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INDONESIA NEEDS TO ACCELERATE MARITIME INDUSTRIES FOR

FACING GLOBAL COMPETITION

Asean Economic Community (AEC) in 2015 was the realization of a free market
in Southeast Asia that has been done gradually began ASEAN Summit in
Singapore in 1992. The purpose of the establishment of the ASEAN Economic
Community (AEC) to enhance economic stability in the ASEAN region, and is
expected to address the problems in the economic field between ASEAN
countries. MEA consequences of the agreement in the form of free flow of goods
to the ASEAN countries, the impact of the free flow of services, the impact of the
free flow of investment, the impact of the flow of skilled labor, and the impact of
the free flow of capital. These things can certainly result in positive or negative
for the Indonesian economy. Therefore, from the government side also performed
the strategies and measures that Indonesia is ready and able to take advantage of
the momentum of the MEA.

Indonesia is one country in the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) or the


ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), which will unfold starting in late 2015.
MEA is the realization of a free market in Southeast Asia that has previously been
referred to in the Framework Agreement on Enhancing ASEAN Economic
Cooperation in 1992. At the meeting of the Heads of State of ASEAN (ASEAN
Summit) 5th in Singapore in 1992, is the Head of State announced the
establishment of an area free trade in the ASEAN (AFTA) within a period of 15
years. Later in development, accelerated to 2003, and accelerated again last into
2002.

MEA formation originated from an agreement ASEAN leaders in the Summit


(Summit) in December 1997 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This agreement aims to
improve the competitiveness of ASEAN as well as China and India could compete
to attract foreign investment. Foreign capital needed to boost employment and
welfare of the citizens of ASEAN. At that time, ASEAN launched the initiative of
the establishment of regional integration of ASEAN or the ASEAN community
through ASEAN Vision 2020 during the Second ASEAN Informal Summit. This
initiative was later embodied in the form of long-term roadmap called the Hanoi
Plan of Action that was agreed in 1998.

At the next summit Indonesia is one of the initiators of the establishment of the
AEC is in the Declaration of ASEAN Concord II in Bali on October 7, 2003 by
which the ASEAN officials declared that the establishment of the AEC in 2015
(nationalgeographic.co.id). The establishment of the ASEAN Community is part
of ASEAN's efforts to further strengthen ASEAN integration. There was also an
attempt evolutif ASEAN to adjust perspective in order to be more open in
discussing domestic problems that affect the region without leaving the main
principles of ASEAN, namely: mutual respect (Mutual Respect), no interference
in domestic affairs (Non-interfence) , consensus, dialog lists and consultation.
ASEAN Community consists of three pillars, including cooperation in the
economic field, namely: komonitas Security ASEAN (ASEAN Security Comunity
/ ASC), the ASEAN Economic Community (ASEAN Economic Community /
AEC) and the Socio-Cultural Community ASEAN (ASEAN Socio-Cultural
Community / ASCC).

Purpose of establishing the MEA to increase economic stability in the ASEAN


region, and is expected to overcome the problems in the economy among ASEAN
countries. For nearly two decades, ASEAN consists of only five countries -
Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand - whose establishment
in 1967. The countries of Southeast Asia are incorporated in different times,
namely Brunei Darussalam (1984), Vietnam ( 1995), Laos and Myanmar (1997),
and Cambodia (1999).

The main characteristic feature of MEA is a single market and production base;
economic regions with high competitiveness; yangadil the region with economic
development; and a region fully integrated into the global economy. The impact
of the creation of MEA is the creation of a free market in the field of capital,
goods and services, and labor. The consequences of the agreement MEA that
impact the free flow of goods to the ASEAN countries, the impact of the free flow
of services, the impact of the free flow of investment, the impact of the flow of
skilled labor, and the impact of the free flow of capital.

.of The character and impact of MEA mentioned above is actually no chance of
momentum that can be achieved MEA Indonesia. With the MEA Indonesia's
economy is expected to be better. One of them is the marketing of goods and
services from Indonesia can expand its reach to other ASEAN countries. Market
share in Indonesia is 250 million people. In the MEA, the ASEAN market share of
some 625 million people could be targeted by Indonesia. Thus, Indonesia has a
greater opportunity to tap into a wider market. Exports and imports can also be
done with a cheaper cost. Labor from other countries in ASEAN can be free to
work in Indonesia. In contrast, Indonesian workers (TKI) also can be free to work
in other countries in the ASEAN.

Other positive impacts that can expand the investor Indonesia investment without
any limitation of space among ASEAN member countries. Similarly, we can
attract investment from ASEAN investors-investors. The entrepreneurs will be
more creative because of the intense competition and the professionals will further
increase the level of skill, and professionalism of its kompetansi.

However, besides the opportunity to look at the front of the eye, there are
obstacles facing the MEA that need our attention. Among the obstacles: first, the
quality of education remains low labor, in which up to February 2014 the number
of workers junior high school education or below, there were 76.4 million people
or about 64 percent of the total 118 million workers in Indonesia. Second, the
availability and quality of infrastructure is still lacking thus affecting the smooth
flow of goods and services. According to the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI)
in 2014, the quality of our infrastructure is still lagging behind compared to
countries of Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam and Thailand. These three,
the industrial sector which is vulnerable because of dependence on imported raw
materials and semi-finished. Fourth, the limited supply of energy. Fifth, the
weakness of Indonesia facing import surges, and now imported Chinese products
have flooded Indonesia. If the barriers had not addressed the MEA feared it would
be a threat to Indonesia.

Towards the MEA which is in sight, the Indonesian government is


expected to prepare a strategic step in the labor sector, infrastructure sector, and
industrial sectors. In the face of the MEA, the Indonesian government prepared a
policy response that is associated with the National Industrial Development,
Infrastructure Development, Logistics Development, Investment Development
and Trade Development .In addition to the respective Ministry and the Institute
strives to anticipate the MEA with strategic measures.

Indonesia with the potential of natural resources and great human resources in
ASEAN still needs to be strengthened in the face of the ASEAN free market.
Given the other ASEAN countries such as Thailand and Malaysia have been very
aggressive to prepare themselves to take advantage of the ASEAN Economic
Community (AEC) in 2015.

To the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF) has been preparing
for the AEC, by forming a Working Group Commitment Implementation of the
ASEAN Economic Community Blueprint Marine and Fisheries Sector for the
period of 2014-2015. Working Group consists of the entire unit of work scope of
CTF with the division of tasks as a coordinator in each particular field.
Similarly, the Secretary General emphasized Sjarief Widjaja CTF in Jakarta,
Thursday (10/7).

Sjarief explained, Indonesia in facing the challenges of AEC 2015 is the lack of
infrastructure support, transportation / logistics, legal tools, energy supply, and
the integrated industrial development and the limited number of competent
human resources to support national productivity. To that end, the CTF
through the Working Group is preparing a draft Presidential Instruction
(Instruction) on Enhancing National Competitiveness in the face of MEA
Marine and Fisheries Sector. Mainly through institutional strengthening,
improving product competitiveness, strengthening the domestic market, control
of imports and exports. "Presidential draft is coordinated by the Coordinating
Ministry for Economic Affairs and is currently in the process of signing the
President", he said.

According Sjarief, CTF specifically need to immediately identify action


priorities and develop an accelerated program to improve the readiness of
marine and fisheries sector (KP) facing the AEC 2015 and anticipating the
impact of the ASEAN free trade area which will commence on 31 December
2015. "In line with this, CTF will continue to conduct socialization to the
community MEA Indonesian marine and fisheries intensively to raise
awareness about the importance of MEA, which will lead to increased
preparedness in the face of MEA in 2015, "said Sjarief.

The next Working Group will also draw up a roadmap AEC 2015 KP sector and
carrying out the implementation of the roadmap, and will draft guidebook AEC
2015 KP sector, which will be used as material AEC 2015 dissemination to all
relevant stakeholders. Including to some of the areas most vulnerable to the
effects of MEA 2015. The preparation of the roadmap and guide books AEC
2015 the KP sector includes work program priorities and regulations necessary
to accelerate the preparation of KP sector. Thus, able to optimally take
advantage of opportunities for the welfare of the Indonesian people.
Preparation of the roadmap and guide books AEC 2015 KP sector will be
completed within the next 3 months. In addition, the CTF will also conduct
monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of the road map AEC 2015.

Sjarief asserted, as a form of preparedness in the face of AEC 2015 CTF, the
CTF soon established MEA Center. MEA Center's role to provide assistance to
the community in order to improve preparedness MEA. Especially in the border
areas are vulnerable to the impact of the ASEAN free market. Assistance can be
in the form of the provision of technical assistance to improve the quality and
quantity of product, pricing information, as well as standardization of product
information that has been harmonized ASEAN level for export purposes.
Furthermore, it also serves to ease access to financing, implementation and
monitoring of SNI launched a long term basis and the certification process.
"MEA Center is very important. Moreover, the challenges facing Indonesia in
the MEA 2015, including the lack of understanding of the MEA, "added
Sjarief.

CTF currently drafting katergorisasi readiness level of competitiveness of


stakeholders in the ASEAN free market, especially in the provision of goods,
services, investment and human resources. Including setting up forms of
government intervention from central to local levels in order to improve the
readiness of marine and fisheries community. "In August 2014, the CTF is
expected to hold a workshop preparations marine and fishery sector facing
MEA 2015 to draft the roadmap AEC 2015 using information and data that
have been collected," he said

Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Kadin) wants the maritime


sector development in the country must be harmonized with the readiness of the
nation in the ASEAN Economic Community in 2015.

Related preparatory Indonesia face the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC)


in 2015, Indonesia should be able to capture potential and economic
opportunities that exist today MEA enforced the end of 2015, "said Vice
Chairman of the Division of Marine and Fisheries Kadin Indonesia, Yugi
Prayanto, in a written statement received by the Journal of Maritime Monday
(2/2).

Yugi is said, in order to increase efforts to catch up, Indonesia should cooperate
fisheries comprehensive, clear, firm and fair with ASEAN countries. To
increase the level of Indonesian fishermen welfare and prosperity of the people
of Indonesia, according to him, the regulatory capital and regulatory support is
needed.

"So basically, complementary to prosper the people in ASEAN. For example,


raw fish is processed so semibahan in Indonesia then processed by Malaysia
and Thailand into finished products, and financial from Singapore, "he said.
Vice Chairman of Kadin was also proposed cooperation scheme with the
processing of the other party, but that still gives sovereignty to Indonesia as the
owner of fisheries resources and the time written exported under the brand
"Made in ASEAN".

As proclaimed, various controversial policies issued by the Minister of Marine


and Fisheries Susi Pudjiastuti aims to prepare Indonesia in dealing with the
enforcement of MEA 2015 "Do not let the MEA, Indonesia became the market
and the object alone. Indonesia must become masters in their own country,
"said Susi Pudjiastuti in a written statement received here on Wednesday (28/1).

To that end, Susi also requires that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry
of Commerce to help advocate for ease of access and exempted imports of
fishery products of Indonesian fishermen.

According to him, also needed the cooperation of various stakeholders


including governments, fishing businesses, and communities.

he said "I am optimistic that we are able to seize food exports and strengthen
the domestic market. My hope is the maximum for our fishermen, fishing
Indonesia and welfare of the community." (TaufiqHakim / ANT).

Referensi:

N.n. (2013). Indonesia Hanya Menduduki Peringkat Empat di ASEAN.


Association of Southeast ASIAN Nations (2008). ASEAN ECONOMIC
COMMUNITY BLUEPRINT. Jakarta: Asean Secretariat.
Fernandez, R. A. (2014, Januari). YEARENDER: Asean Economic
Community to play major role in SEA food security.
Plummer, M, G., &Yue, C, S. (2009). Realizing the ASEAN Economic
Community: A Comprehensive Assessment. Singapore: Institute of Southeast
Asian Studies.
Santoso, W. et.al (2008). Outlook Ekonomi Indonesia 2008-2012: Integrasi
ekonomi ASEAN dan prospek perekonomian nasional. Jakarta: Biro Riset
Ekonomi Direktorat Riset Ekonomi dan Kebijakan Moneter.
(source: kkp.go.id).
(www.tarif.depkeu.go.id)
(www.fiskal.depkeu.go.id).