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REG NO: 2016-04-04301

QUESTION: In past globalization has often seen as a more or less economic process , nowadays it is
increasingly perceived as a comprehensive phenomenon ,having effect on population health . Argue
for the truth of this phenomenon.

Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and
governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by
information technology. This process has effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems,
on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being in societies around the
world. Globalization, as a socio-historical phenomenon, manifested itself firstly as a theory, then as a
practical necessity, becoming a strategy for the constitution of a sole market, spread across a huge
surface, the engulfs states, regions, continents.

On the other hand, Population health is defined as the health outcomes of a group of individuals,
including the distribution of such outcomes within the group. These groups are often geographic
populations such as nations or communities, but can also be other groups such as employees, ethnic
groups, disabled persons, prisoners, or any other defined group. The health outcomes of such groups
are of relevance to policy makers in both the public and private sectors.

In the past globalization has often been seen as a more or less economic process. Nowadays it is
increasingly perceived as a more comprehensive phenomenon, which is shaped by a multitude of factors
and events that are reshaping our society rapidly.

Globalization has brought about both positive and negative impacts on population health, the following
are the positive effects of globalization on population health.

Innovation of drugs and vaccines; through improvement of medical technology, various drugs for
instance, three decades after approval of the first-ever AIDS treatment, HIV medicine is seeing a new
wave of innovation with scientists reporting positive data on Monday for improved drug cocktails and a
novel experimental vaccine. Also, Vaccines continue to revolutionize our ability to prevent disease and
improve health. With every technological advance, we are able to extend the benefits of vaccines to
more people and provide better protection from life-threatening infectious diseases such as polio,
leprosy, hepatitis among others.

Improvement of transport and communication: A modern transport and communication facilities play
an important role for integrated economic development. It plays a major role in the economic uplift of a
country as it promotes internal and external trade, economic use of natural resources, mobility of skilled
labor-force, diversification of markets, provision of fuel, reduction in employment, and increase in
agricultural and industrial production. In connection with population health, both transport and
commutation has simplified the general system of delivering health care to the patients. Innovations of
emergency care system such as ambulance buses and official cellular phones all help to easy the life
serving process.

Globalization has encouraged urbanization ; The world is rapidly urbanizing with significant changes in
our living standards, lifestyles, social behavior and health, While urban living continues to offer many
opportunities, including potential access to better health care, today’s urban environments can
concentrate health risks and introduce new hazards. On the hand urbanization has attributed to the
simplification of health delivery service through construction of reginal and district hospital as well as
health centers such dispensaries. This has greatly reduced maternal mortality death and other forms of
emergency death. For example in our locality, the presence of Mbeya zonal referral hospital has muchly
aided the residents of Mbeya city and reduced many health complications that would otherwise result
into death.

Increased cooperation and improved interactions helps the governments to be able to work together
towards common goals. For example on matter related to population health the government has easily
reach out health service to the community as a result of increased interconnectedness of people which
simplifies the flow of medical information concerning outbreak of diseases as well as dangerous
upcoming diseases such as breast cancer in women and prostate cancer in man which are the most
killing cancers currently. Global communications technology has helped to increase scientific and
technological knowledge-sharing for the development of medicines, vaccines and medical appliances,
enabling the development of new forms of treatment and prevention

Elimination of poor cultural practices that affects health: For example, More than 800 girls were
subjected to female genital mutilation (FGM) in northern Tanzania last month, a local government
official said, despite a police crackdown to stop the practice that affects millions of girls in the east
African country. FGM affects an estimated 140 million girls and women across a swathe of Africa and
parts of the Middle East and Asia, and is seen as a gateway to marriage and a way of preserving purity.
In Tarime, girls are usually cut between the ages of 12 and 17 in initiation ceremonies performed by
circumcisers known as ngariba , often in unhygienic conditions. So, it is through globalization we can
educate the society about badness of the harmful cultural practices. With the help of globalization, a
greater access to foreign culture in the form of movies, music, food, clothing. can be pursued. This only
increases the number of choices and of course, the awareness of what is going on around the world.

Globalization improves awareness on environmental conservation: Environmental protection is a

practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organization controlled on governmental
levels, for the benefit of both the environment and humans. Due to the pressures of overconsumption,
population and technology, the biophysical environment is being degraded, sometimes permanently.
Action taken to enhance or conserve outdoor environments may benefit health and wellbeing through
the process of participation but also through improving the environment. There is interest, amongst
both health and environmental organizations, in using such activities as health promotion interventions.

Encouraged global health service interaction among countries. For example, people from Africa can
easily go to countries like India, china, Israel just to have medical services. Developing countries are able
to reap the benefits of current technology without undergoing many of the growing pains associated
with development of these technologies. Interaction also induces knowledge into the western society
about the issues taking place here. This accounts for a better opportunity to improve the economy of
such developing countries by improving their standard of living.

The following are the negative effects of globalization on population health:

Globalization inevitably triggers the chance of environment destruction worldwide. Activists have
pointed out that globalization has led to an increase in the consumption of products, which has
impacted the ecological cycle. Increased consumption leads to an increase in the production of goods,
which in turn puts stress on the environment. Globalization has also led to an increase in the
transportation of raw materials and food from one place to another. The amount of fuel that is
consumed in transporting these products has led to an increase in the pollution levels in the
environment. It has also led to several other environmental concerns such as noise pollution and
landscape intrusion. The gases that are emitted from the aircraft have led to the depletion of the ozone
layer apart from increasing the greenhouse effect. The industrial waste that is generated as a result of
production has been laden on ships and dumped in oceans. This has killed many underwater organisms
and has deposited many harmful chemicals in the ocean.

Spread of infectious diseases ; The increasing cross-border and cross-continental movements of people,
commodities, vectors, food, capital, and decision-making power that characterize globalization, together
with global demographic trends, have enormous potential to affect the emergence and spread of
infectious diseases. Infectious diseases (IDs) have been the most important contributor to human
morbidity and mortality until relatively recent times, when non-communicable diseases (NCDs) began to
rival, and sometimes exceed, infections. Today, Infectious diseases still account for a large
proportion of death and dis-ability worldwide and in certain regions remain the most important
cause of ill health. In high-income countries, deaths from infectious disease increases due to
respiratory infections and HIV/AIDS. In sub-Saharan Africa, respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases,
HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria account for roughly similar proportions of total deaths.

Increase in illegal trade market such as marijuana, heroin, tobacco, cigarettes which affects
population health directly: This has ultimately spread the drug abusive behaviors Most abused drugs
directly or indirectly target the brain's reward system by flooding the circuit with dopamine. Dopamine
is a neurotransmitter present in regions of the brain that regulate movement, emotion, cognition,
motivation, and feelings of pleasure. When drugs enter the brain, they can actually change how the
brain performs its jobs. These changes are what lead to compulsive drug use, the hallmark of addiction.
More deaths, illnesses and disabilities stem from substance abuse than from any other preventable
health condition. Today, one in four deaths is attributable to illicit drug use. People who live with
substance dependence have a higher risk of all bad outcomes including unintentional injuries, accidents,
risk of domestic violence, medical problems, and death.
Development of health complications as a results of excessive use of computers and smartphones:
Direct exposure to blue light can cause damage to the retina. The American Macular Degeneration
Foundation warns that retinal damage caused by blue light may lead to macular degeneration, which
causes the loss of central vision the ability to see what's in front of you. Bright blue light disrupts the
brain's production of melatonin, a hormone that helps regulate the sleep cycle. That's fine in the
morning, but our brains are supposed to start producing melatonin when we are ready for sleep, and
blue light interferes with that process. That's why smartphones ruin sleep, and messing with your sleep
has a long list of associated health consequences that range from obesity to genetic disruption and
memory problems. In addition to helping us sleep, melatonin also functions as an antioxidant. And while
more research is needed, researchers have pointed to "uninterrupted darkness" as potentially
protective against cancer. People whose natural melatonin production is suppressed are at a higher risk
for a variety of cancers, all these are effects of globalization.

Industrialization has contributed to global climatic change. Climate change is expected to affect the
health of vulnerable population groups including those living in developing countries, according to a
recent report by the United Nations Human Rights Council. Extreme weather events, disease
transmission, deterioration of water quantity and quality are all predicted to hit hardest those in
developing countries and as well as people living in geographically vulnerable areas. Emission of gases
from industries affects the world climate for example, Different greenhouse gases have very different
heat-trapping abilities. Some of them can even trap more heat than CO2. A molecule of methane
produces more than 20 times the warming of a molecule of CO2. Nitrous oxide is 300 times more
powerful than CO2.Other gases, such as chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs (which have been banned in much
of the world because they also degrade the ozone layer), have heat-trapping potential thousands of
times greater than CO2. But because their concentrations are much lower than CO2, none of these
gases adds as much warmth to the atmosphere as CO2 does. All these brings about health complications
to the population.

Globalization has also influenced evils and crimes in the society that endangers population health:
Habits like prostitution, violence, terrorism are all the outcomes of globalization. For example in East
Africa, 1998 United States embassy bombings were attacks that occurred on August 7, 1998, in which
over 200 people were killed in nearly simultaneous truck bomb explosions in two East African cities, one
at the United States Embassy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, the other at the United States Embassy in
Nairobi, Kenya. Also, for the case of prostitution, Prostitution in Tanzania is illegal but widespread. Many
women and young girls are forced into prostitution due to poverty, lack of job opportunities, culture,
and the disintegration of the family unit. Many university students have to turn to prostitution for
economic reasons. Reports show that an increase in the number of cases of HIV and AIDS are growing at
an alarming rate in Zanzibar. This is thought to have been added to by large numbers of tourists entering
Zanzibar and fueling demand for prostitutes. As a result of all these health of people is at risk because of

CONCLUSION: Globalization is proceeding rapidly, in line with broader trends toward globalization. As a
result of increasing international trade and investment, the emergence of new markets, and the growth
of the Internet and the global communications system, and spread of medical technology worldwide. All
of these encourage the effective participation to the general development of health in the community
and nation as well.