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of Low‐GWP AREP System

Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative

Ken Schultz
Thermal Systems Engineer
La Crosse, WI

 Evaluation of alternatives to R410A received a

large amount of attention under AHRI Low

 This work attempts to compile a list of those

studies and put the results of those projects
side‐by‐side to make some comparisons and

Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 2
List of “HP” (R410A) Projects
 11 Organizations
o 12 AREP Reports
o 2 Conference Papers (outside the Low‐GWP AREP)
 Types of Equipment
o Air‐to‐Air Split System Heat Pumps |||| ||
o VRF Multi‐Split Heat Pump |
o Water‐to‐Water Heat Pump |
o Air‐to‐Water Heat Pump |
o Air‐To‐Water Chiller/Heat Pump |
 Sizes
o Capacities ranged from ~2 RT to ~8 RT

Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 3
Air‐to‐Air Heat Pumps
 R003: ORNL using JCI unit (~5 RT)
 R004: Lennox (~3.5 RT)
 R005: Goodman (~3 RT)
 R020: UMd using Goodman unit (~3 RT)
~ also R023 and R032 (soft‐optimized)

 R022: Carrier (~3 RT)

 R031: SHEA using Gree unit (~2 RT)
~ Shanghai Hitachi Electric Appliance

 2192/2197: OSU using ?? unit (~5 RT)

~ 2012 Purdue Conferences (unit not identified)
~ Not a part of the Low‐GWP AREP
Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 4
 R015: Daikin VRF Heat Pump (~8 RT)
 R016: ClimateMaster W‐W HP (~3 RT)
 R027: CEP Mines using AERMEC unit
A‐W HP (~ 2 RT)
 R001: Trane A‐W Chiller/HP (~4.5 RT)

Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 5
Operating Conditions
 Air‐to‐Air Heat Pumps
o AHRI 210/240 …

Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 6
Operating Conditions
indoor entering air outdoor entering air
dry‐bulb wet‐bulb dry‐bulb wet‐bulb
o AHRI 1230 Std Clg 80°F 67°F 95°F 75°F
Same conditions (Clg A) 26.7°C 19.4°C 35°C 23.9°C
as AHRI 210/240
HiT Htg 70°F 60°F 47°F 43°F
(Htg H1) 21.1°C 15.6°C 8.3°C 6.1°C
LoT Htg 70°F 60°F 17°F 15°F
(Htg H3) 21.1°C 15.6°C −8.3°C −9.4°C

 W‐W HP (CM)
o ISO 13256‐2

Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 7
Operating Conditions
 Air‐to‐Water Chiller/Heat Pump
o AHRI 550/590 (Eng)
AHRI 551/591 (SI)
indoor water outdoor air
entering leaving dry‐bulb wet‐bulb
44°F 54°F 95°F
Std Clg N/A
6.7°C 12.2°C 35°C
Non‐Std 45°F 14 gpm 95°F
Trane (R001)  N/A
Cooling 7.2°C 53 Lpm 35°C
95°F 104°F 17.6°F 15.8°F
TC1 Htg
35°C 40°C −8°C −9°C
95°F 104°F 46.4°F 42.8°F
CEP Mines (R027) TC2 Htg
35°C 40°C 8°C 6°C
113°F 122°F 46.4°F 42.8°F
TC3 Htg
45°C 50°C 8°C 6°C

Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 8
 Refrigerant Charge
o Some used same charge for all refrigerants. |
~ R016/CM

o Some adjusted charge to maximize COP at

one condition. |||| ||
~ R001/Trane, R003/ORNL(?), R015/Daikin, R020/UMd, R027/Mines,
R031/SHEA, 2196&2197/OSU (but don’t state baseline R410A charge)

o Some adjusted charge to match baseline

condenser subcooling. |||
~ R004/Lennox, R005/Goodman, R022/Carrier

 Expansion Devices
o Most adjusted TXV’s to match baseline superheats.
o Some replace fixed orifice with TXV for heating
Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 9
Refrigerants Tested
 R32 |||| ||||
 “Blend A” = 95%wt R32 & 5%wt R152a |
 “Blend B” = 95%wt R32 & 5%wt R134a |
 DR‐5 = 72.5%wt R32 & 27.5%wt R1234yf ||||
 L‐41a = 73% R32 & 15% R1234yf & 12% R1234ze |||
 L‐41b = 73% R32 & 27% R1234ze ||
 HPR1D = 6% CO2 & 60% R32 & 34% R1234ze |
 ARM‐70a = 50% R32 & 10% R134a & 40% R1234yf |||
 DR‐4 = 43.5% R32 & 56.5% R1234yf ||
 D2Y‐60 = 40% R32 & 60% R1234yf |
Lower pressure alternatives (eg, R22‐like and R1234yf) not reviewed here.
Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 10
Organization × Refrigerant

Carrier Lennox Daikin UMd SHEA

Trane ORNL Goodman CM CEP Mines OSU

Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 11
R32 @ Cooling A (& some others)

 Capacities increase by 2% to 5%. “Others”  +8% .. +9%.

 COP’s range from −5% to +5%. “Others”  −7% .. −8%.

Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 12
R32 @ Cooling A (& some others)

 Charges decrease by 10% to 30%.

 ΔCDT’s range from +20°F to +40°F.
Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 13
R32 @ Cooling A (& some others)

 Increases in CDTsat’s are small. Except for CM HP.

 Changes in CSTsat’s are small.

Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 14
See Appendix for …
 Cooling A
o DR‐5
o L‐41a
o ARM‐70a
 Heating 3
o R32
o DR‐5
o L‐41a
o ARM‐70a
 All Points

Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 15
 Lots of (technical) interest in R32, DR‐5, L‐41a, and
ARM‐70a as alternatives to R410A.

 Mixed results… Some consistency among the reports,

yet a fair amount of differences also.
o Some likely due to differences in test methods/procedures (eg,
charge selection, adjustment of expansion device, etc.).
o Some likely due to differences between equipment types and
operating conditions.

 Choice(s) will be influenced by:

o Degree of design changes needed to achieve performance and cost targets
when implement lower GWP alternatives to R410A.
~ Opportunities to improve performance through selection of refrigerant?
o Compromises to accommodate the range of product types and operating
o Degree of adjustments and compromises needed to allow field retrofits and
servicing of existing equipment.

Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 16
 Cooling A
o DR‐5
o L‐41a
o ARM‐70a
 Heating 3
o R32
o DR‐5
o L‐41a
o ARM‐70a
 All Points

Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 17
DR‐5 @ Cooling A (& some others)

 Capacities increase by 2% to 3%. Except Carrier down 3%.

 COP’s increase 2.5% to 3.5%. Except CM ~ ±1%.

Reasonably consistent with R32 results.
Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 18
DR‐5 @ Cooling A (& some others)

 Reductions in charge are modest. Less reduction than R32.

 ΔCDT’s only +10°F .. +15°F. Much less than R32.

Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 19
L‐41a @ Cooling A (& some others)

 CDT: Trane = –13°Fd, Carrier = +14°Fd, UMd =

 Some discrepancies between equipment types.
Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 20
ARM‐70a @ Cooling A (& …)

 CDT: Trane = 21°Fd, Carrier = 1°Fd.

 Some discrepancies between equipment types.

Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 21
R32 @ Heating H3 (& some others)

 Gains in capacity of 7% to 9%. Why Lennox & Daikin so low?

 Gains in COP of 1% to 5%. OSU saw 15% gain in COP!?

Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 22
DR‐5 @ Heating H3 (& some others)

 Benefits to capacity at higher lift conditions. OSU ??

 Benefits to COP at higher lift conditions. OSU ??

Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 23
L‐41a @ Heating H3 (& …)

 Some differences between reports.

Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 24
ARM‐70a @ Heating H3 (& …)

 Some differences between equipment types.

Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 25
CDT @ Heating H3 (& some others)


 Again, large increases in CDT with R32. OSU ??

 Minimal increase in CDT with DR‐5 at H3.

Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 26
Capacity Relative to R410A

Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 27
COP Relative to R410A

Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 28
Changes in CDT from R410A

Summary of Low‐GWP AREP System Drop‐in Tests of R‐410A Alternative Refrigerants 29