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CHAPTER 1: THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

1) Introduction
 describe the problem situation globally, nationally, locally, specifically the trends and issues in
the field
 cite the legal bases of the study
 cite statistics and sources to support the idea
 state the contribution of the study
 make a clinching statement that will relate the introduction to the problem

2) Theoretical and conceptual framework


 Theory
-an organized body of concepts synthesized from studies or observations which is an acceptable
explanation for the existence of truth of something

 Concepts
-abstraction of observable phenomena and views

 Framework
-the structure which gives shape to the general body
3) Statement of the problem
 Results from a felt need
 Must reflect a noteworthy contribution to knowledge
 Must be within the researcher's competence and interests
 Should not be answerable by yes or no
 Each subproblem should be extensive in coverage
 Can be categorized as general or specific
Example:
The study aims to present an “architectural design” solution of a medical center. This specifically
will be answered by the following questions:
1. What is the appropriate design solution for a medical center for Bacolod city?
2. …….

4) Hypothesis of the study


 Are intelligent tentative answers to the problems
 The operationalization of the research theory and must be stated in positive form
 Without a hypothesis, your research will be literally aimless

5) Assumptions of the study


 As premises which serve as the starting point of the study
 These statements are accepted as true and need not be proven
1. Universal assumptions
2. Study assumptions
3. Research-based assumptions

6) Scope and limitation


Aligns and focuses the research in the desired and expected perspective

 Geographical coverage
 Timeframe
 Variables
 Instruments and other constraints

7) Significance of the study


 The study should prove the important contributions of the study to:

1. Solving the problem


2. Bridging a gap of knowledge
3. Improving conditions
4. Supporting government thrusts

Definition of terms

 Key terms should only be defined


 Two ways to define:
1. Conceptual
2. Operational

CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES


3 MAJOR PARTS OF REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
1. Related legal basis
- Major sources are laws and department directives, circulars, orders and memorandum
2. Related literature
- Any written materials published in books, journals, magazines, novel, poetry, yearbook, and
encyclopedia
3. Related studies
- Published and unpublished studies, inquiries, and investigations
- Local or foreign
IMPORTANCE OF REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

 It helps or guide the researcher in searching for or selecting a better research problem or topic
 It helps the investigator understand his topic or research better
 It ensures that there will be no duplication of other studies
 It provides the conceptual or theoretical framework of the planned research
 It gives the researcher the feeling of confidence
 It provides information about the research methods used
 It provides findings and conclusion of past investigation
 To put your work into perspective
 To avoid gaps in the literature
CHARACTERISTICS OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

 The surveyed material must be recent as possible


 Materials reviewed must be objective and unbiased
 Materials surveyed must be relevant to the study
 Surveyed materials must have been based upon genuinely original and true facts or data to make them
valid and reliable
 Review materials must not be too few or too many
SOURCES OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDY

 Books, encyclopedias and almanacs and other similar references


 Articles published in professional journals, magazines, periodicals, newspapers, and others
 Manuscripts, monographs, and speeches
 The constitution and laws of the land
 Bulletins, circulars and other emanating from the government offices
WAYS OF CITING RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
1. By author or writer
2. By topic
3. By chronological order
By author: example
According to Filippo (1984), proper job performances is achieved only if employees are trained because they
will improve their skills.
HOW TO WRITE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

 Use headings in logical order to indicate main points


 Avoid too long introduction to your main point
 Include information that is directly related and relevant to the topics
 A maximum of half page (double space) must constitute one paragraph
 Do not copy into the information from your source. No more than 10% of the entire paper is allowed
for direct quotation
 Give due credit to the real source of your data
 Paraphrase using your own words and style the data gathered
 Summarize important points from your topic
 Reinforce your data with selected figures or statistics from your source
A common problem in writing the RRL is that it can turn into a boring list of ideas in paragraph forms
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY
 It constitutes the blueprint for the collective, measurement, analysis of data
 It aids the researcher in the allocation of his limited resources by posing crucial choices
 It is the blueprint that includes experiments, interviews and observations, analysis of records or
combination

Data
- A collection of numbers, quantities, facts or records used as the bases for drawing conclusions or
making inferences

SOURCES OF DATA
Data are classified according to sources as follows:
1. Primary data
- an individual person
- Organized group or organization such as association, fraternities, schools, and community
- established practices such as marriage, religious rites, legal and economic system
2. Secondary data
- Books including dictionaries, encyclopedia, almanacs, etc.…
- Articles published in professional journals, magazines, newspapers and other publication
- Verbal and written data
ADVANTAGES OF PRIMARY DATA

 The primary data frequently gave detailed definition of terms and statistical units used in the survey
 The primary data usually includes a copy of the procedures used in the selection of the type of sample
and in collecting data
 The data are usually broken down into finer classifications
ADVANTAGES OF SECONDARY DATA

 More convenient to use because they are already condensed and organized
 Analysis and interpretations are done more easily
 Libraries make secondary data more easily accessible
TOOLS IN DATA GATHERING
1) Questionnaire
- The most common used to generate data, sometimes called survey form.
- It refers to paper and pencil data gathering method by letting the subject or the subject or
respondent
Types of questionnaire:
1. Personally administered
2. Mailed
ADVANTAGES OF QUESTIONNAIRE

 The questionnaire is easy to construct


 Distribution is easy and inexpensive
 Response is easy to tabulate
 The respondent's replies are free
 Confidential information may be given freely
 The respondent can fill out easily the questionnaire
 The respondent can give more accurate responses
DISADVANTAGES OF QUESTIONNAIRE

 The questionnaire cannot be used by those who cannot read and write, especially those who
are totally illiterate
 If many respondents do not return the filled up copies, considerable follow-ups are necessary
 If the respondents give wrong information, it cannot be corrected at once
 A respondent may leave some or many questions unanswered because nobody urges him to do
so
 Some questions may be vague
 The choices may be limited
PERSONALLY ADMINISTERED

 Advantages
- It can be easily collected
- Any doubts in the questionnaire can be easily clarified
- The researcher also has the opportunity to introduce the research topic
 Disadvantages
 Are not willing to allow company time for data collection
CRITERIA OF A GOOD QUESTIONNAIRE

 The language must be clear and appropriate


 The content of the question and time period involved must be specific
 The questions should show singleness of purpose
 The questions must be free from assumptions
 The questions must be free from suggestions
 The question should have linguistic completeness and grammatically correct
KINDS OF QUESTIONNAIRES
1. Open-ended type
 One whose options of the items are not given or not arranged. This leaves the
respondent to answer the question to his own way
Example:
o Are you creative? If so why, if not why not?
o What’s your favorite website?

2. Close-ended type
 Answers are given/ enumerated and the respondents simply check/ encircle his answer
Example:
o Are you feeling better?

GUIDELINES IN CONSTRUCTING QUESTIONNAIRES

 Use correct grammars


 Make all questions unequivocal
 Avoid asking biased question
 Objectify the responses
 Relate all questions to the topic under study
 Giving the question in a logical sequence
 Would carefully or avoid questions that deal with confidential or embarrassing information
 Explain and illustrate difficult question
 State all questions affirmatively

2) Interview
-this is feasible when a personal interaction is available
1. Structured interview
2. Unstructured interview
Advantages

 Inexpensive in terms of the number of questions


 Able to witness for himself the reaction/emotions portrayed
 More info is generated
 A necessary technique for some respondent esp. where info on a person’s feelings is needed
 Necessary for some particular sample
 Clarify some points which are not found in the questionnaire
Disadvantages

 Sometimes uncomfortable
 Time-consuming and more expensive when commuting
 Information gathered is difficult to quantify
 Needs training to be able to do the art of questioning

3) Observation
 Can be used in descriptive and experimental studies but not on historical
 Data collection by observation records behavior/events
 Best used in social researches unlike engineering and science researchers
TYPES OF OBSERVATION
1. Unstructured observation
- As non-selective method observation would be a complete acc. Of an event
2. Structured observation
- Knows what aspect of the group activity are relevant for his purpose
DATA COLLECTION GUIDE QUESTIONS

 What should be observed?


 How should observations be recorded?
 What procedures should be used to assure the accuracy…?
SAMPLING
- A small group that the researcher wants to observe
Purpose/advantages of sampling

 Make possible the study of a large heterogeneous population


 For economy
 For speed
 For accuracy
 Save the sources of data from being all consumed
CONCEPTS AND TERMINOLOGIES
o Population -theoretically specific aggregation
o Study population- aggregation of the elements from which sample is actually selected
o Sample- elements who are actually selected to participate/ to be subject of the study
o Sampling unit- set of elements considered for selection in some state of sampling
o Variable- set of exclusive attribute
o Sampling error- degree of error of a sample statistics

Disadvantages of sampling

 If biased, not representative, or too small, the conclusion may not be valid/reliable
 Must have a common characteristic which is the basis of study
 If population is very large, there are many sections and subjections, the sampling procedure may
be complicated
 If the researcher does not possess the necessary skills and technical know-how in sampling
procedure, the sampling procedure becomes biased and unrepresentative
GOOD SAMPLING

 Should be true
 No bias
 Quality of the sample should be same
 Regulating conditions should be the same
 Needs to be adequate
 Estimate the sampling error
TYPES OF SAMPLING
1. Probability
- A proportion of the population and such sample is selected from the population
2. Nonprobability
-Not a proportion of the population and there is no system in selecting the sample
TYPES OF NON PROBABILITY
1. Accidental
- No system of selection but only those whom the researcher/interviewer meets by chance are
included
2. Quota sampling
-specified number persons of certain types are included in the sample
3. Snowball
-usually done when there is a small population size
4. Convenience
-the process of picking out the people in the most convenient and fastest way to immediately get their
reactions to a certain issue
5. Consecutive
-very similar to convenience sampling
WHEN TO USES NON- SAMPLING

 When demonstrating that particular trait


 When it aims to….
TYPES OF PROBABILITY
1. Pure random
-which everyone in the population has an equal chance
2. Systematic
-every nth name in the list may be selected to be included
3. Stratified
-used when the study has a grouping
4. Purposive
-determining the target population, those to be involved in the study
5. Cluster
- When population is so big or the geographical area is too large

6. Sample size Ex.


Slovin’s formula
1000_______
n= sample size
N
1+1000(0.05)
n=_________ N= population
1+Ne2 n= 275.8
e= margin error
=276

CHAPTER 4: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND ITERPRATATION OF DATA