of velocity V1 in
of total head at the inlet. (IES-07) the smaller diameter pipe is (IES-10)
Reason (R): Velocity is maximum when 3 𝑉12 5 𝑉12
the friction loss is one-third of the total (𝑎) . (𝑏) .
16 2𝑔 16 2𝑔
head at the inlet. 7 𝑉12 9 𝑉12
a. Both A and R are individually true and (𝑐) . (𝑑) .
R is the correct explanation of A. 16 2𝑔 16 2𝑔
b. Both A and R are individually true but 42. If a fluid flows through a capillary tube
R is not the correct explanation of A. of length L and diameter D, and the mass
c. A is true but R is false flow rate and the pressure drop are
d. A is false but R is true measured, the viscosity of the fluid can be
estimated from the (IES-10)
37. Why are surge tanks used in a pipe (A) Euler equation
line? (IES-08) (B) Bernoulli’s equation
a. To reduce frictional loss in pipe (C) Hagen-Poiseuille equation
b. To ensure uniform flow in pipe (D) Dittus-Boelter equation

Flow Through Pipes
43. Match List I(Losses) with List II (C) Statement (I) is true but statement (II)
(Parameters responsible) and select the is false
correct answer using the code given below (D) Statement (I) is false but statement (II)
the lists: (IES-10) is true
A. Leakage loss 46. Statement (I): The pressure drop in
B. Friction loss circular ducts is less when compared to
C. Entrance loss that in equivalent rectangular ducts.
List-II Statement (II) The mean velocity in a
1. Zero at design point rectangular duct will be less than that in its
2. Porportional to head circular equivalent. (IES-12)
3. Proportional to half of relative
velocity square 47. Statement (I) The hydraulic power
Codes: transmitted by a pipe through certain
A B C distance by means of water under pressure
(a) 1 2 3 will be maximum when the loss of head
(b) 2 3 1 due to friction over this distance is one-
(c) 1 3 2 third of total head supplied. (IES-12)
(d) 2 1 3 Statement (II) The average velocity of
flow should be less than the critical
44. The loss of head due to sudden velocity which corresponds to the laminar
enlargement is attributed to (IES-11) flow
(A) Viscosity of fluid
(B) Generation of heat 48. A tube is used (as shown in the above
(C) Roughness of pipe figure) as a siphon to discharge an oil of
(D) Production and dissipation of turbulent specific gravity 0.8 from a large open
energy vessel into a drain at atmospheric pressure.
The velocity of oil through the siphon will
45. The piezometric head is the summation be (IES-13)
of (IES-12)
(A) Velocity head and pressure head
(B) Pressure head and elevation head
(C) Elevation head and velocity head
(D) Velocity head, pressure head and
elevation head

Directions: Each of the next consists of

two statements one labeled as the
‘Statement (I)’ and the other as ‘Statement
(II)’. You are to examine these two
statements carefully and select the answers
to their items using the codes given below: (A) 1.5 m/s (B) 6.7 m/s
(A) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) (C) 8.8 m/s (D) 10.4 m/s
are individually true and Statement (II) is
the correct explanation of statement (I) 49. Water flows through a vertical
(B) Both Statement (I) and Statement (III) contraction from a pipe of diameter d to
are individually true but Statement (III) is another of diameter of d/2 Inlet velocity at
Not the correct explanation of statement inlet to contraction is 2 m/s and pressure
(I) 200 kN/m2. If height of contraction

Fluid Mechanics & Fluid Machinery
measures 2m, the pressure at exit of (C) Shear stress is zero and velocity is
contraction will be nearly to (IES-13) continuous
(A) 192 kN/m2 (B) 150 kN/m2 (D) Shear stress is zero
(C) 165 kN/m (D) 175 kN/m2
54. Which one of the following statements
is not correct in the context of laminar
50. In flow through a pipe, the transition
flow through a pipeline? (IES-14)
from laminar to turbulent flow does not
(A) Shear stress is zero at the centre and
depend on (IES-13)
varies linearly with pipe radius
(A) Density of fluid
(B) Head loss is proportional to square of
(B) Length of pipe
the average flow velocity
(C) Diameter of pipe
(C) The friction factor varies inversely
(D) Velocity of the fluid
with flow Reynolds number
(D) No dispersion of die injected into the
51. In the below layout of piping, what is
flow stream
the velocity in 200 mm diameter pipe?
55. Two reservoirs connected by two pipe
lines in parallel of the same diameter D
and length. It is proposed to replace the
two pipe lines by a single pipeline of the
same length without affecting the total
discharge and loss of head due to friction.
The diameter of the equivalent pipe D in
terms of the diameter of the existing pipe
(A) 2.5 m/s (B) 5.55 m/s D
line, e is (IES-16)
(C) 7.25 m/s (D) 9.56 m/s D
1 1 1
52. For laminar flow through a round pipe, (a) 4.0 (b)  2  5 (c)  4  4 (d)  4  5
the shear stress (IES-14)
(A) Remains constant over the cross– The oil with specific gravity 0.8,
dynamic viscosity of 8 103 Ns/m2 flows
(B) Varies linearly with the radial distance
through a smooth pipe of 100 mm
(C) Must be zero at all points
diameter and with Reynolds number 2100.
(D) Varies parabolically with radial
The average velocity in the pipe is
(a) 0.21 m/s (b) 0.42 m/s
(c) 0.168 m/s (d) 0.105 m/s
57. The condition for power transmission
by flow through a pipeline to be maximum
is that the loss of head of the flow due to
friction throughout the pipeline length is
Consider flow of oil and water through a (a) one-third of the total head at inlet end
channel; the boundary conditions at the (b) one-fourth of the total head at inlet
interface are (IES-14) end
(A) Velocity and shear stress are (c) three-fourth of the total head at inlet
continuous end
(B) Shear stress is continuous and velocity (d) One-half of the total head at inlet end
is discontinuous

Flow Through Pipes