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Biology

Zoology(animals) Botany(plants)

1 Morphology – external features

2 Anatomy – internal organs , tissues in plants

3 Cytology – structure of cells

4 Histology – tissues(animals)

5 Texanomy – classifications

6 Ecology – study of environment

7 Genetics – gene behavior

Characteristics of life

 All living things are made of numerous and variety of chemicals called protoplasm. It is the physical
basis of life
 Chemical reactions are going on in protoplasm. Which keep the cell alive. So this chemical activity
keeps the cell or organism alive is called metabolism. It is the chemical basis of life.

Movement: * locomotion: it is the dislocation of the whole body from place to place, with the help of
locomotory structure, such as fins, limbs, wings, flagella.

 Movement: it is observed in plants. The main body is fixed in place and only body parts can move.

Nutrition: taking food, to aquire energy for vital functions (function of life) , to grow, to fight against
diseases.

Respiration: breaking down food to obtain energy. Most organisms need oxygen for this.

Growth: increase in size with with increase in number of cells. Such as baby to boy, boy to adult.

Reproduction: the ability to give birth to young ones of their own kind.

Adaptability: the ability to survive in a specific environment by bringing changes in their features which
let the organism to live comfortably.
Biology

Classification:
Kingdom: 1. Animalia

2. plantae

Phylum: 1. Vertebrates

2. invertebrates

Classes

Family

Genus

Species

Phylum: vertebrates: the animals which have back bone are grouped as vertebrates.

Classes: (1) fishes(pieces) :

1. all live in water(aquatic)

2. there body is stream line

3. they have gills

4. they have fin to swim

5. they have scales on their body.

(2) amphibians:

1. they can live in water as well as on land

2. their body is smooth

3. they respire through skin and lungs

(3) Reptiles: 1. They are crowelling animals.

2. their body is covered with hard scales

3. they respire through lungs

4. they lay calcium shelled eggs on land

(4) Birds(aves): 1. Their body is covered with feathers.

2. they also have scales on their legs

3. they lay calcium shelled eggs.

4. their fore limbs are modified into wings.


5. they are worm blooded animals.

(5) Mammals: 11. Their body is covered with hair.

2. they give birth to their babies

3. the babies feed on their mothers milk through mammary gland.

Phylum: invertebrates: the animals which donot have back bone are grouped as invertebrate

Annelids, nematodes, mollusc and Arthropods

Annelid Nematode Molluscs


Body covering Hard, slightly waterproof Soft, not waterproof Soft, shell helps to save
water
Segments visible Yes No No
Feeding methods Herbivores Mainly parasites Mainly herbivores- some
are carnivores

Arthropods are divided into insects, crustaceans, arachnids

Insect Crustacean Arachnids


Examples Bees, butterflies, locust Crabs, lobsters, shrimps Spider, scorpion
Body segment 3 body segment: 2 body segment: 2 body segments:
Head, thorax and abdomen Cephalothorax and Cephalothorax and
abdomen abdomen
Jointed legs 3 pairs More than 4 pairs 4 pairs of jointed legs
Antennae 1 pair 2 pairs sensitive to touch
and chemical
Wings 1 or 2 pairs No No
Eyes
Breathing Breathing is through Gills Book lungs
tracheae

Bi nominal nomenclature:
Giving scientific names to organisms in two parts. The first part is genus written with capital letter.
The second part is species, written with the small letter. Example:

(1) Homo sepien (human being)

(2) Rana tigerina (frog)

Species: a group of organisms live togrther, similar in all features and reproduce sexually similar offsprings.

Virus – non cellular life:

It is composed of only two chemicals

1. protein

2. DNA or RNA

Old classification(two kingdom)


1. Animalia

2. Plantae

Modern classification

1. Animalia

2. Plantae

3. Fungi

4. Protectista

5. Monira

Organs Hormone
Pancreas Glucagon(stimulates, increases in blood sugar
level), Insulin(if there is high level of glucose it is
secreted to liver to stop glycogen to change into
glucose)Adrenaline(emergency hormone),
Gonads/reproductive organs/sex gland Male – testes – testosterone
Female – ovaries – progesterone & oestrogen