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AE 214

Machining and Precision Manufacturing

Chips, Cutting force,

Cutting Temperature

Tool wear

Ref: various text books + e-resources


Ductile material
High +ve rake
High Cutting speed
Proper cutting fluid
Low feed value

Brittle material
High -ve rake
Low Cutting speed
Inadequate cutting fluid
High feed value
Cutting force measurement
Concept of cutting force
measurement
Resistance based measurement
(Potentiometer)
Capacitance based measurement
Using LVDT
Using Strain Gauges

Dr. Sooraj, Aerospace Department, IIST


Using Piezo-electric or
Piezo-resistive transducer
Dr. Sooraj, Aerospace Department, IIST
Tool Materials
Should have high hot hardness, wear resistance, toughness and
low friction, good thermal characteristics

• HSS
• Cemented Carbide (WC + Co)
• Coated Carbides : WC coated with TiN, TiC
• Ceramics : Al2O3, Si-Al-O-N + Coated ceramics
• Diamond, PCD … brazed to tool shank
• CBN
• Cermets (ceramics (alumina based) + TiC or TiN +
Ni, Fe, Mo)
Cutting Temperature and its effects
Thermocouple method

Dr. Sooraj, Aerospace Department, IIST


K type thermocouple ????

Seebeck effect/Peltier Effect/ thomson


effec

Chromel is Alumel is an alloy consisting of


an alloy made of approximately 95% nickel,
approximately 90 2% aluminum, 2% manganese,
percent nickel and 10 and 1% silicon.
percent chromium
Thermocouple Embedded-Compound Tool
Infrared techniques
FEM ANALYSIS
Control of cutting temperature

• Proper cutting condition


• Flood of cutting fluids
• Solid lubricant impregnated tools
Solid/semi solid- graphite, Moly-disulphide (MoS2), wax –directly on work
piece or impregnated on tool
• High Velocity injection
• Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL)
• Cryogenic systems etc.
Jet of cutting fluids
Z-Z method-centrifugally through grinding wheel
(pores)
Application of cutting fluids
• Water soluble oils-Mineral oil + additives + water (water act as an
excellent coolant)- Microscopic droplets (colloidal emulsion)

• Cutting oils-mineral oil + vegetable/fatty oil


Compounds of sulphur and chlorine-anti rusting & anti-sticking
(prevent welding of chips on rake face)

• Why not oil alone...?


• Why not water alone....?

..............Oil: Low thermal conductivity, will be difficult to remove from components


..............Water: excellent coolant, but rusting of machine parts.
EP additives-Extreme pressure additives in
cutting fluids
• Sulphur, Chlorine, and Phosphorus are the important
additives in oil

• React chemically with surface and form adherent surface films


of metallic sulphides and chlorides. These films are having low
shear strength and good anti-weld properties, and thus very
effective in reducing friction and wear.
Selection of cutting fluids
• Aluminium : Tends to weld to the tool.. So kerosene or light mineral oil +
kerosene

• Copper & alloys : Mineral oil

• Free cutting brass: May be cut dry

• Carbon steel: Mineral oil /water soluble oil

• Free machining steel: Dry

• Mg alloy: The chips may get fired, so low speeds are preferred. Low
viscosity mineral oils are preferred.

• SS: mineral oil /Water soluble oils


Reasons for Tool Wear
• Abrasion

• Adhesion-BUE

• Thermal effects-Diffusion

• Mechanical chipping

• Fracture
Chance of BUE

• Low +ve rake


• Medium Cutting speed
• inadequate cutting fluid
• High feed value
Measurement of tool life

• Taylor’s equation

• Wear land measurement using TMM


• Limiting values of flank wear

HSS tool: 0.3 mm


WC tool: 0.3 to 0.6 mm

 Taylor’s Tool life equation

VTn=C
n =0.1 HSS tool
n= 0.2 to 0.25 WC
n= 0.4 -0.5 Ceramic tool
Machinability Rating
Machinability will be considered desirably high when

 Cutting forces, temperature, surface roughness and tool wear are less,
tool life is long….
Combination of tool geometry, tool materials etc. play a significant role

Free cutting steel

Added with Lead and Sulphur

Addition of lead in low carbon steels and also in aluminium, copper and their
alloys help reduce their shear strength. The dispersed lead particles act as
discontinuity and solid lubricants and thus improve machinability by reducing
friction, cutting forces and temperature, tool wear and BUE formation.

Addition of sulphur also enhances machinability of low carbon steels. The


added sulphur reacts with Mn present in the steels and forms MnS inclusions
which being very soft act almost as voids and reduce friction at the tool –
work interfaces resulting reduction of cutting forces and temperature and
their consequences.
4 U TO READ…

PVD and CVD coatings over the tool

To reduce friction/wear effects

(Hint: Wear resistive materials like TiC, TiN over insert)


SAEN 12 04 08..............?

Refer: Study material +


Text book : Juneja
SAEN 12 04 08..............?
Nomenclature of Shank

Refer Text book: Juneja


Annexure :

Control of cutting temperature


• Proper selection of cutting tools; material and
geometry

• Proper selection of cutting velocity and feed

• Proper selection and application of cutting fluid


• large positive tool–rake helps in reducing heat and
temperature generation by reducing the cutting forces, but
too much increase in rake mechanically and thermally
weakens the cutting edges

• Enhancing the thermal conductivity of ceramic tools


through the addition of elements like metal and
carbides...cermets
Hint.....

• PVD: Physical Vapour Deposition

Vacuum deposition /sputtering

Metal to be deposited is evaporated at high temperature


(500-770 K) in vacuum and deposited on the substrate.
Hint

• CVD: Chemical Vapour Deposition

A thermo chemical process.


Example for coating tool with titanium nitride (TiN), tools
(inserts) are placed on a graphite tray and heated to 1223-
1323 K in an inert atmosphere.
Titanium Tetrachloride vapour carried by a gas (Hydrogen
and Nitrogen) are then introduced into the chamber.
The resultant chemical reactions form a thin coating of
titanium nitride on the tool’s surface. The layer produced
by this chemical reaction is usually thicker than PVD layer.