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914 Transactions on Power Systems,Vol. 7, No.

2, May 1992
A KNOWLEDGE-BASED METHOD FOR MAKING RESTORATION PLAN OF BULK POWER SYSTEM

K. Shimakura, J. Inagaki, Y. Matsunoki M. Ito, S . Fukui, S. Hori

Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Inc. Mitsubishi Electric Corporation


15-1, Ushijima-cho, Toyama 1-1-2, Wadasaki-cho, Hyogo-ku
Toyama, Japan Kobe, Japan

ABSTRACT - A method is proposed for use in event of A prototype system adopting the proposed method and
power system outages which uses general-purpose restora- designed’for actual systems was constructed with engi-
tion knowledge not dependent on pre-outage system states neering workstations. The effectiveness of the proposed
in order to generate post-restoration target systems in method is demonstrated by test results.
which post-outage systems are taken as initial states.
Conventionally post-outage system states are formed
to emulate as closely as possible pre-outage System 2. PROPOSED METHOD
states, with system operations performed only within
blackout systems. Therefore, depending on the amount of 2.1 Modeling of Power System
pre-outage load, some outage loads may be experienced in
the restored system. The model for the power system used in this method
Proposed here is a method by which system operations is shown in Fig. 1, and keywords used are defined below:
in both blackout systems and sound systems are combined
according to the amount of load in the pre-outage sys-
tems, so that post-restoration system states with minimal
outage loads from post-outage systems will be generated.
A prototype system incorporating actual power sys-
tems and utilizing this method was built and tested
under simulated conditions. The effectiveness of the
proposed system is discussed on the basis of the test
results.

Keywords: power system, knowledge base, restoration


knowledge, general-purpose rule.

1. INTRODUCTION
This paper describes a method for making post-resto- .X+ Sound group C
1
ration system states to be set as target (hereafter
referred to as the ttrestorationtarget system”) in power
system faults.
In the conventional method, no system operations L d
are made on sound systems; moreover, a restoration tar-
get system is generated according to the system state
before the outage. For this reason, there are cases Fig. 1 System Model
where outage loads continue to exist in the restoration
target system, depending on the loads in the power
system before the outage. C11, [21, C31, C41, h C51
- Charging group: A group of charging equipment elec-
trically connected by means of circuit breakers and
The method proposed here has the features listed line switches.
below; depending on the size of the loads in the power Blackout group: A group of blackout equipment elec-
system, post-outage system states are considered, and trically connected by means of circuit breakers and
restoration target systems minimizing the amount of line switches.
outage load are generated. * Sound group: A charging group which includes no over-
( 1 ) There is no dependence on the system state prior to loaded pieces of equipment.
the outage. Route: The generic name including all power transmis-
(2) Segmentation of the outage load is carried out for a sion lines, transformers, and bus-ties.
controlled load power transmission. Source route: This refers to the route connecting the
( 3 ) The amount of support power is increased through the sound group with the blackout group. Power transmis-
operation of sound systems. sion lines are considered in a unit of one to two
( 4 ) Knowledge used to generate post-restoration systems lines, and transformers are considered in a unit in-
is described with general-purpose rules not based on cluding parallel transformers.
particular systems. * Support power: If no overloading occurs within sound
group B when source route a is fed with its maximum
allowable power flow value Pm, the afore-mentioned
maximum power flow value Pm is adopted as the Support
power value f o r source route a. If an overload should
Papers presented at the SeventeenthPICA occur within sound group B, the power flow value of
Conference at the Hyatt Regency Baltimore source route a when the power flow rate in the route
Hotel,Baltimae, Maryland, May 7. - 10: 1991 causing the overload is held at ,maximum power flow
Sponsored by the EEE Power Englneenng Society value is adopted as the support power value for source
route a. The route in sound group B with the overload
is then called the power flow neck route.

08~5-8950/92$03.0001992IEEE

T
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915
Restoration route: This refers to a source route Flow-control knowledge is explained with reference
where support power is equal to or greater than loads to Fig. 3.
in the blackout group, with the following restrictions:

, 8
1 No outage equipment is charged.
No overload can occur in the system by connect-
ing the source route.
(a) Load-feeding knowledge is applied on the simulation
system taken as the post-outage system state to
restore outage loads.
@ No charging is made from the lower voltage side (b) When outage loads cannot be restored with load-
to the higher voltage side. feeding knowledge alone, support power augmentation
knowledge is applied.
2.2 Constitution of Knowledge Base (c) After sets of knowledge applied in step (b) are
registered. the simulation system is restored to the
, Knowledge base constitution is explained with ref- post-outage system state.
erence to Fig. 2. (d) Support power augmentation knowledge registered in
The knowledge base consists of load-feeding knowl- step (c) is applied on the simulation system, after
edge, support power augmentation knowledge, and flow which load-feeding knowledge is reapplied.
control knowledge, which carries out the reasoning con-
trol for those sets of knowledge, and these are described The simulation system is taken as the restoration
with production rules. target system when all blackout groups have been re-
Load-feeding knowledge consists of blackout resto- stored, or when load-feeding knowledge and support-power
ration knowledge and load-division knowledge. augmentation knowledge are no longer applicable.
Load-feeding knowledge is implemented in carrying
out power transmission while attempting segmentat ion of
the blackout load. while support power augmentation
knowledge is the knowledge used for augmenting the
amount of power that can be transmitted via the restora-
tion route.
The simulation system takes the post-outage system
as the initial state and in the course of its reasoning I 1
Initialize simulation
changes the system via the knowledge-base interface to system to post-outage
eventually arrive at the restoration target system. system state.
The loads in the system after restoration is equal
to the loads immediately before the outage. Power gen-
eration volume is set to the value immediately before
the outage for tripped hydraulic power generators, and
"0" for tripped thermal power generators. Apply registered support
The present method aims to generate a system with a p a n r augmentation knowl-
minimum of post-restoration outage loads through repeat-
ed application of load-feeding knowledge and support
power augmentation knowledge on the system initialized
to the post-outage state. The knowledge for flow con-
trol contains specific sets of knowledge.

Knowledge base
I Apply load-feeding
knowledge.
I
I
Flow-control knowledge

Load-feeding Support power


1
A .~es 4 ,
I knowledge
I Blackout rcstora- I
I
augmentation
knowledge I
I Ltion knowledge
I I

I Yes I
Knowledge
power augaentation
interface

~~

Simulation system
1 I

Fig. 2 Knowledge Base Configuration


Fig. 3 Flow-control Knowledge

II'
916

2.3 Knowledge Used for the Generation of Restoration greater of restoration routes b and d. [blackout res-
Systems toration knowledge (b1-41
Step 6: Power is fed to the loads in the blackout
Both load-feeding knowledge and support power aug- group 26 via route g, whose amount of restored loads is
mentation knowledge are generally applicable, being in- greater than that of restoration route c, d, e, or f.
dependent of any particular system, as described below. [blackout restoration knowledge (b)-31
Step 7: Power is fed to the loads in the blackout
2.3.1 Load-feeding knowledge group 25 via route f, whose amount of restored loads is
greater than that of restoration route c. d, or e.
(1) Blackout restoration knowledge [blackout restoration knowledge (b)-3]
Blackout restoration knowledge is used f o r select- Step 8: Power is fed to the loads in blackout group
ing restoration routes for and feeding power to blackout Z 3 via route d , whose support power supply rate is
groups. greater than that of restoration route d. [blackout
(a) If a restoration route exists, power is fed to restoration knowledge (b 1-41
the loads in the blackout group. Step 9: Power is fed to the loads in blackout group
(b) If two or more restoration routes for the 24 via route e, which makes restoration of the blackout
blackout group exist, a route is selected and loads are group feasible. [blackout restoration knowledge (a)]
fed according to the following list of priorities. Step 10: As all the blackout groups have been re-
1: Priority is given to restoration routes of higher stored, application of load-feeding knowledge is termi-

,;:=
voltages. nated. [blackout restoration knowledge knowledge (d)]
2: Priority is given to restoration routes which can Application of knowledge is carried out in the se-
restore blackout groups not restorable by other res- quence described above, and a system in which A W S has
toration routes. undergone bus-splitting is generated as the restoration
3: Priority is given to restoration routes that have target system. (Fig. 4-(3))
greater capacity f o r restoring outage loads.
4: Priority is given to restoration routes with greater
support power supply rates.
(c) If no restoration routes exist, load-division
knowledge is applied.
(d) If all blackout groups are restored, applica-
tion of load-feeding knowledge is terminated.
L3 1 L 4
(2) Load-division knowledge
-
Load-division knowledae is used to divide the loads
so that they do not exceed support power. Specifically, BS/S
a substation in the blackout group is singled out and L1
considered, and load division is carried out by the 5 20
severance of all routes connected to the bus in that
substation. (1) Post-outage system state
(a) If substations exist which have not yet been
considered, loads are divided according to the following
I
criteria.
1: Priority is given to the substation of higher volt-
age.
2: Priority is given to the substation with the greater
amount of support power available via adjacent res-
toration routes.
3: Priority is given to the substation with greater
loads connected to the bus.
(b) If load-division knowledge has already been
applied to one of the substations, blackout restoration
knowledge is applied again.
(c) If all substations have been considered, appli- (2) System state after applying
cation of load-feeding knowledge is terminated. system-division knowledge
(3) Examples of application of load-feeding knowledge
Here is an example of application of load-feeding
63.35
knowledge to systems after outage.
Step 1 : Since no restoration route existed for the
blackout group ZO (Z-zero) in the post-outage system (as
shown in Fig. 4-(1)), load division knowledge is ap-
plied. [blackout restoration knowledge (c)]
Step 2: Of the substations A S/S and B S / S which
have not yet been singled out for consideration, A S/S,
whose support power volume available from adjacent res-
toration routes is greater than that of B S/S, is focused
on, and all routes connected with the bus in the substa- ( 3 ) System state after restoration
tion are severed. [load-division knowledge (a)-2]
Step 3: Load-feeding knowledge is applied to the
system on which load-division knowledge has already been Sound group : [::.-IiX or Y
Blackout group : i
z
[
applied (Fig. 4-(2)). [load-division knowledge (b)] Route : a * f
Step 4: Restoration route to the blackout group Z1 Load name : Li
is performed via route a, whose amount of restored loads
Load amount : (Mw)
is greater than that of route b. [blackout restoration
knowledge ( b I - 3 1 Support power : [*+I(Mw)
Power flow value: + * * (mi)
Step 5: Power is fed to the loads in the blackout
group 22 via route b, whose support power rate is the
Fig. 4 Example of Application of Load-feeding Knowledge

r-r----. -1 -~ .
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917

2.3.2 Support power augmentation knowledge (a) If it is possible to switch the load locating
at load side of the route presenting a power flow neck
Augmentation of support power takes place in cases within the sound group to an adjacent sound system, a
where support power is insufficient for restoring outage load-switching is performed for that load.
loads. The knowledge includes the following: (b) If there are two or more cases where load-
switching is possible, priority is given to the one
(1) Equipment at recess utilization knowledge offering a greater increment in support power.
Equipment arranged in parallel with the route pres- An instance where this knowledge is applied is
enting a power flow neck to the source route is added to shown in Fig. 5-(4).
increase the amount of support power. In the system shown in the figure on the left,
(a) If a unit of parallel equipment at recess can there is substation C S/S contacting with adjacent sound
be utilized in combination within the sound groups, the group Y at the load side of route b presenting the power
unit is utilized to increase the amount of support power. flow neck to source route a. If the load of this C S i S
1 (b) If two or more units of equipment at recess are is switched over to the sound group Y, the power flow
available for use, the one offering a greater increment through route b presenting the power flow neck is re-
in support power when used in combination is given duced from 100 MW to 5 0 MW, causing an increase in sup- ,
priority . port power along source route a from 50 MW to 100 MW.
An example of the application of this knowledge is (See figure below.)
shown in Fig. 5-(1) .
In the system shown in the figure on the left,
route b, the power flow neck to source route a, consti-
tutes an A S/S transformer, and a second transfornler
installed in parallel is in recess. By combined usage
of the unit in recess, maximum power flow for route b,
the power flow neck, is increased from 100 MW to 200 MW,
with an increase of support power via source route a
from 50 MW to 150 MW. (Refer to figure on right.)

( 2 ) Generator output adjustment knowledge (1) Combined m e of equipment in recess


Output of the generator locating at load side of
the route presenting a power flow neck with respect to
the restoration route is stepped up to increase support
power.
(a] If there is any generator adjustable for its
output at load side of the route constituting the power
flow neck within the sound group, power output is in-
creased for that generator.
(b) If there are two or more generators whose out-
puts are adjustable, output is increased for the one
promising a greater increment in support power.
An. instance where this knowledge is applied is
shown in Fig. 5-(2). (2) Adjustment of generator output
In the system shown on the left, the generator C
P/S locates at the load side of route b constituting the
power flow neck to source route a. If the output of
this generator is increased from 80 MW to 100 MW, the
power flow in route b constituting the power flow neck
is decreased from 70 MW to 50 MW, causing support power
along source route a to be increased from 30 MW to 50
MW. (Refer to figure on the right.)
( 3 ) Overload allowance knowledge
This knowledge allows overload power transmission
along the route constituting a power flow neck to the
source route, thus increasing amount of support power.
(a) If overload power transmission is possible
along the route constituting the power flow neck within
the sound group, such overload power transmission is --.I II
performed.
(b) If there are two or more routes presenting
power flow necks which can accommodate overload power
transmission, the one affording the greatest increment
in support power when overload power transmission is
allowed is selected.
An instance where this knowledge is applied is
shown in Fig. 5-(3). ( 4 ) Load-switching of sound group system
In the system shown on the left, route b presents a
power flow neck to source route a. Allowing maximum
power flow for the route to increase from 100 MW to 120 Power flow neck : o
Equipment In recess : o
MW entails an increase in support power for the source
route from 50 MW to 70 MW. (See figure on the right.)
Circuit breaker closed by operation:
Maximum allowable power flow value :
+ (***) (MW)
Generator output : -** (Mw)
( 4 ) Sound group load-switching knowledge
With this knowledge, support power is increased by
switching the load at load side of the route presenting Fig. 5 Example of Application of Support Power
the power flow neck to the sound group to an adjacent Augmentation Knowledge
sound group.
918

3. TESTING THE PROTOTYPE SYSTEM Below is the procedure with which restoration knowl-
edge was applied to the system.
3.1 Test Subject Step 1: Since no restoration routes are available
for the blackout group, load-division knowledge is ap-
The power system selected for prototype is a real- plied. [blackout restoration knowledge (e)]
scale model system including thermal and hydraulic power Step 2: Of the power stations A S/S, B S/S, and C
generators of 275 kV to 77 kV classes, with five units S/S that have not been considered yet, all routes con-
of thermal power generators and 10 units of hydraulic nected with C S/S, which with its adjacent restoration
power generators and substations at 40 locations. The routes can provide a greater amount of support power,
power system has a loop configuration of 275 kV parts, are separated. [load-division knowledge (a)-2]
and parts of 154 kV or less form a radial system config- Step 3: Load-division knowledge is applied to the
uration. X S/S and Y S/S in the system diagram are system from which all routes connected with C S/S are
other sound groups adjoining the system. (Fig. 6 ) severed. [load-division knowledge (a)]
Step 4: Power is fed through route b to load L1 in
A S/S and loads L4 and L5 in B S/S. [blackout restora-
tion knowledge (b1-31
Step 5: Power is fed via route a in the following
sequence: bus in C S/S, load L2, and finally load L3.
[blackout restoration knowledge (b)-3]
Step 6: Since all the blackout groups have been re-
stored, application of knowledge is terminated. [black-
out restoration knowledge (d)]
By the application of these sets of knowledge, the
post-restoration system (Fig. 8 ) is obtained.

Fig. 6 Pre-outage System State

3.2 Selection of Test Cases


Faults occurring in the system can be classified
into three major categories: line fault, bus fault, and
transformer fault. They can also be classified by volt-
age ratings for equipment used (i.e., 275 kV, 154 kV, or
77 kV). In selecting fault cases, types of faults and
equipment voltage ratings were taken into consideration, Fig. 7 Post-outage System State under Medium Load
with 9 (3x3) cases of outage equipment selected from
among cases likely to occur in actual systems and cases
of accidents experienced in the past. Furthermore,
system states were classified according to total loads
in the pre-outage system into three stages: light load,
medium load, and heavy load. For each of these loading
conditions, outage equipment were tested for the nine
cases mentioned above, with a total of 27 (3x9) cases.

3.3 Examples of Testing and Observations

3.3.1 Examples of testing

In carrying out actual testing on cases of trans-


former fault (in 154 kV rating), results of application
of the present method on two cases of system state, one
with medium load and the other with heavy load, were
evaluated.

f
a
(1) Execution result under medium load CS/S
With the post-outage system under medium load (Fig.
7), a condition was assumed in which a transformer fault 45 35 -IO
at A S/S caused total blackout at stations B S/S and C
S/S. There is only one blackout group under this condi- Fig. 8 Restoration Target System under Medium Load
tion with outage loads of 200 MW. Routes a, b, and c
are available as restoration routes for the blackout
group. Support power to route a is 160 MW with route g (2) Execution result under heavy load
constituting the power flow neck. Power flow necks for The same fault as in the medium-loaded state is
routes b and c are routes f and e, respectively, render- assumed for the post-outage system state (Fig. 9) which
ing 180 MW and 40 MW, respectively, in support power. is subject to heavy load.

.
-- I
I
919

Under the conditions, the number of blackout groups Step 1 1 : Overload allowance for the power flow
is 1, with outage loads amounting to 290 MW. In this necks obtained in step 10, i.e., power flow limit: 390
case routes a, b, and c are available as source routes MW to 430 MU for route d; 120 MW to 135 MW for route e,
for the blackout group. Route d becomes the power flow is added As pre-processed data, and knowledge that has
neck for routes a and b, and the amount of support power been applied to the simulation system so far is discarded
comes" to 120 MW. Route e becomes the power flow neck to restore the simulation system to the post-outage sys-
for route c and its support power amounts to 20 MW. tem state. [flow-control knowledge (c)]
Step 12: Support power augmentation knowledge reg-
istered in steps 7 and 1 1 is applied to the simulation
system and load-feeding knowledge is subsequently reap-
plied.
Step 13: In the simulation system to which support
power have been augmented, the amount of support power
available via routes a and b becomes 190 Hw, and that
available via route c becomes 35 MW. Even if load-feed-
ing knowledge is applied, however, the result is the
same process as in steps 1 through 5 above, since load-
feeding knowledge alone is insufficient for restoring
outage loads, and therefore support power augmentation
knowledge is applied again.
Step 14: At this point, load-switching is performed
by switching the loads in the sound grqups locating at
load side of the routes constituting the power flow
necks to adjacent sound systems. Such system switching
as described here includes switching to the sound group
containing X S/S and to the sound group containing Y
S/S. The load-switching to the side containing X S/S
allows for a load-switching of 60 MW, while that to the
side including Y S/S allows for a load switching of 40
MW. This means that the switching to the side including
Fig. 9 Post-outage System State under Heavy Load X S/S can provide a greater increment in support power.
[sound group load switching knowledge (a)]
Step 15: The load switching obtained in step 14
Step 1: Since no restoration routes are available above (i.e., switching the 60 MW load to the sound group
for the blackout group, load-division knowledge is ap- containing X S/S) is added as pre-processed data, and
plied. [blackout restoration knowledge (c)] the simulation system is restored to the post-outage
Step 2: Of the power stations A S/S. B S/S, and C system state. [flow-control knowledge (c)1
S/S that have not yet been considered, all routes con- Step 16: Support power augmentation knowledge reg-
nected with C S/S, whose loads connected with the bus is istered in steps 7, 11. and 15 is applied to the simula-
greatest, are separated. [load-division knowledge (a)-31 tion system, followed by application of load-feeding
Step 3: Blackout restoration knowledge is applied knowledge. [flow-control knowledge (d)]
to the system from which all routes connected with C S/S Step 17: In the simulation system for which support
were separated. [load-division knowledge (b)] power has been augmented, the amount of support power
Step 4: Power is fed via route a in the following available via routes a and b becomes 250 MU. The appli-
sequence: bus in C S/S, load L2, and finally load L3. cation of load-feeding knowledge alone is unable to
[blackout restoration knowledge (b1-31 restore the state of outage, and only results in the
Step 5: By feeding power to loads L2 (70 MW) and L3 same process as steps 1 to 5. Support power augmenta-
(50 MW) in C S / S , route d becomes the power flow neck tion knowledge is therefore applied again.
for all source routes in the simulation system, and the Step 18: At this point, load-switching is performed.
amount of support power becomes 0 MW. Accordingly, Changeover to the sound group including Y S / S is avail-
outage loads cannot be restored solely by the application able for switching of the system in question, enabling
of load-feeding knowledge, so support power augmentation switching of the 40 MW load. [sound group load-switch-
knowledge is applied. [flow-control knowledge (b)] ing knowledge (a)]
Step 6 : At this point, power generator G P/S which Step 19: The load-switching obtained in step 18
is adjustable for its output at load side of route R4 (the switching of the 40 MU load to the sound group in-
constituting the power flow neck becomes available. cluding the Y S/S) is added as pre-processed data, and
[generator output adjustment knowledge (a)1 the simulation system is restored to the post-outage
Step 7: The adjusted generator output obtained in 6 system state. [flow-control knowledge (c)]
(generator output increase from 100 MW to 130 MW) is Step 20: Support power augmentation knpwledge reg-
registered as preprocessed data, and the simulation sys- istered in steps 7, 11, 15, and 18 is applied to the
tem is restored to the post-outage system state. [flow- simulation system, followed by application of load-
control knowledge (c)] feeding knowledge. [flow-control knowledge (d)l
Step 8: The support power augmentation knowledge Step 21: The amount of support power available via
regis-bred in step 6 is applied to the simulation sys- routes a and b becomes 290 MW in the simulation system
tem, and subsequently load-feeding knowledge is reap- to which support power was augmented. Of substations
plied. [flow-control knowledge (d)] not considered yet within the blackout group (A S/S, B
Step 9: In the simulation system to which support S/S, and C S/S), all routes connected with C S/S, whose
power has been augmented, support power increases by 30 loads connected with the bus is the greatest, are sepa-
MW, providing 150 MW via routes R2 and R3. It should be rated. [load-division knowledge (al-31
noted, however, that the mere application of load-feeding Step 22: Blackout restoration knowledge is applied
knowledge results in repetition of steps 1 through 5 to the system for which all routes connected with C S/S
above, since outage loads can no longer be restored with have been severed. [load-division knowledge (b)]
load-feeding knowledge alone. Therefore, support power Step 23: Power is fed via route b to load L1 in
augmentation knowledge is reapplied. substation A S/S as well as to loads L4 and L5 in sta-
Step 10: At this stage, overload power transmission tion B S/S. [blackout restoration knowledge (b)-3]
is allowed for routes d and e constituting the power Step 24: Power is fed via route a in the following
flow necks. [overload allowing knowledge (a)] sequence: bus in C S/S, load L2, load L3. [blackout

T .

-
In- TT
920

restoration knowledge (b)-3] only performing load-feeding to blackout systems but


Step 25: Since all blackout groups have been re- also performing operations in sound systems. A proto-
stored, application of knowledge is terminated. [black- type system was prepared and tested to confirm the
out restoration knowledge (d)] effectiveness of this proposal.
A post-restoration system (Fig. 1 0 ) is obtained by Areas of future study include a review on the real-
application of the above-mentioned sets of knowledge. ization of more practical restoration target systems by
incorporating knowledge about the start-up of thermal
power generators and on the voltages and stability at
the time of restorative operations.

REFERENCES

Cl] T. Sakaguchi et al., "Development of a Knowledge-


based System for Power System Restoration," IEEE
Trans. on PAS, Vol. PAS 102, No. 2, pp 320-329, Feb.
1983
[23 Y. Kojima et al.. "Development of a Guidance Method
for Power System Restoration," IEEE Trans. on PS,
Vol. PWRS 4 , No. 3 , Aug. 1989, pp 1219-1227
[3] K. Hotta et al., ttImplementationof a Real-time Ex-
pert System for a Restoration Guide in a Dispatching
Center," PICA '89, May 1989, Seattle
[4] S. Moriguchi et al., "A Large-scale SCADA System
with Real-time Knowledge-based Functions," Second
Symposium on Expert Systems Application to Power
70 50
1 Systems, July 17-20, 1989
II II C51 J. Zaborasky et al.. "Restoration of the Large Elec-
tric Power System -Using a Computer Generated Se-
Fig. 10 Restoration Target System under Heavy Load quence of Target System," IFAC Symposium on Power
System and Power Plant Control, Beijing, pp 301-306,
August 1986.
3.3.2 Observations [61 C. L. Forgy, "The OPS83 User's Manual," Department
of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University,
When the proposed method is applied to the system Maroh 1985
state under a medium load, restoration is accomplished
solely with operations performed within blackout groups
and no operations are performed within sound groups. BIOGRAPHY
When the system is applied to the system state
under heavy load, augmentation of support power used for Yasuharu Shimakura, born in 1937, received the B.S. de-
the operations in sound groups is achieved not only with gree in Electrical Engineering from Tokyo Denki Univer-
operations within blackout groups but also with applica- sity, Tokyo, Japan in 1960.
tion of support power augmentation knowledge. He joined the Hokuriku Electric Co., Inc. (HEPCO) in
In test cases involving heavy loads, not all of 1960, and is presently Deputy General Manager of Informa-
outage loads can be restored with methods that do not tion and Control Systems Department. Mr. Shimakura is a
rely on augmentation of support power. Therefore, with member of the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan
the proposed method, augmentation of support power was (IEEJ) and the Artificial Intelligence Society of Japan.
attempted by applying generator output adjustment knowl-
edge, overload allowance knowledge, and sound group load Jun Inagaki. born in 1955, graduated from the Department
switching knowledge included in the support power aug- of Electricity of Tsuruga Technical High School, Fukui,
mentation knowledge in order to generate restoration Japan in 1974, and joined HEPCO in 1974. Mr. Inagaki is
target systems without leaving outage loads. a member of IEEJ.
As a result of testing, the present method exhibit-
ed a high degree of practicality even in cases of sup- Yasuhisa Matsunoki, born in 1964, received the B.S. de-
port power deficiency as experienced with outages occur- gree in Computer Science from Tokyo Institute of Tech-
ring under heavy load, not to mention cases with ample nology, Tokyo, Japan in 1987.
amount of support power for outage loads as experienced He joined HEPCO in 1987.
with outages under light to medium loads. Mr. Matsunoki is a member of IEEJ.
For other test cases as well, good agreement with
actual post-restoration system states has been confirmed Mitsuo Ito. born in 1948, received the B.S. and M.S. de-
by veteran operators. grees in Electrical Engineering from Hokkaido University,
In terms of processing time, testing results of 6 Sapporo, Japan in 1971 and 1973 respectively, and joined
seconds for the system state under medium load and 50 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) in 1973.
seconds for the system state under heavy load were Mr. It0 is presently a manager of the Energy and Infor-
obtained. In other cases, processing times obtained mation Engineering Section in Power and Industrial Cen-
have been three seconds at the shortest and 100 seconds ter, Kobe and also a member of the Information Processing
at the longest, which is considered to be quite practi- Society of Japan (IPSJ).
cable. Note that processing times obtained represent
actual records taken at engineering workstations capable Shinta Fukui, born in 1958, received the B.S. degree in
of 7 MIPS, and the implemented knowledge base consists Electrical Engineering from Tokyo University, Tokyo,
of about 200 rules in OPS83. C61 Japan in 1980, ana joined MELCO in 1980.
Mr. Fukui is a member of IEEJ, IPSJ, and the IEEE.
4. CONCLUSIONS Sei-Ichiro Hori, born in 1964, graduated with the B.S.
degree in electrical engineering from Kansai University
This paper proposes an approach for augmenting in 1988, and joined MELCO in 1988.
support power that better restores outage loads by not Mr. Hori is a member of IEEJ.