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ABSTRACT

The final year project aims at exposing the students undergoing higher technical studies to the thoughts
and logic that must be developed to ensure that one is able to implement the ideas into something
concrete.This generally is initiated by the inception of an idea or a concept, which not only aims at
developing a product but also the in-depth study of the earlier existing products in the same category
and their deficiencies. Accordingly an approach is taken to propose a solution. With the same approach
in mind, we have taken up the ADVANCE GSM BASED HOME SECURITY SYSTEM as our final
year project.
Home security systems are a useful addition to today’s home where safety is an important issue. Vision-
based security systems have the advantage of being easy to set up, inexpensive and non-obtrusive. Home
security system for detecting an intrusion into a monitored area by an infrared detector. A security system
has a flee-standing intrusion detector. The free standing intrusion detector has a transmitter coupled with
a portable receiver to alert a homeowner that an intrusion has taken place or occurred within a pre-set
time period.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 5

CHAPTER 2 PROBLEM STATEMENT 6

CHAPTER 3 INTEGRATED ARCHITECTURE 6

CHAPTER 4 THEORY OF OPERATION 7

CHAPTER 5 A BRIEF ABOUT THE COMPONENTS REQUIRED 8

5.1. PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD 8

5.2. MICROCONTROLLER 8051 9

5.2.1. INPUT AND OUTPUT PORTS (I/O PORTS) 10

5.3. VOLTAGE REGULATOR 11

5.4. ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR 11

5.5. LCD 12

5.6. LED 13

5.7. PVC WIRES 14

5.8. RELAYS 15

5.9. GSM MODEM 16

CHAPTER 6 OVERVIEW OF GSM 17

6.1. INTRODUCTION TO GSM 17

6.2. CELLULAR TELEPHONY 17

6.3. GSM FREQUENCY 18

6.4. FEATURE OF GSM 18

6.5. NETWORK COMPONENTS 19

6.6. MOBILE SWITCHING CENTRE (MSC) 20

6.7. MOBILE STATION (MS) 20

6.8. HOME LOCATION REGISTER( HLR ) 22

6.9. VISITOR LOCATION REGISTER ( VLR ) 23


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6.10. AUTHENTICATION CENTRE 23

6.11. BASE STATION SUB-SYSTEM ( BSS ) 23

6.12. TRANSCODER ( XCDR ) 24

6.13. BASE STATION CONTROLLER (BSC) 24

6.14. BASE TRANSIEVER STATION (BTS) 24

6.15. OPERATION AND MAINTAINANCE CENTER FOR RADIO (OMC-R) 24

CHAPTER 7 SHORT MESSAGE COMMANDS 25

7.1 READ MESSAGE +CMGR 25

7.2. PARAMETERS DEFINITION 27

7.3. SEND MESSAGE +CMGS 28

CHAPTER 8 GSM ANTENNA 29

CHAPTER 9 SENSORS 30

9.1 FIRE SENSOR MODULE 30

9.2. LIGHT SENSOR MODULE 30

9.3 INFRARED SENSOR MODULE 31

9.4. PASSWORD LOCKING SYSTEM 31

CHAPTER 10 FLOWCHARTS 32

CHAPTER 11 CHARACTERISTICS & STRENGTHS OF THE PROJECT 33

CHAPTER 12 SCOPES AND PURPOSE OF SYSTEM SPECIFICATION 33

CHAPTER 13 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 33

CHAPTER 14 APPLICATIONS OF GSM BASED SECURITY SYSTEM 34

CHAPTER 15 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK 35

CHAPTER 16 BIBLIOGRAPHY 36

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LIST OF FIGURES

1. Block Diagram Of Microcontroller Password Locking System 6


2. Block Diagram Of GSM Based Home Security System 7
3. Pin Diagram Of 8051 Microcontroller 9
4. Voltage Regulator 11
5. An LCD 13
6. Leds 13
7. PVC Wires 14
8. Relays 15
9. Block Diagram Of Relays 15
10. Cell And MS Transmission 17
11. Connection Of Network Components 19
12. Mobile Switching Centre 20
13. Circuit Diagram Of Fire Sensor 30
14. Circuit Diagram Of Light Sensor 30
15. Circuit Diagram Of Infrared Sensor 31
16. Circuit Diagram Of Password Locking System 31
17. Flowchart Of Password Locking System 32
18. Flowchart Of GSM Based Home Security System 32

LIST OF TABLES

1. AT Commands Set Overview 8


2. Pin connections of LCD 12
3. Example of CMGR commands 26
4. Example for CMGS commands 29

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

In today’s age of digital technology and intelligent systems, home automation has become one of the fastest
developing application-based technologies in the world. The idea of comfortable living in home has since
changed for the past decade as digital, vision and wireless technologies are integrated into it. Intelligent homes,
in simple terms, can be described as homes that are fully automated in terms of carrying out a predetermined
task, providing feedback to the users, and responding accordingly to situations. In other words, it simply allows
many aspects of the home system such as temperature and lighting control, network and communications,
entertainment system, emergency response and security monitoring systems to be automated and controlled,
both near and at a distance.

Automated security systems play an important role of providing an extra layer of security through user
authentication to prevent break-ins at entry points and also to track illegal intrusions within the vicinity of the
home either indoors or outdoors. There has been much research done in the design of various types of
automated security systems. Sensor-based systems that rely on contact or movement sensors or contact-based
systems .

In this paper, we proposed an integrated dual-level sensor based home security system, consisting of two
subsystems – a IR Sensor Module, Light Sensor Module and Fire Sensor Module. Both subsystems work
independently but are incorporated into a single automated system for practical implementation.Keeping in
view the rapid growth of wireless communication we are inspired to work on this project. The idea behind this
project is to meet the upcoming challenges of the modern practical applications of wireless communication
and to facilitate our successors with such splendid ideas that should clear their concept about wireless
communication and control system.

Basic Idea of our project is to provide GSM Based security even if the owner is away from the restricted areas.
For this we adopted wireless mode of transmission using GSM. Beside this there are many methods of wireless
communication but we selected GSM in our project because as compared to other techniques, this is an
efficient and cheap solution also, we are much familiar with GSM technology and it is easily available.

This project is designed to provide access to the system for the security using extensive GSM technology for
communication purposes and microcontroller for device control. The highlights of our system are the long
range of communication and password security. The security is provided by sending a message to our access
number, controlling and acknowledgement is done through SMS code between our access number and the
authenticated user.This system consists of a GSM modem for sending and receiving the SMS, Intel 89S52
microcontroller which is controlling the entire system, LCD for the display purpose , keypad for entering the
password and supporting circuitries like rectifier for ac to dc conversion. It can be installed at any desired
location e.g., office (to protect important files and document), banks (to protect cash in locker) etc.
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.CHAPTER 2

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Home security system for detecting an intrusion ,fire and light in an monitored
area and sending SMS to access number through GSM Technology.

CHAPTER 3

INTEGRATION ARCHITECTURE

The proposed integration architecture incorporates subsystems – IR Sensor Module, Fire Sensor Module
,Light Sensor Module and Password Lock Module into a single automated architecture for practical
implementation in intelligent home environments. The figure shows a block diagram of the proposed system
architecture and its setup and connectivity. The modules work independently and parallely but share
computational resources.

Figure 3.1 Block Diagram of Microcontroller Password Locking System

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Figure 3.2 Block diagram of GSM based Home Security System

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CHAPTER 4

THEORY OF OPERATION

In this project we interfaced 8051 microcontroller with NOKIA GSM mobile phone to decode the received
message and do the required action. The protocol used for the communication between the two is AT
command. The microcontroller pulls the SMS received by phone, decode it, recognizes the Mobile no. and
then switches on the relays attached to its port to control the appliances. After successful operation, controller
sends back the acknowledgement to the user’s mobile through SMS.

COMMAND DESCRIPTION

AT Check if serial interface and GSM modem is working.

ATE0 Display of new incoming SMS.

AT+CNMI Selection of SMS memory.

AT+CPMS SMS string format, how they are compressed.

AT+CMGF Read new message from a given memory location.

AT+CMGR Read an SMS message from a message storage area

AT+CMGS Send message to a given recipient.

AT+CMGD Delete message.

TABLE 4.1 AT-Command Set Overview

CHAPTER 5

A BRIEF ABOUT THE COMPONENTS REQUIRED

5.1. PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD (PCB)

It is used to mechanically support and electrically connect Electrical components using conductive
pathways, tracks or signal traces etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate.
It is also referred to as printed wiring board (PWB) or etched wiring board. PCBs are inexpensive,
and can be highly reliable. They require much more layout effort and higher initial cost than either wire
wrap or point-to-point construction, but are much cheaper and faster for high-volume production; the
production and soldering of PCBs can be done by totally automated equipment.

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5.2. AT89S52 MICROCONTROLLER

The Intel 8051 microcontroller is one of the most popular general purpose microcontrollers in use today.
The Intel 8051 is an 8-bit microcontroller which means that most available operations are limited to 8 bits.
Some of the features that have made the 8051 popular are

1. 64 KB on chip program memory.


2. 128 bytes on chip data memory (RAM).
3. 4 register banks.
4. 128 user defined software flags.
5. 8-bit data bus , 16-bit address bus.
6. 32 general purpose registers each of 8 bits
7. 16 bit timers (usually 2, but may have more, or less).
8. 3 internal and 2 external interrupts.
9. Bit as well as byte addressable RAM area of 16 bytes.
10. Four 8-bit ports, (short models have two 8-bit ports).

Figure 5.1 Pin Diagram Of 8051 Microcontroller


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5.2.1. INPUT AND OUTPUT PORTS (I/O PORTS)

All 8051 microcontrollers have 4 I/O ports each comprising 8 bits which can be configured as inputs or
outputs. Accordingly, in total of 32 input/output pins enabling the microcontroller to be connected to
peripheral devices are available for use.Pin configuration, i.e. whether it is to be configured as an input (1) or
an output (0), depends on its logic state. In order to configure a microcontroller pin as an input, it is necessary
to apply a logic zero (0) to appropriate I/O port bit. In this case, voltage level on appropriate pin will be
0.Similarly, in order to configure a microcontroller pin as an input, it is necessary to apply a logic one (1) to
appropriate port. In this case, voltage level on appropriate pin will be 5V (as is the case with any TTL input).
This may seem confusing but don't loose your patience. It all becomes clear after studying simple electronic
circuits connected to an I/O pin.

PORT 0

The P0 port is characterized by two functions. If external memory is used then the lower address byte
(addresses A0-A7) is applied on it. Otherwise, all bits of this port are configured as inputs/outputs. The other
function is expressed when it is configured as an output. Unlike other ports consisting of pins with built-in
pull-up resistor connected by its end to 5 V power supply, pins of this port have this resistor left out. This
apparently small difference has its consequences. If any pin of this port is configured as an input then it acts
as if it “floats”. Such an input has unlimited input resistance and undetermined potential.

When the pin is configured as an output, it acts as an “open drain”. By applying logic 0 to a port bit, the
appropriate pin will be connected to ground (0V). By applying logic 1, the external output will keep on
“floating”. In order to apply logic 1 (5V) on this output pin, it is necessary to built in an external pull-up
resistor.

PORT 1

P1 is a true I/O port, because it doesn't have any alternative functions as is the case with P0, but can be
configured as general I/O only. It has a pull-up resistor built-in and is completely compatible with TTL
circuits.

PORT 2

P2 acts similarly to P0 when external memory is used. Pins of this port occupy addresses intended for external
memory chip. This time it is about the higher address byte with addresses A8-A15. When no memory is added,
this port can be used as a general input/output port showing features similar to P1.

PORT 3

All port pins can be used as general I/O, but they also have an alternative function. In order to use these
alternative functions, a logic one (1) must be applied to appropriate bit of the P3 register. In terms of hardware,
this port is similar to P0, with the difference that its pins have a pull-up resistor built-in.

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5.3. VOLTAGE REGULATOR

A Voltage Regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. A
voltage regulator may be a simple "feed-forward" design or may include negative feedback control loops. It
may use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used
to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages.Electronic voltage regulators are found in devices such as
computer power supplies where they stabilize the DC voltages used by the processor and other elements.

Figure 5.2 Voltage Regulator

A basic voltage regulator LM7805 has three legs, converts varying input voltage and produces a constant
regulated output voltage. The most common part numbers start with the numbers 78 or 79 and finish with two
digits indicating the output voltage. The number 78 represents positive voltage and 79 negative one.

5.4. ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR

An electrolytic capacitor is a type of capacitor that uses an electrolyte, an ionic conducting liquid, as one of
its plates, to achieve a larger capacitance per unit volume than other types. They are often referred to
in electronics usage simply as "electrolytics". They are used in relatively high-current and low-frequency
electrical circuits, particularly in power supply filters, where they store charge needed to moderate output
voltage and current fluctuations in rectifier output. They are also widely used as coupling capacitors in circuits
where AC should be conducted but DC should not. There are two types of electrolytics; aluminum
and tantalum.

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5.5. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD)

Pin
Symbol Level I/O Function
number

1 Vss - - Power supply (GND)

2 Vcc - - Power supply (+5V)

3 Vee - - Contrast adjust

0= Instruction input
4 RS 0/1 I
1 = Data input

0 = Write to LCD module


5 R/W 0/1 I
1 = Read from LCD module

6 E 1, 1->0 I Enable signal

7 DB0 0/1 I/O Data bus line 0 (LSB)

8 DB1 0/1 I/O Data bus line 1

9 DB2 0/1 I/O Data bus line 2

10 DB3 0/1 I/O Data bus line 3

11 DB4 0/1 I/O Data bus line 4

12 DB5 0/1 I/O Data bus line 5

13 DB6 0/1 I/O Data bus line 6

14 DB7 0/1 I/O Data bus line 7 (MSB)

Table 5.1 Pin Connections of LCD

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A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin, flat electronic visual display that uses the light modulating properties
of liquid crystals (LCs). LCs do not emit light directly.

They are used in a wide range of applications, including computer monitors, television, instrument
panels, aircraft cockpit displays, signage, etc. They are common in consumer devices such as video players,
gaming devices, clocks, watches, calculators, and telephones. LCDs have displaced cathode ray tube (CRT)
displays in most applications. They are usually more compact, lightweight, portable, less expensive, more
reliable, and easier on the eyes. They are available in a wider range of screen sizes than CRT and plasma
displays, and since they do not use phosphors.

Figure 5.3 An LCD

LCDs are more energy efficient and offer safer disposal than CRTs. Its low electrical power consumption
enables it to be used in battery-powered electronic equipment.

5.6. LIGHT EMITTING DIODES (LED)

Figure 5.4 LEDs

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many
devices, and are increasingly used for lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962, early
LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across
the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness.

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When a light-emitting diode is forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with electron
holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence .

The color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the
semiconductor. An LED is often small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical components may be
used to shape its radiation pattern. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources
including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, faster switching, and
greater durability and reliability. LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require
more precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output.

Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as replacements for aviation lighting, automotive
lighting (particularly brake lamps, turn signals and indicators) as well as in traffic signals. The compact size,
the possibility of narrow bandwidth, switching speed, and extreme reliability of LEDs has allowed new text
and video displays and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are also useful in advanced
communications technology. Infrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units of many commercial
products including televisions, DVD players, and other domestic appliances.

5.7. PVC WIRES

Figure 5.5 PVC Wires

Polyvinyl chloride, commonly abbreviated PVC, is a thermoplastic polymer.

It is a vinyl polymer constructed of repeating vinyl groups (ethenyls) having one of their hydrogens replaced
with a chloride group.Polyvinyl chloride is the third most widely produced plastic, after polyethylene and
polypropylene. PVC is widely used in construction because it is cheap, durable, and easy to assemble. PVC
production is expected to exceed 40 million tons by 2016.It can be made softer and more flexible by the
addition of plasticizers, the most widely used being phthalates. In this form, it is used
in clothing and upholstery, and to make flexible hoses and tubing, flooring, to roofing membranes, and
electrical cable insulation. It is also commonly used in figurines and in inflatable products such
as waterbeds, pool toys, and inflatable structure.

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5.8. RELAYS

A relay is usually an electromechanical device that is actuated by an electrical current. The current flowing in
one circuit causes the opening or closing of another circuit We are using relay in our project to switch ON/OFF
any electrical devices. These relay are switched ON/OFF by sending control signal from microcontroller. The
output from these relay can be used to operate any electrical device of suitable volt-ampere rating. All relays
contain a sensing unit, the electric coil, which is powered by AC or DC current. When the applied current or
voltage exceeds a threshold value, the coil activates the armature, which operates either to close the open
contacts or to open the closed contacts. When a power is supplied to the coil, it generates a magnetic force
that actuates the switch mechanism. The magnetic force is, in effect, relaying the action from one circuit to
another. The first circuit is called the control circuit; the second is called the load circuit.

Figure 5.6 Relays

AMany relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating
principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with
complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits).

Figure 5.7 Block Diagram of Relay .

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5.9. GSM MODEM

The GSM modem is slightly different from the conventional modem. This utilizes the GSM standard for
cellular technology. Here, one end being a wired connection, receives and transmits data. The other end is
connected to a RF antenna. The GSM modem acts like a cellular phone and transmits text and voice data. It
communicates with the GSM network via the SIM (Subscriber’s Identity Module) card.

The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM: originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile) is the most
popular standard for mobile phones in the world. GSM differs significantly from its predecessors in that both
signaling and speech channels are Digital call quality, which means that it is considered a second generation
(2G) mobile phone system. This fact has also meant that data communication was built into the system from
the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).

From the point of view of the consumers, the key advantage of GSM systems has been higher digital voice
quality and low cost alternatives to making calls such as text messaging. Like other cellular standards GSM
allows network operators to offer roaming services which mean subscribers can use their phones all over the
world.It is used as a medium for transmitting and receiving SMS. An SMS from the user contains the
information of actions to be performed. At controller-side the modem receives the SMS, sends it to the
microcontroller through RS232 cable and then the microcontroller executes the required actions.

ADVANTAGES OF GSM

1. GSM uses radio frequency efficiently.

2. It tolerates inter-cell disturbances.

3. Quality of speech is better than in analog phones.

4. It supports Data Transmission.

5. It allows the data to be encrypted i.e. data is secure.

6. It also supports new services such as ISDN.

7. It provider services such as national roaming and international roaming.

8. Telephony.

9. Distinction between user and device identification.

10. Asynchronous and synchronous data services.

12. Telematic services (SMS, fax, videotext, etc.).

13. Many value added features (call forwarding, caller ID, voice mailbox).

14. E-mail and Internet connections.

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5.10. SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY MODULE (SIM)

One of the key features of GSM is the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM), commonly known as a SIM card.
The SIM is a detachable smart card containing the user's subscription information and phonebook. This allows
the user to retain his or her information after switching handsets. Alternatively, the user can also change
operators while retaining the handset simply by changing the SIM. Some operators will block this by allowing
the phone to use only a single SIM, or only a SIM issued by them; this practice is known as SIM locking, and
is illegal in some countries.

CHAPTER 6

OVERVIEW OF GSM

6.1. INTRODUCTION TO GSM

The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is a set of recommendations and specifications for a
digital cellular telephone network (known as a Public Land Mobile Network, or PLMN). These
recommendations ensure the compatibility of equipment from different GSM manufacturers, and
interconnectivity between different administrations, including operation across international boundaries. GSM
networks are digital and can cater for high system capacities.They are consistent with the world-wide
digitization of the telephone network, and are an extension of the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN),
using a digital radio interface between the cellular network and the mobile subscriber equipment.

6.2. CELLULAR TELEPHONY

A cellular telephone system links mobile subscribers into the public telephone system or to another cellular
subscriber.Information between the mobile unit and the cellular network uses radio communication. Hence
the subscriber is able to move around and become fully mobile.The service area in which mobile
communication is to be provided is divided into regions called cells.Each cell has the equipment to transmit
and receive calls from any subscriber located within the borders of its radio coverage area.

Figure 6.1 Cell and MS Transmission

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6.3. GSM FREQUENCIES

GSM systems use radio frequencies between 890-915 MHz for receive and between 935-960 MHz for
transmit.RF carriers are spaced every 200 kHz, allowing a total of 124 carriers for use.An RF carrier is a pair
of radio frequencies, one used in each direction.Transmit and receive frequencies are always separated by 45
MHz.

6.4. FEATURES OF GSM

6.4.1. INCREASED CAPACITY


The GSM system provides a greater subscriber capacity than analogue systems.GSM allows 25 kHz per user,
that is, eight conversations per 200 kHz channel pair (a pair comprising one transmit channel and one receive
channel).Digital channel coding and the modulation used makes the signal resistant to interference from cells
where the same frequencies are re-used (co-channel interference); a Carrier to Interference Ratio (C/I) level
of 12 dB is achieved, as opposed to the 18 dB typical with analogue cellular.This allows increased geographic
reuse by permitting a reduction in the number of cells in the reuse pattern.

6.4.2. AUDIO QUALITY


Digital transmission of speech and high performance digital signal processors provide good quality speech
transmission.Since GSM is a digital technology, the signals passed over a digital air interface can be protected
against errors by using better error detection and correction techniques.In regions of interference or noise-
limited operation the speech quality is noticeably better than analogue.

6.4.3. IMPROVED SECURITY AND CONFIDENTIALITY

GSM offers high speech and data confidentiality.Subscriber authentication can be performed by the system to
check if a subscriber is a valid subscriber or not.The GSM system provides for high degree of confidentiality
for the subscriber. Calls are encoded and ciphered when sent over air. The mobile equipment can be identified
independently from the mobile subscriber. The mobile has a identity number hard coded into it when it is
manufactured. This number is stored in a standard database and whenever a call is made the equipment can
be checked to see if it has been reported stolen.

6.4.4. CLEANER HANDOVERS

GSM uses Mobile assisted handover techique.The mobile itself carries out the signal strength and quality
measurement of its server and signal strength measurement of its neighbors.This data is passed on the Network
which then uses sophisticated algorithms to determine the need of handover.

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6.4.5. SUBSCRIBER IDENTIFICATION

In a GSM system the mobile station and the subscriber are identified separately.The subscriber is identified
by means of a smart card known as a SIM. This enables the subscriber to use different mobile equipment while
retaining the same subscriber number.

6.4.6. FREQUENCY REUSE

There are total 124 carriers in GSM ( additional 50 carriers are available if EGSM band is used).Each carrier
has 8 timeslots and if 7 can be used for traffic then a maximum of 868 ( 124 X 7 ) calls can be made. This is
not enough and hence frequencies have to be reused.The same RF carrier can be used for many conversations
in several different cells at the same time.The radio carriers available are allocated according to a regular
pattern which repeats over the whole coverage area.The pattern to be used depends on traffic requirement and
spectrum availability.Some typical repeat patterns are 4/12, 7/21 etc.

6.5. NETWORK COMPONENTS

NMC EIR AUC HLR VLR

XCDR

OMC-S MSC IWF

BSC

OMC-R EC
BTS BTS

PSTN

Figure 6.2 Connection of Network Components

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6.6. MOBILE SWITCHING CENTRE (MSC)

The Mobile services Switching Centre (MSC) co-ordinates the setting up of calls to and from GSM users. It
is the telephone switching office for MS originated or terminated traffic and provides the appropriate bearer
services, teleservices and supplementary services.It controls a number of Base Station Sites (BSSs) within a
specified geographical coverage area and gives the radio subsystem access to the subscriber and equipment
databases.
The MSC carries out several different functions depending on its position in the network.When the MSC
provides the interface between PSTN and the BSS in the GSM network it is called the Gateway MSC.Some
important functions carried out by MSC are Call processing including control of data/voice call setup, inter
BSS & inter MSC handovers, control of mobility management, Operation & maintenance support including
database management, traffic metering and man machine interface & managing the interface between GSM
& PSTN N/W.

Figure 6.3 Mobile Switching Centre

6.7. MOBILE STATION (MS)

The Mobile Station consists of the Mobile Equipment (ME) and the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM).

6.7.1. MOBILE EQUIPMENT

The Mobile Equipment is the hardware used by the subscriber to access the network. The mobile equipment
can be Vehicle mounted, with the antenna physically mounted on the outside of the vehicle or portable mobile
unit, which can be handheld. Mobiles are classified into five classes according to their power rating.

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6.7.2. SIM

The SIM is a removable card that plugs into the ME.It identifies the mobile subscriber and provides
information about the service that the subscriber should receive.The SIM contains several pieces of
information

 International Mobile Subscribers Identity ( IMSI ) – This number identifies the mobile subscriber. It
is only transmitted over the air during igitizeds.
 Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity ( TMSI ) – This number also identifies the subscriber. It can be
alternatively used by the system. It is periodically changed by the system to protect the subscriber from
being identified by someone attempting to monitor the radio interface.
 Location Area Identity ( LAI ) – Identifies the current location of the subscriber.
 Subscribers Authentication Key ( Ki ) – This is used to authenticate the SIM card.
 Mobile Station International Standard Data Number ( MSISDN ) – This is the telephone number of
the mobile.

Most of the data contained within the SIM is protected against reading (eg Ki ) or alterations after the SIM is
issued.Some of the parameters ( eg. LAI ) will be igitizeds updated to reflect the current location of the
subscriber.The SIM card can be protected by use of Personal Identity Number ( PIN ) password.

(a). Mobile Station International Subscribers Dialling Number ( MSISDN )

Human identity used to call a MS.The Mobile Subscriber ISDN (MSISDN) number is the telephone number
of the MS.This is the number a calling party dials to reach the subscriber.It is used by the land network to
route calls toward the MSC.

(b). International Mobile Subscribers Identity ( IMSI )

Network Identity is Unique to a MS.The International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) is the primary
identity of the subscriber within the mobile network and is permanently assigned to that subscriber.The IMSI
can be maximum of 15 digits.

(c). Temporary Mobile Subscribers Identity ( TMSI )

The GSM system can also assign a Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI). After the subscriber’s
IMSI has been initialized on the system, the TMSI can be used for sending messages backwards and forwards
across the network to identify the subscriber. The system automatically changes the TMSI at regular intervals,
thus protecting the subscriber from being identified by someone attempting to monitor the radio channels.

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(d). Equipment Identity Register ( EIR )

The Equipment Identity Register (EIR) contains a centralized database for validating the international mobile
station equipment identity, the IMEI. The database contains three lists:

 The white list contains the number series of equipment identities that have been allocated in the
different participating countries. This list does not contain individual numbers but a range of numbers
by identifying the beginning and end of the series.
 The grey list contains IMEIs of equipment to be monitored and observed for location and correct
function.
 The black list contains IMEIs of MSs which have been reported stolen or are to be denied service.

The EIR database is remotely accessed by the MSC’s in the Network and can also be accessed by an MSC in
a different PLMN.
.

(e). International Mobile Equipment Identity ( IMEI )

IMEI is a serial number unique to each mobile.Each MS is identified by an International Mobile station
Equipment Identity (IMEI) number which is permanently stored in the Mobile Equipment. On request, the
MS sends this number over the signaling channel to the MSC.The IMEI can be used to identify MSs that are
reported stolen or operating incorrectly.

6.8. HOME LOCATION REGISTER( HLR )

The HLR contains the master database of all subscribers in the PLMN.This data is remotely accessed by the
MSC´´s and VLRs in the network. The data can also be accessed by an MSC or a VLR in a different PLMN
to allow inter-system and inter-country roaming.A PLMN may contain more than one HLR, in which case
each HLR contains a portion of the total subscriber database. There is only one database record per subscriber.
The subscribers data may be accessed by the IMSI or the MSISDN.The parameters stored in HLR are

 Subscribers ID (IMSI and MSISDN )


 Current subscriber VLR.
 Supplementary services subscribed to.
 Supplementary services information (eg. Current forwarding address ).
 Authentication key and AUC functionality.
 TMSI and MSRN

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6.9. VISITOR LOCATION REGISTER ( VLR )

The Visited Location Register (VLR) is a local subscriber database, holding details on those subscribers who
enter the area of the network that it covers. The details are held in the VLR until the subscriber moves into the
area serviced by another VLR.The data includes most of the information stored at the HLR, as well as more
precise location and status information.The additional data stored in VLR are

 Mobile status ( Busy / Free / No answer etc. )


 Location Area Identity ( LAI )
 Temporary Mobile Subscribers Identity ( TMSI )
 Mobile Station Roaming Number ( MSRN )

The VLR provides the system elements local to the subscriber, with basic information on that subscriber, thus
removing the need to access the HLR every time subscriber information is required.

6.10. AUTHENTICATION CENTRE

The AUC is a processor system that perform authentication function.It is normally co-located with the HLR.
The authentication process usually takes place each time the subscriber igitizeds on the system.Each subscriber
is assigned an authentication key (Ki) which is stored in the SIM and at the AUC.A random number of 128
bits is generated by the AUC & sent to the MS.The authentication algorithm A3 uses this random number and
authentication key Ki to produce a signed response SRES( Signed Response ).
At the same time the AUC uses the random number and Authentication algoritm A3 along with the Ki key to
produce a SRES.If the SRES produced by AUC matches the one produced by MS is the same, the subscriber
is permitted to use the network.

6.11. BASE STATION SUB-SYSTEM ( BSS )

The BSS is the fixed end of the radio interface that provides control and radio coverage functions for one or
more cells and their associated MSs.It is the interface between the MS and the MSC.The BSS comprises one
or more Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs), each containing the radio components that communicate with MSs
in a given area, and a Base Site Controller (BSC) which supports call processing functions and the interfaces
to the MSC. Digital radio techniques are used for the radio communications link, known as the Air Interface,
between the BSS and the MS. The BSS consists of three basic Network Elements (Nes).

 Transcoder (XCDR) or Remote transcoder (RXCDR)


 Base Station Controller (BSC).
 Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs) assigned to the BSC.

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6.12. TRANSCODER ( XCDR )

The speech transcoder is the interface between the 64 kbit/s PCM channel in the land network and the 13 kbit/s
vocoder (actually 22.8 kbit/s after channel coding) channel used on the Air Interface.This reduces the amount
of information carried on the Air Interface and hence, its bandwidth.If the 64 kbits/s PCM is transmitted on
the air interface without occupation, it would occupy an excessive amount of radio bandwidth. This would use
the available radio spectrum inefficiently.The required bandwidth is therefore reduced by processing the 64
kbits/s PCM data so that the amount of information required to transmit igitized voice falls to 13kb/s.The
XCDR can multiplex 4 traffic channels into a single 64 kbit/s timeslot. Thus a E1/T1 serial link can carry 4
times as many channels. This can reduce the number of E1/T1 leased lines required to connect remotely
located equipment.When the transcoder is between the MSC and the BSC it is called a remote transcoder
(RXCDR).

6.13. BASE STATION CONTROLLER (BSC)

The BSC network element provides the control for the BSS. It controls and manages the associated BTSs, and
interfaces with the Operations and Maintenance Centre (OMC). The purpose of the BSC is to perform a variety
of functions. The following comprise the functions provided by the BSC

 Controls the BTS components.-


 Performs Call Processing.
 Performs Operations and Maintenance (O & M).
 Provides the O & M link (OML) between the BSS and the OMC.
 Provides the A Interface between the BSS and the MSC.
 Transfers signaling information to and from MSs.

6.14. BASE TRANSIEVER STATION (BTS)

The BTS network element consists of the hardware components, such as radios, interface modules and antenna
systems that provide the Air Interface between the BSS and the MSs. The BTS provides radio channels (RF
carriers) for a specific RF coverage area.The radio channel is the communication link between the MSs within
an RF coverage area and the BSS.The BTS also has a limited amount of control functionality which reduces
the amount of traffic between the BTS and BSC.

6.15. OPERATION AND MAINTAINANCE CENTER FOR RADIO (OMC-R)

The OMC controls and monitors the Network elements within a region.The OMC also monitors the quality of
service being provided by the Network.

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The OMC allows network devices to be manually removed for or restored to service. The status of network
devices can be checked from the OMC and tests and diagnostics invoked.The alarms generated by the Network
elements are reported and logged at the OMC. The OMC-R Engineer can monitor and analyse these alarms
and take appropriate action like informing the maintenance personal.The OMC keeps on collecting and
accumulating traffic statistics from the network elements for analysis.Software loads can be downloaded to
network elements or uploaded to the OMC.

CHAPTER 7
SHORT MESSAGE COMMANDS

7.1 READ MESSAGE +CMGR

7.1.1. DESCRIPTION

This command allows the application to read stored messages. The messages are read from the memory
selected by +CPMS command.

7.1.2. SYNTAX

Command syntax : AT+CMGR=<index>

Response syntax for text mode:

+CMGR :<stat>,<oa>,[<alpha>,] <scts> [,<tooa>,<fo>,

<pid>,<dcs>,<sca>,<tosca>,<length>] <CR><LF> <data> (for SMS MS MS-DELIVER only)

+CMGR : <stat>,<da>,[<alpha>,] [,<toda>,<fo>,<pid>,<dcs>, [<vp>], <sca>,

<tosca>,<length>]<CR><LF> <data> (for SMS-SUBMIT only)

+CMGR : <stat>,<fo>,<mr>,[<ra>],[<tora>],<scts>,<dt>,<st> (for SMS SMS- STATUS-

REPORT only)

Response syntax for PDU mode :

+CMGR: <stat>, [<alpha>] ,<length> <CR><LF> <pdu>

A message read with status “REC UNREAD” will be updated in memory with the status “REC READ”.

NOTE

the <stat> parameter for SMS Status Reports is always “READ”.

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COMMAND POSSIBLE RESPONSE

AT+CMTI:”SM”,1
Note: New message received
AT+CMGR=1 +CMGR :”REC UNREAD”,”0146290800”,
Note: read the message “98/10/01;18:22:11+00”,<CR><LF>
ABcdefGH
Ok

AT+CMGR=1 +CMGR:”REC UNREAD”,”0146290800”,


Note: read the message again “98/10/01,18:22:11+00”,<CR><LF>
ABCdefGHI
OK
Note: message is read now

AT+CMGR=2 +CMS ERROR:321


Note :Read at a wrong index Note : Error : invalid index

AT+CMGF=0 : +CMGR=1 +CMGR: 2,<Length><CR><LF><pde>


OK
Note :In PDU mode Note :Message is stored but unsent, no
<alpha>field
AT+CMGF=1;+CPMS+”SR”;+CNMI=…2 OK
Reset to text mode ,set read memory to
“SR”,and allow storage of further SMS
Status Report into”SR”memory
AT+CMSS=3 +CMSS :160
Send an SMS previously stored OK

+CDSI :”SR”,1
New SMS Status Report Stored in “SR”
Memory at index 1
AT+CMGR=1 +CMGR :’READ’,6,160,
Read the SMS Status Report “+33612345678’,129,”01/05/31,15:15:09
+00’,’01/05/31,15:15:09+00”,0
OK

Table 7.1 Example for CMGR command

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7.2. PARAMETERS DEFINITION

<da> Destination Address, coded like GSM 03.40 TP-DA

<dcs> Data Coding Scheme, coded like in document [5].

<dt> Discharge Time in string format :

“yy/MM/dd,hh :mm :ss}zz”(Year [00-99], Month [01-12], Day [01-31], Hour,

Minute, Second and Time Zone [quarters of an hour] )

<fo> First Octet, coded like SMS-SUBMIT first octet in document [4], default value is

17 for SMS-SUBMIT

<index> Place of storage in memory.

<length> Text mode (+CMGF=1): number of characters PDU mode (+CMGF=0): length of

the TP data unit in octets

<mem1> Memory used to list, read and delete messages (+CMGL, +CMGR and +CMGD).

<mem2> Memory used to write and send messages (+CMGW, +CMSS).

<mid> CBM Message Identifier.

<mr> Message Reference.

<oa> Originator Address.

<pid> Protocol Identifier.

<pdu> For SMS : GSM 04.11 SC address followed by GSM 03.40 TPDU in hexadecimal

format, coded as specified in doc [4] For CBS : GSM 03.41 TPDU in hexadecimal

format

<ra> Recipient Address.

<sca> Service Center Address

<scts> Service Center Time Stamp in string format :

“yy/MM/dd,hh :mm :ss  zz”(Year/Month/Day, Hour: Min: Seconds Time Zone)

<sn> CBM Serial Number

<st> Status of a SMS-STATUS-REPORT


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<stat> Status of message in memory.

<tooa> Type-of-Address of <oa>.

<tora> Type-of-Address of <ra>.

<tosca> Type-of-Address of <sca>.

<total1> Number of message locations in <mem1>.

<total2> Number of messages locations in <mem2.

<used1> Total number of messages locations in <mem1>.

<used2> Total number of messages locations in <mem2.

<vp> Validity Period of the short message, default value is 167

7.3. SEND MESSAGE +CMGS

7.3.1. DESCRIPTION

The <address> field is the address of the terminal to which the message is sent. To send the message, simply
type, <ctrl-Z> character (ASCII 26). The text can contain all existing characters except <ctrl-Z> and <ESC>
(ASCII 27). This command can be aborted using the <ESC> character when entering text. In PDU mode, only
hexadecimal characters are used (‘0’…’9’,’A’…’F’).

7.3.2. SYNTAX

Command syntax in text mode:

AT+CMGS= <da> [ ,<toda> ] <CR>

text is entered <ctrl-Z / ESC >

Command syntax in PDU mode :

AT+CMGS= <length> <CR>

PDU is entered <ctrl-Z / ESC >

The message reference, <mr>, which is returned to the application is allocated by the product. This number
begins with 0 and is incremented by one for each outgoing message (successful and failure cases); it is cyclic
on one byte (0 follows 255).

NOTE

this number is not a storage number – outgoing messages are not stored.

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Command Possible response
AT+CMGS=”+33146290800”<CR> +CMGS;<mr>
Please call me soon, fred. <ctrl.z> Ok
Note: send a message in text mode. Note:successful transmission
AT+CMGS+<length><CR><pdu><ctrlz> +CMGS;<mr>
Ok
Note: Send a message in pdu mode. Note:Sucessful transmission.

Table 7.2 Examples for CMGS commands

CHAPTER 8

GSM ANTENNA

Using a suitable antenna can greatly improve your chances of success when trying to detect weak radio signals.
Unfortunately the range of suitable antennas for the GSM bands is very limited and/or very expensive. Having
previously experimented with building homemade/DIY wireless (Wi-Fi) antennas, I felt doing the same for a
GSM antenna shouldn't be a problem.

8.1. REQUIREMENTS

Frequency Range - The antenna needs to cover the full Standard and Extended GSM-900 bands, (880 MHz
To 960 MHz). The GSM-1800 bands would be nice but it's optional .

Size – The antenna needs to be small and compact,the goal would be to have something that could easily fit
inside a laptop bag.

Gain-The antenna should have a reasonable amount of gain, I was hoping for something about 8 dB.

Build-The antenna should be easy to build and require tools and materials that are easy and cheap to acquire.

A little bit of maths-An important measurement in radio is the distance between the same points on two
consecutive wave cycles, this distance is known as the wavelength and is denoted with the symbol λ
(lambda). To calculate the wave length of a radio signal we take the Speed of Light in a Vacuum and divide
it by the frequency in Hertz (the number of full wave cycles per second).
Wavelength (λ) = Speed of Light / Frequency
The center frequency for my antenna design is 920 MHz so the wavelength is:
Wavelength (λ) = 299792458 / 920000000 = ~0.325861367 = ~0.326 meters

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CHAPTER 9
SENSORS

9.1 FIRE SENSOR MODULE

Figure 9.1 Circuit Diagram Of Fire Sensor

9.2. LIGHT SENSOR MODULE

Figure 9.2 Circuit Diagram of Light Sensor

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9.3 INFRARED SENSOR MODULE

Figure 9.3 Circuit Diagram of Infrared Sensor

9.4. PASSWORD LOCKING SYSTEM

Figure 9.4 Circuit Diagram of password Locking System

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CHAPTER 10

FLOWCHARTS

Figure 10.1 flowchart of password locking system

Figure 10.2 Flowchart Of Gsm Based Home Security System


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CHAPTER 11

CHARACTERISTICS & STRENGTHS OF THE PROJECT

The proposed system characteristics involve remote controlling of appliances, intrusion detection,
system security and auto-configuration such that system automatically adjusts the system settings on
running hardware support check. The system has useful features such as displaying of battery level,
charging status and signal strength of the mobile thus making system reliable. This system has many
advantages such as remote controlling of home appliances, availability and ease of users. The user can
get alerts anywhere through the GSM technology thus making the system location independent. The
system contains low cost components easily available which cuts down the overall system cost. The
ease of deployment is due to wireless mode of communication.GSM technology provides the benefit
that the system is accessible in remote areas as well.The system reliability increases due to the useful
features such as battery level checking, charging status and signal strength indicating the system about
threats.The system integration is simple and is also scalable and extensible. However, the system
functionality is based on GSM technology so the technological constraints must be kept in mind.

CHAPTER 12

SCOPES AND PURPOSE OF SYSTEM SPECIFICATION

The system specification shows the description of the function and the performance of system and the user.
The scope of our project “GSM Based control system” is immense.The future implications of the project are
very great considering the amount of time and resources it saves. The project we have undertaken can be used
as a reference or as a base for realizing a scheme to be implemented in other projects of greater level such as
weather forecasting, temperature updates, device synchronization, etc. The project itself can be modified to
achieve a complete Home Automation system which will then create a platform for the user to interface
between himself and the household.

CHAPTER 13

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The project “GSM based Control System” at the title suggests is aimed to construct a control system that
enables the complete control of the interface on which it is based. General objectives of the project are defined
as :-
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(a). To co-ordinate appliances and other devices through Short Message Service(SMS).
(b). To effectively receive and transmit data via SMS
(c) . To eliminate the need of being physically present in any location for tasks involving the operation of
appliances within a household/office.
(d). Minimize power and time wastage.

CHAPTER 14

APPLICATIONS OF GSM BASED SECURITY SYSTEM

14.1. ANTI-THEFT REPORTING

When someone break in , Home-Guard uses GSM network to report automatically to 5 preset numbers:
short message for control center, short message for 3 pre-stored mobile phone, and 1 voice call.

The owner can monitor or talk to the thief.It has 8 security region codes and 1 fire/ smoke code to
distinguish. We can choose some certain regions to arm or disarm.

14.2. EMERGENCY REPORTING

Under emergency situation, the house member can press SOS key on the RF remote or on wireless Door/
Window sensor. Home-Guard also uses GSM network to report to 5 pre-stored numbers: short message
for control center, short message for 3 pre-stored mobile phone, and 1 voice call for monitoring or
talking.

14.3. EXTRA FUNCTIONS

Fire/Gas Instant reporting: Wireless Heat Sensor, Wireless Smoke Sensor, Wireless Gas Sensor,
Wireless CO Sensor , Wireless Glass Break Sensor , Wireless PIR Sensor , Wireless Siren and Light
Optional Wired Auto-Dialer for house phone.

14.4. ARM/DISARM BY SMS

In addition to use the RF Remote, the system allows the users to arm and disarm the alarm system via
SMS message from mobile phone. Users can also check the alarm status anytime by simply sending an
inquiry SMS message to the main unit.

14.5. POWER FAILURE REPORTING

When the main power gets cut off. Home-Guard can report to the preset phone numbers immediately.

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CHAPTER 15

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK

In the paper low cost, secure, ubiquitously accessible, auto-configurable, remotely controlled solution
for automation of homes has been introduced. The approach discussed in the paper is novel and has
achieved the target to control home appliances remotely using the SMS-based system satisfying user
needs and requirements.

GSM technology capable solution has proved to be controlled remotely, provide home security and is
cost-effective as compared to the previously existing systems. Hence we can conclude that the required
goals and objectives of our project have been achieved.

The basic level of home appliance control and remote monitoring has been implemented. The system is
extensible and more levels can be further developed using automatic motion/glass breaking detectors so
the solution can be integrated with these and other detection systems.

In future the system will be small box combining the PC and GSM modem. The hardware will be self
contained and cannot be prone to electric failure. This appliance will have its own encapsulated UPS
and charging system.

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CHAPTER 16

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. www.mycollegeproject.com

2. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/gsm project

3. http://www.cytech.biz/

4. www.8051.projects.net

5. www.comfortforums.com

6. “8051 Microcontroller” Book By - Mazidi

7. “Acoustic intruder detection system for home security” by Y.-K. Choi, K.-M. Kim, J.-W. Jung, S.-
Y. Chun, and K.-S. Park.
8. K Hagiwara, Y. Chigira, N. Yoshiura, and Y. Fujii, “Proposal for a world wide home security system
using PC-cameras: The e-Vigilante Network Project,” SICE 2004 Annual Conference.

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BIODATA

AMARJEET SINGH
Final year student (8th semester)
Department of Electronics & communication
Lovely Professional University
Phagwara, (Punjab).
Contact: 9592338879 , amarjeetxc@gmail.com

RAJPREET KAUR
Final year student (8th semester)
Department of Electronics & communication
Lovely Professional University
Phagwara, (Punjab).
Contact: 9646253349 , rajpreetkaur916@gmail.com

PRANJIT BHATTACHARYA
Final year student (8th semester)
Department of Electronics & communication
Lovely Professional University
Phagwara, (Punjab).
Contact: 9402210233 , pranjitb552@gmail.com

DILIP CHAURASIA
Final year student (8th semester)
Department of Electronics & communication
Lovely Professional University
Phagwara, (Punjab).
Contact: 9646907906 , dilip.chaurasia@gmail.com

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