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Topics to be Discussed in this Section

Mobile Communications

Channel Assignment Strategies

Frequency Reuse concept

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Channel Assignment Strategies

Two types of Channel Assignment Strategies:


1. Fixed 2. Dynamic

1/16/2017 RAVILLA DILLI Faculty E & C Dept., MIT, Manipal


Channel Assignment Strategies

1. Fixed channel assignment strategy:


Each cell is allocated with a predetermined set of voice channels.

Call attempt within the cell can only be served by the unused channels in
that particular cell.

If all the channels in that cell are occupied, the call is blocked and the
subscriber does not receive service.

Borrowing strategy: a cell is allowed to borrow channels from a neighboring


cell if all of its own channels are already occupied.

MSC supervises such borrowing procedures and ensures that the borrowing of
a channel does not interfere with any of the calls in progress in the donor cell.

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Channel Assignment Strategies

2. Dynamic channel assignment strategy:

Channels are not allocated to different cells permanently.

When a call request is made, the serving BS requests a channel from the MSC.

Then a channel is allocated based on an algorithm that takes into account the
probability of future blocking within the cell, the frequency of use of the
candidate channel, the reuse distance of the channel, and other cost functions.

Accordingly, the MSC allocates a given frequency if that frequency is not


presently in use in the cell or any other cell which falls within the minimum
restricted distance of frequency reuse to avoid co-channel interference.

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Channel Assignment Strategies

2. Dynamic channel assignment strategy:

Advantage:
Channel Utilization is more.
Reduce the probability of blocking(increases the capacity of the system) .

Disadvantage:
MSC must collect real-time data on channel occupancy, traffic distribution,
and radio signal strength indications (RSSI) of all channels on a continuous
basis.

This increases the storage and computational load on the system.

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Frequency Reuse

What is the objective of Frequency reuse ?


Efficient utilization of the radio spectrum ( increase cellular capacity and
minimize the interference)

 Total spectrum allocated to the service provider is broken up into


smaller bands.

 A cell is assigned with one of these bands.

 Neighboring cells are assigned a different frequency band.

 This ensures that nearby transmissions do not interfere with each other.

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Frequency Reuse: Example

Fig: using the same frequencies(same color)

The same frequency band is reused in another cell that is far away.
This large distance limits the interference caused by this co-frequency cell.

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Frequency Reuse

D3 A1 C2 C3 B1 D2

C1 A2 A3 D1 B2 B3 C1

C3 B1 D2 D3 A1 C2 C3

A1 B2 B3 C1 A2 A3 D1

D2 A1 C2 C3 B1 D2
A1 D3

“4 ´ 3” reuse mode:
one group includes 3 sectors /site ,12 frequency which are distributed
to 4 sites. Every site owns 3 frequency.

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Frequency Reuse

B3 A1 B2 B3 A1 B2

C1 A2 A3 C1 A2 A3 C1

C3 B1 C2 C3 B1 C2 C3

A1 B2 B3 A1 B2 B3 A1

A3 C1 A2 A3 C1 A2
A1 A3

“3 ´ 3” reuse mode:
one group includes 3 sectors /site ,9 frequency which are distributed to 3
sites. Every site owns 3 frequency.

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Problem with Smaller Cluster size

Interfering cells are closer by when cluster size is smaller.

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Frequency Reuse
If a total of 33 MHz of bandwidth is allocated to a particular FDD cellular
telephone system which uses two 25 kHz simplex channels to provide full
duplex voice and control channels,

compute the number of channels available per cell if a system uses


(a) four-cell reuse, (b) seven-cell reuse, and (c) 12-cell reuse.

If 1 MHz of the allocated spectrum is dedicated to control channels, determine


an equitable distribution of control channels and voice channels in each cell
for each of the three systems.
Solution:
Total available channels = 33000/50 = 660 channels

a) N = 4, Total Channels available per Cell = 660/4 = 165


b) N = 7, Total Channels available per Cell = 660/7 = 95
c) N = 12, Total Channels available per Cell = 660/12 = 55

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Frequency Reuse
Solution Cont.,:

1MHz for control channels  Total available control channels = 1000/50 = 20

a) N = 4, 5 Control and 160 Voice Channels available per Cell

b) N = 7,
4 Cells with 3 Control and 92 Voice Channels
2 Cells with 3 Control and 90 Voice channels
1 Cell with 2 Control and 92 Voice Channels

c) N = 12,
8 Cells with 2 Control and 53 Voice Channels
4 Cells with 1 Control and 54 Voice Channels

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Interference

Co-Channel Interference
Conception: the interference among the signals of co-channel cells is
called “co-channel interference”.

Result from : Frequency reuse

Reduction method: co-channel cells must physically be spaced at a


minimum interval to ensure adequate isolation of transmissions.

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Worst Case of Co-channel Interference

D6
R
D5
D1
Mobile Station
D4 D2

D3

Serving Base Station Co-channel Base Station

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Co-channel Interference

First tier co-channel


Second tier co-channel Base Station
Base Station

R
D6
D5
D1

D4 Mobile Station
D2

D3

Serving Base Station


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Interference

Adjacent Channel Interference


Conception: The signal interference from the frequency adjacent to that of
the signal used is called “adjacent channel interference”.

Reduction method: accurate filtering and channel allocation (maximizing


channel intervals of the cell).

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Frequency Reuse

F7 F2

F7 F2 F6 F1
F1 F3

F6 F1
F1 F3 F5 F4 F7 F2

F5 F4 F7 F2 F6 F1
F1 F3

F6 F1
F1 F3 F5 F4

F5 F4
Fx: Set of frequency

7 cell reuse cluster


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Reuse Distance

R Cluster

• For hexagonal cells, the reuse distance is given by


F7 F2
D  3N R
F6 F1
F1 F3
where R is cell radius and N is the reuse
pattern (the cluster size or the number
F5 F4 F7 F2 of cells per cluster).

F6 F1
F1 F3

F5 F4

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Co-channel Interference

 Co-channel interference ratio is given by


C Carrier C
  M
 Ik
I Interferen ce
k 1

where I is co-channel interference and M is the maximum number of


co-channel interfering cells.
For M = 6, C/I is given by

C C
 where g is the propagation path loss slope
-g
I M  D  and g = 2~5.
  k 
 R 
k 1

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QUERIES ?

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RAVILLA DILLI Faculty E & C Dept., MIT, Manipal
1/16/2017 RAVILLA DILLI Faculty E & C Dept., MIT, Manipal