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2015 IEEE International WIE Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (WIECON-ECE)

19-20 December 2015, BUET, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Electric and Lighting Energy Audit: A Case Study of


Selective Commercial Buildings in Dhaka
Rakiba Rayhana*, Md. Asif Uddin Khan, Tahsin A Hasib Chowdhury
Hassan, Ratan Datta Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology
BRAC University Dhaka, Bangladesh
Dhaka, Bangladesh hasib@eee.buet.ac.bd
*
rraihana29@gmail.com

Abstract—Energy audit can be one of the fastest and Energy audit is a survey, assessment and perusal of energy
cheapest solutions to mitigate the gap between energy demand flows for energy conservation in a building which examines
and supply since it identifies the energy loss and improvement the possible techniques to reduce input of energy into the
areas. The paper shows a detailed analysis on building energy system without having negative effects on the output.
audit of some commercial buildings in Dhaka, evaluate and
provide techniques to reduce energy loss, and a tool that has been II. LITERATURE REVIEW
developed to carry out energy audit of commercial buildings. The The concept of energy audit drew a great deal of interest
tool is developed using Microsoft Visual Basic Application and
for building energy specialists and electrical engineers since
named “EnergyWise”. Data entered by user forms is processed,
summarized and transferred automatically to the excel spread
1973 and thrived on the later years due to severe energy crisis
sheets. The tool identifies the areas of electrical load consumption [3].
and their share as a percentage of the total load. The study shows The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD)
that the electrical energy use in commercial buildings in Dhaka of the European Union was proposed on 16th December, 2002
are quite inefficient and the consumption of electrical energy can and on the later years this became one of the prime areas for
be significantly reduced; up to 8%-15% energy reduction in research. The aim of EPBD is to enhance the building energy
electrical equipment and up to 28%-45% in lighting by replacing performances by considering interior and exterior conditions
them with more efficient components. and it mentioned some specifications such as providing an
integrated outline for energy performance of a building,
Keywords—electricity, energy audit, energy efficiency, savings, minimum use of appliances, regular observation of boilers and
Bangladesh heaters and also provides energy efficient certificates for the
buildings. The important factor of EPBD is the compulsory
I. INTRODUCTION energy calculation procedure on buildings both for new and
Electricity and its availability is one of the imperative existing building structures. The operation analysis is done by
factors for a country, since it acts as an acute resource for performing survey, introducing improvement techniques and
modern life and an infrastructural input for an economic certification on HVAC installations [4].
growth. Every day, the demand for electrical energy is soaring After the EPBD directive, many countries such as
up due to the fast progress in industrialization, population Belgium, France, Germany, Denmark, Ireland, the
growth and urbanization. Hence, energy conservation is very Netherlands and the UK followed the rules on energy
crucial to meet the growing energy demands. The peak conservation [5]. Amongst them, Denmark was the first
electrical load demand in Bangladesh is 10,806 MW [1]. country in Europe to commence energy audit and rating
According to the July, 2015 report of Bangladesh Power assessment and introduced an obligatory energy analysis act in
Development Board, the total installed power generation 1985. Since 1995, the United Kingdom introduced mandatory
capacity is 11,532 MW, out of which 2.14% power is Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) and building
generated by coal-fired power plants, 62.31% is generated by regulations Part L (a section of energy directive for houses)
natural gas, 29.3% is generated by HFO and HFD, 1.97% is laws [6]. Heating Energy Rating (HER) and Energy Rating
from hydro power plants and rest are imported [2]. Bench Mark (ERBM) was introduced in Ireland in 1997 [7].
Despite this, Bangladesh confronts a major challenge to Energy Performance Study (EPA) and Standard Energy
meet the daily demand. Throughout the last six years, the Performance (EPB) are introduced in the Netherlands to
electricity consumers has escalated from 47% to 64% of the encourage energy conservation [6]. The Ministry of Housing
population and it is expected that by the year 2019 the number and Transport of France have introduced Decree 2000-1153 so
will outstretch to 90%, increasing the demand up to 63,600 that all the buildings comply with the regulations [8]. Since
MW by the year of 2040 with an annual growth rate of 8% [1]. 1987, NBN B62-002 and NBN B62-004 regulations have been
Therefore, efficiency and energy conservation can be one introduced in Belgium and are made mandatory for all
of the affordable and swift solutions to overcome the energy residential buildings [9]. Also, Germany has commenced
crisis. Efficiency refers to using less energy as input with energy efficiency work from 1982 and provided legislation in
constant output and conservation refers to mitigating energy 2001-which is named as “Energy Saving Decree” [6]. Ever
usage. These two ideas can be united together by energy audit. since, numerous energy audit studies have been conducted

978-1-4673-8786-6/15/$31.00 ©2015 IEEE 301


around the world to investigate various parametric solutions. V. CASE STUDY OF SELECTIVE COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS
In Bangladesh, the Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Two commercial buildings have been audited and both of
Resources of the Government of Bangladesh passed the them are used as the academic buildings of the BRAC
energy efficiency and conservation rule in 22nd October, University. The buildings are named as BRAC University
2012. The section 4 of the draft clearly interprets that, all the building 3 and BRAC University building 5. Both buildings
commercial buildings in Bangladesh should obey the rules and are situated at Mohakhali, one of the busiest commercial areas
use cost-effective and efficient life cycle equipment of Dhaka. BRAC University building 3 is a 12 storied building
complying with the Bangladesh National Building Code and building 5 is a 6 storied building. Both of them are east
(BNBC) [10].Whilst, the directives on energy audits were facing and mainly used for class rooms and laboratories.
already from the year 2012, and no such relevant studies have Figures 1 and 2 show the front photographs of BRAC
been published yet in Bangladesh. University building 3 and 5, respectively. The summary of the
III. REASEARCH METHODOLOGY building description and the electric equipment and lighting
system data are presented in Tables II and III, respectively.
The study employed a quantitative research method which
involved a series of surveys, observation, wide range of data
collection and analysis. The primary data collected are then
used to generate secondary data with the aid of the developed
tool. These data are then used to determine relationships
among between different components and variables.
IV. DEVELOPMENT OF ENERGY AUDIT TOOL
Energy audit involves a lot of laborious calculations. At
times, the calculation part becomes time consuming and Fig. 1. BRAC University building 3
boring. So, to circumvent the time consuming calculations and
considering those people who are only interested about the
outcome, a tool has been developed to perform energy audit.
Bearing the fact that the developed tool should be user
friendly and understandable, the energy audit tool has been
developed by using VBA (Visual Basic Applications),
facilitated by Microsoft Excel spreadsheets.
It is crucial to use electrical energy wisely in order to
attain sustainability in natural resources and also to promote
eco-generation. Thus, to assist people in taking wise decisions Fig. 2. BRAC University building 5
about the usage of electrical energy, the tool is named as
“EnergyWise”. TABLE II. DESCRIPTION OF THE BRAC UNIVERSITY BUILDINGSS
The tool contains total 11 tabs where each tab has specific
purpose. Starting with 1st tab, it contains basic instructions of Building Building Building Number Area per
the tool to guide the user. The 2nd tab for input of general Name Location Orientation of Floors Floor (sq.feet)
information of the building to be audited and the electricity
bill information of the facility. Tabs 3-6 are used for the BRAC
University Mohakhali East facing 12 2700
lighting audit information, lighting summary and generated building 3
graphs. Similarly, tabs 7-9 are for electrical equipment audit BRAC
information, electrical equipment energy summary and University Mohakhali East facing 6 1800
generated graphs. Tab 10 is used for envelope audit building 5
information and the last tab is used for overall summary of the
energy consumption of the audited building. Table I gives a TABLE III. ELECTRIC EQUIPMENTAND LIGHTING SYSTEMS DATA
brief summary about the input data which are required by the
Building Electric Equipment Building Lights
tool for complete energy auditing. The tools processes input Name of Watt per
data and shows the energy used by the facility and its cost. The Building Equipment
equipment
Type Watt per
tool can generate graphs and charts by analyzing the (units) (units) light (W)
(W)
information calculated by the input data. Air conditioner
BRAC 4000 CFL(75) 23
(61)
University
TABLE I. MAJOR INPUT DATA REQUIREMENT Fan(172) 70 T-12(410) 36
Building 3
Computer(91) 350 T-8(37) 15
Area of the Audit Required Input Data Air conditioner
4000 CFL (126) 23
General Information Building orientation, location, floors, floor area (39)
and electricity bill data BRAC Fan (56) 70 CFL (2) 15
University
Lighting Type, number, wattage and operating hours Computer (153) 350 T-12 (113) 36
Building 5
Electrical equipment Type, number, wattage and operating hours Printer (26) 50
T-8 (27) 15
Building envelope Window area and R value of the glasses used in Projector (4) 330
window

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EnergyWise has been used to calculate the monthly total educational institutions recommended illumination level is
electrical energy consumed by both lighting system and 300 Lux per room according to Bangladesh National Building
electrical equipment for BRAC University buildings 3 and 5. Code, BNBC (2011) [11].
Also, the cost of consumed energy based on the current tariff Figure 4 shows the percentage of total energy cost due to
of Dhaka Power Distribution Company has been calculated. different types of lights. The chart is obtained using
Table IV presents the monthly electrical energy consumed and EnergyWise.
the cost for both the buildings.

TABLE IV. MONTHLY ELECTRICAL ENRGY CONSUMPTION AND COST OF


BRAC UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS 3 & 5
Electric Equipment Lighting System
Building
Equipment Energy Cost Energy Cost
Name Types
Name (kWh) (BDT) (kWh) (BDT)
Air
BRAC 21,680 212,464 CFL 526.62 5,154.8
Conditioner
University
Fan 939.4 9,206.1 T-12 3,042.9 29,820
Building 3
Computer 3185 62,634 T-8 100.48 984.7
Air
7904 77,459
Conditioner CFL 934.46 9,157.7
BRAC
Fan 302 2,959.6
University
Computer 6447 63,180 T-12 753.68 7386
Building 5
Printer 208 2,038.4
T-8 69.13 677.47
Projector 118.8 1,164.2

EnergyWise also shows the monthly energy cost for each


electrical component as a percentage of the total cost. Figure 3 Fig. 4. Lighting cost distributionfor building 5 of BRAC University
presents the scenario for building 5. It is seen that the two
dominating equipment are air conditioners and computers VI. RETROFIT ANALYSIS
which are the source of about 53% and 43% of the total The audit tool is designed and developed to focus on
electrical equipment energy cost, respectively. These areas efficient use of energy for cost savings. One optimum way to
have greater potential in savings if the conventional equipment save both energy and expenditure can be done by replacing
is replaced by the Energy Star* rated equipment. low efficiency and inept systems and components with better
and advanced efficient systems and components. Such
replacements also depend upon different parametric constants
such as occupant expectation, building orientation and
specifications, rules and regulations and human factors.
A. Electrical Equipment Analysis
The electricity bill increases due to the increase usage of
electrical equipment other than lighting since all equipment
consumes high electric power. The typical electrical
equipment that are found in every commercial areas are air
conditioners, ceiling and pedestal fans, computers, elevators,
escalators, refrigerators, close circuit cameras etc. So to save
energy, efficient and effective appliances should be chosen
over the old and inefficient appliances. Table V shows the
possible replacement of conventional electrical equipment.

TABLE V. REPLACEMENT OF THE CONVENTIONAL ELECTRICAL


EQUIPMEMT
Existing Electrical Suggested Replacement
Equipment List
Air Conditioner Inverter technology based air conditioner
Fig. 3. Electrical equipment energy consumption cost distribution as a
percentage of total for building 5 of BRAC University Fans Brushless DC (BLDC) motor fans
Computer Energy Star rated computers
Refrigerator Energy Star rated refrigerator
Table III also presents the data for lighting audit.
Illumination level, not shown in the table, is measured using
digital Lux meter which gives the output of light directly in Replacement of conventional air conditioner with Energy
Lux. Illumination level is required to determine if the present Star* rated air conditioner can save up to 26%-45% of
light level is adequate or more than necessary so that the electrical energy [12]. During the operation of air
auditor can reduce the number of lights to save energy. conditioners, a running ceiling fan can reduce its cooling cost
Measured light level is 743.02 Lux per room but for by 4% - 6% [13]. BLDC motor installed fans can consume
50% less energy than that of conventional split phase

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induction based motor [14] whereas Energy Star* rated VII. CONCLUSION
equipment can save 15%-30% energy than the non-star rated This paper presents an energy audit study of two
equipment [15]. It has been reported that installing ceiling fan commercial buildings in Dhaka and a tool that has been
properly and implementing energy efficient techniques in all developed to facilitate energy audit of commercial buildings.
fans sold worldwide by 2020 can save 70 terawatt hours per The study evinced that the present electrical energy usage of
year [16]. the commercial buildings in Dhaka are quite inefficient and up
B. Lighting Analysis to 8-15% in electrical equipment and 28-45% in lighting
Studies have shown that, more than 30% of aggregate section of energy consumption can be appreciably reduced.
electrical energy in Bangladesh is consumed by lighting Subsequently, the cost reduction can be achieved by feasible
system [17]. Although desired illumination level can vary replacements. The study also shows that energy audit can
from one place to another but the need to design a system that prove to be a cost-effective and holistic approach for energy
consumes minimum amount of energy and also provides conservation and for a sustainable environment and it should
required levels of output is imminent. be introduced in all sectors to relieve the increasing electricity
In Bangladesh, the recent trend of using compact demand in Bangladesh.
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