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Problem Books in Mathematics

Hayk Sedrakyan
Nairi Sedrakyan

Geometric
Inequalities
Methods of Proving
Problem Books in Mathematics
Series Editor:
Peter Winkler
Department of Mathematics
Dartmouth College
Hanover, NH 03755
USA

More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/714


Hayk Sedrakyan • Nairi Sedrakyan

Geometric Inequalities
Methods of Proving

B
r1

r3

r2

A C
r1 + r 2 > r 3
Hayk Sedrakyan Nairi Sedrakyan
University Pierre and Marie Curie Yerevan, Armenia
Paris, France

ISSN 0941-3502 ISSN 2197-8506 (electronic)


Problem Books in Mathematics
ISBN 978-3-319-55079-4 ISBN 978-3-319-55080-0 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-55080-0

Library of Congress Control Number: 2017937367

Mathematics Subject Classification (2010): 00A07

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017


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To Margarita,
a wonderful wife and a loving mother

To Ani,
a wonderful daughter and a loving sister
Preface

Geometric inequalities are one of the most interesting sections of elementary


mathematics and have a wide range of applications in geometry and the other fields
of mathematics, such as algebra and trigonometry. To prove geometric inequalities
one often has to use, besides the geometric reasoning, algebraic transformations,
trigonometric relations and inequalities, calculus and mathematical analysis.
This book is the third book of the authors about inequalities. The first two books
were dedicated to algebraic inequalities and were published in 2015 in South Korea.
All these books reflect long years of experience of the authors in teaching. Most of
the problems were created or proved by the authors during those classes.
The authors have tried not to use, whenever possible, the concept of a derivative,
therefore making the solutions of many problems understandable to students.
The book contains more than 1000 problems. Approximately 800 problems in the
book are with thorough solutions. Basically, these are non-standard problems.
The majority of problems are for mathematics competitions and Olympiads.
Many problems in the book and the majority of the solutions belong to the authors.
Some of those problems were used by the authors to teach their students interested
in mathematical Olympiads. In few cases, the solution was proposed by a student,
so his/her name is indicated. Some problems of the authors, included in this book,
were proposed in mathematical Olympiads (in different countries). Some problems
were proposed in different mathematical journals, such as the American Mathe-
matical Monthly (MAA), Crux Mathematicorum with Mathematical Mayhem
(Canadian Mathematical Society), Mathematical Reflections (USA), and Kvant
(Russia).
The book is divided into eight chapters, each of the chapters consists of one, two,
three, four or five paragraphs. The basis of the classification is usually the method of
the solution.

vii
viii Preface

The authors have tried to find common approaches to different problems. The
goal of the book is to teach the reader new and classical methods for proving
geometric inequalities.
The authors would like to express their gratitude to their family for the support.

Hayk Sedrakyan
Nairi Sedrakyan
Contents

1 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


1.1 Triangle Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Problems for Self-Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.2 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Problems for Self-Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2 Application of Projection Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.1 Convex Polygon Lying Inside of Another Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Problems for Self-Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.2 Sufficient Conditions for Comparison of Lengths
of Two Broken Lines on the Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Problems for Self-Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
2.3 Inscribed Polygons with the Least Perimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Problems for Self-Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
2.4 Method of Projections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Problems for Self-Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
3 Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
3.1 Inequalities with Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Problems for Self-Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

ix
x Contents

4 Application of Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139


4.1 Application of Vectors for Proving Geometric
and Trigonometric Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Problems for Self-Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
5.1 Inequalities for the Angles of a Triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Problems for Self-Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
5.2 Inequalities for the Angles of Acute
and Obtuse Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Problems for Self-Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
5.3 Some Relations for a Triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Problems for Self-Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
5.4 Trigonometric Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Problems for Self-Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
5.5 Using Trigonometric Inequalities for Proving
Geometric Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Problems for Self-Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
6 Inequalities for Radiuses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
6.1 Inequalities for Radiuses of Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Problems for Self-Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
6.2 Integer Lattice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Problems for Self-Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
7 Miscellaneous Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
7.1 Miscellaneous Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
7.2 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
7.3 Problems for Self-Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
8 Some Applications of Geometric Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
8.1 Application of Geometric Inequalities
for Solving Geometric problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
Problems for Self-Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
Contents xi

8.2 Using Geometric Inequalities for Proving


Algebraic Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
Problems for Self-Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443

Basic Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
Chapter 1
Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line

This chapter consists of two sections. Section 1.1 is devoted to the applications of
one of the most important geometric inequalities, called the triangle inequality.
As a generalization of triangle inequality, Section 1.2 is devoted to the theorem
on the length of the broken line.
Let us recall the triangle inequality: for any triangle, the sum of the lengths of
any two sides is greater than or equal to the length of the remaining side. In other
words, if A, B, C are arbitrary points, then AB  AC þ BC. Moreover, the equality
holds true, if and only if point C is on segment AB.
The goal of Section 1.1 is to get the reader acquainted with the triangle
inequality.
This section consists of problems that can be proved by using, if necessary
several times, the triangle inequality.
In Section 1.1 selected problems are those that can be proved using the following
techniques and statements:
1. For any convex quadrilateral ABCD it holds true AC þ BD > AB þ CD.
2. For any triangle with side lengths a, b, c and a median ma drawn to the side with
length a it holds true ma < bþc
2 .
3. If M is an arbitrary point inside of triangle ABC, then MA þ MB < CA þ CB.
4. For any points A, B, C, D it holds true AC  BD  AB  CD þ BC  AD.
In some problems, the triangle inequality is not always applied directly. In some
cases, at first one needs to do some geometric constructions or translations and only
after that apply the triangle inequality.
In Section 1.2, selected problems are those that can be proved using the theorem
on the length of the broken line, that is: if A1, A2, . . . , An are arbitrary n points, then
A1An  A1A2 þ A2A3 þ . . . þ An  1An. Moreover, the equality holds true if and
only if point Ai is on the segment Ai  1Ai þ 1, for i ¼ 2, 3, . . . , n  1.
Some problems in this chapter were inspired by [7]. Nevertheless, even for these
problems the authors have mostly provided their own solutions.

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017 1


H. Sedrakyan, N. Sedrakyan, Geometric Inequalities, Problem Books
in Mathematics, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-55080-0_1
2 1 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line

1.1 Triangle Inequality

1.1.1. Consider a triangle ABC. Prove that


(a) ∠C < ∠ A, if AB < BC,
(b) AB < BC, if ∠C < ∠ A,
(c) AB < BC þ AC,
(d) the length of any side of the triangle is less than its semiperimeter.
1.1.2. Let A, B and C be arbitrary points. Prove that AC  |AB  BC|.
1.1.3. Given a convex quadrilateral ABCD and a point M on a plane. Prove that
(a) MA þ MB þ MC þ MD  AC þ BD,
(b) MA < MB þ MC þ MD, if AB ¼ CD,
(c) MA < MB þ MC þ MD, if AC ¼ BD.
1.1.4. (a) Prove that in a convex quadrilateral the sum of its diagonals is greater than
its semiperimeter and is smaller than its perimeter.
(b) Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral such that AB þ BD is not greater than
AC þ CD. Prove that the length of side AB is less than the length of diagonal AC.
(c) Prove that, if we connect the middle of all the adjacent sides of a convex polygon
A1A2 . . . An, then the perimeter of the obtained polygon is not less than the half
of the perimeter of the polygon A1A2 . . . An.
1.1.5. Let n>4 be an integer. For a convex n-gon A1A2...An consider the quadri-
laterals AiAiþ1Aiþ2Aiþ3, i¼1,2,...,n, where Anþj¼Aj. Prove that from those quad-
rilaterals no more than n/2 have an inscirbed circle. Give an example of an octagon
that has such 4 quadrilaterals.
1.1.6. Let ABCD be an inscribed quadrilateral. Prove that
(a) |AB  CD| þ |AD  BC|  2| AC  BD|,
(b) AB þ BD  AC þ CD, if ∠A  ∠ D.
(c) Prove that among all triangles inscribed in a given circle, the largest perimeter
has the equilateral triangle.
1.1.7. Prove that
(a) bþca
2 < ma < bþc
2 ,
(b) 4 ða þ b þ cÞ < ma þ mb þ mc < a þ b þ c, where ma, mb, mc are the lengths of
3

the medians drawn from vertices A, B, C and a, b, c are, respectively, the lengths
of sides BC, CA, AB of triangle ABC.
1.1.8. Let M be a point inside of triangle ABC. Prove that
(a) MA þ MB < CA þ CB,
(b) min(MA, MB, MC) þ MA þ MB þ MC < ma þ mb þ mc,
(c) MA þ MB þ MC  max (AB þ BC, AC þ BC, AC þ AB),
pffiffi
(d) MA þ MB þ MC  23 minðAB þ BC; AC þ BC; AC þ ABÞ.
1.1 Triangle Inequality 3

1.1.9. (a) Let ABCD be a quadrilateral and E,F be the midpoints of sides AB, CD,
respectively. Prove that EF  BCþAD
2 .

(b) Let M be the intersection point of medians AD and BE of triangle ABC. Prove
that, if ∠AMB  π/2, then AC þ BC > 3AB.
(c) Let C1, A1 be points (different from the vertices) on sides AB, BC of triangle
ABC. Let K be the midpoint of A1C1 and I be the in center of triangle ABC.
Given that A1BC1I is an inscribed quadrilateral. Prove that AKC is an obtuse
angle.
1.1.10. Let ABCD be a quadrilateral such that angles A and C are equal to 90 . Prove
that the perimeter of the inscribed quadrilateral in the quadrilateral ABCD is not
smaller than 2AC.
1.1.11. Let M be a point inside of an equilateral triangle ABC. Prove that
(a) MA þ MB > MC ,
(b) MA2 þ MB2 þ MC2 < 2 AB2.
1.1.12. Let E be a point on side AC of triangle ABC. Prove that
(a) BE  AC  AE  BC þ CE  AB,
(b) (EB  BA)  AC  (BC  AB)  AE.
1.1.13. Let D be a point on side BC of triangle ABC such that AD > BC. Let point
E on side AC be defined by the following condition EC AE
¼ ADBC
BD
. Prove that
AD > BE.
1.1.14. (a) Prove that for any distinct points A, B, C and D it holds true AC  BD 
AB  CD þ BC  AD.
(b) Let a square with the center O be externally constructed on the side AB of
triangle ABC. Let M, N be the midpoints of sides BC, AC and the lengths of
these sides be equal to a, b, respectively. Find the possible greatest value of the
sum OM þ ON when angle ∠ACB changes.
OAþOC
(c) Given a rectangle ABCD on a plane. Find the smallest value of OBþOD , where
O is an arbitrary point in that plane.
(d) Prove that for any points A, B, C and D it holds true
AB þ BC þ AC  2AD sin ∠ BDC.
(e) Let D, E, F be points on sides BC, CA, AB of triangle ABC, respectively. Prove
that
 
1 1 1 AB þ BC þ AC
þ þ ðDE þ EF þ FDÞ  ,
AD BE CF R

where R is the circumradius of triangle ABC.


(f) Given a triangle ABC and points D, E, F , such that ∠DBC ¼ ∠ ECA ¼ ∠ FAB > 0
and ∠DCB ¼ ∠ EAC ¼ ∠ FBA > 0.
4 1 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line

Prove that AFþFBþBDþDCþCEþEA  ADþBEþCF.


(g) Given a point M and a parallelogram ABCD.
Prove that MA  MC þ MB  MD  AB  AD.
(h) Prove that for any distinct points A, B, C and D it holds true
DA  DB  AB þ DB  DC  BC þ DC  DA  AC  AB  BC  AC.
(i) Let ABCDA1B1C1D1 be a parallelepiped.
Prove that AB1 þ AD1 þ AC < AA1 þ AB þ AD þ AC1.
(j) Let SABC be a tetrahedron. Prove that
AB
SAþSB þ SBþSC
BC
> SAþSC
AC
:
(k) Let SABC be a tetrahedron. Prove that SA þ SB þ SC > 3  min (MA, MB, MC),
where M is the intersection point of the medians of triangle ABC.
1.1.15. For any point T of a given triangle (the interior of the triangle included)
denote by m(T) the smallest of segments TA, TB, TC. Find all points of triangle
ABC, such that the value of m(T ) is the greatest possible.
1.1.16. Let A1, A2, . . . , A8 be the vertices of a parallelepiped and O be its center of
 
symmetry. Prove that 4 OA21 þ OA22 þ ::: þ OA28 < ðOA1 þ OA2 þ ::: þ OA8 Þ2 .
1.1.17. Let G be the intersection point of the medians of triangle ABC. Prove that
(a) if AB > AC, then AC þ BG < AB þ CG,
(b) OG < 13 ðOA þ OB þ OCÞ, where O is an arbitrary.
1.1.18. Let O be a point in the hexagon A1A2A3A4A5A6, such that all its sides are
visible under the angle of 60 . Prove that, if OA1 > OA3 > OA5 and OA2 > OA4 >
OA6, then A1A2 þ A3A4 þ A5A6 < A2A3 þ A4A5 þ A6A1.
1.1.19. Given n distinct points. Prove that among those points there are points A, B,
C, such that 1  AC
AB
< 1 þ 2n, if (a) n ¼ 3, (b) n  5.
1.1.20. Given n (n  3) distinct points with the pairwise distances between them
equal to a1 , a2 , :::, anðn1Þ . Given that λn > 0 and λn1
n þ λn2
n ¼ 1. Prove that there
2

exist numbers i and j (i 6¼ j), such that 1  aaij  λ1n . For n ¼ 4, prove that the estimate
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
pffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
pffiffiffiffiffi
¼ þ 18 ¼ 1, 32471795:::: is not possible to make smaller.
1 3 9 69 3 9þ 69
λ4 18

1.1.21. Given n (n  3) distinct points with the pairwise distances between them
equal to a1 , a2 , :::, anðn1Þ , where a1  a2  :::  anðn1Þ : Given that δn > 0 and δn
2 2
nðn1Þ
ð 1 þ δn Þ 2 1
> 2: Prove that there exist numbers i and j(i 6¼ j), such that
ai 
aj  1 < δn :

1.1.22. Let M, N be distinct points on side BC of triangle ABC, such that


∠MAN
∠BAM ¼ ∠ CAN. Prove that pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 < sin
MNBC
sin ∠BAC < pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 :
MNBC
ð BMCNþ BNCMÞ ð BMCN  BNCMÞ
1.1 Triangle Inequality 5

Solutions

1.1.1. (a) Let D be a point on side BC, such that AB ¼ BD. Then, we have that
∠A > ∠ BAD ¼ ∠ BDA ¼ ∠ C þ ∠ DAC > ∠ C. Therefore ∠A > ∠ C.
(b) Proof by contradiction argument. Assume that AB  BC. If AB ¼ BC, then
∠C ¼ ∠ A. This leads to a contradiction. If AB > BC, then according to prob-
lem 1.1.1а we have that ∠C > ∠ A. This leads to a contradiction.
(c) Let D be a point on line AC, such that point C belongs to segment AD and
CD ¼ BC. Hence, as ∠ABD ¼ ∠ B þ ∠ CBD > ∠ CBD ¼ ∠ BDC, then for
triangle ABD, according to problem 1.1.1b, we obtain that AB < AD. Thus, it
follows that AB < AC þ BC.
2 , where p ¼
(d) We have that p  a ¼ bþca 2 . Therefore, p > a.
aþbþc

1.1.2. Note that AC  AB  BC  AC. Hence, |AB  BC|  AC.


1.1.3. (a) As MA þ MC  AC and MB þ MD  BD, then MA þ MC þ MB þ
MD  AC þ BD.
(b) We have that MA  MB þ AB ¼ MB þ CD  MB þ MC þ MD. Note that the
equality MA ¼ MB þ MC þ MD cannot hold true. Otherwise, M belongs to
segment CD, then MA < MB þ AB.
(c) We have that MA  MC þ AC ¼ MC þ BD  MC þ MB þ MD. It is clear that
the following equalities MA ¼ MC þ AC and BD ¼ MB þ MD simultaneously
cannot hold true. Therefore, MA < MC þ MB þ MD.
1.1.4. (a) Let M be the intersection point of the diagonals of the given convex
quadrilateral ABCD. Then, using the triangle inequality, we obtain that
MA þ MB > AB, MB þ MC > BC, MC þ MD > CD, MA þ MD > AD.
Summing up these inequalities, we deduce that AC þ BD > 12 ðAB þ BCþ
CD þ ADÞ.
From AC < AB þ BC and AC < AD þ DC, it follows that AC < 12 ðAB þ BCþ
CD þ ADÞ. Therefore, AC þ BD < AB þ BC þ CD þ AD.
Remark We have that AC þ BD ¼ (MA þ MB) þ (MC þ MD) > AB þ CD.
(b) We have that AB þ BD  AC þ CD and AB þ CD < AC þ BD. Therefore, 2AB þ
CD þ BD < 2AC þ CD þ BD or AB < AC.
(c) Let B1, B2, . . . , Bn be the midpoints of sides A1A2, A2A3, . . . , AnA1, respec-
tively (Figure 1.1).

Figure 1.1
6 1 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line

Then, for n  4, we have that

2B1 B2 þ 2B2 B3 þ ::: þ 2Bn B1 ¼ A1 A3 þ A2 A4 þ A3 A5 þ ::: þ An A2 ¼


1
¼ ððA1 A3 þ A2 A4 Þ þ ðA2 A4 þ A3 A5 Þ þ ::: þ ðAn A2 þ A1 A3 ÞÞ >
2
1
> ððA1 A2 þ A3 A4 Þ þ ::: þ ðAn A1 þ A2 A3 ÞÞ ¼ A1 A2 þ A2 A3 þ ::: þ An A1
2

(according to the remark in problem 1.1.4a). Hence, it follows that B1 B2 þ B2 B3


þ::: þ Bn B1 > 12 ðA1 A2 þ A2 A3 þ ::: þ An A1 Þ: For n ¼ 3

1
B1 B2 þ B2 B3 þ ::: þ Bn B1 ¼ ðA1 A2 þ A2 A3 þ ::: þ An A1 Þ:
2

1.1.5. If it would be possible to cut off more than n2 circumscribed quadrilaterals,


then among them there would be two neighboring quadrilaterals having two
common sides. Let us denote these quadrilaterals by ABCD and BCDE (Figure 1.2).
For any of them the sum of the opposite side is equal to AB þ CD ¼ BC þ AD,
BC þ DE ¼ CD þ BE.
Hence, we obtain that

AB þ DE ¼ AD þ BE: ð1:1Þ

The initial n-gon is convex; therefore its diagonals AD and BE intersect at some
point P. According to the triangle inequality AD þ BE ¼ AP þ BP þ PD þ
PE > AB þ DE. This leads to the contradiction with (1.1).
In order to construct the required octagon, let us circumscribe an isosceles
trapezoid A1A2A3A4 around the circle, such that its base is A1A4 and the base
angle is equal to 45 . Then, construct it up to octagon A1A2 . . . A8, as it is shown
in Figure 1.3.
 way, one can construct n-gon, such that it is possible to cut off by its
In a similar
diagonals n2 circumscribed quadrilaterals.
1.1.6. (a) Let M be the intersection point of diagonals AC and BD of a quadrilateral
ABCD. Note that ΔABM ~ ΔDCM. Therefore,

Figure 1.2
1.1 Triangle Inequality 7

Figure 1.3

 
     
AC  BD ¼ AM þ MC  BM  DM ¼ AM þ BM  CD  BM  AM  CD ¼
 AB AB 
 
AM  BM    
¼  AB  CD  AB  CD
AB

(see problem 1.1.2). In a similar way, we obtain that |AC  BD|  |AD  BC|, thus
|AB  CD| þ |AD  BC|  2|AC  BD|.
In the last inequality the equality holds true if and only if quadrilateral ABCD is a
rectangle.
(b) Note that ∠MAD  ∠ MDA. Therefore, MD  MA. As CD AB ¼ MB ¼ MA ¼ k  1
CM DM

(see the proof of problem 1.1.6а), then AC þ CD  AB  BD ¼ (k  1)


(AB þ BM  AM)  0.
(c) Let an irregular triangle ABC be inscribed in the given circle, such that
∠A  ∠ B  ∠ C. Note that ∠A > 60 > ∠ C.
Let D be a point on arc ABC, such that ∠DAC ¼ 60 . As ∠A > ∠ A þ
∠ C  60 ¼ ∠ ACD, then according to problem 1.1.6b (see the proof), AB þ BC þ
AC < AD þ DC þ AC.
If triangle ADC is equilateral, then this ends the proof. Otherwise, if triangle
ADC is irregular, then repeating the above proof for triangle ADC, we obtain that its
perimeter is smaller than the perimeter of the equilateral triangle inscribed in the
given circle. Therefore, in this case also the perimeter of triangle ABC is smaller
than the perimeter of the equilateral triangle inscribed into the given circle.
Other proofs of this problem one can obtain using problems 5.1.6 and 8.2.1i.
1.1.7. (a) Consider Figure 1.4.
We have that 2ma < b þ c, thus ma < bþc
2 . Let c  b, then ma þ 2 > c  2 .
a cþb

Hence, it follows that ma > 2 .


cþba

(b) We have that ma < bþc 2 , mb < 2 and mc < 2 , thus ma þ mb þ mc < a þ b þ c.
aþc aþb

Note that 23 ma þ 23 mc > b. In a similar way, we obtain that 23 ma þ 23 mb > c and


3 mc þ 3 mb > a. Summing up these inequalities, we deduce that ma þ mb þ
2 2

mc > 34 ða þ b þ cÞ.
8 1 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line

Figure 1.4

Figure 1.5

Figure 1.6

1.1.8. (a) Let N be the intersection point of lines AM and BC; then AM þ BM <
AM þ MN þ BN ¼ AN þ NB < AC þ CN þ BN ¼ AC þ BC.
Therefore, AM þ BM < AC þ BC.
(b) Let M be a point inside of triangle AGB1 (Figure 1.5), where G is the intersection
point of the medians of triangle ABC.
Using the result of problem 1.1.8а, we obtain that AM þ BM  b2 þ mb and
AM þ MC  23 ma þ 23 mc . Therefore,

minðAM; BM; CMÞ þ AM þ BM þ CM  2AM þ BM þ CM 


b 2 2 ma mc 2 2
 þ mb þ ma þ mc < þ þ mb þ ma þ mc ¼ mb þ ma þ mc :
2 3 3 3 3 3 3

We obtain that min(AM, BM, CM) þ AM þ BM þ CM < mb þ ma þ mc.


Remark If the triangle is not obtuse, then taking the point M in the center of the
circumcircle of triangle ABC, we obtain that ma þ mb þ mc > 4R, where R is the
circumradius of triangle ABC.
(c) Let us draw through point M segments parallel to AB, AC and BC (Figure 1.6).
1.1 Triangle Inequality 9

Let AB  AC  BC. Since triangles C2MC1, MB1B2, MA1A2 are similar to


triangle ABC, then the smallest sides of these triangles are C1C2, MB1 and MA2,
respectively. We have that

MA þ MB þ MC < ðAB1 þ B1 MÞ þ ðMA2 þ A2 BÞ þ ðMA1 þ A1 CÞ 


 AB1 þ B1 B2 þ A1 A2 þ A2 B þ CB2 þ A1 C ¼ AC þ BC:

Hence, it follows that MA þ MB þ MC < AC þ BC.


One can easily prove that the inequality holds true if M belongs to one of the
sides of the triangle.
(d) Let us consider two cases.
Case 1 Let there be a point M0 inside of the triangle, such that ∠AM0B ¼
∠ BM0C ¼ ∠ AM0C ¼ 120 . Then, prove that AM þ BM þ CM  AM0 þ
BM0 þ CM0.
Consider an equilateral triangle BCA1 constructed externally on the side BC of
triangle ABC. We have that ∠BM0C þ ∠ BA1C ¼ 120 þ 60 ¼ 180 . Hence,
M0BA1C is an inscribed quadrilateral. Thus, it follows that M0A1 ¼ M0B þ M0C
(see the proof of problem 1.1.14а) and ∠AM0A1 ¼ ∠ AM0B þ ∠ BM0A1 ¼
120 þ ∠ BCA1 ¼ 180 . Hence, AM0 þ BM0 þ CM0 ¼ AM0 þ M0A1 ¼ AA1.
According to problem 1.1.14а, we have that MB þ MC  MA1. Therefore, we
deduce that MA þ MB þ MC  MA þ MA1  AA1 ¼ AM0 þ BM0 þ CM0.
pffiffi
Now, let us prove that AM0 þ BM0 þ CM0  23 minðAB þ BC; ABþ
AC; BC þ ACÞ. Let max(∠A, ∠B, ∠C) ¼ ∠ C. Note that ∠AM0B > ∠ C. Hence,
60  ∠ C < 120 . Thus, it follows that 120  ∠ ACA1 < 180 . Therefore,
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
AA1 ¼ AC2 þ BC2  2AC  BC  p cos ffiffiffi ∠ACA1 
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 3
 AC2 þ BC2 þ AC  BC  ðAC þ BCÞ:
2

Case 2 If there does not exist such point M0 (see Case 1), then one can easily prove
that ∠C  120 .
Note that either ∠MCB < 120 or ∠MCA < 120 . Without loss of generality one
can assume that ∠MCB < 120 ; then according to problem 1.1.8а, MA þ MA1 
AC þ CA1. Therefore, MA þ MB þ MC  MA þ MA1  AC þ BC.
This ends the proof.
1.1.9. (a) Let us denote by K the midpoint of diagonal BD. We have that
EF  EK þ KF ¼ AD 2 þ 2 , and the equality holds true if and only if K belongs to
BC

the segment EF, that is AD||BC.


(b) Note that point M cannot be inside of the circle with diameter AB. Hence,
MO  AB 2 , where O is the midpoint of segment AB. According to problem
4 þ 4 > 3  2 . Thus, it follows that AC þ BC > 3  AB.
1.1.9a, we have that AC BC MO
10 1 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line

Figure 1.7

Figure 1.8

(c) Let O be the midpoint of segment AC. Note that AC ¼ AC1 þ CA1. According to
problem 1.1.9а, we have that OК  AC1 þCA
2
1
¼ AC
2 . Therefore, AKC is an obtuse
angle.
1.1.10. Let a quadrilateral MNPK be inscribed in a quadrilateral ABCD (Figure 1.7).
Let E and F be the midpoints of segments KM and NP, respectively. Since
AE ¼ KM 2 , EF 
MNþKP
2 (see problem 1.1.9а) and CF ¼ NP 2 , then
MNþNPþKPþKM
2
 AE þ EF þ CF  AF þ CF  AC. Thus, it follows that MN þ NP þ KP þ
KM  2AC.
Remark If ∠A  90 , ∠ C  90 , then MN þ NP þ KP þ KM  2AC.
1.1.11. (a) Let us consider the Figure 1.8.
Consider segments MA1, MB1, MC1, such that MA1||AB, MB1||BC and MC1||AC.
One can easily prove that AC1MB1, BA1MC1 and CA1MB1 are isosceles trapezoids.
Therefore, MA ¼ C1B1, MB ¼ A1C1 and MC ¼ A1B1. Hence, MA þ MB > MC .
(b) Let MA1 ¼ x, MB1 ¼ y, MC1 ¼ z, AB ¼ a (Figure 1.8). Therefore, x þ y þ z ¼ a
and
1.1 Triangle Inequality 11

Figure 1.9

MA2 þ MB2 þ MC2 ¼ zða  xÞ þ y2 þ xða  yÞ þ z2 þ yða  zÞ þ x2 ¼


¼ a2 þ x2 þ y2 þ z2  zx  xy  yz < a2 þ ðx þ y þ zÞ2 ¼ 2a2 :

1.1.12. (a) If point E coincides with points A and C, then


AB  EC þ BC  AE ¼ BE  AC.
If point E does not coincide with points A and C, then consider the following
figures (Figure 1.9а, b), where MP ¼ AE  EC, NP ¼ BE  EC, MN ¼ AB  EC,
PK ¼ EB  AE, MK ¼ BC  AE.
We have that MN þ MK > NK or AB  EC þ BC  AE > AC  BE.
(b) Note that the inequality of problem 1.1.12b is equivalent to the inequality of
problem 1.1.12a.
1.1.13. We have that

AE  AD ¼ BD  EC þ AE  BC: ð1:2Þ

From problem 1.1.12а, it follows that AC  BE < AE  BC þ AB  EC. From the


condition of the problem, it follows that point E does not coincide with points
A and C.
Let AD  BE, then AC  AD  AC  BE < AE  BC þ AB  EC. Using (1.2), we
obtain that AC  AD ¼ AD  AE þ AD  EC ¼ BD  EC þ AE  BC þ AD  EC. There-
fore, EC(BD þ AD  AB) < 0. This leads to a contradiction. Hence, AD > BE.
1.1.14. (a) Let us take a point A1 on a ray DA, such that DA1 ¼ DA
1
. In a similar way,
take points B1 and C1 on the rays DB and DC. One can easily prove that
A1 B1 ¼ DADB
AB
, B1 C1 ¼ DBDC
BC
and C1 A1 ¼ DCDA
CA
. We have that A1B1 þ B1C1  A1C1.
Thus, AB  DC þ BC  DA  AC  BD (see problem 4.1.9).
(b) According to problem 1.1.14а, for points A, N, K, O we have that
pffiffi
NO  AK  AO  NK þ AN  OK or NO  b2 þ 22 a, where K is the midpoint of
pffiffi
side AB. In a similar way, we obtain that МО  a2 þ 22 b. Hence, it follows
12 1 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line

pffiffi
that МО þ NO  22þ1 ða þ bÞ. The equality holds true if only ∠ANO ¼
∠ CMO ¼ 90 , that is ∠C ¼ ∠ A þ ∠ B þ 90 . Therefore ∠C ¼ 135 .
(c) According to problem 1.1.14a, for points A, B, C, O we have that
AC  BO  AB  CO þ BC  AO . In a similar way, for points A, D, C, O we
have that AC  DO  AD  CO þ AO  CD. Summing up these inequalities, we
AOþCO
obtain that BOþDO  ABþADAC
. Taking O  A, we obtain that the left-hand side of
AC
the last inequality is equal to ABþAD . Thus, the possible smallest value is equal
AC
to ABþAD.
OAþOC
Remark One can prove that OBþOD  ABþBC
BD .

(d) If points B, C, D are on one line, then sin ∠ BDC ¼ 0; therefore AB þ BC þ


AC  2AD sin ∠ BDC.
If points B, C, D are not on one line and point O is the circumcenter of triangle
BCD, then, according to problem 1.1.14а, for points A, B, O, C we have that

AB  OC þ AC  OB  AO  BC:

Hence,

AB  OC þ AC  OB þ BC  OD  BCðAO þ ODÞ: ð1:3Þ

We have that AO þ OD  AD and OC ¼ OB ¼ OD. Thus from (1.3) we obtain


that

BC
AB þ AC þ BC  AD  ¼ 2AD sin ∠BDC:
OD

(e) According to problem 1.1.14d, we obtain that EDþDFþFE


AD  2 sin ∠A ¼ BCR ; in a
similar way we obtain that EDþDFþFE
 AC
and EDþDFþFE
 AB
. Summing up
1
BE R  CF R
these inequalities, we deduce that AD þ BE þ CF ðED þ DF þ EFÞ 
1 1 ABþBCþAC
R .
(f) Let BC ¼ mx, BD ¼ nx, DC ¼ kx, AC ¼ my, CE ¼ ny, AE ¼ ky, AB ¼ mz, AF ¼ nz,
FB ¼ kz.
According to problem 1.1.14а, for points A, B, D, C, we have that
AB  DC þ AC  DB  AD  BC or kz þ ny  AD; that is, FB þ CE  AD. In a similar
way we obtain that BD þ AE  CF and AF þ DC  BE. Summing up these inequal-
ities, we deduce that AF þ FB þ BD þ DC þ CE þ EA  AD þ BE þ CF.

!
!
(g) Consider a point M0 , such that MM0 ¼ AD . For points M, C, M0 , D, according to
problem 1.1.14a, we have that MC  M0 D þ CM0  MD  CD  MM0 .
As M0 D ¼ AM, CM0 ¼ BM, MM0 ¼ AD, then MA  MC þ MB  MD  AB  AD.

!
!
(h) Consider a point A0 , such that BA0 ¼ AC .
1.1 Triangle Inequality 13

According to problem 1.1.14g, we have that


AD  DA0 þ BD  DC  AB  AC; thus it follows that

AD  BC  DA0 þ BD  DC  BC  AB  AC  BC: ð1:4Þ

According to problem 1.1.14a, we have that

BD  CA0 þ CD  BA0  BC  DA0 :

Thus, we deduce that

BD  AD  AB þ CD  AD  AC  BC  DA0  AD: ð1:5Þ

Summing up inequalities (1.4) and (1.5), we obtain that

DA  DB  AB þ DB  DC  BC þ DC  DA  AC  AB  BC  AC:

(i) For points A, A1, B1, C1 according to problem 1.1.14a, we have that

AB1  A1 C1 < AA1  B1 C1 þ A1 B1  AC1 ¼ AA1  AD þ AB  AC1

(see the proof of problem 1.1.14а).


Therefore,

AB1  AC < AA1  AD þ AB  AC1 : ð1:6Þ

In a similar way, for points A, D, D1, C1 and A, B, C, C1 we have that


AD1  DC1 < AD  D1C1 þ AC1  DD1 and AC  BC1 < AB  CC1 þ AC1  BC, or

AD1  AB1 < AD  AB þ AC1  AA1 , ð1:7Þ

and

AC  AD1 < AB  AA1 þ AC1  AD: ð1:8Þ

Let O, O1 be the intersection points of the diagonals of parallelograms ABCD


and A1B1C1D1, respectively. Let line AC1 intersect with segments A1O and CO1 at
points M and M1, respectively. Since AA1C1C is a parallelogram, then A1O1 ¼ OC
and A1O1||OC, thus quadrilateral A1O1CO is also a parallelogram. Therefore, A1O||
O1C. We have that A1O1 ¼ O1C1 and A1M||O1M1. Hence MM1 ¼ M1C1. In a similar
way, we obtain that AM ¼ MM1.
Note that ΔAOM  ΔC1A1M, thus AMO 1M
¼ AAO
1 C1
¼ AO
AC
¼ 2. It follows that M is the
intersection point of the medians of triangle A1BD. In a similar way, we obtain that
M1 is the intersection point of the medians of triangle B1D1C.
According to Stewart’s theorem, we obtain that
14 1 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line

 
1 2 2 2 1 2 AB2 þ AD2 BD2
AM ¼ AA1 þ AO  A1 O ¼ AA1 þ
2 2 2 2
 
 32 3 9
 3 3 2 4
2 A1 B þ A1 D2 BD2 1  1 
  ¼ AA1 2 þ AB2 þ AD2  A1 B2 þ A1 D2 þ BD2 :
9 2 4 3 9

In a similar way, we obtain that

1  1 
AM1 2 ¼ AB1 2 þ AD1 2 þ AC2  B1 D1 2 þ D1 C2 þ CB1 2 :
3 9

Therefore

1 
AM1 2  AM2 ¼ AB1 2 þ AD1 2 þ AC2  AB2  AD2  AA1 2
3

as BD ¼ B1D1, A1D ¼ B1C, A1B ¼ D1C.


Note that AM1 ¼ 23 AC1 , AM ¼ 13 AC1 . Hence,

AB1 2 þ AD1 2 þ AC2 ¼ AB2 þ AD2 þ AA1 2 þ AC1 2 ;

from this equality and inequalities (1.6), (1.7), (1.8) we obtain that

AB1 2 þ AD1 2 þ AC2 þ 2AB1  AC þ 2AD1  AB1 þ 2AC  AD1 <


< AB2 þ AD2 þ AA1 2 þ AC1 2 þ 2AA1  AD þ 2AB  AC1 þ 2AD  ABþ
þ2AC1  AA1 þ 2AB  AA1 þ 2AC1  AD,

or (AB1 þ AC þ AD1)2 < (AA1 þ AB þ AD þ AC1)2. Therefore,

AB1 þ AC þ AD1 < AA1 þ AB þ AD þ AC1 :

(j) Note that

AB BC AB2 BC2
þ ¼ þ 
SA þ SB SB þ SC SA  AB þ SB  AB SB  BC þ SC  BC
ðAB þ BCÞ2
 :
SA  AB þ SC  BC þ SBðAB þ BCÞ

It is sufficient to prove that

ðAB þ BCÞ2 ðSA þ SCÞ > SA  AB  AC þ SC  BC  AC þ SB  ACðAB þ BCÞ


ðAB þ BCÞðAB  SA þ BC  SC þ AB  SC þ BC  SA  SB  ACÞ >
> ACðSA  AB þ SC  BCÞ,
1.1 Triangle Inequality 15

ðAB þ BC  ACÞðAB  SA þ BC  SCÞþ


þðAB þ BCÞðAB  SC þ BC  SA  SB  ACÞ > 0:

This holds true, as AB  SC þ BC  SA  SB  AC  0 (see problem 1.1.14а) and


AB þ BC > AC.
(k) Let us consider two cases.
Case 1 Assume that there exists a point M0 inside of the triangle ABC, such that
∠AM0B ¼ ∠ BM0C ¼ ∠ AM0C ¼ 120 . We have that SA þ SB þ SC > M0A þ
M0B þ M0C (see the solution of problem 1.1.8d). Let us prove that M0A þ M0B þ
M0C  3  min (MA, MB, MC).
Let M0A ¼ x, M0B ¼ y, M0C ¼ z (x  y  z), then 3  minðMA; MB; MCÞ ¼
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
x2 þ y2 þ 4z2 þ 2xz þ 2yz  xy: Therefore,
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
xþyþz x2 þ y2 þ 4z2 þ 2xz þ 2yz  xy:

Case 2 Assume that there does not exist such a point M0. Let max
(∠A, ∠B, ∠C) ¼ ∠ C. We have that (see the proof of problem 1.1.8d)
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
SA þ SB þ SC > AC þ BC > 2AC2 þ 2BC2  AB2 ¼ 3  minðMA; MB; MCÞ:

See also problem 7.1.107d.


1.1.15. Let ∠A  ∠ B  ∠ C.
If ∠A  90 , then the required point T is the circumcenter O of the triangle. Let
the radius of the circumcircle be equal to R; then m(O) ¼ R.
If point T does not coincide with point O, then it is in one of the triangles AOB,
AOC, BOC. Let point T is in triangle AOB; then mðT Þ  TAþTB 2 < OAþOB
2 ¼ R (see
problem 1.1.8а).
If ∠A > 90 , then let us take on side BC points M and N, such that ∠BAM ¼ ∠ B
and ∠CAM ¼ ∠ C. Then ∠BAM ¼ ∠ B < ∠ BAN ¼ ∠ A  ∠ C (Figure 1.10).
If T 2 ΔABM, then mðT Þ  ATþBT 2  AMþBM
2 ¼ AM  AN ¼ mðN Þ, as ∠AMN ¼
2 ∠ B  ∠ ANB ¼ 2 ∠ C and BN ¼ BM þ MN ¼ AM þ MN > AN.

Figure 1.10
16 1 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line

0
If T 2 ΔAMN, then m(T )  AT  AA  max (AM, AN) ¼ AN ¼ m(N ), as max
0 0
(∠MA A, ∠NA A)  90 .
If T 2 ΔANC, then mðT Þ  ATþTC
2  ANþCN
2 ¼ AN ¼ mðN Þ.
Thus, the greatest value of m(T )is equal to m(N ). From the proof, it follows that,
if ∠B ¼ ∠ C, then points M and N are the required points. Otherwise, point N is the
required point.
Remark In the case, if ∠A > 90 , mðT Þ  CN < BC
2.

1.1.16. Let OA1 ¼ a, OA2 ¼ b, OA3 ¼ c, OA4 ¼ d and a ¼ max(a,b,c,d). According


to problem 1.1.3b [it is true also, if M does not belong to the plane (ABC)], we have
that b þ c þ d > a. Therefore

ðOA1 þ ::: þ OA8 Þ2 ¼ 4ða þ b þ c þ dÞ2 > 


> 4 a2 þ b2 þ c2 þ d 2 þ aðb þ c þ d Þ þ ab þ ac þ ad >
 2   
> 4 a þ b2 þ c2 þ d 2 þ a2 þ b2 þ c2 þ d 2 ¼ 4 OA21 þ ::: þ OA28 :

1.1.17. (a) Using the triangle inequality, we obtain that BG þ 12 CG > 12 AB and
CG þ 12 BG > 12 AC. Summing up these inequalities, we deduce that 3(BG þ CG) >
AB þ AC.
2
CG2 AB2 AC2 AB2 AC2
We have that BG  CG ¼ BG BGþCG ¼ 3ðBGþCGÞ < ABþAC . Hence, AC þ BG <
AB þ CG.
(b) Let A1 be the midpoint of side BC. According to problem 1.1.7a, we have that
OA1  OBþOC
2 . Point A2 is on the segment OA1 and A1A2 : A2O ¼ 1 : 2.

Then OG  A2 G þ A2 O ¼ AO
3 þ 3 OA1  3 þ 3 þ 3 . It is clear that the equal-
2 AO BO CO

ities OG ¼ A2G þ A2O and OA1 ¼ 2 do not hold true simultaneously. Thus, it
OBþOC

follows that OG < 13 ðAO þ BO þ COÞ.


0
1.1.18. Let A05 be a point on ray OA5, such that OA 5 ¼ OA3 and let A04 be a point on
0
the segment OA4, such that OA 4 ¼ OA6. Then, we have that A04 A05 þ A4 A5 > A4 A05
þA5 A04 ; that is, A05 A6 þ A4 A5 > A4 A05 þ A5 A6 . Therefore,

A1 A 2 þ A3 A 4 þ A5 A6  A2 A3  A4 A5  A6 A1
< A1 A2 þ A3 A4 þ A05 A6  A2 A3  A4 A05  A6 A1 : ð1:9Þ
0 0
Let A01 be a point on the segment OA1, such that OA 1 ¼ OA3 ¼ OA 5 and let A02 be
0
a point on the segment OA2, such that OA 2 ¼ OA6. Then, we have that
A1 A2 þ A01 A02 < A01 A2 þ A02 A1 , thus A1 A2 þ A01 A6 < A01 A2 þ A1 A6 . Hence,

A1 A2 þ A3 A4 þ A05 A6  A2 A3  A4 A05  A6 A1 <


< A01 A2 þ A3 A4 þ 0 0 0
 A5A6  A2 A3 0 A 4 A50 A1 A6 ¼0  ð1:10Þ
0
¼ A1 A2  A2 A3 þ A3 A4  A4 A5 þ A5 A6  A1 A6 ¼ 0 þ 0 þ 0 ¼ 0:

From (1.9) and (1.10) it follows that A1A2 þ A3A4 þ A5A6< A2A3 þ A4A5 þ A6A1.
1.1 Triangle Inequality 17

1.1.19. Proof by contradiction argument. Let M and N be two points among those n,
such that the distance MN ¼ d1 is the greatest. Consider plane Π, passing through
the midpoint of segment MN and perpendicular to it.
One of the half-spaces with boundary Π contains k points from the given
n points, where k  n2. Let us denote these points by N, N1, . . . , Nk  1 and
MN ¼ d1  MN1 ¼ d2  . . . .  MNk  1 ¼ dk. According to our assumption, we
have that
     
2 2 2
d1  1 þ d2 , d2  1 þ d3 , :::, dk1  1 þ d k :
n n n

Multiplying these inequalities, we obtain that


 
2 k1
d1  1 þ dk : ð1:11Þ
n
 
As MNk  1  NNk  1, then according to our assumption, MN k1  1 þ 2n NN k1 .
On the other hand, by the triangle inequality NNk  1  MN  MNk  1. Therefore,
it follows that
   
2 2
2 þ dk  1 þ d1 : ð1:12Þ
n n

From (1.11) and (1.12), we deduce that


 k
2 2
2þ  1þ : ð1:13Þ
n n
 k
Note that for n  6, we have that 1 þ 2n ¼ 1 þ k  2n þ kðk1Þ2  n42 þ . . . > 2 þ n2
2n :
From the last inequality and from 1.13, we deduce that 2 þ n > 2 þ 2n . From this
2 n2

inequality it follows that n < 6. This leads to a contradiction.


7k 73
For n ¼ 5, from (1.13) we obtain that 12 5  5  5 . This leads to a
contradiction.
For n ¼ 3, we have that MN  53 MN 1 and MN 1  53 NN 1 . Therefore, it follows
that MN  MN 1 þ NN 1  35 MN þ 25 9
MN. This leads to a contradiction.
pffiffi
Remark 1. For n ¼ 4, there exist points A, B and C, such that 1  AC AB
 1þ2 5.
pffiffi
Besides, in this inequality the estimate 1þ2 5 is not possible to make smaller.
2. In a similar way, one can prove that among n points it is possible to choose points
A, B, C, such that 1  ACAB
 λ10 , where λ0 is the positive root of λk þ λk1 ¼ 1 and
nþ1
k¼ 2 .
18 1 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line

It is known that the estimate λ10 is not possible to make smaller for 3  n  7.

1.1.20. The proof by contradiction method. Consider given points A1, A2, . . . , An,
such that AiAj  A1An ¼ d1, i, j 2 {1, ..., n} and max ðA1 Ai ; Ai An Þ ¼ di .
i2f2;:::;n1g
Without loss of generality one can assume that d2  d3  . . .  dn  1. Then
according to our assumption, we obtain that dd12 > λ1n , dd23 > λ1n , :::, ddn2
n1
> λ1n .
Multiplying these inequalities, we deduce that

n d 1 > d n1 :
λn2 ð1:14Þ

Let A1An  1 ¼ dn  1. Then according to our assumption, we have that A1 An1


> λ1n An1 An and according to the triangle inequality A1An  1 þ An  1An  A1An.
Therefore,

ð1 þ λn Þdn1 > d1 : ð1:15Þ

Using (1.14) and (1.15), we obtain that λn2


n þ λn1
n > 1.
This leads to a contradiction.
Remark If n  3, λn > 0 and λn2
n þ λn1
n ¼ 1, then λ1n < 1 þ 2n.
Indeed, if λn  nþ2, then using Bernoulli’s inequality, we obtain that
n

 n2  n1 2nþ2 2nþ2


n n
λn2 þ λn1  þ ¼ nþ2
n2  nþ2
n n
nþ2 nþ2 1 þ 2n 1 þ 2n ðn  2Þ < 1:

This leads to a contradiction.


qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
pffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
pffiffiffiffiffi 3
¼ þ ¼ 1 þ λ10 or
1 3 9 69 3 9þ 69 1
One can easily prove that if λ0 18 18 , then λ0
λ30 þ λ20 ¼ 1. Therefore, λ4 ¼ λ0.
Let us prove that for n ¼ 4, the estimate λ14 is not possible to make smaller.
Indeed, let A1, A2, A3, A4 be such points on one line, that A1A2 ¼ 1, A2A3 ¼ λ4,
A3 A4 ¼ λ24 , A2 belongs to the segment A1A3 and A3 belongs to segment A2A4. Then
a1 ¼ 1 þ λ4 þ λ24 , a2 ¼ 1 þ λ4, a3 ¼ λ4 þ λ24 , a4 ¼ 1, a5 ¼ λ4, a6 ¼ λ24 .
It is enough to note that aa12 ¼ aa23 ¼ aa34 ¼ aa45 ¼ aa56 ¼ λ14 .
1.1.21. Proof by contradiction
 argument. According to our assumption, for all i > j
ai 
we have that aj  1  δn . Therefore,
nðn1Þ
anðn1Þ  ð1 þ δn Þanðn1Þ1  ð1 þ δn Þ2 anðn1Þ2  :::  ð1 þ δn Þ 2 1 a1 ,
2 2 2

hence
nðn1Þ
anðn1Þ  ð1 þ δn Þ 2 1 a1 :
2
1.1 Triangle Inequality 19

Let AB ¼ anðn1Þ , CD ¼ a1 : Using the triangle inequality, we have that


2

AC þ BC  AB. Then, without loss of generality one can assume that AC  AB


2
and A 6¼ D. Note that
    
 minðAC; ADÞ


 maxðAC; ADÞ  min AC; AD 
maxðAC; ADÞ  1 ¼ maxðAC; ADÞ
CD CD
 
2  < δn ,
AC AB 2
nðn1Þ
1
ð1þδn Þ 2

 
 minðAC;ADÞ 
therefore max ðAC;ADÞ  1  < δn . This leads to a contradiction.

1.1.22. Let R and r be the circumradiuses of triangles ABC and MAN, respectively.
∠MAN
sin ∠BAC ¼ 2r  BC.
MN 2R
According to the law of sines, we have that sin
2 2
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 < r < pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 :
BC R BC
Hence, it is enough to prove that
ð BMCNþ BNCMÞ ð BMCN BNCMÞ
Let the circumcircle of triangle MAN intersect sides AB and AC of triangle ABC
at points K and E, respectively (Figure 1.11).
We have that ∠KEM ¼ ∠ BAM ¼ ∠ CAN ¼ ∠ EMC. Therefore, KE k BC.
Thus, it follows that ΔKAE  ΔBAC.
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Hence, KE ¼ Rr BC, AK ¼ pBMBN ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi , AE ¼ pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
CMCN
Using the triangle inequal-
r ð r 1Þ r ð r 1Þ:
R R R R
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
j BMBN  CMCN j
ity, we obtain that |AK  AE| < KE < AK þ AE. Therefore, <
ffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffirffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi BC
BMBN þ CMCN BC2 BC2
1R< . Thus, pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 < r < pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 :
R
BC
ð BMCNþ BNCMÞ ð BMCN  BNCMÞ

Figure 1.11
20 1 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line

Problems for Self-Study

1.1.23. There are 50 correct clocks on the table. Prove that at some moment the sum
of the distances from the center of the table to the end of the minute hands will be
greater than the sum of the distances from the center of the table to the center of the
clocks.
1.1.24. Let M be a point inside of the parallelogram ABCD. Prove that

AC þ BD  MA þ MB þ MC þ MD < 2ðAB þ BCÞ:

1.1.25. Prove that the sum of the lengths of the diagonals of a convex pentagon is
greater than its perimeter and is smaller than twice the perimeter.
1.1.26. Prove that for any convex pentagon there are three diagonals that are sides
of a triangle.
1.1.27. Prove that in a convex polygon there are no three sides that are greater than
the largest diagonal of that polygon.
1.1.28. Prove that the arithmetic mean of the lengths of the sides of an arbitrary
convex polygon is less than the arithmetic mean of the lengths of its diagonals.
1.1.29. Prove that h1a < h1b þ h1c , where ha, hb, hc are the altitudes of some triangle.

1.1.30. Prove the following inequalities.


pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
(а) a2 þ b2  ab þ b2 þ c2  bc  a2 þ c2 þ ac, where a, b, c > 0.
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
(b) c a2 þ b2  ab þ a b2 þ c2  bc  b a2 þ c2 þ ac, where a, b, c > 0.
1.1.31. Let the bisectors (lines) of angles A, B, C intersect the circumcircle
of triangle ABC at points A1, B1, C1, respectively. Prove that
AA1 þ BB1 þ CC1 > AB þ BC þ AC.
1.1.32. Consider a triangle ABC, such that AB > AC and BM, CN are its medians.
Prove that 12 ðAB  ACÞ < BM  CN < 32 ðAB  ACÞ.

ABAC ¼ 4  BMþCN .
Hint Prove that BMCN 3 ABþAC

1.1.33. Given that in triangle ABC side AC is the largest side. Prove that for any
point M of plane AM þ CM is not less than BM. When does the equality hold true?
1.1.34. Given that points A1, A2, . . . , An are not on the same line. Let P and Q be
distinct points, such that A1P þ A2P þ . . . þ AnP ¼ A1Q þ A2Q þ . . . þ AnQ ¼ S.
Prove that A1K þ A2K þ . . . þ AnK < S for some point K.
1.1.35. Given a tetrahedron ABCD. Prove that there exists a triangle with sides
AB  CD, AC  BD and AD  CB.
1.1.36. Let a, b, c be the side lengths of some triangle. Prove that
a2 þ2bc
þ bc2þ2ca c2 þ2ab
2

b2 þc2 þa2 þ a2 þb2 > 3.


1.1 Triangle Inequality 21

1.1.37. Let ABCD be a tetrahedron, such that ∠CAB þ ∠ DAC þ ∠ BAD¼


¼ ∠ ABC þ ∠ CBD þ ∠ DBA ¼ 180 . Prove that CD  AB.
1.1.38. Given that the acute angle of a parallelogram is equal to α, m and n are its
diagonals, m > n. Prove that ctg α2  mn.
Hint Let ABCD be a parallelogram, such that ∠BAD ¼ α. Let O be the
circumradius of triangle ABD. Let A1 be the midpoint of arc BAD. As α < π2,
point O is on the segment A1K, where K is the intersection point of diagonals AC
0
and BD. We have that A1K ¼ A1O þ OK ¼ AO þ OK  AK. Let A be on the segment
0
A1K and A K ¼ AK, then ∠BA0 K  α2. Therefore ctg α2  ctg ∠BA0 K ¼ mn (AK > BK,
as the circle with diameter AC contains points B and D).
1.1.39. On sides AB and BC of triangle ABC are taken points D and F, respectively.
Let E be the midpoint of segment DF. Prove that AD þ FC  AE þ EC.
1.1.40. (a) A convex quadrilateral MNPQ is inside a convex quadrilateral ABCD.
Line MP intersects the sides of quadrilateral ABCD at points K and L. Prove that the
sum of the distances from one of these points to the vertices of the external
quadrilateral is greater than the sum of the distances to the vertices of the inner
quadrilateral.
(b) Let four points be marked inside of a convex quadrilateral. Prove that on one of
the sides of the quadrilateral there is a point, such that the sum of the distances
from that point to the vertices of the quadrilateral is greater than the sum of the
distances from that point to the marked points.
1.1.41. Let points H, I, K, M, O be the midpoints of sides AB, BC, CD, DE, EA of a
convex pentagon, respectively. Prove that the length of a closed polyline HKOIMH
is less than the length of polyline ACEBDA.
Hint Prove that HK  BCþAD
2 < ACþBD
2 :
1.1.42. Let on the side CD of a parallelogram ABCD be constructed an equilateral
triangle CDE. Let X be an arbitrary point on a plane. Prove that
XA þ XB þ AD  XE.
0
!
!
Hint Let X be such a point that XX0 ¼ AD . According to problem 1.1.14а, we
0 0 0 0 0 0
have that CX þ X D  EX . Thus, it follows that XA þ XB þ AD ¼ X C þ X D þ XX
0 0
 X E þ XX  XE.
1.1.43. Given circles ω(0, r) and ω1(0, r1). Let quadrilateral ABCD be inscribed in
circle ω and the rays AB, BC, CD, DA intersect circle ω1 at points A1, B1, C1, D1,
respectively (r1 > r). Prove that
(a) A1 B1 þ B1 C1 þ C1 D1 þ D1 A1  rr1 ðAB þ BC þ CD þ DAÞ,
2
(b) SA1 B1 C1 D1  rr12 SABCD .
22 1 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line

Hint
(a) See problem 1.1.14а.
(b) Note that SD1 AA1  SBA1 B1  SCB1 C1  SDD1 C1 ¼ ðr 1 2  r 2 Þsin 2 ∠A  sin 2 ∠B and
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
SABCD  ACBD
2  2r 2 sin ∠A  sin ∠B  2r 2 sin ∠A  sin ∠B.
1.1.44. Given a quadrilateral ABCD, such that ∠A  ∠ D and ∠B þ ∠ D  180 .
Prove that AC þ CD  AB þ BD.
Hint Let C1 be the intersection point of line AC and a circle passing through points
A, B, D.
Prove that C1 is on segment AC, and see problem 1.1.6b.
1.1.45. Prove that if a1, a2, . . . , an (n  3) are positive numbers, such that
 2 2  
a1 þ a22 þ ::: þ a2n > ðn  1Þ a41 þ a42 þ ::: þ a4n , then one can construct a tri-
angle with sides ai, aj, ak for any 1  i < j < k  n.
2
Hint If m > 3 and a2i1 þ ::: þ a2im > ðm  1Þ a4i1 þ ::: þ a4im , then ðm  2Þ
2
a4im  2a2im a2i1 þ ::: þ a2im1 þ ðm  1Þ a4i1 þ ::: þ a4im1  a2i1 þ ::: þ a2im1

< 0:

Therefore, D > 0 or
2
a2i1 þ ::: þ a2im1 > ðm  1Þðm  2Þ a4i1 þ ::: þ a4im1
2 2 :
ðm  2Þ a2i1 þ ::: þ a2im1 ; a2i1 þ ::: þ a2im1 > ðm  2Þ a4i1 þ ::: þ a4im1

1.1.46. Let a, b, c be side lengths of some triangle. Prove that


bþca þ cþab þ aþbc  3.
a b c


a
Hint We have that bþca ¼ 12 cþab
bþca þ aþbc
bþca .

1.1.47. Consider a triangle ABC.


(a) Prove that for any point M on a plane AM sin ∠ A  BM sin ∠ B þ CM sin ∠ C.
(b) Let A1, B1, C1 be points on sides BC, AC, AB respectively, such that angles of
triangle A1B1C1 are equal to α, β, γ. Prove that AA1 sin α þ BB1 sin β þ
CC1 sin γ < BC sin α þ AC sin β þ AB sin γ.
Hint See problem 1.1.14a.
1.1.48. Given n points A1, A2, . . . , An and a circle of radius 1. Prove that one can
choose a point M on this circle, such that MA1 þ MA2 þ . . . þ MAn  n.
1.1.49. Let d be the smallest of the distances between the skew edges of tetrahedron
ABCD and h be the smallest of its altitudes. Prove that 2d > h.
1.1 Triangle Inequality 23

Hint Let d ¼ MN, where M 2 BD and N 2 AC. As BM þ DM  BD, then without


loss of generality one can assume that BM  BD
2 , MH ⊥ (ABC) H 2 (ABC). Thus, it
follows that d > MH  h2.
1.1.50. From two points A and B, the distance between them is equal to d km, are
simultaneously observing during one second after the aircraft flying in a straight line at
a constant speed. From point A the observer reports that the plane has moved during
that second by angle α, and from point B the observer reports that the plane has moved
by angle β (α and β are acute angles). What could be the lowest speed of the plane?
Hint Let during 1 second of observation the plane moved from point C to point
α
D and M be the midpoint of the segment CD. Prove that AM  CD 2 ctg 2 and
β
 α β

BM  2 ctg 2. Then d ¼ AB  2 ctg 2 þ ctg 2 . Thus, CD  ctg αþctg β.
CD CD 2d
2 2

1.1.51. Let O be the circumcenter of triangle ABC. On sides AB and BC are given
points M and N, respectively, such that 2 ∠ MON ¼ ∠ AOC. Prove that
NB þ BM þ MN  AC.
Hint See problem 1.1.14d.
1.1.52. The sum of the distances from point M to the two neighboring vertices of the
square is equal to a. What is the largest value of the sum of the distances from point
M to the other two vertices of the square?
Hint See problem 1.1.14а.
1.1.53. Given that the perimeter of a convex quadrilateral is equal to 2004 and one
of its diagonals is equal to 1001. Can the second diagonal be equal to 1? Can the
second diagonal be equal to 2? Can the second diagonal be equal to 1001?
1.1.54. Let ABC be a triangle. Prove that
(a) maa2 þ mbb2 þ mcc2  mcab þ mabc þ mbac.
Hint According to problem 1.1.14а, we have that a2  23 ma  2c  m3b þ b2  m3c .
(b) ma mb þ mb mc þ mc ma  2p2  34 ðab þ bc þ acÞ.
Hint According to problem 1.1.14а, we have that ma mb  c  2c þ a2  b2.
(c) ma þ mb þ mc þ min (a, b, c)  la þ lb þ lc þ max (a, b, c).
   
Hint We have that ma  la  a2  ðp  bÞ ¼ bc 
2 :

1.1.55. Let A, X, D be points on a line, such that X is in between A and D. Let point
B be such that ∠ABX  120 and point C be in between B and X. Prove that
pffiffiffi
2AD  3ðAB þ BC þ CDÞ.
Hint We have that AX2  AB2 þ BX2 þ AB  BX  34 ðAB þ BXÞ2 .
1.1.56. Let K and L be points on side AB of triangle ABC, such that AK ¼ KL ¼ LB.
Prove that
24 1 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line

(a) if AC < BC, then CK < CL.


(b) ∠KCL > min (∠ACK, ∠BCL).
Hint
(b) Let AC  BC, then CK < CB. Consider a parallelogram KCBD.
1.1.57. Let the diagonals of a convex quadrilateral ABCD intersect at point P.
Prove that BC þ AD  BD sin β þ AC sin γ, where β, γ > 0 and β þ γ ¼ ∠ BPC.
Hint Consider a point D1, such that quadrilateral BCD1D is a parallelogram. Then
DD1¼BC. Note that BC þ AD  AD1  BD sin β þ AC sin γ.
1.1.58. Prove that if a, b, c are the side lengths of some triangle, then
1 1 1
(a) aþb , bþc , aþc ,
a b c
(b) 1þa , 1þb , 1þc ,
(c) ð1þaÞð1þbÞ
aþbþ2ab ,
ð1þbÞð1þcÞ ð1þaÞð1þcÞ
bþcþ2bc , aþcþ2ac , are also side lengths of some triangle.
Hint
1
(a) aþb þ bþc
1
> aþbþc
2
,
a
(b) 1þa þ 1þb
b
> 1þaþb
aþb
.
1.1.59. Let ABCD be a tetrahedron. Prove that AB  CD þ BC  AD  S, where S is
the total surface area of the tetrahedron.
Hint Prove that AB  CD þ BC  AD  2SABC þ 2SADC.
Consider the layout of facets ABC, ADC and see problem 1.1.14а.
1.1.60. Prove that any polygon having a perimeter equal to 2a can be convered by a
square whose diagonal is equal to a.
Hint Inscribe the polygon into a square and use problem 1.1.10.
1.1.61. Given a triangle ABC and a point M. Let G be the intersection point of the
medians of triangle ABC. Prove that MA þ MB þ MC þ 3MG  2(MA1 þ MB1 þ
MC1), where points A1, B1, C1 are the midpoints of sides BC, AC, AB.
Hint See problem 1.1.14f.
1.1.62. Let A1A2 . . . An be a convex hexagon and M, N be given distinct points
inside of it. Prove that max NA1 ; NA2 ; :::; NAn > 1:
MA1 MA2 MAn

Hint See problem 1.1.8a.

1.2 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line

If A1, A2, . . . , An are distinct points, then A1An  A1A2 þ A2A3 þ . . . þ An  1An.
Note that the equality holds true only if simultaneously hold true the following
conditions: point Ai is on the segment Ai  1Ai þ 1 for all i ¼ 2, 3, . . . , n  1.
1.2 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line 25

1.2.1. Given two circles with radiuses R1 and R2, such that for the distance between
their centers it holds true the following inequality d > R1 þ R2. Prove that
d  R1  R2  XY  d þ R1 þ R2, where X and Y are arbitrary points of these
two circles.
1.2.2. Prove that in any polygon there are at least two sides a and b, such that
1  ba < 2.
1.2.3. Given a convex hexagon ABCDEF, such that ∠A  90 , ∠ D  90 . Prove
that BC þ CE þ EF þ FB  2AD.
1.2.4. Given the points A(a, 0), B(0, b), C(c, d) and O(0, 0) on a coordinate plane.
Prove that AB þ BC þ CA  2CO.
1.2.5. Prove the following inequalities:
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
(a) a21 þ b21 þ ::: þ a2n þ b2n  ða1 þ ::: þ an Þ2 þ ðb1 þ ::: þ bn Þ2 .
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
a21 þ ka1 b1 þ b21 þ ::: þ a2n þ kan bn þ b2n 
(b) qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
 ða1 þ ::: þ an Þ2 þ kða1 þ ::: þ an Þðb1 þ ::: þ bn Þ þ ðb1 þ ::: þ bn Þ2 ,
where |k|  2.
(c) ða þ b þ cÞða  b þ cÞ þ ða  b þ cÞða þ b  cÞ þ ða þ b  cÞða þ b þ cÞ
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffi pffiffiffi pffiffiffi
 abcð a þ b þ cÞ, where a, b, c > 0:
1.2.6. On the legs of a right-angled triangle with hypotenuse c and acute angle α are
chosen points P and Q. Let PK and QH be perpendiculars to the hypotenuse drawn
from points P and Q. Prove that KP þ PQ þ QH  c sin 2α.
1.2.7. Prove that from all triangles inscribed in an acute triangle ABC, the smallest
perimeter has the orthic triangle (the triangle whose vertices are the endpoints of the
altitudes of triangle ABC).
1.2.8. Given a triangle ABC. Prove that ∠ACB  120 is a necessary and sufficient
condition for the following inequality to hold true MA þ MB þ MC  AC þ BC, for
any point M of plane ABC.
1.2.9. (a) Prove that MAA11MA
A2
2
þ ::: þ MAAn1 MAn  MA1 MAn , where M, A1, . . . , An are
n1 An A1 An

distinct points and n  3. When does the equality hold true?


(b) Given a square ABCD inscribed in a circle. Let M be a point on the minor arc
^
A B : Prove that
pffiffiffi
1. MC  MD  3 3MA  MB,
 pffiffiffi
2. MC  MD  3 þ 2 2 MA  MB.
1.2.10. On sides AB and CD of a convex quadrilateral ABCD are constructed
externally equilateral triangles ABE and CDF. Prove that for any points M and
N it holds true AM þ BM þ MN þ CN þ DN  EF.
26 1 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line

1.2.11. Let ABCDEF be a convex hexagon such that AB ¼ BC ¼ CD,


DE ¼ EF ¼ FA and ∠BCD ¼ ∠ EFA ¼ 60 . Let G and H be two arbitrary points.
Prove that AG þ GB þ GH þ DH þ HE  CF.
1.2.12. (a) Let point M be the midpoint of side BC of a convex quadrilateral ABCD.
Given that ∠AMD ¼ 120 . Prove that AB þ 12 BC þ CD  AD.
(b) Let points A1, B1, C1, D1, E1, F1 be the midpoints of sides AB, BC, CD, DE, EF,
FA of a convex hexagon ABCDEF, respectively. Given that all angles of
pffiffi
hexagon A1B1C1D1E1F1 are equal. Prove that p  2 3 3 p1 , where p and p1 are
the perimeters of hexagons ABCDEF and A1B1C1D1E1F1, respectively.
1.2.13. Prove that any polygon with perimeter 2a can be covered by a circle whose
diameter is equal to a.
1.2.14. Prove that the sum of the planar angles at a vertex of a tetrahedron:
(a) is equal to 180 ,
(b) is greater than 180 , then any lateral edge of the tetrahedron is less than half-
perimeter of its base.
1.2.15. Prove that any hexagonal cross-section plane of the unit cube has a perim-
pffiffiffi
eter greater than or equal to 3 2.
1.2.16. Given that a rectangle ABCD is inside of a convex polygon A1 . . . An. Prove
that

minðAB; BCÞ þ AB þ BC < A1 A2 þ A2 A3 þ ::: þ An1 An :

1.2.17. Inside of the convex polygon with perimeter P are given two rectangles with
the perimeter with sides a, b and c, d which do not have any common interior point.
Prove that min(a, b) þ a þ b þ min (c, d ) þ c þ d < P.
1.2.18. (а) Let points A and B be outside of circle ω. Through points A and B are
drawn tangents AM and BN to circle ω. Prove that if segment AB intersects the
circle ω, then AB > AM þ BN, and if it does not intersect, then AB  AM þ BN.
(b) Let points A, B, C be outside of circle ω, such that ω intersects segments AC, BC
and does not intersect segment AB. Through points A, B, C are drawn tangents
AM, BN, CK to circle ω. Prove that AM  BC þ BN  AC > CK  AB.

Solutions

1.2.1. Let point X belong to a circle with center O1 and radius R1.
Let point Y belong to a circle with center O2 and radius R2.
For the broken line O1XYO2 we have that R1 þ XY þ R2  d.
Thus, it follows that XY  d  R1  R2.
1.2 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line 27

Similarly, for the broken line XO1O2Y we obtain that XY  d þ R1 þ R2.


This ends the proof.
1.2.2. Let a1  a2  . . .  an be lengths of the sides of a given polygon.
We proceed with the proof by a contradiction argument. Assume that such two
sides do not exist; then a2  2a1, a3  2a2, . . . , an  2an  1.
We have that a1 þ a2 þ . . . þ an  1 > an.
Therefore, a1 > (...((an  an  1)  an  2)  ...  a1)  (...(an  1  an  2)  ... 
a1) (...(an  2  an  3)  ...  a1)  . . .  a1. Hence a1 > a1. This leads to a
contradiction.
1.2.3. Let points M, N, P be the midpoints of the segments BF, BE, CE, respectively.
As ∠A  90 , then point A is in the circle with diameter BF.
Therefore, AM  BF 2 . In a similar way, we obtain that DP  2 .
CE

Thus, it follows that 2AD  2AM þ 2MN þ 2NP þ 2DP  BF þ EF þ BC þ CE.


This ends the proof.
   
1.2.4. Let us consider points M a2; b2 and N aþc 2 ; 2 . As
d
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi2
a2 þb2 c2 þðbd Þ
OM þ MN þ NC  OC and OM ¼ 4 ¼ 2 , MN ¼
AB
¼ BC
2 and
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
2
4

NC ¼ ðac4Þ þd ¼ AC
2

2 , then AB þ BC þ AC  2OC.
See problem 1.1.14d.
1.2.5. (a) The proof follows straightforwardly from 1.2.5b for k ¼ 0.
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
2
(b) Let us consider the points Ai 1  k4 ða1 þ ::: þ ai Þ; b1 þ ::: þ bi þ 2kða1 þ :::
þai ÞÞ, i ¼ 1, . . . , n.
Note that
vffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
u0sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 12
u  2
u k 2
k
Ai Aiþ1 ¼ t@ 1  aiþ1 A þ biþ1 þ aiþ1
4 2
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
¼ a2iþ1 þ kaiþ1 biþ1 þ b2iþ1 , i ¼ 0, :::, n  1,

where A0(0; 0) and


qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Ao An ¼ ða1 þ ::: þ an Þ2 þ kða1 þ ::: þ an Þðb1 þ ::: þ bn Þ þ ðb1 þ ::: þ bn Þ2 . As
A0A1 þ A1A2 þ . . . þ An  1An  A0An, then
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
a21 þ ka1 b1 þ b21 þ ::: þ a2n þ kan bn þ b2n 
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
 ða1 þ ::: þ an Þ2 þ kða1 þ ::: þ an Þðb1 þ ::: þ bn Þ þ ðb1 þ ::: þ bn Þ2 :

2 ,b ¼ 2 ,c ¼ 2 .
(c) Let a þ b þ c ¼ m, a  b þ c ¼ n, a þ b  c ¼ k, then a ¼ nþk mþk mþn

Therefore, if mn þ nk þ mk  0, then
28 1 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line

qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi !
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffi pffiffiffi pffiffiffi 1  pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi2
abcð a þ b þ cÞ ¼ ððn þ kÞmÞ2 þ ðn þ kÞ mn þ nk þ mk þ
4
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi2ffi
þ ððm þ kÞnÞ2 þ ðm þ kÞ mn þ nk þ mk
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi2
þ ððn þ mÞkÞ2 þ ðn þ mÞ mn þ nk þ mk 
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1
 4ðmn þ nk þ mkÞ2 þ 4ðm þ n þ kÞ2 ðmn þ nk þ mkÞ 
4
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1
 4ðmn þ nk þ mkÞ2 þ 12ðmn þ nk þ mkÞ2
4
¼ mn þ nk þ mk,

according to problem 1.2.5а, and the following inequality (m þ n þ k)2


 3mn þ 3nk þ 3mk for mn þ nk þ mk < 0. The proof is straightforward.
1.2.6. Let ABC be a right-angled triangle. Given that ∠C ¼ 90 and points M, N,
R are the midpoints of segments PQ, QK, KH, respectively.
Then CM þ MN þ NR CR  h, where h is the altitude of triangle ABC drawn
from vertex C.
Note that h ¼ c  cos α  sin α ¼ 2c sin 2α, CM ¼ PQ
2 , MN ¼ 2 , NR ¼ 2 . Hence,
PK QH

it follows that KP þ PQ þ QH  c  sin 2α.


1.2.7. Let points M, N, P belong to sides AB, BC, AC, respectively. Let us draw from
point P perpendiculars PE and PF to sides AB and BC. As points E and F belong to
a circle whose diameter is BP, thus using the law of sines we obtain that
EF ¼ BP  sin ∠ B. If Q, T are the midpoints of segments MP and NP, then
EF  EQ þ QT þ TF ¼ MP 2 þ 2 þ 2.
MN NP

Thus, MP þ MN þ NP  2BP  sin ∠ B.


Let AA1, BB1, CC1 be the altitudes of triangle ABC; see Figure 1.12 and
B1E1 ⊥ AB, B1F1 ⊥ BC. As points A, C1, A1, C are on a circle whose diameter is

Figure 1.12
1.2 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line 29

AC, thus ∠BC1A1 ¼ ∠ C. In a similar way, we deduce that ∠AC1B1 ¼ ∠ C and


∠BA1C1 ¼ ∠ CA1B1 ¼ ∠ A.
Let Q1, T1 be the midpoints of B1C1, A1B1, respectively. Then ∠E1Q1C1 ¼
2 ∠ E1B1Q1 ¼ 2 ∠ B1C1C ¼ ∠ B1C1A1.
Therefore E1Q1 k A1C1 and F1T1||C1A1.
Hence
E1 F1 ¼ E1 Q1 þ Q1 T 1 þ T 1 F1 ¼ 12 ðB1 C1 þ A1 C1 þ A1 B1 Þ ¼ BB1 sin ∠B.
Thus MP þ MN þ NP  2BP  sin ∠ B  2BB1  sin ∠ B ¼ B1C1 þ A1C1 þ A1B1.
Note that if points P and B1 do not coincide, then MP þ MN þ NP >
B1C1 þ A1C1 þ A1B1. Therefore, MP þ MN þ NP ¼ B1C1 þ A1C1 þ A1B1 if and
only if points M, N, P coincide with points C1, A1, B1, respectively.
Second Proof Let points M, N, P belong to sides AB, BC, AC, respectively.
According to problem 1.1.14d, for points M, N, P, B, we have that

MN þ NP þ MP  2BP sin ∠ sin B: ð1:16Þ

Let AA1, BB1, CC1 be the altitudes of triangle ABC. As BP  BB1, then from
(1.16) we obtain that

MN þ NP þ MP  2BB1 sin ∠B: ð1:17Þ

Let the altitudes AA1, BB1, CC1 intersect at point H. Note that

2BB1 sin ∠B ¼ BB1 sin ∠B þ BB1 sin ∠B ¼ BB1 sin ∠B þ CC1 sin ∠C ¼¼ BH sin ∠B
þ CH sin ∠C þ B1 H sin ∠B þ C1 H sin ∠C ¼ A1 C1
þ A1 B1 þ þB1 H cos ∠C1 B1 H þ C1 H cos ∠B1 C1 H
¼ A1 C1 þ A1 B1 þ C1 B1 :
ð1:18Þ

From (1.17) and (1.18), we obtain that

MN þ NP þ MP > A1 C1 þ A1 B1 þ C1 B1 :

Note that if points P and B1 do not coincide, then BP > BB1.


Therefore, MN þ NP þ MP > A1C1 þ A1B1 þ C1B1.
Hence, MP þ MN þ NP ¼ B1C1 þ A1C1 þ A1B1 if and only if points M, N,
P coincide with points C1, A1, B1, respectively.
This ends the proof.
1.2.8. Let the rotation by angle 180  ∠ C and the rotation center C (Figure 1.13)
point B moves to point B1, point M goes to point M1.
We have that CB ¼ CB1. Therefore AC þ CB ¼ AB1.
If ∠C  120 , then ∠MCM1 ¼ 180  ∠ C  60 .
Hence CM ¼ CM1, then CM  MM1. Thus, it follows that
30 1 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line

Figure 1.13

AM þ CM þ BM ¼ AM þ CM þ B1 M1  AM þ MM1 þ B1 M1  AB1
¼ AC þ CB:

If for any point M of plane ABC it holds true that AM þ CM þ BM  AC þ CB,


then in the case when M coincides with A, we obtain that AB  CB. On the other
hand, if M coincides with B, then AB  AC. Therefore, ∠C  ∠ A, ∠C  ∠ B.
Now, assume that ∠C < 120 . Then inside angle CAB and outside triangle ABC
one can find a point B2, such that ∠B2CB ¼ ∠ B2BC ¼ 60 . Let M0 be the second
intersection point of line AB2 and circumcircle of triangle CBB2. Then
AM0 þ BM0 þ CM0 ¼ AM0 þ M0B2 ¼ AB2 < AC þ CB2 ¼ AC þ CB. (See the proof
of problem 1.2.9.). Hence, we have obtained that there exists a point M such that
AM þ CM þ BM < AC þ CB. This leads to a contradiction. Thus ∠C  120 .
Remark If max(∠A; ∠B; ∠C) < 120 , then

AM þ BM þ CM 
 AM0 þ BM0 þ CM0 :

CB2
Indeed, according to problem 1.2.9a, we have that MCMB2
þ MBMB
B2 B
2
 MCMB
BC
or
MB þ MC  MB2. Therefore MA þ MB þ MC  MA þ MB2  AB2 ¼ AM0 þ M0B2 ¼
AM0 þ BM0 þ CM0.
1.2.9. (а) Let us choose a point Bi on ray MAi, such that MBi ¼ MA
1
i
, i ¼ 1, . . . , n.
AA
Note that Bi Bj ¼ MAiiMA
j
j
.
Indeed, if rays MAi and MAj are not on the same line, we obtain that triangle
MAiAj is similar to triangle MBiBj.
BB
Hence, it follows that Aii Ajj ¼ MB
MAi ¼ MAi MAj .
i 1

AA
Therefore, Bi Bj ¼ MAiiMA
j
j
.
If rays MAi and MAj are on the same line, then
   

   1 1  MA MA Ai Aj
Bi Bj ¼ MBi MBj  ¼  ¼ i j
 ¼ :
MAi MAj MAi  MA MAi  MAj
1.2 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line 31

Then, the inequality we need to prove is equivalent to the following inequality


B1B2 þ B2B3 þ . . . þ Bn  1Bn  B1Bn. The equality holds true if B1, B2, . . . , Bn
are on the same line (in the mentioned order).
If M 2 B1Bn, then A1, A2, . . . , An 2 B1Bn. It is clear that points M, A1, A2, . . . ,
An are on the same line, in the following order: M, A1, A2, . . . , An or M, An, An  1,
. . . , A1 or Ak, Ak  1, . . . , A1, M, An, An  1, . . . , Ak þ 1 or Ak þ 1, . . . , An, M, A1,
. . . , Ak, where k is an arbitrary positive integer not greater than n.
If M 2= B1Bn, then

∠A1 A2 A3 þ ∠A1 MA3 ¼ ∠A1 A2 M þ ∠A3 A2 M þ ∠A1 MA3 ¼



¼ ∠MB1 B3 þ ∠B1 B3 M þ ∠B1 MB3 ¼ 180 :

Therefore, points M, A1, A2, A3 are on the same circle. In a similar way, one
obtains that points M, A2, A3, A4, ...,M, An  2, An  1, An are on the same circle. Then,
points M, A1, A2, . . . , An are on the same circle (in the given order).
1
(b) 1. We have that MAMB ¼ MBMC
1
þ MCMD
1
þ MDMA
1

(see the proof of problem 1.2.9а).


qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1
Hence, using the Cauchy’s inequality, we obtain that MAMB  3 3 MAMBMC 1
2
MD2
.
pffiffiffi
Therefore, MC  MD  3 3MA  MB.
(c) 2. Note that ∠AMB ¼ 135 , ∠CMD ¼ 45 . Thus, it follows that MCMD
MAMB ¼ SMAB ¼
SMCD

ρðM;CDÞ
¼ ρðM;AB
ρðM;ABÞ
AB
Þ þ 1 is the smallest if ρ(M, AB) is the largest, i.e. M is the
midpoint of arc AB.
pffiffiffi
MAMB  ctg 8 ¼ 3 þ 2 2.
Therefore, MCMD 2π

1.2.10. For points M, A, B, E and N, C, D, F using problem 1.2.9а we obtain that


AM þ BM  ME and CN þ DN  NF.
Thus, it follows that

AM þ MB þ MN þ CN þ DN  ME þ MN þ NF  EF:

This ends the proof.


0 0
1.2.11. Let points G and H be symmetric to points G and H with respect to line BE,
respectively. As AB ¼ BD and AE ¼ ED, then points A and D are symmetric with
0 0 0 0 0
respect to the line BE. Using problem 1.2.10, we obtain that BG þ G D þ G H þ H
0
E þ H A  CF.
0 0 0 0 0 0
Now, note that BG þ G D þ G H þ H E þ H A ¼ BG þ GA þ HG þ HE þ HD.
Therefore, AG þ BG þ HG þ HE þ HD  CF.
0 0
1.2.12. (a) Let points B and C be symmetric to points B and C with respect to lines
0 0 0 0
AM and DM, respectively. Note that BM ¼ MB , CM ¼ C M, ∠B MC ¼ 120 
(∠BMA þ ∠ CMD) ¼ 60 .
Therefore B0 C0 ¼ B0 M ¼ BM ¼ BC 2.
0 0 0 0
We have that AB þ B C þ C D  AD or AB þ BC 2 þ CD  AD.
32 1 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line

(b) Note that ∠A1B1C1 ¼ ∠ B1C1D1 ¼ . . . ¼ ∠ F1A1B1 ¼ 120 .

2 þ 2 þ 2  A1 C1 :
According to problem 1.2.12а, we have that AB BC CD

In a similar way we obtain that 2 þ 2 þ 2  B1 D1 , :::, AF


BC CD DE
2 þ 2 þ 2  F1 B1 :
AB BC

Summing up all these inequalities, we deduce that (see problem 1.2.5b)


3
p  A1 C1 þ B1 D1 þ . .. þ F1 B1 ¼
2
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
¼ A 1 B 1 2 þ B 1 C 1 2 þ A 1 B 1  B 1 C 1 þ B 1 C 1 2 þ C 1 D1 2 þ B 1 C 1  C 1 D1
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
þ ::: þ A1 F1 2 þ A1 B1 2 þ A1 F1  A1 B1 ¼
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
¼ ðA1 B1 þ B1 C1 þ . . . þ A1 F1 Þ2 þ ðB1 C1 þ C1 D1 þ . . . þ A1 B1 Þ2 þ ðA1 B1 þ B1 C1 þ .. . þ A1 F1 ÞðB1 C1 þ C1 D1 þ . . . þ A1 B1 Þ
pffiffiffi
¼ 3p1 ,

pffiffi
thus, p  2 3 3 p1 :
This ends the proof.
1.2.13. Points A, B are on the sides of a polygon and divide its perimeter to two equal
parts. Note that for any point C, belonging to any side of the polygon, we have that
OC  OM þ MC  ACþBC 2  a2, where O is the center of segment AB (Figure 1.14).
Thus, a circle with radius a2 and center O covers this polygon.
This ends the proof.
1.2.14. (a) Given a tetrahedron SA1A2 . . . An with a vertex S. Consider scanning its
lateral surface, making the “cross section” along the edge SA1 (see Figure 1.15).
Given that the sum of the planar angles at vertex S is equal to 180 . Then
∠A1SA10 ¼ 180 and 2SA1 < A1A2 þ A2A3 þ . . . þ An  1An þ AnA10 ¼ A1A2 þ A2A3
þ . . . þ An  1An þ AnA1.
(b) Let A be the intersection point of line A1S with a side of polygon A1A2 . . . A0n A1,
different from A1 (see the solution of problem 1.2.14а). Hence, if A 2 AkAk þ 1,
(An þ 1  A10 ), then A1A2 þ . . . þ AkA > A1S þ SA, SA þ AAk þ 1 þ . . .
þ AnA10 > SA10 .
Therefore, A1A2 þ . . . þ An  1An þ AnA1 > 2SA1.
1.2.15. Consider the layout of the side surface of the cube (Figures 1.16 and 1.17).
pffiffiffi
Note that AA0 ¼ 3 2 and

Figure 1.14
1.2 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line 33

Figure 1.15

Figure 1.16

Figure 1.17
34 1 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line

AB þ BC þ CD þ DE þ EF þ FA ¼ AB þ BC þ CD þ DE þ EF þ FA0  AA0
pffiffiffi
¼ 3 2:

Second Proof We have that

AB þ BC þ CDq þffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
DE þ ffiEF þ FA ¼
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
¼ a1 þ a2 þ b21 þ b22 þ c21 þ c22 þ d21 þ d 22 þ e21 þ e22 þ f 21 þ f 22 
2 2
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
 ða1 þ b1 þ c1 þ d1 þ e1 þ f 1 Þ2 þ ða2 þ b2 þ c2 þ d 2 þ e2 þ f 2 Þ2 ¼ m,

(see problem 1.2.5а).


Note that if a1 þ b1 þ c1 þ d1 þ e1 þ f1 ¼ a, then a2 þ b2 þ c2 þ d2 þ e2 þ f2¼
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
¼6  a, then m ¼ a2 þ ð6  aÞ2 ¼ 2a2  12a þ 36 ¼ 2ða  3Þ2 þ 18 
pffiffiffi
3 2.
pffiffiffi
Therefore, it follows that AB þ BC þ CD þ DE þ EF þ FA  3 2.
This ends the proof.
1.2.16. Let P ¼ A1A2 þ A2A3 þ . . . þ An  1An.
Consider Figure 1.18.
We have that P > P1 þ P2 þ P3 þ P4 and P1  AB  sin α, P2  BC, P3  CD,
P4  AD  sin (90  α).
Thus, it follows that

P > AB  sin α þ BC þ CD þ AD  cos α 


 minðAB; ADÞð sin α þ cos αÞ þ BC þ CD 
 minðAB; ADÞðsin 2 α þ cos 2 αÞ þ BC þ CD 
¼ minðAB; ADÞ þ BC þ CD:

Hence, we obtain that

A1 A2 þ A2 A3 þ ::: þ An1 An > minðAB; BCÞ þ AB þ BC:

This ends the proof.

Figure 1.18
1.2 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line 35

1.2.17. Lemma Let convex polygons B1B2 . . . Bp and C1C2 . . . Cm not have any
common interior points. Then, there exists a line l passing through one of the sides
of the polygons and separating these polygons.
Indeed, let us choose a point O inside of the polygon B1B2 . . . Bp, such that O is
not on lines BiCj. Let k be the smallest positive integer, such that the image of the
polygon B1B2 . . . Bp by homothety with the center Oand ratio k has a common point
with the polygon C1C2 . . . Cm.
Then, the following two cases are possible (Figure 1.19a, b).
In both cases the proof of the lemma is straightforward.
The proof of the problem follows from the lemma and problem 1.2.16.
1.2.18. (a) Let segment AB intersect circle ω, CD is tangent to the circle ω and CD||
AB (Figure 1.20a).
We have that AC þ AB þ BD > CP þ PD ¼
¼ AC þ AM þ BD þ BN. Therefore, AB > AM þ BN.
If segment AB does not intersect circle ω (Figure 1.20b), then

AB  AC þ CD þ BD ¼ AC þ CP þ PD þ DB ¼ AC þ CM þ BD þ DN
¼ AM þ BN

In this case, such placement of the points is also possible, as it is shown in


Figure 1.21. Then, we have that AB < BK < BN < BN þ AM.
(c) According to problem 1.2.18а, we have that

Figure 1.19
36 1 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line

Figure 1.20

Figure 1.21

AM  BC þ BN  AC  AMðBN þ CK Þ þ BN ðAM þ CK Þ > CK ðAM þ BN Þ


 CK  AB:

Therefore, AM  BC þ BN  AC > CK  AB.


This ends the proof.

Problems for Self-Study

1.2.19. Given two circles with radiuses R1, R2, such that the distance between their
centers is equal to d and d þ R1 < R2. Prove that R2  R1  d  XY  d þ R1 þ R2,
where X and Y are arbitrary points of these two circles.
1.2.20. Prove that in any quadrilateral there are at least two sides a and b, such that
1  ba < 1, 875.
1.2.21. Prove that any hexagonal cross section of a unit cube by a plane passing
pffiffi
through its center has an area not less than 3 4 2.
1.2 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line 37

1.2.22. In a quadrilateral ABCD angles A and C are not less than 90 . Prove that the
perimeter of the inscribed quadrilateral in the quadrilateral ABCD is not less than
2AC (see problem 2.3.6).
1.2.23. (a) In a tetrahedron SABC all planar angles at vertex S are equal to 60 .
Prove that AB þ BC þ AC  SA þ SB þ SC.
(b) In a convex hexagon ABCDEF any two of diagonals AD, BE and CF make
an angle of 60 . Prove that AB þ BC þ CD þ DE þ EF þ FA  AD þ BE þ CF.
(c) Among all convex quadrilaterals with given diagonals and given angles between
them find the quadrilateral with the smallest perimeter.
Hint
(а) Let SA ¼ a, SB ¼ b, SC ¼ c; then
sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
a 2 pffiffi3ffi 2 
b
2 pffiffiffi 2
3
AB þ BC þ AC ¼ b þ a þ c þ b
2 2 2 2
sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
c 2 pffiffi3ffi 2
þ a þ c ,
2 2

and it is left to use the inequality of problem 1.2.5а.


pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
(b) Note that x2 þ y2  xy  xþy 2 :
(c) Use the inequality of problem 1.2.5b.
1.2.24. Given a convex n-gon on a plane. Let ak be the length of its k-th side and dk
be the length of its projection on a line containing that side. Prove that
d1 þ d2 þ ::: þ dn > 2.
a1 a2 an

1.2.25. Prove that for any polyhedron there are three edges, from which you can
construct a triangle.
1.2.26. Given an infinite set of points S on a plane, such that in any 1
1 square
there are finitely many number of points of the set S. Prove that there are two
distinct points A and B from the set S, such that for any other point X belonging to
the set S it holds true min(XA; XB)  0, 999AB.
Hint Proceed the proof by contradiction argument.
1.2.27. Given a triangle ABC, such that ∠BAC  60 . Let M be the midpoint of side
BC and P be any point in plane ABC. Prove that PA þ PB þ PC  2AM.
Hint Let the rotation by the angle 60 and center A, point P moves to point P1 and
point C moves to point C1. Prove that PA þ PB þ PC ¼ PB þ PP1 þ P1C1 
BC1  2AM.
1.2.28. On the sides of a unit square, as on hypotenuses, are externally constructed
right-angled triangles. Let A, B, C, D be the vertices of the right angles and O1, O2,
38 1 Theorem on the Length of the Broken Line

O3, O4 be the incenters of these triangles, respectively. Prove that the area of
quadrilateral:
(a) ABCD is not greater than 2.
(b) O1O2O3O4 is not greater than 1.
Hint
(a) Let M and N be the midpoints of the opposite sides of the square. Then
AC  AM þ MN þ CN ¼ 2.
(b) Prove that if points O1, O2, O3, O4 are on a circle, circumscribed around the
pffiffiffi
square, then O1 O3  2.

1.2.29. Let SABC be a tetrahedron. Prove that


sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
H2
SSAB þ SSBC þ SSAC  ðAB þ BC þ ACÞ2 þ S2ABC ,
4

where H is the length of the altitude of tetrahedron SABC, drawn from the vertex S.
Hint See problem 1.2.5а.
1.2.30. Let P be the projection of point M on a plane containing points A, B, C.
Prove that if from segments PA, PB, PC one can construct a triangle, then one can
construct a triangle from segments MA, MB, MC too.
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Hint We have that MA þ MB ¼ AP2 þ MP2 þ BP2 þ MP2 
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ðAP þ BPÞ2 þ 4MP2 (see problem 1.2.5a).

1.2.31. Let ABC be a triangle. Prove that 2pr  ama  pR.


Hint See the solution of problem 1.2.7.
1.2.32. Let A1, B1, C1 be points on sides BC, AC, AB of triangle ABC, respectively.
pffiffiffi
Prove that A1 B1 þ B1 C1 þ A1 C1  3minðAA1 ; BB1 ; CC1 Þ.
Hint See the solutions of problems 1.2.7 and 1.2.3.
Chapter 2
Application of Projection Method

This chapter consists of four sections and is devoted to the projection method.
The projection method is one of the fundamental methods applied in order to deal
with geometric inequalities.
In this chapter we learn some techniques on how the projection method can be
applied and to prepare a background for the application of projection method: in
Section 2.1 we consider several problems and some properties of convex polygon
lying inside of another polygon, in Section 2.2 we consider some problems with a
sufficient condition for comparison of lengths of two broken lines on the plane; in
Section 2.3 we deal with the inscribed polygons with the least perimeter and in
Section 2.4 we consider problems that can be proved using these properties and the
projection method.
The main statement that we are going to use in order to apply the projection
method is the following: if A0 B0 is the orthogonal projection of segment AB onto a
line l or onto a plane α, then AB  A0 B0 .
In Section 2.1 selected problems are those that deal with geometric inequalities
related to two figures, such that one of them is inside of the other one. In this
section, problems 2.1.1 and 2.1.10 are used as the main techniques of proofs.
In Section 2.2 is provided a sufficiency condition of comparing the sum of the
length of the segments belonging to two sets of segments on the plane. This
beautiful condition is given in problem 2.2.18. Moreover, the following problems
demonstrate the application of this condition.
In Section 2.3 are given the solutions, for the triangle and quadrilateral, of the
following problem: given a convex n-gon A1A2 . . . An. Inscribe to A1A2 . . . An a
polygon B1B2 . . . Bn, such that B1B2 . . . Bn has the least perimeter (in Section 4.1
are provided some generalizations of this problem, see problem 4.1.18).
The last section of this chapter (Section 2.4) is devoted to the application of
projection method in different problems.
Some problems in this chapter were inspired by [4, 8, 9, 12, 13,
15]. Nevertheless, even for these problems the authors have mostly provided their
own solutions.

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017 39


H. Sedrakyan, N. Sedrakyan, Geometric Inequalities, Problem Books
in Mathematics, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-55080-0_2
40 2 Application of Projection Method

2.1 Convex Polygon Lying Inside of Another Polygon

2.1.1. Prove that, if a convex polygon lays inside of other polygon, then the
perimeter of an internal polygon is less than the perimeter of the external polygon.
2.1.2. Prove that, if the sum of the plane angles at the top of a pyramid is greater than
180 , then each lateral edge of a pyramid is smaller than the half-perimeter of its base.
2.1.3. Consider a convex quadrilateral with sides a , b , c , d laying inside of a unit
1 1 1 1
square. Prove that þ þ þ > 4.
a b c d
2.1.4. Prove that, if a regular hexagon with side length b lays inside of an equilateral
a
triangle with side length a, then b < .
3
2.1.5. Prove that, if a rectangle is covered by a right-angled triangle, so that its
smaller side is on a hypotenuse, then it is possible to cover this rectangle by the
same right-angled triangle, such that its two sides are situated on the legs.
2.1.6. (a) Let S1 and S2 be squares with sides a and b such that they are inside of a
unit square. Given that they have no common points. Prove that a þ b < 1.
(b) Given that regular n-gons with sides b and c are located inside of a regular n-gon
with side a and have no common points. Prove that b þ c < a.
2.1.7. If a regular polygon B1B2 . . . Bn is inscribed into polygon A1A2 . . . An
(B1 2 A1A2, B2 2 A2A3, . . ., Bn 2 AnA1), where ∠A1 ¼ ∠A2 ¼ . . . ¼ ∠An, then
A1A2 . . . An is also a regular polygon and one can place in polygon B1B2A3 . . .
AnA1 a polygon equal to B1B2 . . . Bn, so that its sides are parallel to the sides of
polygon A1A2 . . . An.
2.1.8. Let two non-intersecting triangles with altitudes h1 , h2 , h3 and h01 , h02 , h03 lay
pffiffiffi  
inside of a unit square. Prove that 2  minðh1 ; h2 ; h3 Þ þ min h01 ; h02 ; h03 .
2.1.9. (a) Prove that, if a regular 2n -gon with a side length a2 lays inside of a regular
2n-gon with a side length a and center O, then it covers point O.
(b) A regular n-gon with a side length b is inside of a regular n-gon with a side
a
length a and does not contain its circumcenter. Prove that b <  π .
2cos 2 2n
2.1.10. Let a convex polygon M is inside of triangle ABC. Prove that polygon M can
be covered by triangle ABC, so that one of the sides of polygon M lays on one of the
sides of the triangle.
2.1.11. Consider two triangles, such that one triangle has sides a, b, c, the other has
sides a0 , b0 , c0 . Which relations between numbers a, b, c and a0 , b0 , c0 are necessary
and sufficient in order the first triangle to be covered by the second one?
2.1.12. Prove that, if triangle A1B1C1 is covered by a triangle ABC, then

(a) A1 B1 þ B1 C1 þ A1 C1  maxðA1 B1 ; B1 C1 ; A1 C1 Þ 
 AB þ BC þ AC  maxðAB; BC; ACÞ,
2.1 Convex Polygon Lying Inside of Another Polygon 41

(b) T(A1B1C1)  T(ABC), where for a triangle XYZ T(XYZ) ¼ min


(MX þ MY þ MZ), and M is any point of a plane XYZ.
2.1.13. Let a triangle altitudes h01 , h02 , h03 be inside of a triangle with altitudes h1, h2,
 
h3. Prove that min h01 ; h02 ; h03  minðh1 ; h2 ; h3 Þ.
2.1.14. Let a triangle be inside of the non-acute-angled triangle. Prove that the first
triangle can be in the second one in such a way that two of its vertices are on the
largest side of the second triangle.
2.1.15. Let an equilateral triangle A1B1C1 be inside of the non-acute-angled triangle
pffiffiffi
ABC (∠C  π2). Prove that AB  3A1 B1 .\
2.1.16. Given on a plane an equilateral triangle XYZ with the side length equal to
1 and an equilateral triangle DEF, such that ∠DEF ¼ 20 . Prove that the area of a
convex figure containing triangles XYZ and DEF is greater than or equal to 12 cos 10 .
2.1.17. Let 1  2 rectangle be inside of three mutually non-intersecting squares.
Given that the side lengths of the squares are equal to a, b, and c. Prove that
a þ b þ c  2.
pffiffi
2.1.18. Given that a triangle ABC is covered by a unit square. Prove that r  541,
where r is the inradius of triangle ABC.

Solutions

2.1.1. Let us construct on the sides of the internal polygon, outside of it, half-strips,
with parallel edges perpendicular to corresponding sides of the polygon (Figure 2.1).
It is clear, that the perimeter of the internal polygon does not exceed that part of
the perimeter of the external polygon which is inside of these strips.
Hence, the perimeter of the internal polygon is less than the perimeter of the
external polygon.
2.1.2. Given a pyramid SA1A2 . . . An with a vertex S. Consider the layout of its
lateral surface making the cut along the edge SA1 (Figure 2.2).

Figure 2.1
42 2 Application of Projection Method

Figure 2.2 A 1'

Аn
A1
S

A2

A3

Figure 2.3 K
N B C

M A D L

Since according to the statement of the problem, the sum of the plane angles at the
vertex S is greater than 180 , then triangle SA1 A01 lays inside of polygon A1 A2 :::An A01 .
According to problem 2.1.1 2SA1 þ A1 A01 < A1 A2 þ A2 A3 þ :::þ An A01 þ A1 A01 .
2.1.3. According to problem 2.1.1, we have that a þ b þ c þ d < 4. If
a þ bþ 1c þ d1  4, then by summing up these two inequalities, we deduce that
1 1
      
a þ 1a þ b þ 1b þ c þ 1c þ d þ d1 < 8. This leads to a contradiction, as
x þ 1x  2 (x > 0). Therefore, 1a þ 1b þ 1c þ d1 > 4.
2.1.4. It is sufficient to notice that the radius of the circle inscribed into a hexagon is
less than the radius of the circle inscribed into the triangle.
2.1.5. Without loss of generality we can assume that rectangle is inscribed in a
right-angled triangle (Figure 2.3).
Since AB  AD, then we have that MN  BC > KC. Thus, it follows that
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
NC ¼ MC2  MN 2 < MC2  KC2 ¼ MK, where MNBA is a rectangle, such
that triangle NCF can be placed inside of a triangle MKL similar to it.
2.1.6. (a) At first, let us prove the following lemma.
Lemma If a square PQRS with a side length a is inscribed in a rectangle ABCD
(Figure 2.4), then ABCD is also a square and the square with a side a can be placed
inside of pentagon ABQRD, such that the sides of the square would be parallel to
AB and AD.
2.1 Convex Polygon Lying Inside of Another Polygon 43

Figure 2.4 B Q C

P1 Q1
Q2
P P2

R2 R

S2
S1 R1

A S D

Figure 2.5

a b

Indeed, consider the rotation of square PQRS around point O by an angle 90 .
Then point R will turn into point Q, hence line CD will turn into a line BC.
Consequently, point O is equidistant from sides CD and BC. Similarly, we obtain
that point O is equidistant from sides AB and BC, AD and AB. From above it follows
that ABCD is a square with center O.
Consider a square P1Q1R1S1 with center O, such that its sides are parallel to AB,
AD, and P1Q1 ¼ PQ (Figure 2.4).
!
Perform a translation by a vector Q1 Q2 . Therefore, square P1Q1R1S1 turns into a
square P0 Q0 R0 S0 that is inside of pentagon ABQRD, as one can easily prove that
Q1Q2 ¼ PP2 ¼ SS2. This ends the proof of the lemma.
Using the lemma, we can place the square with a side a inside of a unit square, so
that their sides are parallel and again the square with a side a would not have
common points with a square with a side b (Figure 2.5).
Using the lemma once again, we obtain that the sides of the squares with sides
a and b, which do not have common points, are parallel to the sides of the unit
square. It is not difficult to prove that a þ b < 1.
(b) Let a regular n-gon B1B2 . . . Bn with a side b is inside of a regular n-gon with a
side length a. Let us draw lines passing through the vertices of B1B2 . . . Bn and
parallel to the sides of the n-gon with side a (Figure 2.6).
44 2 Application of Projection Method

Figure 2.6
а

c B2
B3
A2

B1
b
A1 Bn An

Figure 2.7

l
Πc
c
dc
db b

Πb Πa

According to problem 2.1.7 A1A2 . . . An is a regular n-gon. It is not difficult to


prove that a regular n-gon with a side c can have a common point only with one of
the triangles B1A2B2, B2A3B3 , . . . , BnA1B1. Then according to problem 2.1.7,
without loss of generality, one can assume that the regular n-gon with a side b is
inside of the regular n-gon with a side a, so that the sides of these polygons are
parallel. Similar statement is true for a regular n-gon with a side c (Figure 2.7).
Let l be a line passing along one of the sides of the polygons with sides
b and c and separating these polygons (see the solution of problem 1.2.17). Let
strips Πa, Πb, and Πc be those with minimal widths that contain these polygons
having widths da, db, dc and their boundaries are parallel to line l.
It is clear that db þ dc < da and ddba ¼ ba, ddac ¼ ac. Thus, b þ c < a.

2.1.7. Note that ∠B1 A2 B2 ¼ ∠B2 A3 B3 ¼ ::: ¼ ∠Bn A1 B1 ¼ π  2π n , (Figure 2.8). 


Let ∠A2B1B2 ¼ α, then ∠A2 B2 B1 ¼ 2π n  α, ∠A 3 B 2 B 3 ¼ π  π  2πn þ n α

¼ α, ∠A3 B3 B2 ¼ 2π n  α. Hence ΔA2B2B1 ¼ ΔA3B3B2. Consequently, B1A2 ¼ B2A3,


A2B2 ¼ A3B3. Similarly, we obtain that A1B1 ¼ A2B2 ¼ . . . ¼ AnBn and B1A2 ¼
B2A3 ¼ . . . ¼ BnA1. Therefore A1A2 ¼ A2A3 ¼ . . . ¼ AnA1, this means that
A1A2 . . . An is a regular n-gon. Let O be the center of a regular n-gon A1A2 . . . An.
2.1 Convex Polygon Lying Inside of Another Polygon 45

Figure 2.8 А3
B3¢
B2 B3

A2 B2¢

O
B1

B1¢
A1 Bn An

Figure 2.9

P1
l
P2
d1

d2 P

Note that OB1 ¼ OB2 ¼ . . . ¼ OBn, or in the other words, O is the center of
regular n-gon B1B2 . . . Bn. Choose points B01 , B02 , :::, B0n on segments OA1,
OA2, . . . , OAn correspondingly, so that OB0 1 ¼ OB0 2 ¼    ¼ OB0 n ¼ OB1. Since
points B1, B2, . . . , Bn, B01 , B02 , :::, B0n lay on the same circumference, then from the
condition B1 B2 ¼ B02 B03 it follows that B1 B02 B2 B03 is an equilateral trapezoid.
   
Consequently, ρ B02 ; B1 B2 ¼ ρ B2 ; B02 B03 . Similarly, one can prove that
         
ρ B1 ; B01 B02 ¼ ρ B02 ; B1 B2 ¼ ρ B2 ; B02 B03 ¼    ¼ ρ Bn ; B0n B01 ¼ ρ B01 ; Bn B1 .
!
Let B02 M⊥B1 B2 and M 2 B1B2, then at translation by a vector B02 M the image of
the regular n-gon B01 B02 :::B0n will be in a polygon B1B2A3 . . . AnA1.
2.1.8. Let straight line l contains one of the sides of the given triangles and separates
these triangles (Figure 2.9).
Consider bands Π1, Π2, Π containing these triangles and the square with minimal
widths d1, d2, and d, their boundaries being parallel to line l. It is clear that
pffiffiffi  
d  d1 þ d2. Since 2  d and d1  min (h1, h2, h3), d2  min h01 ; h02 ; h03 , then
pffiffiffi  
2  minðh1 ; h2 ; h3 Þ þ min h01 ; h02 ; h03 .
46 2 Application of Projection Method

Figure 2.10

2.1.9. (a) Suppose that the polygon with a side a2 does not contain point O, then the
polygon symmetric to the given polygon with respect to point O is also inside of the
polygon with a side a. Then, according to problem 2.1.6(b), a2 þ a2 < a. This leads to
a contradiction.
(b) At first, let us prove that the circumcircle of the regular n-gon with side b does
not have points outside of the circumcircle of the regular n-gon with side a.
Indeed, assume that these circles intersect. Let us choose point M on the larger
circle, such that it is not a vertex of the regular n-gon with a side a and is inside
of the smaller circle (Figure 2.10).
Let given regular n-gons be A1A2 . . . An (A1A2 ¼ a) and B1B2 . . . Bn. Assume that
point M is on the smaller arc A1A2.
We have that ∠A1 MA2 ¼ πðn1 n
Þ
and that polygon A1A2 . . . An is inside of angle
∠A1MA2.
Consequently, polygon B1B2 . . . Bn also is inside of that angle.
Hence, ∠A1 MA2 > max ∠Bi MBj > π ðn1 Þ
n . This leads to a contradiction.
i, j
Let us denote the radiuses of these circles by Ra and Rb and their centers by
O and O1. From aforesaid, it follows that Ra  Rb þ OO1, and since point O is not
inside of polygon B1B2 . . . Bn, then OO1 > rb, where rb is the radius of the circle
inscribed in B1B2 . . . Bn.
a b a
Thus, Ra > Rb þ rb, or > . We deduce that b < π.
2 sin πn π b 2cos 2 2n
2 sin þ
n 2tg π
n
2.1.10. It is enough to prove the problem for triangle A1B1C1 (Figure 2.11a, b),
where A1B1 k AB, B1C1 k BC, A1C1 k AC.
Consider the following two cases: Figure 2.11a, b.
Let us consider first the case of Figure 2.11a. Perform a rotation around vertex C2
by some angle, so that one of the sides with vertices C2, B2, A2 of polygon
M becomes for the first time parallel to lines A1B1, A1C1, or B1C1, respectively.
Let u 2 [u1, u2], u1 and u2 being the values of u for aforesaid rotations (in positive
and negative directions). Let us denote by Mu the image obtained by a rotation of
2.1 Convex Polygon Lying Inside of Another Polygon 47

Figure 2.11 B
B1

C2 A2
u nf(u) j-u
mf(u) Mu
a g
A1 B2 C1
A C
a

B
B1

u
mf(u)

Mu
a g
A1 B2 C1
A C
b

polygon M around C2 with subsequent similarity transformations with similitude


centers A1 and B1. Note that ΔA2B2C2 is inscribed in triangle A1B1C1
It is clear that some of the sides of polygons Mu1 and Mu2 are on one of the sides
of triangle A1B1C1. Let C2B2 ¼ mf(u), A2B2 ¼ nf(u) .
Let us prove that, on segment [u1, u2], function f(u) accepts its maximal value at
point u1 or u2. Indeed, we have that

mf ðuÞ sin u nf ðuÞ sin u


A1 C1 ¼ A1 B2 þ B2 C1 ¼ þ sin ðφ  uÞ:
sin α sin γ

Thus, it follows that

A1 C1 sin α sin γ A1 C1 sin α sin γ


f ð uÞ ¼ ¼ ,
m sin u sin γ þ n sin ðφ  uÞ sin α a sin ðu þ φ1 Þ

where a, φ, and φ1 are constants. Since, in case u 2 [u1, u2] f(u) > 0, or equivalently,
sin(u þ φ1) > 0, then on segment [u1, u2], function sin(u þ φ1) accepts its minimal
value at point u1 or u2. Hence, on segment [u1, u2], function f(u) accepts its
minimal value at points u1 or u2.
The proof is similar for the case of Figure 2.11b. This ends the proof.
48 2 Application of Projection Method

Figure 2.12 C'

a' b'

a b

c
B' c' A'

C'

a' b'
ha'

a b

c
B' c' A'
Π a'

Figure 2.13

2.1.11. According to problem 2.1.10, if the first triangle is covered by the second
triangle, then one can assume that one of the sides of the first triangle lays on the
side of the second triangle. Let us find necessary and sufficient conditions for the
first triangle to be covered by the second one in a way shown in Figure 2.12.
Let ha0 , hb0 , hc0 be the altitudes of the triangle with sides a0 , b0 , c0 drawn to the
sides a0 , b0 , c0 , correspondingly, and Πa0 , Πb0 , Πc0 be the projections of the first
triangle on the straight lines, containing heights ha0 , hb0 , hc0 (Figure 2.13).
Let us prove that, or order that, one can place the triangle with sides a, b, c inside
of the triangle with sides a0 , b0 , c0 in a way shown in Figure 2.12, it is necessary and
sufficient that conditions

ha0  Πa0 , hb0  Πb0 , hc0  Πc0 ð2:1Þ

hold true.
The necessity of the conditions ha0  Πa0 follows from the fact that the triangle
0 0 0 0 0
 sides a, b, c is inside of a band with boundaries B C and l1 , where A 2 l1 ,
with
0  0 0
l1 B C , (see Figure 2.12). Similarly, one can prove the necessity of conditions
hb0  Πb0 and hc0  Πc0 .
2.1 Convex Polygon Lying Inside of Another Polygon 49

C'

a'
a
b b'

β' β α α'
B' B A A'
Figure 2.14

Figure 2.15
C

d j l
E F
l1

Now, if condition (2.1) is satisfied, then it is clear that c  c0 , otherwise Πa0 > ha0 .
Let us consider Figure 2.14.
!
If the parallel displacement of point C by a vector BB0 has moved it in the shaded
half-band, then it means that hb0 < Πb0 . This leads to a contradiction. This means
that, if condition (2.1) is satisfied, then the first triangle can be placed inside of the
second one.
Note that, if point C and straight line l (Figure 2.15) are given, then the
projection of segment CE (E 2 l ) on line l1 is equal to CE| cos (φ  δ)|.
Thus, we obtain that Πc0 ¼ hc , Πb0 ¼ 12 ða  j sin ðα0 þ βÞj þ b  j sin ðα  α0 Þjþ
c sin α0 Þ, Πa0 ¼ 12 ða  j sin ðβ0  βÞj þ b  j sin ðβ0 þ αÞj þ c sin β0 Þ (see the proof of
problem 2.2.1a). Then, condition (2.1) can be rewritten as:

1
hc0  hc , hb0  ða  j sin ðα0 þ βÞj þ b  j sin ðα  α0 Þj þ c sin α0 Þ,
2 ð2:2Þ
1
ha  ða  j sin ðβ0  βÞj þ b  j sin ðβ0 þ αÞj þ c sin β0 Þ:
0
2

It is clear that for condition (2.2) one needs only the values of a, b, c, a0 , b0 , c0 .
Note that, for two triangles 18 variants of dispositions (similar to Figure 2.12)
are possible and for the first triangle to be covered by the second triangle, it is
50 2 Application of Projection Method

necessary and sufficient that condition (2.2) is satisfied at least for one of these
18 variants.
2.1.12. We have to prove that f(A1B1C1)  f(ABC), if ΔABC covers ΔA1B1C1,
where f(ABC) 2 R and that f(ABC) ¼ f(MNK), if ΔABC ¼ ΔMNK. According to
problem 2.1.10, one can assume that one of the sides of triangle A1B1C1 lays on
one of the sides of triangle ABC. Without loss of generality, we can assume that two
sides of triangle A1B1C1 lay on two sides of triangle ABC, one of the two sides of
triangle A1B1C1 coincides with one of the sides of triangle ABC.
Indeed, in the case of Figure 2.16a, we have that

f ðA1 B1 C1 Þ  f ðA1 B1 A2 Þ  f ðAB1 A2 Þ  f ðAB1 CÞ  f ðABCÞ:

Therefore, f(A1B1C1)  f(ABC), while in the case of Figure 2.16b, we have that
f(A1B1C1)  f(A1B1B2)  f(A1BB2)  f(A1BC)  f(ABC). Thus, it follows that
f(A1B1C1)  f(ABC).
(a) Let triangles A1B1C1 and ABC are as it is shown in Figure 2.17.

Figure 2.16 C C

A2 B2
C1

C1

B B1 A1 AB B1 A1 A
a) б)

Figure 2.17 Cº C1

g1

g
b=b1 a1 a

a=a1 b1 b
Aº A1 c1 B1 B
c
2.1 Convex Polygon Lying Inside of Another Polygon 51

Let us consider the following three cases: max(α1, β1, γ 1) ¼ γ 1, max(α1, β1, γ 1) ¼ α1,
and max(α1, β1, γ 1) ¼ β1.
I. If max(α1, β1, γ 1) ¼ γ 1. Therefore, max(α, β, γ) ¼ γ. Note that ∠CB1B ¼
180  β1 > 90 , which means that a > a1. Hence, a þ b ¼ a þ b1 > a1 þ b1.
II. If max(α1, β1, γ 1) ¼ α1, then α ¼ α1  β1 > β. Consequently, max(α, β, γ) ¼ α
or max(α, β, γ) ¼ γ.
If max(α, β, γ) ¼ α, then b þ c ¼ c þ b1 > b1 þ c1.
If max(α, β, γ) ¼ γ, then γ  α ¼ α1  γ 1. Therefore, ∠CB1B ¼ 180  β1 >
90 . Consequently, a > a1, this means that a þ b ¼ a þ b1 >
a1 þ b 1  b 1 þ c 1.
III. Let max(α1, β1, γ 1) ¼ β1. Consider the following three cases:
1. max(α, β, γ) ¼ β, then a þ c ¼ a þ BB1 þ c1 > a1 þ c1.
2. max(α, β, γ) ¼ α, then β1  α1. Consequently b1  a1, hence b þ c ¼
b1 þ c  a 1 þ c > a 1 þ c 1.
3. max(α, β, γ) ¼ γ. In this case, let us notice that if point E moves from
point B1 to point B along segment B1B, then the value of
∠AEC  ∠ACE decreases from β1  γ 1 (β1  γ 1  0) to the value of
β  γ (β  γ  0). Consequently, on segment B1B exists such point
E that ∠AEC ¼ ∠ACE. Then a1 þ c1  AE þ CE ¼ AC þ CE ¼
b þ CE  a þ b. Consequently, a1 þ c1  a þ b (∠CEB > 90 , if point
E does not coincide with point B).
This ends the proof of (a).
(b) In order to end the proof, note that if max(α, β, γ)  120 , then T(ABC) ¼
AB þ BC þ AC  max (AB, BC, AC) (see problem 1.2.8) and if max(α, β, γ) <
120 , then T(ABC) ¼ BB0 (Figure 2.18).
Indeed, since max(α, β, γ) < 120 , then quadrilateral ABCB0 is convex and point
B is outside of the circumcircle of the equilateral triangle ACB0 . Let point М0 be such

Figure 2.18 B

M0
M
A 600 C
0 0
60 60


52 2 Application of Projection Method

that AМ0 ¼ AM and ∠MAM0 ¼ 60 (Figure 2.18). Then ΔAMC ¼ ΔAM0 B0 and conse-
quently, AM þ BM þ CM ¼ MM0 þ BM þ M0 B0  BB0 ¼ BM0 þ M0B0 ¼ BM0 þ
AM0 þ CM0. This means that T(ABC) ¼ BB0 . Note that T(ABC) ¼ BM0 þ AM0 þ
CM0 > BM0 þ AM0 > AB and T(ABC) ¼ BB0 < AB þ AB0 ¼ AB þ AC. Similarly, one
can prove that T(ABC) > BC, T(ABC) > AC, T(ABC) < BC þ AC, T(ABC) <
AB þ BC.
Without loss of generality, we can assume that side A1C1 is on side AC.
Consider the following cases:
I. If max(α, β, γ) < 120 , max(α1, β1, γ 1) < 120 , then convex quadrilateral
A1B1C1B10 has a diameter T(A1B1C1) and is located inside of convex quadri-
lateral ABCB0 with a diameter T(ABC). Hence T(A1B1C1)  T(ABC).
II. If max(α, β, γ)  120 , max(α1, β1, γ 1) < 120 , then according to problem
2.1.12a, we have that

T ðABCÞ ¼ AB þ BC þ AC  maxðAB þ BC þ ACÞ 


 A1 B1 þ B1 C1 þ A1 C1  maxðA1 B1 þ B1 C1 þ A1 C1 Þ > T ðA1 B1 C1 Þ:

Therefore, T(ABC) > T(A1B1C1).


III. If max(α, β, γ)  120 , max(α1, β1, γ 1)  120 , then according to problem
2.1.12a, we have that T(ABC)  T(A1B1C1).
IV. If max(α, β, γ) < 120 , max(α1, β1, γ 1)  120 , then without loss of generality,
one can assume that these triangles are ABC and AB1C, with vertex B1 being on
side AB and ∠AB1C ¼ 120 . Then, the proof is similar to the proof of case I.
2.1.13. Let min(h1, h2, h3) ¼ h1 and Π is a band with a minimal width containing the
triangle with altitudes h01 , h02 , h03 and with boundaries perpendicular to the altitude
with a length h1 (see Figure 2.19).  
Then, minðh1 ; h2 ; h3 Þ  h  min h01 ; h02 ; h03 , where h is the width of the band Π.
2.1.14. According to problem 2.1.10, one can assume that one side of the second
triangle is on one side of the first triangle and that the second triangle is in the first
triangle.
Without loss of a generality, we can assume that possible cases are those
presented in Figure 2.20. In the case of Figure 2.20a the proof of the problem is
obtained by rotating triangle AB1C around point A by angle ∠B1AB.
In the case of Figure 2.20b, if AB1  AC, then it is sufficient to consider the
triangle, symmetric to triangle A1B1C with respect to the bisector of angle ∠CAB.

Figure 2.19

h1
2.1 Convex Polygon Lying Inside of Another Polygon 53

Figure 2.20 B
B

B1
B1

A≡A1 C1 C A A1 C≡C1
a b

Figure 2.21 B
B1

A C

Figure 2.22 C

C1

A A1 H M B1 B

Now, let AB1 > AC, then ∠AB1C < ∠ACB1. Consequently, ∠BB1 C > π2.
If ∠AB1A1  ∠BCB1, then the proof of the problem is obtained by rotating
triangle A1B1C around point C by angle  ∠AB1A1.
Let AB1 > AC and ∠AB1A1 > ∠BCB1, then ∠AB1C1 < ∠ABC. Since
B1C < BC, A1B1 < AB, ∠AB1C1 < ∠ABC, then if triangle A1B1C1 is placed in
such a way that points B1 and B coincide, while point A1 is on side AB, then vertex
C1 of triangle A1B1C1 is inside of triangle ABC. This ends the proof.
Remark If ABC is an acute triangle, then the statement of the problem is wrong
(see the example in Figure 2.21).
2.1.15. According to problem 2.1.10, one can assume that points A1 and B1 lay on
segment AB (Figure 2.22).
54 2 Application of Projection Method

Note that ∠AC1 B  ∠ACB  π2. Therefore, if M is the midpoint of segment AB,
pffiffiffi
then AB  2C1 M  2C1 H ¼ 3A1 B1 .
Remark Similarly, one can prove that, if the triangle with altitudes h1, h2, h3 is
inside of non-acute triangle ABC, then the inequality max(AB, BC, AC)  2 min (h1,
h2, h3) holds true.
Another proof of the problem can be obtained by using problem 2.1.13.
2.1.16. (Solution of M.D. Kovalev.) First we need to prove that the side of an

equilateral triangle, containing ΔDEF, is not less than p2ffiffi3 cos 10 . According to
problem 2.1.10, it is sufficient to consider the following two cases (see Figure 2.23).
pffiffi  
In case (a), we have that 23 a  cos 10 . Consequently, a  p2ffiffi3 cos 10 .
 
In case (b), we have that a  D1 E ¼ sin 100
sin 60
 ¼ p2ffiffi3 cos 10 , where ∠FD1E ¼ 60 .

Consider now the minimal equilateral triangle X1Y1Z1 with sides parallel to the
sides of triangle XYZ, which contains triangles XYZ and DEF (Figure 2.24).

a E a a a

1
F

200
D F D1 D E
a b
Figure 2.23

Y1 Y1 Y1

Y x Y y
a x a a
Y
х

X Z X Z
y z
XºX1 Z Z1 X1 Z1 X1 Z1
a b c
Figure 2.24
2.1 Convex Polygon Lying Inside of Another Polygon 55

The area of a convex figure containing ΔXYZ and ΔDEF is not less than:
pffiffiffi pffiffiffi pffiffiffi
3 1 3 3
in case (a): þ x¼ þ ða  1Þ,
4 2 4 4
pffiffiffi pffiffiffi pffiffiffi
3 xþy 3 3
in case (b): þ ¼ þ ða  1Þ,
4 2 4 4
pffiffiffi pffiffiffi pffiffiffi
3 xþyþz 3 3
in case (c): þ ¼ þ ða  1Þ.
4 2 4 4
pffiffi 
It remains to note that 43 a  12 cos 10 .
Remark Among all convex figures covering any triangle with the sides not exceed-
ing 1, the least area has a triangle ABC, such that ∠A ¼ 60 , AB ¼ 1, and the altitude

drawn to AB is equal to cos10 . The area of that triangle is equal to 12 cos 10 .
2.1.17. Let sides AB and BC of rectangle ABCD be equal to 1 and 2 respectively,
and squares with sides a, b, c are not mutually intersecting and lay inside of
rectangle ABCD.
Note that, for each side of a rectangle one can find a “good” square, such that,
while moving it in a direction perpendicular to the given side, it does not intersect
with the other squares before intersecting with that side. According to the
Dirichlet’s principle there is a “good” square simultaneously for two sides of the
rectangle. If these are opposite sides, then this ends the proof (see Figure 2.25). In
the case of Figure 2.25a, we have that a  x þ y ¼ MN and b  ND. Consequently,
a þ b  CD ¼ 1. We have that c  1. Thus, a þ b þ c  2.
In the case of Figure 2.25b, according to problem 2.1.6a, we have that
b þ c  2  MN, a  MN. Therefore, a þ b þ c  2  MN þ MN ¼ 2.
If these sides are adjacent, then it is possible to assume that the “good” square is
located on one of these sides (see the proof of problem 2.1.6a). By repeating these
reasonings for the new squares we eventually find that one of these squares lies in
one of the corners of the rectangle (see Figure 2.26).

B C B C
x М
y b
2-MN
x N
b c b

A D A M N D
2-MN
a b

Figure 2.25
56 2 Application of Projection Method

Figure 2.26 B P C

A Q D

b a b a c b a
c

c
a b c

Figure 2.27

b x y
c y
c x
а c b
d
a
a
a b
Figure 2.28

If the projections of any two squares on side CD do not intersect, then as it has
been proven above, a þ b þ c  2. Otherwise, there exists a straight line parallel to
AD crossing all three squares. If none of the squares with sides b and c crosses
segment PQ (see Figure 2.26), then as we have already proven, a þ b þ c  2. Thus,
possible positions of the squares are presented in fig 2.27.
From the proof of problem 2.1.6a, it follows that instead of Figure 2.27 one can
consider the variants presented in Figure 2.28. In the case of Figure 2.28a, we have
that a þ b þ c  a þ b þ d  2 and, in the case of Figure 2.28b, we have that a þ b þ
c  a þ x þ y þ c ¼ (a þ x) þ (c þ y)  1 þ 1 ¼ 2.
2.1.18. At first, note that if point B is on side AD of triangle ACD, then rABC  rADC
(by rXYZ we denote the radius of the incircle of triangle XYZ).
Indeed, let O and O1 be the centers of the incircles of triangles ABC and ADC,
respectively. Since, these points belong to bisector AA1 of triangle ADC, then
∠ACO ¼ 12 ∠ACB  12 ∠ACD ¼ ∠ACO1 . Therefore, AO  AO1. Let E, E1 2 AC
and OE ⊥ AC, O1E1 ⊥ AC. Then, ΔAOE  ΔAO1E1, thus rrADC ABC
¼ AO
AO
1
 1.
2.1 Convex Polygon Lying Inside of Another Polygon 57

Let triangle ABC is covered by a unit square 1, and vertex B does not belong to
any of the sides of the square. Then, if ray AB intersects one of the sides of the
square at point D, we have that rABC  rADC.
From the aforesaid, it follows that, it is sufficient to prove the inequality
pffiffi
r  541, for triangle ABC, such that all of its vertices are on the sides of the square.
Let the vertices of the triangle are on the sides of square MNPQ and MN ¼ 1.
Consider the following cases:
(a) A, B 2 MN, C 2 PN, with B being on segment AN.
pffiffi pffiffi pffiffi
Since r ¼ r ABC  r ACN  r APN  r MPN ¼ 1  22 < 541, then r < 541.
(b) A, B 2 MN, C 2 PQ with B being on segment AN. Let C0 be the midpoint of the
segment PQ, then
pffiffiffi
1 1 51
r ¼ rABC  rACN  rMCN ¼  ¼ r MCN0 ¼ :
MC þ CN þ 1 MC0 þ C0 N þ 1 4

(c) A 2 MQ, B 2 PQ, C 2 PN, and AM  CN.


Without loss of generality, one can assume that, the point A and M coincide.
Indeed, it is sufficient to consider a unit square M1N1P1Q1, where M1 A,
N1 2 PN and M1N1 k MN, Q 2 M1Q1.
pffiffi
Let us prove that, if A M, B 2 PQ, C 2 PN, then r  541.
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Denote BQ ¼ x, CN ¼ y, then we have to prove that 1 þ x2 þ 1 þ y2 þ
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi  p ffiffi
ffi 
ð1  xÞ2 þ ð1  yÞ2  1 þ 5 ð1  xyÞ, where x, y 2 [0; 1].
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Firstly, we prove that 1 þ x2  1 þ y2 þ ð1  xÞ2 þ ð1  yÞ2 
pffiffiffi
5ð1  xyÞ.
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
If xy  12, then 1 þ x2  1 þ y2 þ ð1  xÞ2 þ ð1  yÞ2  1 þ xy  32 >
pffiffi p ffiffi

2  5ð1  xyÞ.
5

If xy < 12, then


pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1 þ x2  1 þ y2 þ ð1  xÞ2 þ ð1  yÞ2 ¼ ð1  xyÞ2 þ ðx þ yÞ2
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2
þ ð 1  2xyÞ þ ð1  x  yÞ2
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2
 ð1  xy þ 1  2xyÞ þ 12
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
¼ ð1  xyÞ2 þ 2ð1  xyÞ 1  2xy þ 1  2xy þ 1
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
 ð1  xyÞ2 þ 2ð1  xyÞð1  2xyÞ þ 1  2xy þ 1
pffiffiffi
¼ 5ð1  xyÞ

(see problem 1.2.5a).


58 2 Application of Projection Method

Note that
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1 þ x2 þ 1 þ y2 þ ð1  xÞ2 þ ð1  yÞ2
 
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffipffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
2 2
 1 þ x 1 þ y þ ð1  x Þ þ ð1  y Þ
2 2

pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi  pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

¼  1 þ x2  1 1 þ y2  1 þ 1
x2 y2
¼ 1  pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi  pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi  1  x  y,
1 þ x2 þ 1 1 þ y2 þ 1

therefore
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffipffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1 þ x2 þ 1 þ y 2 þ ð1  x Þ2 þ ð1  y Þ2  1 þ x 2 1 þ y 2
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
þ ð1  xÞ2 þ ð1  yÞ2 þ 1  xy 
 pffiffiffi
 1 þ 5 ð1  xyÞ:

Problems for Self-Study

2.1.19. Let a triangle with sides a1, b1, c1 be inside of the triangle with sides a, b, c.
Is it true that a21 þ b21 þ c21  a2 þ b2 þ c2 ?
2.1.20. Given points A1, B1, and C1 on sides BC, CA, AB of triangle ABC, respec-
tively, such that ∠AB1C1 þ ∠BC1A1 þ ∠CA1B1 ¼ 180 . Prove that triangle
A1B1C1 can be placed inside of one of the triangles AB1C1, BC1A1, CA1B1.
2.1.21. Given a point O inside of triangle ABC and points A1, B1, C1 on sides BC,
CA, AB, respectively, such that OB1 ⊥ AC, OA1 ⊥ BC, OC1 ⊥ AB.
Prove that triangle A1B1C1 can be placed inside of one of triangles AB1C1,
BC1A1, CA1B1.
2.1.22. Let a convex n-gon be inside of a unit square. Prove that one can find three
vertices A, B, C of this n-gon, so that the area of triangle ABC does not exceed
(a) 12, for n ¼ 3, 4, (b) 14, for n ¼ 5, (c) 18, for n ¼ 6, (d)n82 , for n  7.
2.1.23. Let a convex quadrilateral with the sum of the lengths of the diagonals equal
to d0 be inside of a convex quadrilateral with the sum of the lengths of the diagonals
equal to d. Prove that d0 < 2d.
2.1.24. Let a convex polygon with area S2 and perimeter P2 be inside of the convex
polygon with area S1 and perimeter P1. Prove that 2PS11 > PS22 .
2.1.25. Let a convex quadrilateral with the sum of the lengths of the pairwise
distances of its vertices (i.e., the sum of all its sides and diagonals) equal to S2 be
inside of a convex quadrilateral with the same sum equal to S1. Prove that S2 < 4S31 .
2.2 Sufficient Conditions for Comparison of Lengths of Two Broken Lines on the Plane 59

2.1.26. Is it possible to place inside of a unit square two regular triangles with sides
qffiffi
greater than 23, so that they do not intersect?
2.1.27. Prove that a regular n-gon with a side a can be placed inside of a regular
n þ 1-gon with a side a.
2.1.28. Let a parallelogram with altitudes h1 and h2 be inscribed in a convex
quadrilateral ABCD. Prove that quadrilateral ABCD can be placed inside of a
rectangle with one of the sides equal to h1 þ h2.
2.1.29. (a) Prove that, if a convex polygon lays inside of a circle, then the perimeter
of the polygon is less than the circumference of the circle.
(b) Prove that, if a circle lays inside of a convex polygon, then the circumference of
the circle is less than the perimeter of the polygon.
Hint Inscribe regular polygons in the circle.
2.1.30. Let O be a given point in triangle ABC with the lengths of sides AB ¼ c,
BC ¼ a, CA ¼ b, a  b  c. Prove that there exists a vertex of the triangle, such that
the distance from point O does not exceed pbffiffi2.
Hint Consider cases when the point is either in triangle ADC or in ABD, where
AD ⊥ BC(D 2 BC).

2.2 Sufficient Conditions for Comparison of Lengths


of Two Broken Lines on the Plane

2.2.1. (a) Given on a plane two sets of segments A1B1, . . . , AnBn and C1D1, . . . ,
CmDm, the sum of lengths of projections of the segments of the first set on any
straight line of this plane is greater than the sum of the lengths of projections of the
segments of the second set on the same straight line. Prove that the sum of the
lengths of the segments of the first set is greater than the sum of the lengths of the
segments of the second set.
(b) Given on a plane two sets of segments A1B1, . . . , AnBn and C1D1, . . . , CmDm.
Let l1, . . . , ln be a straight line on that plane, such that AiBi ⊥ li, i ¼ 1, . . . , n.
Given that for any i (i ¼ 1, . . . , n) the sum of the lengths of projections of the
segments of the first set on any straight line li is greater than the sum of the
lengths of projections of the segments of the second set on the same straight
line. Prove that the sum of lengths of segments of the first set is greater than the
sum of lengths of the segments of the second set.
(c) Given on a plane two sets of segments A1B1, . . . , AnBn and C1D1, . . . , CmDm.
Let l1, . . . , ln be such straight line on that plane that AiBi ⊥ li, i ¼ 1, . . . , n. It is
known that for any value of i (i ¼ 1, . . . , n) the sum of the lengths of pro-
jections of the segments of the first set on any straight line li is greater than the
60 2 Application of Projection Method

sum of the lengths of projections of the segments of the second set on the same
straight line. Prove that the sum of the lengths of the segments of the first set on
any line on the plane is greater than the sum of the lengths of the segments of
the second set on the same line.
2.2.2. Prove that for points A, B, C, D, E on a plane the following inequality
AB þ CD þ DE þ EC  AC þ AD þ AE þ BC þ BD þ BE holds true.
2.2.3. Four points on the straight line are denoted by letters A, B, C, D. Prove that
AE þ ED þ |AB  CD| > BE þ CE holds true for any point E outside that line.
2.2.4. Given on a plane vectors ~ a, ~ c, ~
b,~ d, whose sum is equal to ~ 0. Prove that
             
~
a þ ~
b þ ~
c þ ~
d   ~ d þ ~
a þ~ b þ~d  þ ~ d .
c þ~
2.2.5. Given on a plane two arbitrary triangles ABC and A1B1C1. Prove that

AA1 þ AB1 þ AC1 þ BA1 þ BB1 þ BC1 þ CA1 þ CB1 þ CC1 


 AB þ BC þ AC þ A1 B1 þ B1 C1 þ C1 A1 :

2.2.6. Given on a plane several segments, whose sum of lengths is equal to π. Prove
that it is possible to choose a straight line, so that the sum of lengths of projections
of the segments on this straight line is (a) less than 2, (b) more than 2.
2.2.7. Given on a plane several vectors, whose sum of lengths is equal to π. Prove
that it is possible to choose several of these vectors, so that the length of their sum is
greater than 1.

Solutions

2.2.1. (a) Given on a plane a segment AB and a straight line l. Consider projection of
segment AB on line l and denote by l(AB) the length of that projection.
If AB ⊥ l, then l(AB) ¼ 0. Similarly, for polygon ϕ denote by l(ϕ) the length of
the projection of polygon ϕ on line l.
It is not difficult to prove that, if point C belongs to segment AB, then l(AB) ¼ l
(AC) þ l(CB). On the other hand, if polygon A1A2 . . . An is convex, then l(A1A2) þ l
(A2A3) þ . . . þ l(An  1An) þ l(AnA1) ¼ 2l(A1A2 ... An) and if segments AB and CD
are either on the same line or on the parallel lines, then
CD  l(AB) ¼ AB  l(CD).
(b) Let us first prove the following lemma.
Lemma If on a plane are given such segments M1N1, M2N2, . . . , MpNp ( p  2),
that no two of them are on the same or parallel lines, then there exists a convex and
M N M N
centrally symmetric polygon with sides M12N1 , M22N2 , :::, p2 p , M12N 1 , M22N2 , :::, p2 p ,
so that the sides with length M2i Ni are parallel to segments MiNi, for any 1  i  p.
We proceed the proof by mathematical induction.
2.2 Sufficient Conditions for Comparison of Lengths of Two Broken Lines on the Plane 61

Figure 2.29 M2 N2
N1

M1

Figure 2.30 d d’
fk Nk+1
fk ¢ A¢
О
A fk ¢¢
Mk+1

Figure 2.31

For p ¼ 2 the proof is presented in Figure 2.29


Assume that the statement holds true for p ¼ k, prove that it holds true for p ¼ k þ 1.
Given segments M1N1, M2N2, . . . , MkNk, Mk þ 1Nk þ 1. Consider a convex cen-
trally symmetric polygon ϕk, the sides of which are equal to M12N1 , :::, Mk2Nk , M12N1 ,
. . . , Mk2N k and are parallel to segments M1N1, M2N2, . . . , MkNk.
Consider a line d||Mk þ 1Nk þ 1 which has a common point with a polygon ϕk and
one of the half-planes with a boundary d contains the ϕk polygon (Figure 2.30).
It is clear that line d contains just one vertex of polygon ϕk, let us denote it by point
A. Let lines d and d0 are symmetric with respect to point O (O is the center of symmetry
of polygon ϕk) and A0 is the symmetric point of point A with respect to point O. Take
on lines d and d0 points B and C, such that AB ¼ A0 C ¼ Mk þ 1Nk þ 1/2 (Figure 2.31).
0
Note that polygon ϕk þ 1, which is the sum of figures ϕ0k , ABCA0 , and ϕ0 k , satisfies
to the conditions of the lemma. This ends the proof of the lemma.
If among segments A1B1, . . . , AnBn there are segments, for example, AiBi and
AjBj, i 6¼ j on the same or parallel lines, then instead of them we consider the
62 2 Application of Projection Method

Figure 2.32 fA

M¢ Bi

M O

Ai

li
E F

segment with length AiBi þ AjBj (parallel to segment AiBi). So, one obtains that
segments A1B1, . . . , AnBn satisfy to the conditions of the lemma.
Let ϕA be a convex polygon with a center of symmetry at point O, with the sides
parallel to segments A1B1, . . . , AnBn and equal to A12B1 , :::, An2Bn , A12B1 , :::, An2Bn .
The polygon (or segment) ϕC, for segments C1D1, . . . , CmDm with the same
symmetry center, is defined similarly.
Let us prove that polygon ϕC is inside of polygon ϕA. Otherwise, there exists
such a point M 2 ϕC, as it is shown in Figure 2.32.
Let M0 be the symmetric point to point M with respect to point O.
We have that

li ðA1 B1 Þ þ . . . þ li ðAn Bn Þ ¼ 2li ðϕA Þ  2MM0  2li ðϕC Þ ¼ li ðC1 D1 Þ þ . . . li ðCm Dm Þ:

Thus li(A1B1) þ . . . þ li(AnBn)  li(C1D1) þ . . . þ li(CmDm).


This leads to a contradiction.
Thus, ϕC is inside of ϕA. Then, according to problem 2.1.1.
A1B1 þ . . . þ AnBn > C1D1 þ . . . þ CmDm.

Remark
1. Similarly, one can prove that if among segments A1B1, . . . , AnBn there are two
located on non-parallel (crossing) lines and li(A1B1) þ . . . þ li(AnBn) 
li(C1D1) þ . . . þ li(CmDm), i ¼ 1, . . . , n, then A1B1 þ . . . þ
AnBn  C1D1 þ . . . þ CmDm.
2. If for any line l it holds true l(A1B1) þ . . . þ l(AnBn)  l(C1D1) þ . . . þ l
(CmDm), then A1B1 þ . . . þ AnBn  C1D1 þ . . . þ CmDm.
(c) Since ϕC is inside of ϕA (see the solution of problem 2.2.1b), then l(ϕC) < l(ϕA),
so 2l(ϕC) < 2l(ϕA). Therefore, l(A1B1) þ . . . þ l(AnBn) > l(C1D1) þ . . . þ l
(CmDm).
Remark One can prove that, if there are given segments A1B1, . . . , AnBn on a plane
and lines li ⊥ AiBi, i ¼ 1, . . . , n, then for any line l of that plane and for arbitrary
mi > 0, i ¼ 1, . . . , n, holds true the following inequality
2.2 Sufficient Conditions for Comparison of Lengths of Two Broken Lines on the Plane 63

m1 lðA1 B1 Þ þ . . . þ mn lðAn Bn Þ  minðm1 l1 ðA1 B1 Þ þ . . . þ mn li ðAn Bn ÞÞ:

2.2.2. According to remark 2 (see the solution of problem 2.2.1b) it is enough to prove
the inequality for the projections of points A, B, C, D, E on a line, i.e., it is enough to
solve the problem for the case when points A, B, C, D, E are on the same line.
As the inequality is symmetric with respect to points C, D, E, then we can take
that E lays between points C and D, then DE þ EC ¼ CD.
According to the triangle inequality AC þ AD  CD, BC þ BD  CD,
AE þ BE  AB. Summing up these three inequalities, we deduce that

AC þ AD þ AE þ BC þ BD þ BE  AB þ CD þ DE þ EC:

2.2.3. Let AB > CD (in the case of AB < CD the proof is similar). One has to prove
that
AE þ ED þ AB > CD þ BE þ CE: ð2:3Þ

According to problem 2.2.1b, it is enough to prove inequality (2.3) for the


projections of points A, B, C, D, E on a line li, where li is perpendicular to one of
the segments AE, ED, AB (see problem 2.2.1b; must be used as follows: if
li(A1B1) þ . . . þ li(AnBn)  li(C1D1) þ . . . þ li(CmDm), i ¼ 1, . . . , n, and there
exists a number j, such that lj(A1B1) þ . . . þ lj(AnBn) > lj(C1D1) þ . . . þ
lj(CmDm), then A1B1 þ . . . þ AnBn > C1D1 þ . . . þ CmDm).
If l ⊥ AE or AB, then we have an equality. While, if l ⊥ ED, then we have a strict
inequality.
In the case of AB ¼ CD, then we have to prove that AE þ ED > BE þ CE. Indeed,
parallelogram EBNC (see Figure 2.33) is inside of parallelogram AEDN.
Hence, 2BE þ 2CE < 2AE þ 2ED (see the solution of problem 2.1.1).
Remark In the case of AB ¼ CD, for the set of segments AE, ED, AB and the set of
segments CD, BE, CE, we have that l(AE) þ l(ED) þ l(AB) ¼ l(CD) þ l(BE) þ l
(CE), at l ⊥ AE or l ⊥ ED or l ⊥ AB. On the other hand, AE þ ED þ
AB > CD þ BE þ CE.

Figure 2.33 E

A B C D

N
64 2 Application of Projection Method

! ! !
2.2.4. Consider points A, B, C, D, such that a, BC ¼ ~
AB ¼ ~ b, CD ¼ ~
c, then
! ~
DA ¼ d. We have to prove that

AB þ BC þ CD þ DA  AC þ BD þ 2MN, ð2:4Þ

where M and N are the midpoints of segments BD and AC. According to remark
2 (see the solution of problem 2.2.1b) it is sufficient to prove inequality (2.4) for
projections of points A, B, C, D on a line, i.e., it is enough to solve the problem for
the case, when points A, B, C, D are on the same line.
We can assume that A(0), B(b), C(c), D(d), and b, c, d  0, d  b, then we must
prove that |c  b| þ |c  d|  c  2b þ |d þ b  c|.
If d þ b  c, then |c  b| þ |c  d|  |(c  b)  (c  d)| ¼ d  b ¼ c  2b þ |
d þ b  c|.
If d þ b < c, then |c  b| þ |c  d| ¼ c  b þ c  d  c  2b þ |d þ b  c|.
2.2.5. According to remark 2 (see the solution of problem 2.2.1b) it is sufficient to
prove the inequality for the projections of points A, B, C, A1, B1, C1 on a line, i.e., it
is enough to prove the problem for the case, when points A, B, C, A1, B1, C1 are on
the same line.
As the inequality is symmetric with respect to points A, B, C (A1, B1, C1), without
loss of generality one can assume that point B lays between points A and C and point
B1 lays between points A1 and C1, A1C1  AC.
Then AB þ BC þ AC þ A1B1 þ B1C1 þ A1C1 ¼ 2AC þ 2A1C1. Since AC  AB1
þ B1C, A1C1  A1B þ BC1, AC  AA1 þ CA1, A1C1  AC  AC1 þ CC1, then by
summing up these inequalities we obtain that

2AC þ 2A1 C1  AA1 þ AB1 þ AC1 þ BA1 þ BC1 þ CA1 þ CB1 þ CC1 :

Therefore

AB þ BC þ AC þ A1 B1 þ B1 C1 þ A1 C1 
 AA1 þ AB1 þ AC1 þ BA1 þ BB1 þ BC1 þ CA1 þ CB1 þ CC1 :

2.2.6. Given segments A1B1, . . . , AnBn. We can assume that any two segments do
not belong to the same or parallel straight lines. For n ¼ 1 the statement of the
problem is evident, let n  2.
Construct a polygon ϕA (see the solution of problem 2.2.1b).
(a) Let O be the center of symmetry of polygon ϕA, and d be the minimal of all
distances between opposite sides (Figure 2.34).

Figure 2.34 l fA

O d
2.2 Sufficient Conditions for Comparison of Lengths of Two Broken Lines on the Plane 65

Figure 2.35
fA

d1
O
l1

Since the circumference with a center O and radius d2 is inside of polygon ϕA, the
length of that circumference is less than the perimeter of polygon ϕA, i.e., πd < π
(see problem 2.1.29b). Then the sum of the lengths of the projections of the
segments A1B1, . . . , AnBn on line l is equal to 2d and 2d < 2 (Figure 2.34).
(b) Consider all diagonals of the ϕA polygon which pass through point
O (Figure 2.35) and let d1 be the length of the largest of them.
Since polygon ϕA is inside of the circumference with a center O and radius d21 , the
perimeter of polygon ϕA is less than the length of that circumference, i.e., πd1 > π
(see problem 2.1.29a). Then the sum of the lengths of the projections of the
segments A1B1, . . . , AnBn on line l1 (Figure 2.35) is equal to 2d1. Thus, it follows
that the sum is larger than 2.
! !  !   ! 
2.2.7. Let be given vectors A1 B1 , :::, An Bn , such that A1 B1  þ ::: þ An Bn  ¼ π.
Consider segments A1B1, . . . , AnBn, then according to problem 2.2.6b there
exists a straight line l, such that l(A1B1) þ . . . þ l(AnBn) > 2 (see notations in the
!
solution of problem 2.2.1). Let ~ e be a unit vector on line l and Ai Bi ,~ e  90 ,
!
i ¼ 1, . . . , k and Ai Bi ,~e > 90 , i ¼ k þ 1, . . . , n. Then, either l(A1B1) þ . . . þ l
(AkBk) > 1 or l(Ak þ 1Bk þ 1) þ . . . þ l(AnBn) > 1. Let l(A1B1) þ . . . þ l(AkBk) > 1.
 ! ! 
We have that A1 B1 þ ::: þ Ak Bk   lðA1 B1 Þ þ ::: þ lðAk Bk Þ > 1. Therefore,
 ! ! 
A1 B þ ::: þ A k Bk > 1.
1

Problems for Self-Study

2.2.8. Points C1, A1, B1 are taken correspondingly on sides AB, BC, AC of triangle
ABC, such that BA1 ¼ λBC, CB1 ¼ λCA, AC1 ¼ λAB, where 12 < λ < 1. Prove that for
perimeter P of triangle ABC and for perimeter P1 of triangle A1B1C1 it holds true
(2λ  1)P < P1 < λP.
2.2.9. Point O is inside of triangle ABC with a perimeter P. Prove that
P
2 < AO þ BO þ CO < P.
66 2 Application of Projection Method

2.2.10. Prove that, if the lengths of all sides and diagonals of a convex polygon is
less than d, then its perimeter is less than πd.
2.2.11. Given several convex polygons and it is known that it is impossible to draw
a straight line, so that it does not intersect any polygon and on both sides of it there
is at least one polygon. Prove that all these polygons can be confined within a
polygon with the perimeter not exceeding the sum of their perimeters.
2.2.12. Given on a plane several vectors, whose sum of the length is equal to 1.
Prove that they can be broken into three groups (possibly empty), so that the sum
pffiffi
of the lengths of the vectors in these groups is more than 32π3.
Remark Add to these n vectors another 2n vectors obtained from the vectors of the
given set by rotation by angle 120 clockwise or counterclockwise.
2.2.13. Given on a plane a convex n-gon. Let ak be the length of its k-th side and dk be
the length of the projection of n-gon on a line containing that side (k ¼ 1, 2, . . . , n).
Prove that da11 þ ::: þ dann  4.

Remark First prove the statement of the problem for centrally symmetric polygons.

2.3 Inscribed Polygons with the Least Perimeter

2.3.1.
 Given convex polygon A1A2 . . . An and  points B1, B2, . . . , Bn on its sides
B1 2 A1 A2 ; B2 2 A2 A3 ; :::; Bn 2 An A1 ; Bi Aj , so that for any points C1, . . . , Cn on
the side of polygon A1 . . . An (C1 2 A1A2, . . ., Cn 2 AnA1, Ci Aj ) the inequality
B1B2 þ B2B3 þ . . . þ Bn  1Bn þ BnB1  C1C2 þ C2C3 þ . . . þ Cn  1Cn þ CnC1
is true.
Prove that

∠Bn B1 A1 ¼ ∠B2 B1 A2 , ∠B1 B2 A2 ¼ ∠B3 B2 A3 , :::, ∠Bn1 Bn An


¼ ∠B1 Bn A1 : ð2:5Þ

2.3.2.
 Given convex polygon A1A2 . . . An and  points B1, B2, . . . , Bn on its sides
B1 2 A1 A2 ; B2 2 A2 A3 ; :::; Bn 2 An A1 ; Bi Aj , so that condition (2.5) of problem
2.3.1 is satisfied. Prove that for any points C1, . . . , Cn on the sides of polygon
A1A2 . . . An (C1 2 A1A2, ..., Cn 2 AnA1) the following inequality is true:
B1B2 þ B2B3 þ . . . þ Bn  1Bn þ BnB1  C1C2 þ C2C3 þ . . . þ Cn  1Cn þ CnC1.
2.3.3. Prove that if A1A2A3 is not an acute-angled triangle, then on its sides do not
exist such points B1, B2, B3 (B1 2 A1A2, B2 2 A2A3, B3 2 A3A1, Bi Aj) for which the
condition (2.5) of problem 2.3.1 is satisfied.
2.3.4. Prove that if A1A2A3 is an acute-angled triangle, then on its sides exist such
points B1, B2, B3 (B1 2 A1A2, B2 2 A2A3, B3 2 A3 A1 , Bi Aj for which the condition
(2.5) of problem 2.3.1 is satisfied.
2.3 Inscribed Polygons with the Least Perimeter 67

2.3.5. Given convex quadrilateral A1A2A3A4 and points B1, B2, B3, B4 on the sides of
that quadrilateral (B1 2 A1A2, B2 2 A2A3, B3 2 A3A4, B4 2 A4A1, Bi Aj ) so that the
condition (2.5) of problem 2.3.1 is satisfied. Prove that quadrilateral A1A2A3A4 is
inscribed and that

maxð∠A1 A2 A4 ; ∠A3 A2 A4 ; ∠A2 A3 A1 ; ∠A4 A3 A1 ; ∠A3 A4 A2 ; ∠A1 A4 A2 ; ∠A4 A1 A3 ; ∠A2 A1 A3 Þ


π
< :
2
ð2:6Þ

2.3.6. Prove that if a convex quadrilateral A1A2A3A4 is inscribed and for it condition
(2.6) of problem 2.3.5 is satisfied, then on the sides of that quadrilateral exist such
points B1, B2, B3, B4 (B1 2 A1A2, B2 2 A2A3, B3 2 A3A4, B4 2 A4A1, Bi Aj), for which
the condition (2.5) of problem 2.3.1 is satisfied.
2.3.7. Given a regular tetrahedron A1A2A3A4 with edge 1 and points B1, B2, B3, B4 on
its faces A2A3A4, A1A3A4, A1A2A4, and A1A2A3, respectively. Prove that
pffiffiffiffiffi
B1 B2 þ B2 B3 þ B3 B4 þ B4 B1  0, 4 10.
2.3.8. Given a cub ABCDA0 B0 C0 D0 with edge 1 and points B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6 on its
faces ABCD, AA0 B0 B, BB0 C0 C, A0 B0 C0 D0 , DD0 C0 C, AA0 D0 D, respectively. Prove that
pffiffiffi
B1 B2 þ B 2 B3 þ B 3 B4 þ B 4 B5 þ B 5 B6 þ B 6 B1  2 3 .

Solutions

2.3.1. Assume that condition (2.5) is not correct and let

∠Bn B1 A1 6¼ ∠B2 B1 A1 : ð2:7Þ

Consider point B02 symmetric to B2 with respect to straight line A1A2


(Figure 2.36).
Denote the intersection point of straight lines B02 Bn and A1A2 by B. Since
∠B2 BM ¼ ∠B02 BM ¼ ∠Bn BA1 , then according to (2.7) points B and B1 differ.
0 0
Take a point B1 on segment BB1 so that point B1 would lay on side A1A2. Let us
0
consider points B1 , B2 , :::, Bn . According to problem 1.1.8a,

Figure 2.36 An

Bn
A3
B2

M A2 B B1 A1
B'2
68 2 Application of Projection Method

Figure 2.37 ln
Bn-1
An

Bn

A3 bn l1

B2 b1 C1 A1
C1'
b1 B1
A2
C1''
l2

B02 B01 þ B01 Bn < B02 B1 þ B1 Bn , thus B2 B01 þ B01 Bn < B2 B1 þ B1 Bn , which means
that

B01 B2 þ B2 B3 þ ::: þ Bn1 Bn þ Bn B01 < B1 B2 þ B2 B3 þ Bn1 Bn þ Bn B1 :

This leads to a contradiction.


2.3.2. Let ∠BnB1A1 ¼ ∠B2B1A2 ¼ β1, ∠B1B2A2 ¼ ∠B3B2A3 ¼ β2, . . ., ∠Bn  1BnAn ¼
∠B1BnA1 ¼ βn. Draw through vertices A1, A2, . . . , An straight lines l1, l2, . . . , ln
parallel to lines B1Bn, . . , Bn  1Bn, respectively (Figure 2.37).
00 0
Let C10 and C1 be projections of point C1 on lines l1 and l2, C20 and C0 2 -
00
projections of point C2 on lines l2 and l3, etc., Cn0 and Cn - projections of point Cn
on lines ln and l1. We have that
00 00 00 00 00
C1 C2 þ C2 C3 þ ::: þ Cn1 Cn þ Cn C1  C1 C2 þ C2 C02 þ ::: þ Cn1 C0n þ Cn C01 ¼
¼ ðA2 C1 cos β1 þ A2 C2 cos β2 Þ þ ::: þ ðC1 A1 cos β1 þ Cn A1 cos βn Þ ¼
¼ A1 A2 cos β1 þ A2 A3 cos β2 þ ::: þ An A1 cos βn ¼
¼ ðA2 B1 cos β1 þ B1 A1 cos β1 Þ þ ::: þ ðA1 Bn cos βn þ An Bn cos βn Þ ¼
¼ B1 B2 þ B2 B3 þ ::: þ Bn1 Bn þ Bn B1 :

hence

C1 C2 þ C2 C3 þ ::: þ Cn1 Cn þ Cn C1  B1 B2 þ B2 B3 þ ::: þ Bn1 Bn þ Bn B1 :


2.3 Inscribed Polygons with the Least Perimeter 69

Remark
1. The equality holds true if and only if

C1 C2 k B1 B2 , C2 C3 k B2 B3 , :::, Cn1 Cn k Bn1 Bn , Cn C1 k Bn B1 :

2. For odd n the equality holds if C1 B1, C2 B2, . . . , Cn Bn.


2.3.3. Let ∠A1  90 and for points B1, B2, B3 condition (1) of problem 2.3.1 is
satisfied (Figure 2.38).
We have that

∠A2 þ ∠A3 ¼ 360  ð∠B2 B3 A3 þ ∠B2 B1 A2 Þ  ð∠B3 B2 A3 þ ∠B1 B2 A2 Þ ¼


¼ 180  ð∠B1 B3 A1 þ ∠B3 B1 A1 Þ þ 180  ð∠B3 B2 A3 þ ∠B1 B2 A2 Þ
¼ ∠A1 þ ∠B1 B2 B3 > ∠A1 :

Hence ∠A2 þ ∠A3 > ∠A1, which is wrong.


2.3.4. Let A3B1, A1B2, A2B3 be the altitudes of acute triangle A1A2A3 (Figure 2.39).

Figure 2.38 A1

B3
B1

A3 B2 A2

Figure 2.39 A1

B1
B3

A3 B2 A2
70 2 Application of Projection Method

Figure 2.40 A2

B2
B1
P
O A3
A1
B3
B4

A4

Since points B1 and B3 lay on the circumference with a diameter A1H, we have
∠B3B1A1 ¼ ∠B3HA1. Similarly we get that ∠B2B1A2 ¼ ∠B2HA2 and since
∠B3HA1 ¼ ∠B2HA2, then ∠B3B1A1 ¼ ∠B2B1A2.
The other two equalities are proved similarly.
Remark According to problems 2.3.1 and 2.3.3, a triangle with a minimum perim-
eter can be inscribed in the given triangle A1A2A3 if it is an acute triangle (necessary
condition).
On the other hand, according to problems 2.3.2 and 2.3.4 this is also a sufficient
condition.
2.3.5. We have that (Figure 2.40)
∠A2 þ ∠A4 ¼ π  ∠B2 B1 A2  ∠B1 B2 A2 þ π  ∠B4 B3 A4  ∠B3 B4 A4
¼ π  ∠B4 B1 A1  ∠B1 B4 A1 þ π  ∠B3 B2 A3  ∠B2 B3 A3 ¼ ∠A1 þ ∠A3 ,

thus quadrilateral A1A2A3A4 is inscribed.


Let us assume, that one of these angles is not less than π2, let ∠A1 A3 A4  π2.
Let ρ(M, l ) be the distance from point M to straight line l. Note that ρ(A3,
B1B2) ¼ ρ(A3, B2B3) ¼ ρ(A3, B3B4), similarly ρ(A1, B1B2) ¼ ρ(A1, B3B4). Hence line
A1A3 is a locus of points equidistant from straight lines B1B2 and B3B4 (in the region
of Π). Thus the bisectors of angles ∠B1B2B3 and ∠B4B3B2 intersect on line A1A3,
let that point be O. Note that points O and A3 are on the different sides of line B2B3,
which means that point O belongs to ray A3A1 and since ∠OB3 A3 ¼ π2, then
∠A1 A3 A4 < π2, which is wrong.
2.3.6. Let the diagonals of inscribed quadrilateral A1A2A3A4 intersect at point O and
points B1, B2, B3, B4 be the orthogonal projections of point O on the sides of
quadrilateral A1A2A3A4 (Figure 2.41).
We will prove that points B1, B2, B3, B4 satisfy condition (1) of problem 2.3.1.
2.3 Inscribed Polygons with the Least Perimeter 71

Figure 2.41 A2
B2
A3
B1

O
B3

А1

B4

A4

Since points B1 and B4 are on the circle with diameter A1O, then
∠B4B1A1 ¼ ∠B4OA1. We have ∠B4 OA1 ¼ π2  ∠B4 A1 O ¼ π2  ∠B2 A2 O ¼
∠B2 OA2 .
Since points B1 and B2 are on the circle with diameter A2O, then
∠B2OA2 ¼ ∠B2B1A2. Thus ∠B4B1A1 ¼ ∠B2B1A2. The other three inequalities
one can prove similarly.
Remark
1. According to problems 2.3.1 and 2.3.5, a quadrilateral with a minimum perim-
eter can be inscribed into the given quadrilateral A1A2A3A4 if the latter is
inscribed and condition (2.6) of problem 2.3.5 is satisfied (necessary condition),
and according to problems 2.3.2 and 2.3.6 these are also sufficient conditions.
2. If a quadrilateral with a minimum perimeter can be inscribed into the given
quadrilateral A1A2A3A4 then the number of these would be infinite. According to
remark 1 to problem 2.3.2, corresponding sides of all minimum possible perim-
eter quadrilaterals inscribed into A1A2A3A4 quadrilateral will be parallel to each
other (Figure 2.42).

2.3.7. Let M be the midpoint of edge A1A3. Denote points symmetric to B1, B2, B3,
B4 with respect to plane A2MA4 by B01 , B02 , B03 , B04 , respectively, and the midpoints of
the segments B03 B1 , B2 B02 , B3 B01 , B4 B04 by C1, C2, C3, C4,respectively.
Note that points C1 and C3 are on facets A2A3A4 and A1A2A4 respectively, and
points C2 and C4 are on segments MA4 and MA2, respectively
According to problem 1.1.9a (see the solution) we have that

B 1 B2 þ B 2 B3 B 2 B3 þ B1 B2 B3 B4 þ B4 B1 B1 B 4 þ B3 B 4
¼ þ þ þ
2 2 2 2
¼ B 1 B2 þ B 2 B3 þ B 3 B4 þ B4 B1 ,

thus C1C2 þ C2C3 þ C3C4 þ C4C1  B1B2 þ B2B3 þ B3B4 þ B4B1.


72 2 Application of Projection Method

Figure 2.42 A2

B1

B2
A1

A3
B4
B3

A4

Let N be the midpoint of edge A2A4.


Denote points symmetric to C1, C2, C3, C4 with respect to plane A1NA3 by
C01 , C02 , C03 , C04 , respectively, and the midpoints of segments C1 C01 , C2 C04 , C3 C03 , C4
C02 by D1, D2, D3, D4,respectively. Note that points D1, D2, D3, D4 are on segments
NA3, MA4, NA1, MA2, respectively. According to problem 1.1.9a we get

D1 D2 þ D2 D3 þ D3 D4 þ D4 D1 
C1 C2 þ C04 C01 C2 C3 þ C03 C04 C3 C4 þ C02 C03 C1 C4 þ C01 C02
 þ þ þ
2 2 2 2
¼ C1 C2 þ C2 C3 þ C3 C4 þ C4 C1 :

Thus D1D2 þ D2D3 þ D3D4 þ D4D1  C1C2 þ C2C3 þ C3C4 þ C4C1, which
means that D1D2 þ D2D3 þ D3D4 þ D4D1  C1C2 þ C2C3 þ C3C4 þ C4C1 
B1B2 þ B2B3 þ B3B4 þ B4B1, consequently,

B1 B2 þ B2 B3 þ B3 B4 þ B4 B1  D1 D2 þ D2 D3 þ D3 D4 þ D4 D1 
 ρðNA3 ; MA4 Þ þ ρðMA4 ; NA1 Þ þ ρðNA1 ; MA2 Þ þ ρðMA2 ; NA3 Þ,

where ρ(l1, l2) is the distance between straight lines l1 and l2.
We shall prove that one can choose on segments MA4 and NA3 points K and E,
respectively, so that KE ⊥ MA4, KE ⊥ NA3, then ρ(NA3, MA4) ¼ KE (Figure 2.43).
! ! !
Denote A3 A ¼ ~
1 a, A3 A ¼ ~
4 b, A3 A2 ¼ ~
c, A3 E ¼ λ, A4 K ¼ μ.
A3 N A4 M
We have that

! ¼ ! ! !
EA 3 þ A3 M þ MK ¼
EK
 
! ~ a ! λ
~
a ~
a
¼ λA3 N þ þ ð1  μÞMA 4 ¼¼  ~ c þ þ ð1  μ Þ ~
b þ~ b ¼
2 2 2 2
1

¼ μ~a þ ðλ þ 2  2μÞ~


b  λ~
c :
2
2.3 Inscribed Polygons with the Least Perimeter 73

Figure 2.43 A4

A2

K b

A1

M c

a

A3

 
  ! ~
!
Since aj ¼ ~
j~ b ¼ j~ a~
cj ¼ 1,~b ¼~ c ¼~
b~ a ¼ 12
c~ and EK ⊥ b þ~ c , EK ⊥


2~
b ~a , then μ~ a þ ð2  λ  2μÞ~ c ~
b  λ~ b þ~ c ¼ 0 and ðμ~
a þ ð2  λ  2μÞ

~ cÞ 2~
b  λ~ b ~a ¼ 0, thus 3λ  2μ þ 3 ¼ 0 and 2λ  3μ þ 3 ¼ 0. Hence, we
obtain that λ ¼ μ ¼ 35.
  r ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

2ffi
 ! pffiffiffiffiffi
Then ρðNA3 ; MA4 Þ ¼ EK ¼  EK  ¼ 0, 1 3~ ~
a þ b  3~ c ¼ 0, 1 10. Simi-
pffiffiffiffiffi
larly we get that ρðMA4 ; NA1 Þ ¼ ρðNA1 ; MA2 Þ ¼ ρðMA2 ; NA3 Þ ¼ 0, 1 10, thus
pffiffiffiffiffi
B1 B2 þ B2 B3 þ B3 B4 þ B4 B1  0, 4 10.
Another solution of this problem can be obtained by using a problem 4.1.24b.
Remark If points B1, B2, B3, B4 are on segments A3N, A4M, A1N, A2M, respectively,
pffiffiffiffiffi
and AA33BN1 ¼ AA44BM2 ¼ AA11BN3 ¼ AA22BM4 ¼ 35, then B1 B2 þ B2 B3 þ B3 B4 þ B4 B1 ¼ 0, 4 10.

2.3.8. Consider Cartesian coordinate system in the space and let B(0; 0; 0), A
(1; 0; 0), C(0; 1; 0), B0 (0; 0; 1), B1(x; y; 0).
Denote the points symmetric to B1, D1, D2, D3, D4 with respect to planes AA0 B0 B,
BB0 C0 C, A0 B0 C0 D0 , DD0 C0 C, AA0 D0 D by D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5, respectively. Then
D1(x; y; 0), D2(x; y; 0), D3(x; y; 2), D4(x; 2 þ y; 2), D5(2 þ x; 2 þ y; 2).
Note that

B1 B2 þ B2 B3 þ B3 B4 þ B4 B5 þ B5 B6 þ B6 B1 ¼
¼ D 1 B2 þ B2 B3 þ B3 B4 þ B4 B5 þ B5 B6 þ B6 B1 
 D 1 B3 þ B3 B4 þ B4 B5 þ B5 B6 þ B6 B1 ¼ D 2 B3 þ B3 B4 þ B4 B5 þ B5 B6 þ B6 B1 
 D 2 B4 þ B4 B5 þ B5 B6 þ B6 B1 ¼ D 3 B4 þ B4 B5 þ B5 B6 þ B6 B1 
 D 3 B5 þ B5 B6 þ B6 B1 ¼ D 4 B5 þ B5 B6 þ B6 B1  D 4 B6 þ B6 B1 ¼
¼ D 5 B6 þ B6 B1  D 5 B1 ,
74 2 Application of Projection Method

pffiffiffi
consequently B1 B2 þ B2 B3 þ B3 B4 þ B4 B5 þ B5 B6 þ B6 B1  D5 B1 ¼ 2 3.
(See also problem 4.1.24c.)

Problems for Self-Study

2.3.9. Given an inscribed quadrilateral ABCD. Prove that the perimeter of the
quadrilateral inscribed into ABCD is greater than or equal to 2AC sin ∠A.
2.3.10. Given straight lines l, m, and n. Find the triangle with the minimum possible
perimeter and the vertices on lines l, m, and n.
2.3.11. Given an inscribed quadrilateral ABCD. Find on lines AB, BC, CD, DA, such
points B1, B2, B3, B4, respectively, for which the sum B1B2 þ B2B3 þ B3B4 þ B4B1
would be minimal.

2.4 Method of Projections

2.4.1. Prove that radius of the incircle of the right-angled triangle is less than half of
its leg.
2.4.2. Several circles, the sum of lengths of which is equal to 10, are located inside a
unit square. Prove that one can find a straight line crossing at least four of these circles.
2.4.3. Non-self-crossing broken line of length 1000 is located inside a unit square.
Prove that that one can find a straight line parallel to one of the sides of a square
which would cross at least 500 segments of this broken line.
2.4.4. Given two straight lines a and b. A1B1, A2B2, A3B3 are perpendiculars drawn
from three consecutive points A1, A2, A3 on line a to line b.
Prove that A2B2  max (A1B1, A3B3).
2.4.5. Diagonals of a convex quadrilateral ABCD intersect at point O. Let P and Q be
the centers of circumcircles of triangles AOB and COD. Prove that PQ > ABþCD 4 .

2.4.6. Points A1, B1, and C1 are taken on sides BC, CA, and AB of non-obtuse
triangle ABC, respectively. Prove that 2(B1C1 cos α þ C1A1 cos β þ A1B1 cos γ) 
BC cos α þ AC cos β þ AB cos γ, where ∠A ¼ α, ∠B ¼ β, ∠C ¼ γ. Give an example
of an obtuse triangle for which the inequality does not hold.
2.4.7. Let circles of unit radiuses have no common internal points and be inside of a
band S. The band is formed by two parallel lines having a distance w. Let us call
these circles a k-cloud, if each line that intersects S, intersects also more than or
pffiffiffi
equal to k circles. Prove that for k-cloud w  2 þ 3 2k , where k 2 N and [a] is the
integer part of the number a.
2.4 Method of Projections 75

2.4.8. Let ON be the radius of the circle with a center at point O, which intersects
chord AB at point M at a right angle. Let P be an arbitrary point on the larger arc AB,
not coinciding with the point diametrically opposite to point N. Straight lines PM
and PN define points Q and R on the circumference and on chord AB, respectively.
Prove that RN > MQ.
2.4.9. In convex pentagon ABCDE, side AB is perpendicular to side CD, and side BC
is perpendicular to side DE. Prove that, if AB ¼ AE ¼ ED ¼ 1, then BC þ CD < 1.
2.4.10. (a) Opposite sides of convex hexagon ABCDEF are parallel (AB||DE, BC||
EF, CD||FA). Prove that RA þ RC þ RE  P, where RA, RC, RE are the radiuses of the
circumcircles of triangles FAB, BCD, and DEF, respectively, and p is the half-
perimeter of hexagon ABCDEF.
(b) Let M be an arbitrary point inside triangle ABC, Ra, Rb, Rc the distances of point
M from A, B, C, da, db, dc the distances from point M to lines BC, AC, and AB,
respectively. Prove that Ra þ Rb þ Rc  2da þ 2db þ 2dc.
(c) Let M be a point inside triangle ABC. Prove that one of the angles
∠MAB, ∠MBC, ∠MCA is less than or equal to 30 .
2.4.11. Prove that for an acute triangle ha þ hb þ hc  4R þ r.
2.4.12. Given points U and V on sides AB and CD of square ABCD, respectively.
Let straight lines DU and AV intersect at point P, and lines CU and BV at point Q.
Prove that PQ  12 AB.
2.4.13. Given 110 unit vectors on a plane, the sum of these being a zero vector.
Prove that of these 110 vectors one can choose such 55 vectors, that the modulus of
the sum of which will not be greater than 1.
2.4.14. Let the diagonals of convex quadrilateral ABCD intersect at point P. Points
Q, R, S, and T are the feet of the perpendiculars drawn from point P to lines AB, BC,
CD, and DA, respectively. Prove that

1
PQ þ PR þ PS þ PT  ðAB þ BC þ CD þ DAÞ:
2

2.4.15. Let ABCDEF be a convex hexagon. Given that AB ¼ CD ¼ EF. Prove that
AD þ BE þ CF  AB þ BC þ CD þ DE þ EF þ FA. For which hexagon does equal-
ity hold true?
2.4.16. The vertices of tetrahedron KLMN lay either (inside) on the facets or on the
edges of another tetrahedron ABCD. Prove that the sum of the lengths of all edges of
tetrahedron KLMN is less than 43 of the sum of the lengths of all edges of
tetrahedron ABCD.
2.4.17. Let M be a point inside a convex n-gon A1A2 . . . An and p be half-perimeter
∠An
of that n-gon. Prove that MA1 cos ∠A ∠A2
2 þ MA2 cos 2 þ ::: þ MAn cos 2  p.
1

2.4.18. (a) Points M, N, P are chosen on edges A1B1, C1C and AD of unit cube
ABCDA1B1C1D1, respectively. Prove that the perimeter of triangle MNP is not less
pffiffiffi
than 3 6=2.
76 2 Application of Projection Method

(b) Given a unit cube ABCDA1B1C1D1. Prove that the distance from the arbitrary
point in the space to one of straight lines A1B1, C1C, AD is not less than p1ffiffi2.
(c) Given two spheres with diameters d and D inside a unit cube so that they do not
pffiffiffi
have common points. Prove that d þ D < 3  3.

Solutions

2.4.1. Consider the projection of a circle on the edge.


2.4.2. Let us consider the projection of these circles on side AB of the square. The
sum of the lengths of these projections is equal to 10 π > 3. Thus, several segments
Δ1, Δ2, . . . , Δk, with the sum of their lengths greater than 3, are located on the unit
segment. We shall prove that there exists a point which belongs to at least four
segments.
Let different points A1, A2, . . . , Am be all endpoints of segments Δ1, Δ2, . . . , Δk
(Figure 2.44).
Replace segments Δ1, Δ2, . . . , Δk by segments of type AiAi þ 1, i ¼ 1, 2, . . . ,
m  1, segment AiAi þ 1 being taken as many times as it belongs to segments
Δ1, Δ2, . . . , Δk. It is clear that, by this replacement, the sum of the lengths of all
segments will not change.
Thus we can assume that any two segments either do not have any common
internal point or do not coincide. Let M1, M2, . . . , Mn be the left endpoints of these
segments. If each point Mi is a left endpoint of no more than three of those
segments, then taking one of each segments with left endpoints M1, M2, . . . , Mn
we obtain that the sum of the lengths of these segments is not greater than 1. Then
the sum of the lengths of all segments will be not greater than 3. This means that
there exists a point Mi which is a left endpoint of at least four segments. Thus there
exists a point M which is an internal point of at least four segments. Then straight
line l which passes through point M and is perpendicular to side AB of the square
would intersect at least four of these circles.
2.4.3. Consider the projections of the segments of the broken line on the two perpen-
dicular sides of the square. Let the lengths of the projections of the segments on one of
the sides be a1, a2, . . . , an and those on the other side b1, b2, . . . , bn (Figure 2.45).
Note that ai þ bi  ci, where ci is the length i-th segment of the broken line.
Therefore (a1 þ b1) þ . . . þ (an þ bn)  1000. Hence, it follow that a1 þ . . . þ
an  500 or b1 þ b2 þ . . . þ bn  500. To conclude the proof, see the solution of
problem 2.4.2.
2.4.4. If straight lines a and b are in the same plane, then it is easy to see that min
(A1B1, A3B3)  A2B2  max (A1B1, A3B3).

Figure 2.44 A B
A1 A2 Am
2.4 Method of Projections 77

Figure 2.45

bi ci bi
ai

ai

Figure 2.46 A1¢

B A2¢

A3¢

If the straight lines a and b are not in the same plane then we shall consider the
projections of points A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, B3 on the plane perpendicular to line b. Let
those points are A01 , A02 , A03 , and B (Figure 2.46).
  
Since max ∠BA0 2 A03 ; ∠BA0 2 A01  90 , hence it follows that max(BA0 1, BA0 3) >
BA0 2 and we have that BA0 1 ¼ B1A1, BA0 2 ¼ B2A2, BA0 3 ¼ B3A3. Therefore
A2B2 < max (A1B1, A3B3).
Remark Given segments AB and CD, then inequality SABM  max (SABC, SABD)
holds true for any point M of segment CD.
2.4.5. Note that the lengths of the projections of segment PQ on lines AC and BD
2 and 2 , respectively. Thus PQ þ PQ > 2 þ 2 , consequently, PQ
are equal to AC BD AC BD

> 4 > 4 (see the remarks of problem 1.1.4a).


ACþBD ABþCD

2.4.6. Let A2C2 be the projection of segment A1C1 on side AC. Since β  π2 and
A1C1  A2C2, therefore we deduce that 2A1C1 cos β  2A2C2 cos β ¼ 2 cos β
(AC  AC1 cos α  CA1 cos γ).
Similarly we get that 2A1B1 cos γ  2 cos γ(AB  AB1 cos α  BA1 cos β) and
2B1C1 cos α  2 cos α(BC  BC1 cos β  CB1 cos γ).
78 2 Application of Projection Method

Summing up these three inequalities we obtain that

2ðB1 C1 cos α þ C1 A1 cos β1 þ A1 B1 cos γ Þ  2AC cos β þ 2AB cos γ þ 2BC cos α
 2cos α  cos βðAC1 þ C1 BÞ  2cos β cos γ ðBA1 þ A1 CÞ  2 cos γ cos αðAB1 þ B1 CÞ
¼ 2BC cos α þ 2AC cos β þ 2AB cos γ  cos αðAB cos β þ AC cos γ Þ
 cos βðAB cos α þ BC cos γ Þ  cos γ ðAC cos α þ BC cos βÞ ¼
¼ 2BC cos α þ 2AC cos β þ 2AB cos γ  BC cos α  AC cos β  AB cos γ ¼
¼ BC cos α þ AC cos β þ AB cos γ:

Hence, it follows that 2(B1C1 cos α þ C1A1 cos β1 þ A1B1 cos γ)  BC cos α þ
AC cos β þ AB cos γ.
For α ¼ γ ¼ π6, AC1 ¼ AB 3 ¼ 3, and C1B1 k CB, B1A1 k AB we have that C1 B1 ¼ 3,
a a
pffiffi
A1 B1 ¼ 23 a , A1 C1 ¼ 37 a. Thus

2ðB1 C1p ffiffiffi α p


cos þffiffiC pffiffiffi β1 þ A1 B1 cos γ Þ
ffi 1 A1 cos
3 3 7 3a
¼ a< ¼ BC cos α þ CA cos β þ AB cos γ:
3 2

2.4.7. Draw through the center of a certain circle of the k-cloud a straight line l,
which is perpendicular to the boundaries of band S. Then that line l should intersect
not less than k  1 other circles. Line l divides the plane into two half-planes. It is
not difficult to understand that one of the half-planes contains not less than 2k þ 1
centers of those circles (including k the centers which are on line l ). Let O1, O2, . . . ,
On be these centers, where n ¼ 2 þ 1 (Figure 2.47).
Let points O01 , O02 , :::, O0n be the projections of points O1, O2, . . . , On on line l.
Denote by d i ¼ Oi O0i , i ¼ 1, . . . , n. Note that for i ¼ 1, . . . , n  1 we have that
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffi
O0i O0iþ1 ¼ Oi O2iþ1  ðdi  diþ1 Þ2  4  ðd i  diþ1 Þ2  4  1 ¼ 3,
pffiffiffi pffiffiffi
since 0  di  1, i ¼ 1, . . . , n. Consequently O01 O0n  3ðn  1Þ ¼ 3 2k , where
O01 and O0n are, respectively, the lowest and the highest points on line l.

Figure 2.47 l

On¢ On
O¢j O j
O¢2 O2
O¢1 O1
2.4 Method of Projections 79

Figure 2.48 L

K
A T M R B

Q N

Since band S should extend, at least by the radius of the circle, on each side of the
ends of segment O01 O0n , to contain the circles with centers O1 and On, then it should
pffiffiffi
have a width w  2 þ 3 2k .
2.4.8. Consider the figure below (Figure 2.48).
Segments MR and KM are projections of segments NR and QM on lines AB and
KM, respectively. We have that ∠QMK ¼ π2  ∠KQM ¼ π2  ∠MNR ¼ ∠MRN.
Therefore, it will be sufficient to prove that MR > MK. Note that
_ _ _ _
∠BRP ¼ BPþAN
2 ¼ BPþBN
2 ¼ ∠MLP.
This means that MLPR is an inscribe quadrilateral. Since ∠MLR ¼
∠MPR ¼ ∠TLM, then MR ¼ MT > MK.
2.4.9. Let ∠CDB ¼ α, ∠CBD ¼ β, α  β, and A0 E0 is the projection of segment AE
on line BD. We have that AE  A0 E0 ¼ BD þ sin α þ sin β, consequently

1  sin α  sin β 1  sin α 1  sin 2 α


BD  1  sin α  sin β  < < <
αβ αβ αβ
cos cos cos
2 2 2
αþβ
cos α cos
<  2 ¼ sin ðα þ βÞ :
αβ αβ sin α þ sin β
cos cos
2 2

Hence

sin ðα þ βÞ
BD < : ð2:8Þ
sin α þ sin β

BD sin α BD sin β
Since BC þ CD ¼ sin ðαþβÞ þ sin ðαþβÞ, then according to (2.8) we get
BC þ CD < 1.
2.4.10. (a) Consider Figure 2.49.
We have that BF  MN and BF  PK. Thus, we deduce that BF  MNþPK
2 or
2RA sin α  ða sin βþf sin γÞþ2 ðc sin γþd sin βÞ. Therefore, it follows that
80 2 Application of Projection Method

Figure 2.49 M B b C P
b g
a c
A a

D
f a
d
g b
N F e E K

1 sin β 1 sin γ
RA  ða þ dÞ þ ðf þ cÞ : Similarly we get that
4 sin α 4 sin α
1 sin α 1 sin β
RC  ðf þ cÞ þ ðb þ eÞ ,
4 sin γ 4 sin γ
1 sin γ 1 sin α
RE  ðb þ eÞ þ ða þ dÞ :
4 sin β 4 sin β

Summing up these inequalities and making use of inequality x þ 1x  2ðx > 0Þ,
we obtain that RA þ RC þ RE  12 ða þ dÞ þ 12 ðb þ eÞ þ 12 ðf þ cÞ ¼ p. This ends
the proof.
Remark Equality holds if and only if hexagon ABCDEF is regular.
(b) Draw perpendiculars MB1, MD1, MF1 to lines BC, AC, AB, respectively, and
construct parallelograms B1MF1A1, D1MB1C1, F1MD1E1.
Since the radiuses of the circumcircles of triangles D1MF1, B1MF1 B1MD1 are
equal to R2a , R2b , R2c , with R2a ¼ RE1 , R2b ¼ RA1 , R2c ¼ RC1 , then according to problem
2.4.10a we have that R2a þ R2b þ R2c  p ¼ da þ db þ dc . Thus

Ra þ Rb þ Rc  2da þ 2db þ 2d c :

(c) According to problem 2.4.10b MA þ MB þ MC  2MC1 þ 2MA1 þ 2MB1,


where MA1 ⊥ BC, MB1 ⊥ AC, MC1 ⊥ AB (Figure 2.50). Thus, at least one of
the following inequalities MA  2MC1, MB  2MA1, MC  2 MB1 is correct.
Let MA  2MC1, consequently either ∠MAB  30 or ∠MAB  150 . If
∠MAB  150 , then ∠MBC < 30 .
2.4 Method of Projections 81

Figure 2.50 B
A1

C1
M

A B1 C

Figure 2.51 B
A2

C1 A1
kc ka
O
kb
A B1 C

2.4.11. Let O be the center of the circumcircle of acute triangle ABC and ka, kb, kc be
the distances from point O to its sides (Figure 2.51).
Lemma Prove that ka þ kb þ kc ¼ R þ r.
Let A1, B1, and C1 be the midpoints of sides BC, CA, and AB, respectively. By
Ptolemy’s theorem akc þ cka ¼ bR akb þ bka ¼ cR, ckb þ bkc ¼ aR. On the other
hand, aka þ bkb þ ckc ¼ 2S ¼ (a þ b þ c)r. By adding these equalities and reducing
a þ b þ c, we obtain that ka þ kb þ kc ¼ R þ r. This ends the proof of the lemma.
Projection of broken line AOA1 on straight line AA2 is equal to ha, where
AA2 ⊥ BC, thus R þ ka  ha. Similarly we get that R þ kb  hb, R þ kc  hc.
By summing up these inequalities we get according to lemma that
4R þ r ¼ 3R þ ka þ kb þ kc  ha þ hb þ hc (see problem 5.5.8b).
2.4.12. Let BU  CV, then AU  DV. Draw a median MN of the square (Figure 2.52)
and P1P2||Q1Q2||AB.
Projections of segments PP1 and QQ1 on side AB do not have common internal
points, thus
   
P1 P2 Q1 Q2 KN KM
PQ  AB  ðPP1 þ QQ1 Þ ¼ AB  þ  AB  þ
2 2 2 2
1
¼ AB:
2
82 2 Application of Projection Method

Figure 2.52

Figure 2.53 x
    
a1 S - r = a1 + ... + an

an

a2

2.4.13. First we will prove the following lemma.


Lemma 2n unit vectors are drawn from point O on the plane. They are painted
alternately into red and blue colors. Let ~ S be the sum of n red vectors,~ r be the sum of
 
n blue vectors. Prove that ~ S ~ r   2.
Indeed let ~S ~r 6¼ ~
0. Introduce a coordinate system with Ox axis along vector
~
S ~ r. Since the sum of projections of vectors ~ a2 , :::,~
a1 ,~ an (Figure 2.53) on the Oy
axis is equal to zero, then the length of vector ~ S ~ r is equal to the modulus of the
difference of the sums of the lengths of the positive projections of these vectors on
the Ox and that of the negative projections.
Consequently, the length of the vector ~ S ~r does not exceed either the sums of
the lengths of the positive projections or sums of the lengths of the negative
projections. It is clear that the sums of the lengths of the positive projections as
well as sums of the lengths of the negative projections of vectors~ a2 , :::,~
a1 ,~ an on any
axis does not exceed the diameter of the circle, i.e., does not exceed 2. (See also
problem 7.1.72.)
Consider unit vectors~ e1 , :::,~
e110 , the sum of which is a zero vector. According to
the lemma they can be divided into two groups so that each group would contain
55 vectors. The sum of the vectors of the first group is ~ S, the sum of the vectors of
   
the second group is ~ r, such that ~ S ~r   2. Since ~ S þ~ r ¼~ 0, ~S ~ r   2, then
     
2 ~
S ¼ ~S ~r   2, consequently ~ S  1. This ends the proof.
2.4 Method of Projections 83

Figure 2.54 B

B1
A2
A1
A P C
C2
D1 C1

2.4.14. We shall make use of the following fact: if XX1 is a bisector of angle X of
triangle XYZ and ∠XX1Z  90 , then the midpoint of side YZ belongs to segment
X1Z. Indeed, since ∠XX1Z  90 , then ∠Y  ∠Z.consequently,

YX1 XY
¼  1:
X1 Z XZ

Let straight line A1C1 contain the bisector of angle APB and points A2, C2 be,
respectively, the midpoints of sides AB, CD (see Figure 2.54).
Let also points A02 , C02 be the projections of points A2, C2 on line A1C1.
We have that A1 C1  A02 C02 , thus it follows that A02 C02  A2 C2  ADþBC 2 (see
problem 1.1.9a), consequently A1 C1  ADþBC 2 . Similarly we get that B D
1 1  ABþCD
2 .
Summing up these inequalities we obtain that
ABþBCþCDþDA
2  A1 C1 þ B1 D1 ¼ A1 P þ B1 P þ C1 P þ D1 P  PQ þ PRþ
PS þ PT, which means that ABþBCþCDþDA 2  PQ þ PR þ PS þ PT.
Remark The equality in the last inequality holds true if and only if quadrilateral
ABCD is a rectangular.
2.4.15. Let points B0 , C0 be projections of points B, C on line AD. Then AD ¼
AB cos ∠BAD þ B0 C0 þ CD cos ∠ADC  AB cos ∠BAD þ BC þ CD cos ∠ADC.
Similarly we obtain that BE  AB cos ∠ABE þ AF þ EF cos ∠FEB and
CF  CD cos ∠FCD þ ED þ FE cos ∠CFE.
Summing up these two inequalities we deduce that

AD þ BE þ CF  ABð cos ∠BAD þ cos ∠ABEÞ þ CDð cos ∠ADC þ cos ∠FCDÞþ
∠BAD þ ∠ABE
þ EFð cos ∠FEB þ cos ∠CFEÞ þ BC þ DE þ AF  2AB cos
2
∠ADC þ ∠FCD ∠FEB þ ∠CFE
þ 2CD cos þ 2EF cos þ BC þ DE þ AE 
2 2
 3AB þ BC þ DE þ AE ¼ AB þ BC þ CD þ DE þ EF þ FA:
84 2 Application of Projection Method

Figure 2.55 N C D P

M A F K

Since AB ¼ CD ¼ EF and ∠BADþ∠ABE2 þ ∠ADCþ∠FCD


2 þ ∠FEBþ∠CFE
2 ¼ π (see prob-
lem 5.1.4a). The equality holds if and only if ∠A ¼ ∠B ¼ ∠C ¼ ∠D ¼ ∠E ¼ ∠F.
Remark We give an example of the centrally symmetric hexagon ABCDEF, for
which AD þ BE þ CF > AB þ BC þ CD þ DE þ EF þ FA.
Let MNPK be a unit square and let MA ¼ NB ¼ NC ¼ DP ¼ EK ¼ FK ¼ x
(Figure 2.55).
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Then AD þ BE þ CF ¼ 3 1 þ ð1  2xÞ2 and AB þ BC þ CD þ EF þ FA þ
pffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
DE ¼ 2 2x þ 2ð1  2xÞ þ 2 x2 þ ð1  xÞ2 . Note that at x ¼ 0 we have that
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
3 1 þ ð1  2xÞ2 ¼ 3 2 > 4 ¼ 2 2x þ 2ð1  2xÞ þ 2 x2 þ ð1  xÞ2 . There-
 
fore, there exists such a number x 0 < x < 12 , such that

AD þ BE þ CF > AB þ BC þ CD þ DE þ EF þ FA:

2.4.16. (I. Ziganshin, Russia)


Let KLM be the facet of tetrahedron KLMN which has the largest of the
perimeters of all the facets of the tetrahedron, then

1
KL þ LM þ KM þ KN þ LN þ MN ¼ KL þ LM þ KM þ ðKN þ LN þ KLÞþ
2

þ ðKN þ MN þ KMÞ þ ðLN þ MN þ LMÞ
4ðKL þ LM þ KMÞ
 ¼ 2ðKL þ LM þ KMÞ:
2

Project tetrahedron ABCD on the plane of facet KLM. Denote the projections of
vertices A, B, C, D of the tetrahedron by A1, B1, C1, D1, respectively. Let Γ be the
convex envelope of points A1, B1, C1, D1 and PΓ be the perimeter of polygon Γ.
Since triangle KLM is inside Γ, then according to problem 2.1.1 we have
KL þ LM þ KM  PΓ. Thus, it follows that
2.4 Method of Projections 85

Figure 2.56 B1 B1 C1

D1
A1
A1 C1
D1
a b

KL þ LM þ KM þ KN þ LN þ MN  2ðKL þ LM þ KMÞ  2PΓ :

Now consider cases when Γ is a triangle or quadrilateral.


In the first case (Figure 2.56a) we have that
PΓ ¼ A1 B1 þ B1 C1 þ A1 C1 ¼
2 1 1 1
¼ ðA1 B1 þ B1 C1 þ A1 C1 Þ þ A1 B1 þ B1 C1 þ A1 C1 <
3 3 3 3
2 1
< ðA1 B1 þ B1 C1 þ A1 C1 Þ þ ðD1 A1 þ D1 B1 Þ
3 3
1 1
þ ðD1 B1 þ D1 C1 Þ þ ðD1 C1 þ D1 A1 Þ ¼
3 3
2
¼ ðA1 B1 þ B1 C1 þ A1 C1 þ D1 A1 þ D1 B1 þ D1 C1 Þ:
3

In the second case (Figure 2.56b) we have that

PΓ ¼ A1 B1 þ B1 C1 þ C1 D1 þ D1 A1 ¼
2 1
¼ ðA1 B1 þ B1 C1 þ C1 D1 þ D1 A1 Þ þ ðA1 B1 þ B1 C1 þ C1 D1 þ D1 A1 Þ <
3 3
2 2
< ðA1 B1 þ B1 C1 þ C1 D1 þ D1 A1 Þ þ ðA1 C1 þ B1 D1 Þ
3 3

See problem 1.1.4a.


In both cases PΓ < 23 ðA1 B1 þ B1 C1 þ A1 C1 þ D1 A1 þ D1 B1 þ D1 C1 Þ. On the
other hand, A1B1  AB, B1C1  BC, A1C1  AC, D1A1  DA, D1B1  DB, D1C1 
DC. Therefore, KL þ LM þ KM þ KN þ LN þ MN  2PΓ < 43 ðAB þ BC þ ACþ
DA þ DB þ DCÞ.
Remark Consider a regular pyramid DABC, where AB ¼ BC ¼ AC ¼ 1,
DA ¼ DB ¼ DC ¼ n (n > 2). Choose on edges DA, DC, BA, BC points K, L, M, N,
respectively, such that DK ¼ DL ¼ BM ¼ BN ¼ 1n. Then we have that
KM þ KD þ MB > BD. Consequently KM > n  2n. Similarly we deduce that
KN, ML, NL > n  2n. Then
86 2 Application of Projection Method

 
KL þ KM þ KN þ ML þ NL þ MN 4 n  2n
> : ð2:9Þ
AB þ AC þ AD þ BC þ BD þ CD 3n þ 3

4ðn2Þ
Since at n ! 1 we have that 3nþ3n ! 43, then it is clear that the value 4
3 in
inequality 2.4.16 cannot be lowered.
2.4.17. Let ∠MAiAi þ 1 ¼ βi, ∠MAiAi  1 ¼ γ i, ∠Ai ¼ αi, i ¼ 1, . . . , n, An þ 1 Ai,
A0 An, it is clear that αi ¼ βi þ γ i. Note that

X
n X
n
βi þ γ i β  γi
2p ¼ MAi ð cos βi þ cos γ i Þ ¼ 2MAi cos cos i
i¼1 i¼1
2 2
X
n
αi
 2MAi cos ,
i¼1
2

∠A1 ∠An
consequently, MA1 cos 2 þ ::: þ MAn cos 2  p.
2.4.18. (a) Let M0, N0, and P0 be the midpoints of edges A1B1, C1C, and DA,
pffiffi
respectively. From right-angled triangles AA1P0 and A1M0P0 we have A1 P0 ¼ 25,
pffiffi
M0 P0 ¼ 26, and cos ∠A1 M0 P0 ¼ p1ffiffi6. Similarly, we get that the cosines of angles
∠B1M0N0, ∠C1N0M0, ∠CN0P0, ∠DP0N0, and ∠AP0M0 are equal to p1ffiffi. 6
Let point X0 be the projection of point X on line M0P0. Then, we have that

B01 M0 þ M0 P0 þ P0 D0 ¼ B01 M0 þ M0 P0 þ P0 D0 , M0 P0
1 1
¼ M0 P0 þ pffiffiffi  ðB1 M þ PDÞpffiffiffi :
6 6

Since MP  M0 P0 , we get that

1 1
MP  M0 P0 þ pffiffiffi  ðB1 M þ PDÞpffiffiffi : ð2:10Þ
6 6

In a similar way, we obtain that

1 1
MN  M0 N 0 þ pffiffiffi  ðA1 M þ CN Þpffiffiffi , ð2:11Þ
6 6

and

1 1
PN  P0 N 0 þ pffiffiffi  ðAP þ NC1 Þpffiffiffi : ð2:12Þ
6 6
2.4 Method of Projections 87

Summing up (2.10), (2.11) and (2.12) we get


pffiffiffi
3 6
MP þ MN þ PN  M0 P0 þ M0 N 0 þ P0 N 0 ¼ :
2

(b) Let O be the center of the cube and M be an arbitrary point of the space.
Let’s consider projections of point M and straight lines A1B1, C1C, AD on plane
M0N0P0 (see notations in the solution of problem 2.4.18a).
Denote the projection of point X on plane M0N0P0 by X0 .
Since OM0 ⊥ A1B1, we have OM0 ⊥A01 B01 . Let A01 B01 \ A0 D0 ¼ A2 ,
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
A1 B1 \ C1 C ¼ B2 , A D \ C1 C ¼ C2 , then A2B2C2 is a regular triangle with
center O.
We have that SM0 A2 B2 þ SM0 B2 C2 þ SM0 A2 C2  SA2 B2 C2 , consequently

M0 M0 2  A2 B2 M0 N 0 2  B2 C2 M0 P0 2  A2 C2 1 A2 B2 þ B2 C2 þ C2 A2
þ þ  pffiffiffi  ,
2 2 2 2 2

thus maxðM0 M0 2 ; M0 N 0 2 ; M0 P0 2 Þ  p1ffiffi2, where MP2 ⊥ AD, MM2 ⊥ A1B1, MN2 ⊥ C1C,
and P2 2 AD, M2 2 A1B1, N2 2 C1C, which means that

 0 1
maxðMM2 ; MN 2 ; MP2 Þ  max M0 M0 2 ; M0 N 0 2 ; M0 P2  pffiffiffi :
2

(c) Let O1 and O2 be the centers of these spheres and projections of segment O1O2
on the edges emerging from the same vertex are equal to a, b, and c. We have
that a2 þ b2 þ c2 ¼ O1O22. Let a  b, a  c, in that case a  Op1 Offiffi3 2 . Note
(Figure 2.57) that d2 þ a þ D2  1.
Consequently
pffiffiffi
1  Op1 Offiffi3 2 þ d2 þ D2 > dþD
pffiffi þ dþD. Hence, we deduce that d þ D < 3 
2 3 2 3.

Figure 2.57

D
О2
2
а
О1
d
2
88 2 Application of Projection Method

Problems for Self-Study

2.4.19. Prove that the distance from one of the vertices of the convex quadrilateral
to the opposite diagonal does not exceed the half of that diagonal.
2.4.20. Let parallelogram P2 be inscribed in parallelogram P1 and parallelogram P3
be inscribed in parallelogram P3, such that the sides of P3 are parallel to the sides of
P1. Prove that the length of at least one of the sides of P1 does not exceed the double
length of the corresponding parallel side of P3.
2.4.21. Prove that inside a convex n-gon (n  7) one can find a point, the sum of the
distances from which to the vertices are greater than the perimeter.
2.4.22. Given a unit square and such a broken line, that inside it every line parallel
to the side of the square intersects it in no more than one point. Prove that the length
of the broken line is less than 2.
2.4.23. (a) Let us consider on a plane a finite set of segments, the sum of lengths of
pffiffiffi
which is less than 2. Prove that there exists an infinite net of unit squares, the sides
of which do not intersect with any of these segments.
Remark The statement of the problem holds true also if the number of segments is
not finite.
(b) A figure on the coordinate plane has an area S, where S > 1. Prove that it can be
translated by a vector with the integer number of coordinates, so that the figure
and its image do not intersect.
2.4.24. Let ABCDEF be a convex hexagon, such that AB|| ED, BC||EF, CD||AF, and
AB þ DE ¼ BC þ EF ¼ CD þ AF. Prove that

AD þ BE þ CF  AB þ BC þ CD þ DE þ EF þ AF:

2.4.25. Let ABCDEF be a convex hexagon. Prove that

BC  DE BC  AF AF  DE
AD þ BE þ CF  AB þ CD þ EF þ þ þ :
AF DE BC

Hint See the solutions of problems 2.4.15 and 5.1.22a.


2.4.26. Let φ, θ > 0 and φ þ θ ¼ π  α. Prove that ma  b sin θþc
2
sin φ
, where ma is the
length of the median from vertex A of triangle ABC, AB ¼ c, AC ¼ b, α ¼ ∠A.
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
2.4.27. Let ABCDA1B1C1D1 be a parallelepiped. Prove that V  S1 S2 S3 , where
V is the volume of the parallelepiped and S1, S2, S3 are the areas of facets ABCD,
AA1B1B, AA1D1D.
2.4.28. Given points A1,B1, and C1 on sides BC, CA, and AB of triangle ABC
respectively. Prove that
2.4 Method of Projections 89

R1 sin α sin β sin γ


 qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi ,
R
ð sin α1 sin γ Þ þ ð sin α sin γ 1 Þ2  2 sin α sin α1 sin γ sin γ 1 cos ðβ þ β1 Þ
2

where ∠A ¼ α, ∠B ¼ β, ∠C ¼ γ, ∠B1A1C1 ¼ α1, ∠A1B1C1 ¼ β1, ∠A1C1B1 ¼ γ 1,


and R1, R are the radiuses of the circumcircles of triangles A1B1C1 and ABC,
respectively.
Hint Let OA and OC be the centers of the circumcircles of triangles AC1B1 and
CA1B1, then OAOC  R sin β. It remains to prove that
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
s    ffi
sin α1 2 sin γ 1 2 sin α1 sin γ 1
O A O C ¼ R1 þ 2 cos ðβ þ β1 Þ:
sin α sin γ sin α sin γ

2.4.29. Let p be the sum of the lengths of the edges of convex polyhedron and d be
the maximal distance between its vertices. Prove that p > 3d.
Hint Consider the projection of the polyhedron on straight line AB, where A and
B are the vertices of the polyhedron and AB ¼ d.
2.4.30. The closed broken line passes on a surface of a unit cube and has common
points with all its facets. Prove that the length of the broken line is not less than
pffiffiffi
3 2.
Hint Consider the projections of the broken line on three mutually non-parallel
edges of the cube.
2.4.31. A number of segments is located inside a unit cube, so that any plane
parallel to one of the facets of the cube crosses not more than one of them. Prove
that the sum of the lengths of these segments is not greater than 3.
Hint Consider projections of these segments on three edges of a cube with
common vertex.
2.4.32. A number of polygons is located inside a unit cube, so that any line parallel
to one of the edges of the cube intersects with not more than one of them. Prove that
the sum of the areas of these polygons is not greater than 3.
Hint Consider projections of polygons on three facets of a cube with common
vertex.
2.4.33. Prove that for any tetrahedron one can find two such planes that the ratio of
pffiffiffi
the areas of the projections of the tetrahedron on these planes is not less than 2.
Hint For the tetrahedron SABC let MN be the common perpendicular of straight
lines SA and BC. Consider planes α, β, γ, passing through line MN, where
α ⊥ SA, β ⊥ BC, such that the angles between γ and straight lines SA, BC are equal.
90 2 Application of Projection Method

2.4.34. Given a triangular pyramid ABCD. R is the radius of its circumsphere, r is


the radius of its insphere, a is the length of its longest edge, h is the length of the
least altitude (to one of its facets). Prove that Rr > ah.
2.4.35. Given 75 points inside a unit cube. Prove that the area of one of the triangles,
with vertices belonging to these points, does not exceed 7/72.
2.4.36. The angles at base AD of trapeze ABCD satisfy condition ∠A < ∠D < 90 .
Prove that then AC > BD.
2.4.37. Given a plane n (n  2) unit vectors
the sum of which is a zero vector. Prove
that of these n vectors one can choose n2 vectors, such that the sum of their modules
is not greater than 1.
 
Hint Prove that if one has chosen k (k  n  2) vectors with a sum~ S, where ~
S  1,
then from remaining vectors we can choose two vectors ~ a and ~b, such that at least
     
one of the inequalities ~ a  1, ~
S þ~ b  1, ~
S þ~ a þ~
S þ~ b  1 holds true.
(See also problem 2.4.13.)
2.4.38. Points A1, B1, C1 are taken on sides BC, CA, AB of triangle ABC, respec-
tively. Given that AB1 þ AC1 ¼ BC1 þ BA1 ¼ CA1 þ CB1.
Prove that A1 B1 þ B1 C1 þ C1 A1  12 ðAB þ BC þ ACÞ.
Hint See the solutions of problems 2.4.6 and 5.1.4a.
2.4.39. Let ABCDE be a convex pentagon. Given that AB ¼ BC ¼ CD ¼ DE ¼ EA
and max(∠A, ∠B, ∠C, ∠D, ∠E) < 120 . Prove that min(∠A, ∠B, ∠C, ∠D, ∠E) >
90 .
Hint Let ∠A  90 , and M and N are the midpoints of segments AC and AD,
respectively. Let X0 be the projection of point X on straight line MN. Then
pffiffiffiffiffi 0 0
   a a pffiffi

2a  BE  B E > 2 þ 2 cos α þ 2 cos 30  α > 2 þ 2 1 þ 2 ,


a a a 3
where
AB ¼ a, ∠BMB0 ¼ α. This leads to a contradiction.
2.4.40. Let A1A2    An be a polygon, such that ∠A1 ¼ ∠A2 ¼    ¼ ∠An and
A1A2  A2A3      An  1An  AnA1. Prove that A1A2    An is a regular polygon.
2.4.41. Given points D, E, F on sides BC, CA, AB of triangle ABC, respectively. It is
known that DE ¼ EF ¼ DF, AB ¼ c, BC ¼ a, CA ¼ b. Prove that
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
pffiffiffi ffi pffiffiffi
DE  a2 þ b2 þ c2 þ 4 3S  2 2S, where S is the area of triangle ABC.
Hint See problem 2.4.28.
2.4.42. Given points A1, B1, and C1 on sides BC, CA, and AB of triangle ABC,
respectively. Let IA be the incenter of triangle AC1B1, and GA the centroid of
triangle AC1B1. Points IB, GB and IC, GC are defined similarly. Prove that
IAIB þ IBIC þ ICIA  GAGB þ GBGC þ GCGA.
2.4 Method of Projections 91

Hint Consider the projections of segments ICIA, IAIB, and IBIC on the straight lines
AC, AB, and BC, respectively. Then, one can easily deduce that
IAIB þ IBIC þ ICIA  A1B1 þ B1C1 þ A1C1. Prove that GC GA  13 ðA1 C1 þ ACÞ and
GAGB þ GBGC þ GCGA  A1B1 þ B1C1 þ A1C1.
2.4.43. Prove the inequality cos α  Rr for a triangle, where α ¼ max (α, β, γ).
Hint Prove that cosβ þ cos γ  1.
Chapter 3
Areas

This chapter is devoted to the inequalities related to areas and it consists of only one
paragraph, that is Section 3.1. One of the methods for proving the inequalities
related to areas (of some figures on the plane) is the following: if the figures with
areas S1 , S2 , . . . , Sk cover a figure with area S, then S1 þ S2 þ . . . þ Sk  S.
Let us give a simple example. Prove that the area of parallelogram AMNK
(M 2 AB, N 2 BC, K 2 AC) inscribed to triangle ABC is not greater than the half of
the area of ABC. Consider parallelograms BNKE and NCKF; note that triangles
AEK and KNF are, respectively, equal to triangles MBN and KNC. Moreover,
triangles AEK and KNF cover parallelogram AMNK; therefore the sum of the
areas of triangles MBN and KNCis not smaller than the area of parallelogram
AMNK. This ends the proof of given example.
One of the main methods of proving geometric inequalities related with areas is
rewriting them as algebraic inequalities by introducing some notations.
In order to compare areas of two figures, often one needs to consider consequent
figures, such that the first figure and the last figure are the given figures. Afterwards,
one needs to compare consequently areas of any two of the considered figures.
Some problems in this chapter were inspired by [2, 4, 9, 11, 13–16].
Nevertheless, even for these problems the authors have mostly provided their
own solutions.

3.1 Inequalities with Areas

3.1.1. (a) In a convex quadrilateral ABCD diagonals intersect at a point O and BC||
AD. Prove that SOCD  14 SABCD .
(b) Given points E and F on parallel sides BC and AD of the convex quadrilateral
ABCD, respectively. Given also that AE, BF intersect at point P and segments
CF, ED at point Q. Prove that SPEQF  14 SABCD .

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017 93


H. Sedrakyan, N. Sedrakyan, Geometric Inequalities, Problem Books
in Mathematics, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-55080-0_3
94 3 Areas

(c) In a convex quadrilateral ABCD diagonals AC, BD intersect at point O.


pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Prove that SABCD  SAOB þ SCOD .
3.1.2. Prove that the area of the polygon obtained by sequentially connecting the
midpoints of a convex n-gon (n  5) will be greater than the half of the initial
polygon.
3.1.3. Points K and M are taken on sides AB and CD of a convex quadrilateral
ABCD, respectively. Let L be the point of intersection of segments AM and KD,
N be the point of intersection of segments KC and BM. Prove that, if AK :
KB ¼ CM : MD ¼ m : n, then SKLMN < m2 þmnþn
mn
2 SABCD .

3.1.4. Let M and N be the midpoints of sides BC and CD of a convex quadrilateral


ABCD, respectively. Prove that 14 SABCD < SAMN < 12 SABCD .
3.1.5. Bisectors ME , MF , MG , MH of triangles ABM, BMC, CMD, DMA are drawn
from point M inside rectangle ABCD with area S. Prove that for area S0 of a
pffiffiffi 
quadrilateral EFGH, the inequality 2  1 S  S0  0, 5S holds true. For which
points does equality S0 ¼ 0 , 5S hold true?
3.1.6. Let M be a given point inside of an angle with a vertex O. Draw a segment
AB passing through the point M and having the endpoints on the sides of the angle,
such that
(a) the area SOAB is minimal.
1
(b) MA þ MB1
is maximal.
3.1.7. (a) Given a convex quadrilateral ABCD with area S. Perpendiculars MA1,
MB1, MC1, MD1 are drawn from the point of intersection of diagonals M to the sides
AB, BC, CD, DA, respectively. Prove that SA1 B1 C1 D1  S2.
(b) Diagonal BD of the convex quadrilateral ABCD divides it into two isometric
parts. Perpendiculars MA1, MB1, MC1, MD1 are drawn from the point M inside
of the given quadrilateral to straight lines AB, BC, CD, and DA, respectively.
Prove that SMA1 D1 þ SMB1 C1 < 12 SABCD .
3.1.8. Let M, N, and P be the feet of the perpendiculars drawn from the centroid of
the triangle to the straight lines AB, BC and CA, respectively. Prove that
SMNP  14 SABC .
3.1.9. Points D, E and F are on sides BC, CA and AB of triangle ABC, respectively,
such that they do not coincide with points A, B, C. Prove that, if quadrilateral AFDE
EF2
SABC  AD2 .
is inscribed into a circle, then 4S DEF

3.1.10. Given D and E on sides AB and BC of triangle ABC, respectively. Points


K and M divide segment DE into three equal segments (DK ¼ KM ¼ ME). The
straight lines BK and BM intersect side AC at points T and P, respectively. Prove
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
that SBTP  SABT  SPBC .
3.1.11. Let P, Q, R be points in a triangle ABC, such that P 2 [AB], Q 2 [BC], R 2
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
[PQ]. Prove that 3 SABC  3 SAPR þ 3 SQRC .
3.1 Inequalities with Areas 95

3.1.12. Let A1, B1, C1 be points on sides BC, CA, AB of a triangle ABC, respectively.
Prove that
(a) SABC  S2A1 B1 C1  4SAB1 C1  SBA1 C1  SCA1 B1 ,
(b) minðSAB1 C1 ; SBA1 C1 ; SCA1 B1 Þ  SA1 B1 C1 ,
(c) minðSAB1 C1 ; SBA1 C1 ; SCA1 B1 Þ  14 SABC ,
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 3 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
(d) SAB1 C1 þ SBA1 C1 þ SCA1 B1  2 SABC ,
 
1 BB1 CC1
(e) SA1 B1 C1  min 14SABC ; 2AAðABþBCþACÞ , if segments AA1, BB1 and CC1 intersect at
one point,
 
(f) SA1 B1 C1  SAB1 C þ SBA1 C þ SCA1 B  3,
rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1 1 1 1
ffi 1 1
rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
SAB1 C1 SBA1 C1 SCA1 B1 SAB1 C1 SBA1 C1 SCA1 B1
(g) max S  S  ,
ð AB1 C1 ;SBA1 C1 ;SCA1 B1 Þ A1 B1 C1 minðSAB1 C1 ;SBA1 C1 ;SCA1 B1 Þ

if segments AA1, BB1 and CC1 intersect at one point.


3.1.13. Two points M and N are chosen on sides AB and BC of triangle ABC,
respectively. Three parallel straight line passing through points M, B and N intersect
side AC at points K, D and L, respectively. Prove that the area of the trapezoid
(or parallelogram) KMNL is not greater than the area of one of the triangles ABD
and DBC.
3.1.14. Two tangents PB and PC are drawn from point P to the circle, such that

∠BPC  90 . Point A is chosen on the smaller arc BC. Prove that the area of the
triangle, cut from the angle BPC by the tangent to the circle drawn from point A,
does not exceed the area of triangle ABC.
3.1.15. Let bisectors of the internal angles of triangle ABC intersect the circumcircle
of triangle ABC. Given that they intersect the circle for the second time at points A1,
 
B1, C1. Prove that SASABC
B C
 min cos 2 ∠A∠B
2 ; cos 2 ∠B∠C
2 ; cos 2 ∠C∠A
2 .
1 1 1

3.1.16. Prove that the area


(a) of the parallelogram placed inside the triangle does not exceed half the area of
the triangle.
(b) of the triangle placed inside the parallelogram does not exceed half the area of
the parallelogram.
3.1.17. Prove that the convex polygon with the area S can be placed inside
(a) a rectangle with the area not greater than 2S.
(b) a triangle with the area not greater than 2S.
3.1.18. Prove that one can inscribe into a convex polygon with the area S
(a) a parallelogram with the area not less than S2,
(b) a triangle with the area not less than 3S
8.
(c) a hexagon with the area not less than 3S4.
96 3 Areas

3.1.19. Given a convex polygon in which one cannot place any triangle with area
1. Prove that this polygon can be placed into a triangle with area 4.
3.1.20. Given an acute triangle ABC. Let A1, B1, C1 be the points symmetric to
points A, B, C with respect to straight lines BC, AC, AB, respectively. Prove that
SA1 B1 C1  4SABC .
3.1.21. Given a triangle ABC. Segments BB1, CC1, AA1 are placed on rays AB, BC,
CA starting at points B, C, A, respectively, such that BB1 ¼ AC, CC1 ¼ AB,
AA1 ¼ BC. Prove that SAA1 B þ SBB1 C þ SCC1 A  3SABC .
3.1.22. Three secants are drawn for each internal point X of triangle ABC parallel to
its sides. As a result of this, one obtains three triangles each bounded by two secants
and a side of the triangle. Let the areas of these triangles be S1, S2, S3. Prove that
S1 þ S2 þ S3  13 S.
3.1.23. In a convex hexagon ABCDEF the opposite sides are parallel to each other
(AB||DE, BC||EF, CD||AF). Prove that 2SBDF  SABCDEF.
3.1.24. Given points P, Q, R on sides AB, CD, EF of the centrally symmetric convex
hexagon ABCDEF, respectively. Prove that 2SPQR  SABCDEF.
3.1.25. The triangle is inscribed into a regular hexagon; one of the sides of the
triangle passes through the center of symmetry of the hexagon. Prove that the area
of the triangle does not exceed 13 of the area of the hexagon.
3.1.26. Points D and E are chosen on the sides AB and AC of the triangle ABC,
respectively. Let segments BE and CD intersect at point P. Prove that
pffiffi
(a) SPDE  5 5211 SABC ,
 pffiffiffi 
(b) SPDE  5 2  7 SABC , if SBCED ¼ 2SPBC.
3.1.27. The segment PQ passes through the centroid of triangle ABC and points P,
Q are on sides BC, AC, respectively. Prove that SMPQ  29 SABC , where M is the
midpoint of side AB.
3.1.28. Prove that the area of any section of the cube by a plane passing through its
center is not less than the area of the faces of the cube.
3.1.29. The part of a plane between two parallel straight lines is called a “strip”. Let
several strips be given on a plane, and no two of them are parallel, i.e. no two
boundary straight lines of different strips are parallel. How one should move the
strips parallel to themselves to make the area of the polygon formed by the
intersection of the strips the greatest possible?
 
3.1.30. (a) Given a circle ω with a center A 12; 12 and radius R, where R < 12. Points
M and N are on the positive semiaxes Oy and Ox so that segment MN is tangent to
circle ω. Prove that
3.1 Inequalities with Areas 97

pffiffi 2 pffiffi
(1) SMON  2
2
R , if 0 < R  2
4 ,
pffiffi
(2) SMON  14  R2 , if 42 < R < 12.
pffiffiffi
(b) Prove that any section of the unit cube by a plane has an area not greater than 2.
3.1.31. (a) Given points B2, . . . , Bn and C2, . . . , Cn on the sides of triangle B1AC1
(B2, . . . , Bn 2 AB1, C2, . . . , Cn 2 AC1). The ray with a vertex at A intersects seg-
ments B1C1, B2C2, . . . , BnCn at points D1, D2, . . . , Dn, respectively. Prove that

AD1 þ AD2 þ ::: þ ADn  maxðAB1 þ AB2 þ ::: þ ABn ; AC1 þ AC2 þ ::: þ ACn Þ:

(b) Prove that in a convex quadrilateral the length of any segment with ends on the
sides of the quadrilateral, which passes through the point of intersection of
diagonals do not exceed the length of one of the diagonals.
(c) Prove that the area of any cross section of the tetrahedron by a plane does not
exceed the area of one of its faces.
3.1.32. Given a convex quadrilateral ABCD. Prove that

(a) CD2  SABC þ BC2  SACD > AC2  SBCD, if ∠A þ ∠ C > 180 ,

(b) CD2  SABC þ BC2  SACD ¼ AC2  SBCD, if ∠A þ ∠ C ¼ 180 ,

(c) CD2  SABC þ BC2  SACD < AC2  SBCD, if ∠A þ ∠ C < 180 .
3.1.33. In a convex hexagon ABCDEF opposite sides are parallel (AB||DE, BC||EF,
CD||AF). Denote by A1, B1, C1, D1, E1, and F1 the midpoints of sides AB, BC, CD,
DE, EF and FA, respectively. Prove that
(a) segments A1D1, B1E1 and C1F1 can be sides of a triangle.
(b) 12 SBDF < S1  SBDF , where S1 is the area of the triangle with sides having
lengths A1D1, B1E1 and C1F1.
3.1.34. Given that the rectangle with sides a and b is inside the rectangle with sides
c and d, such that max(a, b) > max (c, d ). Prove that 2ab < cd.
3.1.35. O is an internal point of the convex quadrilateral ABCD with area S. Let
points K, L, M and N be on segments AB, BC, CD and DA, respectively. Prove that if
OKBL and OMDN are parallelograms, then
pffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffi
(a) S  S1 þ S2 :
pffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffi
(b) 1, 25 S > T 1 þ T 2 :
pffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffi
(c) C0 S  T 1 þ T 2 ,
where S1, S2, T1, T2 are the areas of the quadrilaterals ONAK, OLCM, OKBL,
OMDN, respectively and
 
sin 2α þ π4
C0 ¼ max :
½0;π4 cos α
98 3 Areas

3.1.36. Let A1, B1, C1, D1 be the midpoints of sides BC, CD, DA, AB of a convex
quadrilateral ABCD, respectively, S0 be the area of the quadrilateral, formed by the
segments AA1, BB1, CC1, DD1, and S be the area of the quadrilateral ABCD. Prove
that 16 S < S0  15 S.
3.1.37. Consider a triangle with the area S. Prove that if one places externally
equilateral triangles on each side of the given triangle, then centers of these tri-
angles are vertices of an equilateral triangle with the area not less than S.
3.1.38. Given on a plane mutually nonintersecting triangles all obtained from
triangle ABC using a translation by a certain vector. All these triangles are contin-
ued to become parallelograms, such that any of these parallelograms has a diagonal
parallel to AB. Prove that S0  1, 5S, where S0 is the area of the union of these
parallelograms and S is the sum of the areas of all triangles.
3.1.39. Given that in a convex hexagon ABCDEF triangles ACE and BDF are
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
similar. Prove that SABCDEF  Rr SACE  SBDF , where r and R are, respectively,
inradius and circumradius of triangle ACE.
3.1.40. Given on a plane five points, so that the area of each of 10 triangles defined
by these points is greater than 2. Prove that among those triangles exists a triangle,
pffiffiffi
such that its area is greater than 1 þ 5.
3.1.41. The vertices of a convex hexagon A1A2A3A4A5A6 are on the sides of the unit
square. Prove that the area of one of triangles A1A2A3, A2A3A4, A3A4A5, A4A5A6,
A5A6A1, A6A1A2 is not greater than 18.
3.1.42. Given on a plane a triangle ABC and a point P, such that ∠A ¼ 600, PA ¼ 1,
 pffiffiffiffiffi pffiffi
PB ¼ 2, PC ¼ 3. Prove that SABC  13 þ 73  83.
3.1.43. Given on a plane a triangle ABC and a point P, such that ∠A ¼ α  π2,
PA ¼ r1, PB ¼ r2, PC ¼ r3, with 0 < r1 < r2 < r3, where r1, r2, r3, α are constants.
Find the possible highest and lowest values of the area of triangle ABC.
3.1.44. Consider two parallelograms that intersect exactly in eight points. Prove that
the common area of these parallelograms is greater than or equal to half of the area
of one of them.

Solutions

3.1.1. (a) Consider the midpoints of segments AC, CD and BD and let those points
be M, N and P, respectively. We have that MN||AD and NP||BC and also
SOCD  SMCDP ¼ SMCN þ SPND ¼ 14 SACD þ 14 SBCD ¼ 14 SACD þ 14 SABC ¼ 14 SABCD .
Consequently, SOCD  14 SABCD .
(b) Making use of problem 3.1.1a we get that
3.1 Inequalities with Areas 99

Figure 3.1 B C
N
M

K
L

1 1 1
SPEQF ¼ SPEF þ SEQF  SABEF þ SFECD ¼ SABCD :
4 4 4

(c) We have that SSDOA


AOB
¼ OD
BO
¼ SSCOD
BOC
, consequently,
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
SABCD ¼ SAOB þ SBOC þ SCOD þ SDOA  SAOB þ SCOD þ 2 SBOC  SDOA ¼
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2
¼ ð SAOB þ SCOD Þ ,
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
we obtain that SABCD  SAOB þ SCOD .
3.1.2. Let points B1, B2, . . . , Bn be the midpoints of sides A1A2, A2A3, . . . , AnA1 of
the initial polygon A1A2 . . . An, respectively. Denote by C1, C2, . . . , Cn the inter-
section points of the diagonalеs AnA2 and A1A3, A1A3 and A2A4,. . ., An  1A1 and
AnA2, respectively. We have that

1
SB1 B2 :::Bn ¼ SA1 A2 :::An  SB1 A2 B2  :::  SBn A1 B1 ¼ SA1 A2 :::An  ðSA1 A2 A3 þ ::: þ SAn A1 A2 Þ ¼
4
1 1
¼ SA1 A2 :::An  ð2SA1 A2 :::An  SC1 A2 C2  :::  SCn A1 C1  2SC1 C2 :::Cn Þ > SA1 A2 :::An :
4 2

3.1.3. We have that SSMKD


MKC
¼ mn (Figure 3.1).
Let SMKC ¼ mS1, SMKD ¼ nS1. Similarly we have SAKM ¼ mS2, SBKM ¼ nS2.
Denote by ρ(X, l ) the distance of the point X from the straight line l. Calculate
 
1 1 m n  
SCKD ¼ CD  ρðK; CDÞ ¼ CD  ρðB; CDÞ þ ρ A; CD ¼
2 2 mþn mþn
1 1
¼ CM  ρðB; CDÞ þ MD  ρðA; CDÞ ¼ SBCM þ SAMD :
2 2

Therefore, SKLMN ¼ SBNC þ SALD.


Let SKNM ¼ x, SKLM ¼ y, then SNCM ¼ mS1  x, SMLD ¼ nS1  y, SAKL ¼ mS2  y,
SBKN ¼ nS2  x.
It is clear that SSNCM
BNC
¼ NM
BN
¼ SSKNM
BKN
, consequently, SBNC ¼ ðmS1 xÞxðnS2 xÞ.
100 3 Areas

Similarly, we deduce that SALD ¼ ðnS1 yÞyðmS2 yÞ. Since SKLMN ¼ SBNC þ SALD,
then x þ y ¼ ðmS1 xÞxðnS2 xÞ þ ðnS1 yÞyðmS2 yÞ or 1 ¼ ðS1 þS mS1 nS2
2 ÞðmþnÞx
þ ðS1 þS
mS1 nS2
2 ÞðmþnÞy
. Now
we have to find the maximal value of x þ y at x < min (mS1, nS2).
Let x  y. Denote ðS1 þSmS1 nS2
2 ÞðmþnÞx
¼ sin 2 α, ðS1 þS
mS1 nS2
2 ÞðmþnÞy
¼ cos 2 α, where α0 < α  π4,
sin 2 α0 ¼ ðS1 þS2 Þðmþn
mS1 nS2
ÞminðmS1 ;nS2 Þ.
Then x þ y ¼ ðS1 þS24mS
ÞðmþnÞsin 2 2α < ðS1 þS2 ÞðmþnÞsin 2 2α0 .
1 nS2 4mS1 nS2

If mS1  nS2, then sin 2 α0 ¼ ðS1 þSnS 2


2 ÞðmþnÞ
and

4mS1 nS2 mS1 mS1


¼ ¼ ¼
ðS1 þ S2 Þðm þ nÞsin 2 2α0 1  sin 2 α0 nS2
1
ðS1 þ S2 Þðm þ nÞ
mðm þ nÞS1 ðS1 þ S2 Þ mðm þ nÞS1 ðS1 þ S2 Þ mnðm þ nÞðS1 þ S2 Þ
¼  ¼ ¼
mS1 þ mS2 þ nS1 m2 m2 þ mn þ n2
mS1 þ S1 þ nS1
n
mn
¼ 2 SABCD :
m þ mn þ n2

Thus, we obtain that


mn
SKLMN < SABCD , ð3:1Þ
m2 þ mn þ n2

In the case of nS2 < mS1 the inequality (3.1) is obtained similarly.
3.1.4. We have that SABMND < SABCD,

1 1 1
SABMND ¼ SAMN þ SABM þ SAND ¼ SAMN þ SABC þ SACD ¼ SAMN þ SABCD ,
2 2 2

consequently, SAMN < 12 SABCD . Note that SABCD ¼ SABD þ SBCD ¼ SABD þ 4SCMN.
Therefore, 4SAMN ¼ SABCD þ SABD, so SAMN > 14 SABCD .
3.1.5. (Solution of G. Khotsanyan, 9th grade)
First we shall prove two lemmas which are used at the proof of the inequality.
Lemma 1 A straight line perpendicular to AB is drawn from point H of segment
AB, where AH < BH. Points C and D are taken on that perpendicular so that
CH < DH. Points E and F are the feet of the bisectors drawn from vertices C and D
in triangles ABC and ABD. Prove that AE < AF.
Proof Indeed, according to the interior angle bisector theorem, for triangles ABC
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
CH 2 þAH 2 AF DH2 þAH 2
and ABD we get: AE
EB ¼ AC
BC ¼ p ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi , ¼ AD
¼ pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi .
CH 2 þBH 2 FB BD DH2 þBH 2
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
x2 þAH 2
Consider now a function f ðxÞ ¼ pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi BH 2
2
¼ 1 þ AH x2 þBH 2
. Note that it grows in
2x þBH2

the interval x 2 [0 ; 1 ) (since AH2  BH2 < 0). Consequently, from the condition
3.1 Inequalities with Areas 101

CH < DH, it follows that f(CH) < f(DH). Hence, we deduce that AE
EB < AF
FB or
EB < FB . From this inequality we obtain that AF > AE.
EBþAE FBþAF

Lemma 2 Given that points E and F are the feet of the bisectors drawn from
vertices C and D in triangles ABC and ABD, respectively, with CD||AB. Prove that,
if segments CE and DF do not intersect, then CD > EF.
Proof First introduce following notations (see also Figure 3.2) ∠ACB ¼ 2α,
∠ADB ¼ 2β, ∠BCD ¼ u, ∠ADC ¼ v. It is known that ∠ABC ¼ ∠BCD ¼ u,
∠BAD ¼ ∠ADC ¼ v.

From triangles ABC and ABD we deduce that 2α þ u þ v þ ∠CAD ¼ 180 ,
 
2β þ u þ v þ ∠CBD ¼ 180 . Hence, we have that 2α þ u þ v < 180 ,

2β þ u þ v < 180 . Summing up these two inequalities, it follows that
 
2α þ 2β þ 2u þ 2v < 360 , or ∠ECD þ ∠FDC < 180 . If segments CE and DF do
not intersect, then CD > EF. This ends the proof of the lemma.
Now, we continue the proof of the problem. Let us introduce following notations
(see Figure 3.3), AE ¼ a, AH ¼ b, DG ¼ c, BF ¼ d, AB ¼ CD ¼ e, BC ¼ AD ¼ f.
We have that

S0 ¼ S  ðSAEH þ SBEF þ SCFG þ SDGH Þ ¼


1 ef 1
¼ ef  ðab þ ðe  aÞd þ ðf  dÞðe  cÞ þ ðf  bÞcÞ ¼  ðc  aÞðd  bÞ:
2 2 2

Figure 3.2 C D
u v
a b b
a

v u
A E F B

Figure 3.3 B d F f-d C

e-a e-c

E M G

a c

A b H f-b D
102 3 Areas

Figure 3.4 B C1 C

B1 M D1

A A1 D

Thus,

S 1
S0 ¼  ðc  aÞðd  bÞ: ð3:2Þ
2 2

If point M belongs to one of the medians of rectangle ABCD, then c ¼ a or d ¼ b,


i.e. S0 ¼ S2.
Now, assume that point M does not belong to any median and that point A is the
vertex of the rectangle closest to M.
Then, it is clear that M belongs to one of the four rectangles (obtained by
dividing the given rectangle by medians) which contains vertex A (Figure 3.4).
Let us now perform a translation of triangle MCD by a vector CB. ~ Then side CD
coincides with side BA and according to the first lemma c > a.
Similarly, we obtain that d > b (Figure 3.4).
From aforesaid and (3.2) we get that S0 < S2.
From formula (3.2) it follows that S0 reaches its least value when the expression
(c  a)(d  b) has a maximal value. We shall prove that both (c  a) and (d  b)
reach their maximal values at point A.
Compare the values of the (c  a) at points M, B1 and A.
According to the first lemma the value of c at point B1 is greater than the value at
point M, while the value of a is less.
Consequently the value of the expression (c  a) at B1 is greater than at M.
Denote the values of the c and a at points B1 and A by c1, a1 and c2, a2, respectively
(Figure 3.5). Applying the second lemma to the case when bisectors drawn from the
vertices B1 and A of triangles CB1D and CAD do not intersect, we obtain that
a1 ¼ a1  a2 > c1  c2 or c2  a2 > c1  a1. If the bisectors intersect, then c2 > c1.
Hence, it follows that c2  a2 ¼ c2 > c1  a1. We have proven that the value of
(c  a) at point A is greater than the value at point B1, while the value at point B1 is
greater than the value at point M (inside the rectangle). Similarly one can prove that
the expression (d  b) reaches its maximal value at point A.
Thus, S0 reaches its minimal value when the point M coincides with the vertex A,
i.e. a ¼ 0, b ¼ 0. Therefore c ¼ pefffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ffi, d ¼ pefffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi2ffi.
fþ e þf
2 2
eþ e þf
2

From formula (3.2) we deduce that


3.1 Inequalities with Areas 103

Figure 3.5 B C

c2 c1
a1

A D

Figure 3.6 A
E

A1 M

O
F B

!
S ef
S0  1 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi : ð3:3Þ
2 ef þ ðe þ f Þ e2 þ f 2 þ e2 þ f 2
pffiffiffiffiffi
Since e þ f  2 ef , e2 þ f2  2ef, then
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi  pffiffiffi
ef þ ðe þ f Þ e2 þ f 2 þ e2 þ f 2  ef 3 þ 2 2 : ð3:4Þ

From inequalities (3.3) and (3.4) we get that


!
S ef pffiffiffi 
S0  1  pffiffiffi ¼ 2  1 S:
2 ef 3 þ 2 2

3.1.6. Let us draw ME ⊥ OA, MF ⊥ OB (Figure 3.6).


We have that

1 MA  MB 1 2 sin ∠A  sin ∠B
SMEF ¼ ME  MF  sin ∠EMF ¼  AB  sin 2 ∠O ¼
2 AB2 2 sin ∠O
MA  MB
¼  SABO  sin 2 ∠O:
AB2
ð3:5Þ
104 3 Areas

(a) According to (3.5) SABO would be minimal if the value of the expression MAMB
AB2
2
¼ 14  14  ðMAMB
AB2
Þ
would be maximal i.e. at MA ¼ MB.
To construct segment AB one has to note that OA1 ¼ A1A, where MA1||OF.
Remark 1. SMEF  14 SABO .
Indeed, according to (3.5), SMEF  MAMB
AB2
 SABO  14 SABO .

2. SOA1 M  14 SOAB .
(b) According to (3.5) we have that

1 1 AB SABO sin 2 ∠O 1 sin 2 ∠O


þ ¼ ¼  ¼ ON  ,
MA MB MA  MB AB SMEF 2 SMEF

where ON ⊥ AB.
If the straight line passing through point M perpendicular to line OM intersects
the sides of the given angle at points A1 and B1, then segment A1B1 is what was
required. Indeed, we have that

1 1 sin 2 ∠O sin 2 ∠O 1 1
þ ¼ ON   OM  ¼ þ :
MA MB SMEF SMEF MA1 MB1

But if the straight line passing through point M perpendicular to line OM does
not intersect the sides of the given angle, then the required segment cannot be
constructed. Indeed, since N 2 OK (Figure 3.7), where KM||OE, then ON does not
have a maximal value.

N K

O F

Figure 3.7
3.1 Inequalities with Areas 105

Figure 3.8
D2

D3
D D'
D1 C1 C

M B1

B'

A A1 B B3 B2

3.1.7. (a) We have that

1
SA1 B1 C1 D1 ¼ SMA1 B1 þ SMB1 C1 þ SMD1 C1 þ SMA1 D1  SABC
4
1 1 1
þ SBCD þ SACD þ SABD ¼
4 4 4
1 S
¼ SABCD ¼
2 2

(see the remark 1 of problem 3.1.6a). This means that SA1 B1 C1 D1  S2.
(b) Draw from points C and M straight lines parallel to diagonal BD (Figure 3.8).

According to the remark 1 of problem 3.1.6a

1 1 1
SMA1 D1 þ SMB1 C1  SAB3 D3 þ SCB0 D0 < SAB3 D3
4 4 4
1 1 1
þ SB2 B3 D3 D2 ¼ SAB2 D2 ¼ SABCD :
4 4 2

Since from the statement of the problem, it follows that points C and A are
equidistant from line BD, i.e. BD is the midline of triangle AB2D2.
Remark 1. If ABCD is a square and point M coincides with C, then

1
SMA1 D1 þ SMB1 C1 ¼ SCBD ¼ SABCD :
2
106 3 Areas

Figure 3.9 B

B1
M
G

A P C1 C

Figure 3.10 C
E

E' D

A F B

2. In general the inequality does not hold true: take in a square ABCD a point
M close to point C and move vertices B and D along the sides in the direction
of A.  
S2ABCD S2ABCD
3. One can prove that, in general case, SMA1 D1 þ SMB1 C1 < 14 max SBDC ; SABD .

3.1.8. Draw through point G a straight line B1C1||BC (Figure 3.9).


We have that SMGP  14 SAB1 C1  sin 2 ∠A (see the solution of problem 3.1.6a), and
SAB1 C1 AB 2 4
SABC ¼ AB ¼ 9. Therefore, SMGP  SABC 9  sin ∠A. Similarly, we get that
1 2

SMGN  SABC
9  sin ∠B, SNGP  9  sin ∠C. Thus
2 SABC 2

SABC  2  SABC
SMNP ¼ SMGP þ SMGN þ SNGP   sin ∠A þ sin 2 ∠B þ sin 2 ∠C  :
9 4

(see problem 9.1).


0 0
3.1.9. Let DE k AB (Figure 3.10), then ∠ADE ¼ ∠DAF ¼ ∠DEF and
0
EF2
∠DAE ¼ ∠DFE. Hence, it follows that ΔAE D  ΔFDE. Thus SSDEF0 ¼ AD 2 and we
AE D
3.1 Inequalities with Areas 107

Figure 3.11 B

E
K M
D E1

M1
K1
A T P C

have to prove that SAE0 D  14 SABC . Note that, this follows from the solution of
problem 3.1.6a (see remark 2).
3.1.10. Draw from the point A a straight line parallel to DE (Figure 3.11).
Since DK ¼ KM ¼ ME, then AK1 ¼ K1M1 ¼ M1E1. Now by using Menelaus’
theorem for triangle AE1C and straight lines BT, BP, we obtain that

AK 1 BE1 CT AM1 BE1 CP


  ¼1¼   :
K 1 E1 BC TA M1 E1 BC PA

Consequently,

1 SBPT þ SBPC SBPC


 ¼2 :
2 SABT SABT þ SBPT

Hence, it follows that (SBPT þ SBPC)(SABT þ SBPT) ¼ 4SABT  SBPC.


Using further the Cauchy inequality, we deduce that 4SABT  SBPC 
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
2 SBPT  SBPC  2 SABT  SBPT . Thus SBPT  SABT  SBPC .
Remark From the last inequality it follows that SBPT  SABT þS
2
BPC
. Hence, we obtain
that TP  3 . This problem was suggested on the 16th Russian Mathematical
AC

Olympiad.

PA ¼ λ, QC ¼ μ, then using the Cauchy inequality, we deduce that


BQ
3.1.11. Let PB

rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi


3 SAPR 3 SQRC 3 SAPR SPBQ 3 SQRC SPBQ
þ ¼  þ  ¼
SABC SABC SPBQ SABC SPBQ SABC
sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
λS 1 μ 3 μSQRC λ 1
¼ 3 APR   þ   
SPBQ 1 þ λ 1 þ μ SPBQ 1 þ λ 1 þ μ
!
1 λSAPR þ μSQRC 1 μ λ 1
 þ þ þ þ ¼ 1,
3 SPBQ 1þλ 1þμ 1þλ 1þμ

since λSAPR þ μSQRC ¼ SPBR þ SQBR ¼ SPBQ.


pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Consequently 3 SAPR þ 3 SQRC  3 SABC .
108 3 Areas

AB ¼ α, BC ¼ β, CA ¼ γ, then SAB1 C1 ¼ SABC  αð1  γ Þ, SBA1 C1 ¼


3.1.12. Let AC 1 BA1 CB1

SABC  ð1  αÞβ, SCA1 B1 ¼ SABC  γ ð1  βÞ and SA1 B1 C1 ¼ SABC ð1  αð1  γ Þ


βð1  αÞ  γ ð1  βÞÞ.
(a) We have to prove that (1  α(1  γ)  β(1  α)  γ(1  β))2  4αβγ(1  α)
(1  β)(1  γ), or

ð1  α  β  γ þ αγ þ βγ þ αβÞ2  4αβγ ð1  α  β  γ þ αγ þ βγ þ αβ  αβγ Þ,


ð1  α  β  γ þ αγ þ βγ þ αβ  2αβγ Þ2  0:

(b) Assume that SA1 B1 C1 < minðSAB1 C1 ; SBA1 C1 ; SCA1 B1 Þ and let SAB1 C1  SBA1 C1 
SCA1 B1 . Then, taking into account the solution of the problem 3.1.12a, we get
that

SABC  S2AB1 C1 > SABC  S2A1 B1 C1  4SAB1 C1  SBA1 C1  SCA1 B1 


 S2AB1 C1  4SCA1 B1 > S2AB1 C1  ðSAB1 C1 þ SBA1 C1 þ SCA1 B1 þ SA1 B1 C1 Þ ¼ SABC  S2AB1 C1 :

Consequently SABC  S2AB1 C1 > SABC  S2AB1 C1 . This leads to a contradiction.


The Second Solution Consider the midpoints of sides BC, CA and AB. Let these
points be A0, B0 and C0, respectively. If among points A1, B1, C1 there exist two
points belonging to two of segments AC0, C0B, BA0, A0C, CB0, B0A with a common
endpoint, then the statement is evident. Indeed, let C1 2 [C0B] and A1 2 [A0B], then
M 2 BN, where M ¼ BB1 \ A1C1, N ¼ A0C0 \ BB1, consequently BM  BN ¼ NB1 
MB1. Therefore SA1 C1 B  SA1 B1 C1 .
Otherwise, one can assume that C1 2 [C0B], A1 2 [A0C], B1 2 [AB0], then

SA1 B1 C1  minðSA1 B1 C0 ; SA1 B1 B Þ  minðSA0 C0 B1 ; SC0 CB1 ; SA0 B1 B Þ 


1
 minðSA0 C0 B0 ; SCC0 B0 ; SA0 B0 B Þ ¼ SABC :
4

4 SABC  minðSAB1 C1 ; SBA1 C1 ; SCA1 B1 Þ. Thus, SA1 B1 C1  min


1
Consequently,
ðSAB1 C1 ; SBA1 C1 ; SCA1 B1 Þ.
Yet another solution can be obtained by using the solution of the problem
3.1.12e.
(c) According to 3.1.12b we have

minðSAB1 C1 ; SBA1 C1 ; SCA1 B1 Þ ¼ minðSAB1 C1 ; SBA1 C1 ; SCA1 B1 ; SA1 B1 C1 Þ 


1 SABC
 ðSAB1 C1 þ SBA1 C1 þ SCA1 B1 þ SA1 B1 C1 Þ ¼ :
4 4
3.1 Inequalities with Areas 109

(d) We have that


pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffipffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
SAB1 C1 þ SBA1 C1 þ SCA1 B1 ¼ SABC αð1 γ Þ þ βð1  αÞ þ γ ð1  βÞ 
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi α þ 1  γ β þ 1  α γ þ 1  β
 SABC þ þ
2 2 2
3pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
¼ SABC :
2

(e) According to Ceva’s theorem αβγ ¼ (1  α)(1  β)(1  γ). Hence

SA1 B1 C1 ¼ SABC ð1  αð1  γ Þ  βð1  αÞ  γ ð1  βÞÞ


¼ SABC ðð1  αÞð1  βÞð1  γ Þ þ αβγ Þ ¼
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi SABC
¼ 2SABC αβγ ð1  αÞð1  βÞð1  γ Þ  ,
4

since xð1  xÞ  14.


According to Stuart’s theorem we have
 
AA21 ¼ βb2 þ ð1  βÞc2  βð1  βÞa2 ¼ βð1  βÞ b2 þ c2  a2
 
þ β2 b2 þ ð1  βÞ2 c2  βð1  βÞ b2 þ c2  a2
þ 2βð1  βÞbc ¼ 4ðp  aÞpβð1  βÞ,

therefore
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
AA1  BB1  CC1  4SABC  ða þ b þ cÞ αβγ ð1  αÞð1  βÞð1  γ Þ ¼ 2SA1 B1 C1 
1 BB1 CC1
ða þ b þ cÞ, hence SA1 B1 C1  2AA
ðABþBCþACÞ.

(f) We have to prove that ð1  αð1  γ Þ  βð1  αÞ  γ ð1  βÞÞ αð1γ 1
Þ þ βð1αÞþ
1

γ ð1βÞÞ  3, or
1

 
1 1 1
A ¼ ðð1  αÞð1  βÞð1  γ Þ þ αβγ Þ þ þ  3:
αð1  γ Þ βð1  αÞ γ ð1  βÞ

Note that

ð1  αÞð1  βÞ βγ ð1  β Þð1  γ Þ
A¼ þ þ
α 1γ β
αγ ð1  αÞð1  γ Þ αβ 1β
þ þ þ ¼
1α γ 1β α
β 1γ γ
þβ  1 þ βþ þγ1þ γ
1γ β  1  α 
1α α 1β α
þ þα1þ α¼ þ
 γ 1
   β α  1  β
β 1γ γ 1α
þ þ þ þ  3  3,
1γ β 1α γ
110 3 Areas

since a þ 1a  2, where a > 0.


(g) Let SABC ¼ 1, then according to problems 3.1.12e and 3.1.12f maxðSAB1 C1 ;
SBA1 C1 ; SCA1 B1 Þ  14 and S2 A1 B1 C1  maxðSAB1 C1 ; SBA1 C1 ; SCA1 B1 Þ  14 S2 A1 B1 C1 
SAB1 C1  SBA1 C1  SCA1 B1 .
Let α(1  γ)  β(1  α)  γ(1  β) (see the solution of problem 3.1.12a), then we
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
have to prove that 1  αð1  γ Þ  βð1  αÞ  γ ð1  αÞ  αβð1  γ Þð1  αÞ or
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
αβγ
2αβγ  αβ  1β , γ ð1  βÞ  14.
But this is the statement of problem 3.1.12c. This ends the proof.

AB ¼ λ, BC ¼ μ, SABD ¼ S1, SDBC ¼ S2. Hence, it follows


3.1.13. Let us denote that BM BN

that

SKMNL ¼ S1 þ S2  ð1  λÞ2 S1  ð1  μÞ2 S2  λμðS1 þ S2 Þ ¼


   
¼ S1 2λ  λ2  λμ þ S2 ð2μ  μ2  λμÞ  2λ þ 2μ  λ2  μ2  2λμ maxðS1 ; S2 Þ 
 maxðS1 ; S2 Þ,

since 2λ  λ2  λμ ¼ λ(1  λ) þ λ(1  μ)  0, 2μ  μ2  λμ  0 and 2λ þ 2μ  λ2  μ2


 2λμ  1 ¼  (λ þ μ  1)2  0.
3.1.14. Let the tangents to a circle at point A intersect PB and PC at points M and N,
respectively. Denote by MA ¼ a, NA ¼ b, ∠ABC ¼ β, ∠ACB ¼ α, then ∠MBA ¼
∠MAB ¼ ∠ACB ¼ α, ∠NAC ¼ ∠NCA ¼ ∠ABC ¼ β.

1 sin 2α  sin 2β
ða þ bÞ2
SPMN 2 sin ð2α þ 2βÞ 1
¼ ¼ ¼
SABC 1 2 cos α  cos β  cos ðα þ βÞ
2a cos α  2b cos β  sin ðα þ βÞ
2
1 1
¼ < pffiffi2 pffiffi2 ¼ 1,
cos ðα þ βÞ þ cos ðα þ βÞ  cos ðα  βÞ
2
2
2
þ 22


cos β 2a cos α
because 2bsin β ¼ sin α and 0  α  β < α þ β  45 .

3.1.15. Let ∠A ¼ α, ∠B ¼ β, ∠C ¼ γ and the radius of the circumcircle of triangle


ABC is equal to R. Then, note that ∠B1 A1 C1 ¼ βþγ 2 , ∠A1 B1 C1 ¼ 2
αþγ
and
αþβ
∠A1 C1 B1 ¼ 2 . Therefore,

SABC 2R2 sin α sin β sin γ α β γ


¼ ¼ 8 sin sin sin ¼
SA1 B1 C1 α þ β β þ γ γ þ α 2 2 2
2R2 sin sin sin
 2 2 2
αβ αþβ γ αβ γ γ αβ
¼ 4 cos  cos sin ¼ 4 cos sin  4sin 2  cos 2 ,
2 2 2 2 2 2 2

 αβ
2
because cos 2  2 sin 2γ  0.
3.1 Inequalities with Areas 111

Similarly, one can prove that SASABC  cos 2 βγ


2 and SA1 B1 C1  cos
SABC 2 γα
2 .

1 B1 C 1
αβ βγ γα

Thus, it follows that SA B C  min cos 2 2 ; cos 2 2 ; cos 2 2 .
SABC
1 1 1

3.1.16. Consider the straight lines which pass through the vertices of a triangle and
are parallel to one of the sides of the parallelogram (Figure 3.12).
Note that it is sufficient to solve the problem for the cases, when the triangle and
the parallelogram have sides belonging to the same straight line (Figure 3.13a, b).
In a case of Figure 3.13a we have that SXYZT  SAY 1 Z1 T 1  12 SABC (see the solution
of problem 3.1.6a, remark 2), where Z1T1||AB. In the case of Figure 3.13b, we have
that SABC  SXCT  12 SXYZT .
3.1.17. (a) Let points A and B be the most removed vertices of a polygon. Then it is
clear that the polygon is inside the strip formed by the perpendiculars to the
segment AB at points A and B.
Consider the strip with a minimum width having boundaries parallel to the
segment AB and which contains the given polygon (Figure 3.14).
Then the intersection of these two strips contains the polygon and has area
2SABC þ 2SABD  2S.
(b) Let A, B, C be such vertices of the given polygon that SABC is maximal. It is clear
that the given polygon is contained in the half-plane ΠA, the boundary of which
passes through point A and is parallel to CB (Figure 3.15).

Figure 3.12

B Y Z

Y1 Y Z Z1

A X T T1 C X A B T
a b
Figure 3.13
112 3 Areas

The half-planes ΠB and ΠC are defined similarly. The intersection of these three
half-planes contain the given polygon and have the area equal to 4SABC. Thus, if
SABC  S2, then this ends the proof. It remains to consider the case, whenSABC > S2.
Consider a triangle A1B1C1 with a minimum area having parallel sides to the
sides of triangle ABC and which contains the given polygon (Figure 3.16).

Figure 3.14
C

A B

Figure 3.15

PA

A
B

Figure 3.16 A1
D
A S2 B1
B
S1 M
F S3
E
C

C1
3.1 Inequalities with Areas 113

Figure 3.17
P
F

l1(t) l2(t)
A B
C
S1 S2
E

MC
It is clear that AA1, BB1 and CC1 intersect at point M. Let CC 1
¼ k, then SABC ¼ k
(S1 þ S2 þ S3), where S1 ¼ SFAC, S2 ¼ SDAB, S3 ¼ SECB, and D, E, F are some vertices
of the given polygon.
Because SABC > S2, consequently k > 1.
We have that

SA1 B1 C1 ¼ SABC þ SA1 ACC1 þ SA1 ABB1 þ SC1 CBB1 ¼


2k þ 1
¼ SABC þ ð S1 þ S2 þ S3 Þ <
k
< SABC þ 3ðS1 þ S2 þ S3 Þ <
< 2ðSABC þ S1 þ S2 þ S3 Þ  2S:

In the absence of some of the points DEF the proof can be done similarly.
3.1.18. (a) Let points A, B be the most removed vertices of the given polygon and
C be any point on segment AB (Figure 3.17).
Consider the function f(t) ¼ l1(t)  l2(t) on the segment [0; 1], where t ¼ AC AB ,
while l1(t) and l2(t) are the lengths of the segments, cut off by the given polygon
from the midpoint perpendiculars of segments AC and CB, respectively. It is not
difficult to understand that the graph of the function f(t) is a broken line and as
l1(0) ¼ l2(1) ¼ 0, then we have that f(0) < 0 and f(1) > 0. Hence, it follows that there
exists a certain point C0, such that l1(t0) ¼ l2(t0), where t0 ¼ AC
AB (i.e. f(t0) ¼ 0).
0

Consider the straight line passing through point C and perpendicular to segment
AB. Assume that it divides the given polygon into two polygons with areas S1 and S2
(Figure 3.17).
Let us draw through points E and F support lines,1 then S1  l1(t)  AC.
Similarly, we obtain that S2  l2(t)  CB. Consequently, l1(t)  AC þ l2(t)  CB  S.
For point C0 the quadrilateral EFPQ is a parallelogram, such that

1
If the line l has at least one common point with a figure F and whole figure F is located on one side
of l, then the line l is called a support line of the figure F.
114 3 Areas

AC0 þ C0 B AC0  l1 ðt0 Þ C0 B  l2 ðt0 Þ S


SEFPQ ¼ l1 ðt0 Þ ¼ þ  :
2 2 2 2
 1 AB
(b) At t ¼ 12 we have that l1 12  AB 2 þ l2 2  2  S. Note that SEFB þ SAPQ ¼
      3
3
AB  l 1
þ 3
AB  l 1
 3
S. Therefore, max S EFB ; SAPQ  8 S.
8 1 2 8 2 2 4    
(c) At t ¼ 12 we have that SAFPBQE ¼ 38 AB  l1 12 þ l2 12  3S 4.

3.1.19. See the solution of problem 3.1.17b.


3.1.20. Let AB ¼ c, BC ¼ a, AC ¼ b, ∠A ¼ α, ∠B ¼ β, ∠C ¼ γ. We have that

1 1 1
SA1 B1 C1 ¼ SABC þ SABC1 þ SBCA1 þ SACB1  ab sin 3γ  bc sin 3α  ac sin 3β ¼
2 2 2
1 1 1
¼ 4SABC  ab sin 3γ  bc sin 3α  ac sin 3β:
2 2 2

Because sin3x ¼ sin x(2 cos 2x þ 1), then

1 1 1
ab sin 3γ þ bc sin 3α þ ac sin 3β ¼ SABC ð2 cos 2γ þ 2 cos 2α þ 2 cos 2β þ 3Þ ¼
2 2 2
¼ SABC ð4cos 2 γ þ 4cos 2 α þ 4cos 2 β  3Þ  0

(see problem 5.1.1).


Consequently, SA1 B1 C1  4SABC .
This ends the proof.
3.1.21. Let AB ¼ c, BC ¼ a, AC ¼ b, ∠A ¼ α, ∠B ¼ β, ∠C ¼ γ. We have that

1 1 1
SAA1 B þ SBB1 C þ SCC1 A ¼ ac sin α þ ab sin β þ bc sin γ
 2  2 2
sin α sin β sin γ
¼ SABC þ þ 
sin β sin γ sin α !
rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
sin α sin β sin γ
 SABC 2  þ2 1 1 
sin β sin γ sin α
sr ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi !
sin α sin γ
 SABC 4   1 ¼ 3SABC ,
sin γ sin α

pffiffiffiffiffi
because x þ y  2 xy (x  0, y  0).
2 2 2
3.1.22. We have that SS1 ¼ ðkþmþn
k
, S2 ¼ ðkþmþn
Þ2 S
n
, S3 ¼ ðkþmþn
Þ2 S
m
Þ2
(Figure 3.18).
Consequently
3.1 Inequalities with Areas 115

Figure 3.18 B

S3 S1
X
m k
S2
A n C

Figure 3.19 D E

K M F
N
C

B A

 2  2  2 
S1 þ S2 þ S3 ¼ S k
kþmþn þ n
kþmþn þ m
kþmþn 
 
2 k 1 2 n 1 2 m 1
S   þ   þ  
3 kþmþn 9 3 kþmþn 9 3 kþmþn 9
 
2 1 S
¼S 1 ¼ ,
3 3 3

since x2  23 x  19.
3.1.23. Let us draw through points B, D and F lines parallel to segments AF, EF and
AB, respectively (Figure 3.19). Note that SBCD ¼ SBND, SDEF ¼ SDKF, SABF ¼ SBMF.
Consequently 2SBDF ¼ SABCDEF þ SMNK  SABCDEF.
3.1.24. Denote the points symmetrical to P, Q and R relative to the symmetry center
0 0 0 0 0 0
of hexagon ABCDEF by P , Q and R , respectively. It is clear that points P , Q and R
0 0 0 0 0
2
belong, respectively, to sides DE, AF and BC. Since Q R#R Q, PQ #P Q and RP #
0
RP , we have 2SPQR ¼ SPR0 QP0 RQ0  SABCDEF (see the solution to problem 3.1.23).
3.1.25. Let ABCDEF be a regular hexagon with a symmetry center O and triangle
MNP an inscribed triangle, with side MN passing through point O. One can assume

2
AB # CD denotes that the segments AB and CD are parallel and equal.
116 3 Areas

that M 2 CD, N 2 AF and P 2 AB. We have that SMNP  max (SMNA, SMNB), SMNA
¼ 12 SAMDN  12 SACDF ¼ 13 SABCDEF and SMNB ¼ SBON þ SBOM ¼ SBAO þ SBCO
¼ 3 SABCDEF . Consequently, SMNP  3 SABCDEF .
1 1

AC ¼ λ, AB ¼ μ, SBPC ¼ x, SPDE ¼ y.
3.1.26. Let us introduce the following notations: EC BD

Let SABC ¼ 1. We have that SBEC ¼ λ, SBCD ¼ μ, SADE ¼ (1  λ)(1  μ). As


SPDB  SPEC ¼ SPDE  SPBC, then

ðλ  xÞðμ  xÞ ¼ xy: ð3:6Þ

(a) According to (3.6) and

SADE ¼ ð1  λÞð1  μÞ ¼ 1  λ  μ þ x  y, ð3:7Þ

we get that y ¼ λμðλþμλμ


1λÞð1μÞ λμ
¼ λþμλμ  λμ.
pffiffiffiffi
pffiffiffiffiffi λμ
Since λ þ μ  2 λμ, then y  pffiffiffiffi  λμ.
2 λμ
 pffiffi pffiffi
Note that max f ðtÞ ¼ f 32 5 ¼ 5 5211, where f ðtÞ ¼ 2t
t
 t2 .
½0;1
pffiffiffiffiffi pffiffi
Therefore SPDE ¼ y  f ð λμÞ  max f ðtÞ ¼ 5 5211, because 0 < λμ < 1.
½0;1

(b) Since SBCDE ¼ 2SBPC, then λ þ μ þ y  x ¼ 2x. We have that 3x  y ¼ λ þ μ and


(3.6), consequently x2 ¼ λμ 2 . According to (3.7) wepfind that 2x ¼ λ þ μ  λμ,
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
2y ¼ λ þ μ  3λμ, consequently, λ þ μ ¼ λμ þ 2λμ, we deduce that
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffi
λ þ μ ¼ λμ þ 2λμ  2 λμ. From the last inequality follows that
 pffiffiffi2 pffiffiffi
λμ  2  2 ¼ 6  4 2.
pffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffi pffiffiffi
2λμ2λμ
We have that y ¼ λþμ3λμ ¼  5 2  7, because λμ  6  4 2. Thus
pffiffiffi 2 2
SPDE ¼ y  5 2  7.

AC ¼ λ and CB ¼ μ. Let point G be the centroid of triangle ABC. We


3.1.27. Denote QC CP
S
have that SCAM ¼ SBCM ¼ S2, where S ¼ SABC. Because SCAM CQG
¼ 23 λ, SSCBM
CGP
¼ 23 μ and
SQCP pffiffiffiffiffi
S ¼ λμ, we have 3λμ ¼ λ þ μ. Therefore 3λμ  2 λμ, hence λμ  9.
4

We need to prove that SQCP þ SAQM þ SBMP  79 S, or λμS þ S2 ð1  λÞþ


2 ð1  μÞ  9 S.
S 7

Indeed λμ þ 12 ð1  λÞ þ 12 ð1  μÞ ¼ 1  λμ
2  9. It remains to note that
7
 
SQMP ¼ S  SQCP þ SAQM þ SBMP  S  79 S ¼ 29 S, consequently SQMP  29 S.
3.1.28. It is clear that the cross section of the cube by a plane passing through its
center is a centrally symmetric convex polygon, which has an even number of sides.
Thus, it is either a quadrilateral (Figure 3.20a), or a hexagon (Figure 3.20b).
In the first case (Figure 3.20a), we have that Sсеч ¼ bh  a  a ¼ a2.
3.1 Inequalities with Areas 117

b D
b
B a c
d g
c
h b d E

A
b
a
F
a b
Figure 3.20

Figure 3.21 B S2
C

S1

A
D

yi yi¢

In the second case (Figure 3.20b), we have that


pffiffiffi
Sсеч ¼ bd sin α þ bc sin β þ cd sin γ. Since 2b, 2c, 2d  2a and α þ β þ γ ¼ π,
then according to the problem 5.2.3 in the case α, β, γ < π2, we obtain that
2
Sсеч  a2 ð sin α þ sin β þ sin γ Þ > a2 .
If γ  π2, then DE2  a2 þ a2 ¼ a2 , consequently Sсеч > SABDE  DE  a  a2.
2 2

3.1.29. It is clear that one can leave two of the given strips as they are and move the
remaining k strips. Let coordinate straight line be parallel to non of the boundary
lines of these strips.
Denote by xi (i ¼ 1, 2, . . . , k) coordinates of the intersection points of the line li
with the coordinate line, where the straight line li is parallel to the bounding lines of
the i-th strip and is equidistant from them. It is clear that there exist numbers ai and
bi, such that ai  xi  bi [because the intersection of each of these k strips with
parallelogram ABCD is not empty (Figure 3.21)], where ABCD is the intersection of
two not moved strips.
118 3 Areas

b b
x
x x
a g a 1800-g

x b b=0
a a 1800 -d
d

a b
Figure 3.22

It is clear that to each figure which is the intersection of all these strips,
corresponds a set of numbers x1, x2, . . . , xk. Denote the area of all these k þ 2 strips
by S(x1, x2, ..., xk). If all these strips do not have common points we will set S(x1,
x2, ..., xk) ¼ 0.
We shall prove that there exists a constant number M, such that at any
xi , x0i 2 ½ai ; bi , i ¼ 1, 2, . . . , k the following inequality holds true
   
Sðx1 ; x2 ; :::; xk ÞS x0 ; x0 ; :::; x0  M jx1  x0 j þ jx2  x0 j þ ::: þ jxk  x0 j :
1 2 k 1 2 k
ð3:8Þ
   
Note that S y1 ; :::; yi1 ; yi ; yiþ1 ; :::; yk  S y1 ; :::; yi1 ; y0i ; yiþ1 ; :::; yk  S1 þ

S2 (Figure 3.21), and S1 , S2  y0i  yi  d, where d is the longest diagonal of the

parallelogram ABCD. Then S1 þ S2  2 y0i  yi  d, and thus
 
Sðx1 ; x2 ; :::; xk Þ  S x0 ; x0 ; :::; x0 
1 2 k
     
 Sðx1 ; x2 ; :::; xk Þ  S x01 ; x2 ; :::; xk þ S x01 ; x2 ; :::; xk  S x01 ; x02 ; x3 :::; xk þ
   
þ ::: þ S x01 ; x02 ; :::; x0k1 ; xk  S x01 ; x02 :::; x0k 
 
 2d x1  x01 þ 2d x2  x02 þ ::: þ 2d xk  x0k ¼ M jx1  x01 j þ jx2  x02 j þ ::: þ jxk  x0k j ,

where M ¼ 2d.
Using the inequality (3.8) one can prove that there exist numbers x01 , x02 , :::, x0k ,
 
such that for any xi 2 [ai, bi], i ¼ 1, 2, . . . , k, Sðx1 ; x2 ; :::; xk Þ  S x01 ; x02 ; :::; x0k .
We shall prove that all strips to which correspond numbers x01 , x02 , :::, x0k have a
common center of symmetry.
Proof by contradiction argument.  
Let certain two parallel sides of the intersection with the area S x01 ; x02 ; :::; x0k ¼ S
be not equal. Let a > b (Figure 3.22).
3.1 Inequalities with Areas 119

Figure 3.23 y

E
a
K
O N x

Let us shift the strip, one of the boarders of which contains a, by x (Figure 3.22).
0
Denote the area of intersection of new strips by S . Then for sufficiently enough
small x we have that

2a þ xðtgβ þ tgαÞ 2b  xðtgγ þ tgδÞ


S0  S ¼ x x¼
2 2
2a  2b þ xðtgβ þ tgα þ tgγ þ tgδÞ
¼ x > 0,
2
0
i.e. S > S. This leads to a contradiction.
3.1.30. (а) Let AE ⊥ MN, OK ⊥ MN (Figure 3.23).
pffiffi pffiffi
Denote ∠AOK ¼ α, then OA ¼ 22 and OK ¼ 22 cos α  R, where 0  α < π4.
Note that ON ¼ cosOKπα , OM ¼ cosOKπþα , consequently,
ð4 Þ ð4 Þ
pffiffi 2
2 cos α R
2

SMON ¼ :
cos 2α

pffiffi
pffi 2
pffiffi 2
2 cos αR
2
(1) For 0 < R  4
2
we have to prove that cos 2α  22  R , or
pffiffi cos αpffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi ffi pffiffi cos αpffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi ffi pffiffi
2 ð cos 2αÞ
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 ð cos 2αÞ
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
2  R (α ¼
6 0). We need to prove that 2  2
4 , or
1 cos 2α
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 1 cos 2α
2 cos α  1  cos 2α, i.e. (cosα  1)2  0.
(2) We shall prove that for 0 < R < 12 the following inequality holds true
p ffi 2
2 cos αR
2 pffiffiffi 2
cos 2α  14  R2 , or 2R cos α  12  0.
pffiffi
For 42 < R < 12 the equality may hold true, since p1ffiffi2 < 2p1ffiffi2R < 1, hence there
exists such an angle α, for which cos α ¼ p1ffiffi . 2 2R
120 3 Areas

B1 C1 B1 W C1
B1 C1
V
A1 D1 P A1
A1 N D1 D1
S
M N O
K U
B C B C B C
b
M O1
R T
K
A D A D A Q D
a b c
Figure 3.24

(b) According to problem 3.1.29, if one shifts the plane parallel to itself so that it
passes through the center of the cube, then the area of the cross section does not
decrease. Thus, it is sufficient to make the proof for the case of dissection of the
cube by a plane passing through its center. Consider the following cases
(Figure 3.23a, b, c).
pffiffiffi
I. (Figure 3.24a) Ssec ¼ 2SANC1  2maxðSAD1 C1 ; SADC1 Þ ¼ 2.
II. (Figure 3.24b) Ssec ¼ 2SNKP  2maxðSNKC1 ; SNKC Þ ¼ maxðSANC1 K ; SA1 NCK Þ
pffiffiffi
 2.
III. Let OO1 ⊥ ABC, where O is the center of the cube, O1K ⊥ QT and O1K ¼ R,
∠O1KO ¼ β (Figure 3.24c).
pffiffi
pffi 2
12STQD 12 22R
If 0 < R  4 , then Ssec ¼ cos β  pffiffiffiffiffiffi
2
R (see problem 3.1.30 a,1).
1þR2
pffiffi 2 pffiffi
4
pffiffiffi pffiffi
We need to prove that 1  2 22  R  pffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2R ffi
, or 2 2R  2R2  p2ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
2R ffi
,
4þR
1 2
1þ4R2
pffiffiffi pffiffi pffiffiffi p ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi1
2
2  R  pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
2 ffi
2
, or 2 p1þ4R ffi  R, or 4 2R  1 þ 4R2 þ 1 þ 4R2 .
2
1þ4R
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1þ4R
pffiffiffi
Indeed, 1 þ 4R2 þ 1 þ 4R2 > 4R þ 2R ¼ 6R > 4 2R.
pffiffi 12ð14R2 Þ
12S
IV. If 42 < R  12, then Ssec ¼ cosTQD β  pffiffiffiffiffiffi
R (see problem 3.1.30a)
1 2 þR
4

pffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1 1þ4R2 1
(3) We need to prove that 2 þ 2R R
2
 2, or (1 þ x)2(1 þ x)  8x, where
2

2 < x ¼ 4R  1. Indeed, we have that (1 þ x)  8x ¼ (x  1)(x þ 4x  1)  0,


1 2 3 2

because x  1  0, x2 þ 4x  1 > 14 þ 2  1 > 0.


pffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffi2ffi pffiffiffi pffiffiffi
1
þR
V. If 2 < R  2 , Ssec < cos β ¼ 4 R < 2. Hence Ssec < 2
1 2 1

3.1.31. (a) Consider Figure 3.25.


3.1 Inequalities with Areas 121

Figure 3.25 A

a-x
x

B D C

We have that SABD þ SADC ¼ SABC, consequently


AB  AC sin α
AD ¼ : ð *Þ
AB sin x þ AC sin ðα  xÞ

Taking into account (*), we obtain that


 
AB1  AC1 ABn  ACn
AD1 þ ::: þ ADn ¼ þ ::: þ
AB1 sin x þ AC1 sin ðα  xÞ ABn sin x þ ACn sin ðα  xÞ
sin α,

where ∠B1AC1 ¼ α, ∠B1AD1 ¼ x.


For positive numbers a1, . . . , an, b1, . . . , bn one can prove by the method of
mathematical induction that

a1 b1 an bn ða1 þ ::: þ an Þðb1 þ ::: þ bn Þ


þ ::: þ  : ð3:9Þ
a1 þ b1 an þ bn a1 þ ::: þ an þ b1 þ ::: þ bn

Using further the inequality (3.9) for numbers ai ¼ ABi sin x and bi ¼ ACi sin
(α  x) at 0 < x < α, we deduce that

ðAB1 þ ::: þ ABn Þ  ðAC1 þ ::: þ ACn Þ


AD1 þ ::: þ ADn  sin α
ðAB1 þ ::: þ ABn Þ sin x þ ðAC1 þ ::: þ ACn Þ sin ðα  xÞ
AB  AC sin α
¼ ¼ AD,
AB sin x þ AC sin ðα  xÞ

where AB ¼ AB1 þ . . . þ ABn, AC ¼ AC1 þ . . . þ ACn.


One of angles ∠BDA and ∠CDA is not acute. Therefore AD < max (AB, AC),
hence

AD1 þ ::: þ ADn  AD <


< maxðAB1 þ ::: þ ABn ; AC1 þ ::: þ ACn Þ:
0 0 0
(b) Let B , E , A be points symmetrical to B, E, A relative to point M (Figure 3.26).
122 3 Areas

Figure 3.26 C

B А'

E M
E' F
A B'

D B1

C1
M N1
K1
L
L1

D1
B

C N
К
A A1
a b

Figure 3.27

0 0 0
From problem 3.1.31a we have that ME þ MF  max (MC þ MA , MB þ MD),
or EF  max (AC, BD).
(c) Let the section of a tetrahedron ABCD be a quadrilateral KLMN (Figure 3.27a).
We need to prove that SKLMN  max (SAMC, SDKB). Let us project the tetrahedron
on a plane perpendicular to KM (Figure 3.27b).
Since SKLMN ¼ 12 KM  L1 N 1 and from problem 3.1.31b we have that L1N1  max
 
(A1C1, B1D1), then SKLMN  max 12KM  A1 C1 ; 12KM  B1 D1  maxðSAMC ; SBKD Þ.
It remains to note that SAMC  max (SACD, SABC) and SBKD  max (SABD, SCBD),
(see remark to the solution of problem 2.4.4.).
In the case of triangular section one can assume that it is passing, e.g., through
vertex D, i.e., points L and M have coincided with point D.
3.1.32. Let points C1, B1, A1, D1 be H images of points C, B, A, D (Figure 3.28).
3.1 Inequalities with Areas 123

B1
D
AC×CD

AB×CD
H- image BD×AC
C А C1 BC×CD
A1

BC×AD
BC×AC
B

D1

Figure 3.28

Figure 3.29 C2 C C1 D

Δ1 B1 D1
B2
B E2 Δ2
A1 E
E1
A2 A F1 F

 
(a) If ∠A þ ∠C > 180 , then ∠B þ ∠D < 180 . Hence C1B1A1D1 is a convex quad-
rilateral, thus SA1 B1 C1 þ SA1 C1 D1 > SC1 B1 D1 . SA1 B1 C1 ¼ CD2  SABC , SA1 C1 D1 ¼
BC2  SACD , SC1 B1 D1 ¼ AC2  SBCD . Consequently CD2  SABC þ BC2  SACD > AC2 
SBCD.

(b) If ∠A þ ∠C ¼ 180 , then SA1 B1 C1 þ SA1 C1 D1 ¼ SC1 B1 D1 . Thus CD2  SABC þ BC2 
SACD ¼ AC2  SBCD.
 
(c) If ∠A þ ∠C < 180 , then ∠B þ ∠D > 180 , hence point A1 is inside the triangle
C1B1D1, consequently SA1 B1 C1 þ SA1 C1 D1 < SC1 B1 D1 . Therefore, it follows that
CD2  SABC þ BC2  SACD < AC2  SBCD.
3.1.33. Consider a hexagon A2B2C2C1E2F1, where CC2 ¼ AF1, AA2 ¼ CC1, C1E2||
A2B2||DE, C2B2||F1E2||BC (Figure 3.29).
We have that the opposite sides of the hexagon A2B2C2C1E2F1 are parallel to
each other and C1 C2 ¼ AFþCD
2 ¼ A2 F1 . Consequently, C1E2 ¼ B2A2, E2F1 ¼ B2C2.
Let points E and E3 be symmetric to each other with respect to point E2, then
ABCE3 is a parallelogram. Therefore, C1 E2 ¼ ABþDE2 , F1 E 2 ¼
BCþEF
2 . One can easily
prove that B2C1||A1D1 and B2F1||B1E1, B2C1 ¼ A1D1, B2F1 ¼ B1E1.
This ends the proof of the point (a) of the problem.
124 3 Areas

Figure 3.30 d
d1

c c1 b
a

Figure 3.31
N d C P

N1 P1 D

c O
B M1 Q1

M A Q

We have that S1 ¼ SC1 F1 B2 ¼ 12 SA2 B2 C2 C1 E2 F1 ¼ 12 ðSABCDEF þ SΔ1 þ SΔ2 Þ (see the


solution of problem 3.1.23). Note that Δ1 ¼ Δ2 and SABCDEF ¼ 2SBDF  4SΔ1 . Thus
S1 ¼ SBDF  SΔ1  SBDF and SABCDEF ¼ 4S1  2SBDF. Finally we have S1 > 12 SBDF .
3.1.34. Let a  b, c  d, then b > d. Without loss of generality, one can assume that
the rectangle with sides a and b is inscribed into the rectangle with sides c and
d (Figure 3.30).
Indeed, as c1  c and d1  d, then b > d  d1. Hence, if we prove that 2ab < c1d1,
then 2ab < cd.
It is clear that after symmetry transformation with a center at point O (O is the
center of symmetry of the rectangle with sides a and b) the rectangle with sides
c and d transforms into itself. Hence, the centers of these rectangles coincide. Since
the vertices of the rectangle with sides a and b are on the circle with the center at
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
O and a radius a2þb , then it is clear that the positioning shown in Figure 3.31 is
2 2

possible.
To conclude the proof it remains to draw through the vertices A, B, C, D of the
rectangle with the sides a and b a straight line, parallel to the sides of the rectangle
with the sides c and d. We have that

ab ¼ SABCD < SBCQ1 þ SADN1 þ SCDP1 þ SABM1 ¼ SBCN þ SADQ þ SCDP þ SABM
¼ cd  ab:

Thus 2ab < cd.


3.1.35. (a) If O is on AC, then ABCD, AKON, and OLCM are similar. Therefore
pffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffi
pSffiffi1 þ pSffiffi2 ¼ AO þ CO ¼ 1. Consequently, S1 þ S2 ¼ S. But if O does not
S S AC AC
belong to AC, then one can assume that O and D are on the same side of AC.
3.1 Inequalities with Areas 125

Denote the intersection points of a straight line passing through O with lines BA,
AD, CD and BC, respectively, W, X, Y and Z. Assume that W
X
A. Then OW OX ¼ 1,
and OY > 1. Now we rotate the line around point O in such a way that it does not
OZ

pass through B until it reaches the position, such that Y


Z
C. Then OW OX > 1, while

OY ¼ 1. Therefore there exists an intermediate position of the line, such that


OZ

OX ¼ OY . Let P1, P2, Q1 and Q2 denote


OW OZ
the areas of triangles WKO, OLZ, ONX and
pffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffi
OMY, respectively. The inequality S  S1 þ S2 is equivalent to the inequality
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
T 1 þ T 2  2 S1 S2 .
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi  2 OX2 Q
T 1 þ T 2 ¼ 2 P1 P2 þ 2 Q1 Q2 and PP12 ¼ OW ¼ OY ¼ Q1 , then T 1 þ T 2 ¼
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
OZ
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2

2 P1 P2 þ 2 Q1 Q2 ¼ 2 ðP1 þ Q1 ÞðP2 þ Q2 Þ  2 S1 S2 (IMO, 1995, proposed


problems, Latvia).
(b, c) Let O belong to triangle ACD and SABC ¼ a, SACD ¼ b and SOAC ¼ x. We
1 =2 T 1 =2 T 1 =2
have that TSAOB  SBOC ¼ BK AB  BC ¼ SABC , Therefore
BL

2SAOB  SBOC
T1 ¼ :
a

Similarly we obtain that T 2 ¼ 2SAODbSCOD . Consequently,

pffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffi SOAB þ SOBC SOAD þ SOCD a þ x b  x


T1 þ T2  pffiffiffiffiffi þ pffiffiffiffiffi ¼ pffiffiffiffiffi þ pffiffiffiffiffi
2a 2b 2a 2b
pffiffiffi pffiffiffi pffiffiffi pffiffiffi
aþ b a b
¼ pffiffiffi  pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi x:
2 2ab
pffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffi pffiffi pffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffi
If a  b, then T 1 þ T 2  apþffiffi2 b  a þ b ¼ S.
If a < b, then, since point O cannot be outside of parallelogram ABCE, then
pffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiaþpffiffib pffiffiapffiffib pffiffi pffiffi
x  a. Therefore we deduce that T 1 þ T 2  pffiffi2  pffiffiffiffiffi ffi a ¼ apþffiffi b 
pffiffi pffiffi pffiffiffi pffiffiffiffi
2ab 2
affiffiffiffi b bþ2pffiffiffi ffi a
p a¼ ab
.
pffiffiffi
2b 2b

bþ2pffiffiffi a sin ð2αþπ=4Þ
ab
Denote ab ¼ tg 2 α, where α 2 0; π4 . Then pffiffiffiffiffiffi 2b
¼ cos α  C0 .
pffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffi bþ2pffiffiffi ffi aþb
p ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi p ffiffiffi
Consequently, T 1 þ T 2  pffiffiffi ffi a  C0 a þ b ¼ C0 S. When α ¼ π4,
ab

sin ð2αþπ=4Þ
2b
pffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffi
cos α ¼ 1, i.e. C0  1. Thus, in all cases T 1 þ T 2  C0 S.
Note that if in a quadrilateral the conditions AB ¼ BC, AD ¼ CD are satisfied and
ABCO is a parallelogram, then using the condition SSACD ABC
¼ tg 2 α0 , where 0  α0  π4
sin ð2α0 þπ=4Þ pffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffi
and C0 ¼ cos α0 we obtain that T 1 þ T 2 ¼ C0 S.
 
We need to prove that, if 0  α  π4, then sin 2α þ π4 < 54 cos α. This ends the
proof of the point (b)
of the problem.
Indeed, let φ 2 0; π4 and cos φ ¼ 45, then at 0  α < φ, we have that
 
sin 2α þ π4 < 1 ¼ 54 cos φ < 54 cos α. But if φ  α  π4, then tgφ ¼ 34 >
126 3 Areas

Figure 3.32 A D1 B
M4

M
O M1
C1
М3
A1

K
M2
D

B1
C

pffiffiffi     pffiffi
2  1 ¼ tg π8. Therefore, φ > π8 and sin 2α þ π4  sin 2φ þ π4 ¼ 22  31
25 <
pffiffi
2  4  1, 25 cos α.
2 5

Remark
 Using
 the concept of a derivative it is possible to prove that
tg 2α0 þ π4 tg α0 þ 2 ¼ 0, or tg3α0 þ 3tgα0  2 ¼ 0. Consequently, tg α0 ¼
p ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
pffiffiffi p ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
pffiffiffi
2 þ 1 2  1¼ 0, 59 . . ., then C0 ¼ 1, 11. . ..
3 3

3.1.36. (Solution of O. Sarkisyan, 9th grade) Let the diagonals of the quadrilateral
ABCD intersect at point O (Figure 3.32) and OC AO
¼ λ, OD
BO
¼ μ.
Let us express S0 through S, λ, μ. Since segment AA1, BB1, CC1 and DD1 medians
of triangles ABC, BCD, ACD and ABD, then
S
SAA1 CC1 ¼ SAA1 C þ SCC1 A ¼ SABA1 þ SCDC1 ¼ :
2
Similarly,
S
SBB1 DD1 ¼ SBCB1 þ SDAD1 ¼ :
2
Consequently,

S ¼ SAA1 CC1 þ SBB1 DD1 ¼ SABA1 þ SBCB1 þ SCDC1 þ SDAD1 :

Hence, we obtain that S0 ¼ SBA1 M1 þ SCB1 M2 þ SDC1 M3 þ SAD1 M4 . Let us now


calculate SBA1 M1 . From the similarity of triangles BMM1 and B1A1M1 we find that
BM1 BM
¼ : ð3:10Þ
M 1 B1 A1 B1
From the similarity of triangles AMO and AA1K, we have that
3.1 Inequalities with Areas 127

AK A1 K BM þ MO 1 BM
¼ ¼ ¼ þ :
AO MO 2MO 2 2MO

On the other hand, we have that

AK AO þ OK OC 1
¼ ¼1þ ¼1þ :
AO AO 2AO 2λ
λþ1
Therefore, 1 þ 2λ
1
¼ 12 þ 2MO
BM
, from which it follows that BM ¼ 2λþ1 BO. From
(3.10) we deduce that

BM1 BM λ þ 1 BO
¼ ¼  ¼
M1 B1 A1 B1 2λ þ 1 BD=2
ð2λ þ 2Þμ
¼ :
ð2λ þ 1Þðμ þ 1Þ

Consequently,

BM1 1 2ðλ þ 1Þμ


¼ ¼ :
BB1 1 þ MBM
1 B1 4λμ þ 3μ þ 2λ þ 1
1

SBM1 A1 1 BA1 ðλþ1Þμ


Since SBCB1 ¼ BM
BB1 BC ¼ 2BB1 ¼ 4λμþ3μþ2λþ1 and SBCD ¼ OC ¼ λ, then
BM1 SABD AO

ðλ þ 1Þμ ðλ þ 1Þμ SBCD


SBM1 A1 ¼ SBCB1 ¼
4λμ þ 3μ þ 2λ þ 1 4λμ þ 3μ þ 2λ þ 1 2
μ
¼  S ¼¼ f ðλ; μÞ  S,
2ð4λμ þ 3μ þ 2λ þ 1Þ

where f ðx; yÞ ¼ 2ð4xyþ3yþ2xþ1


y
Þ.
   
Similarly, we obtain that SCM2 B1 ¼ f μ; 1λ S, SDM3 C1 ¼ f 1λ; μ1 S,
 
SAM4 D1 ¼ f μ1; λ S. Therefore

1 μ 1 λ
S0 ¼ þ þ þ
2 4λμ þ 3μ þ 2λ þ1 4μ þ 3 þ 2μλ þ λ 4 þ 3λ þ 2μ þ λμ
ð3:11Þ
λμ
þ  S:
4λ þ 3λμ þ 2 þ μ

Denote 4λμ þ 3μ þ 2λ þ 1 ¼ a1, 4μ þ 3 þ 2μλ þ λ ¼ a2, 4 þ 3λ þ 2μ þ λμ ¼ a3.


Hence, it follows that λ ¼ 2a3 a
5
2 5
, μ ¼ 2a2 a
5
1 5
, λμ ¼ 2a1 a25a3 þ5. Now we have
to prove that
128 3 Areas

1 2a2  a1  5 1 2a3  a2  5 2a1  a2  a3 þ 5 2


< þ þ þ ¼A :
3 5a1 a2 5a3 5a4 5

It is not difficult to prove that


(a) a1 þ a3 ¼ a2 þ a4,
(b) a1 a3  a2 a4 ¼ 12 ð5ða2 þ a4 Þ þ a1 a2  2a2 a3 Þ,
(c) 3a1a3  2a2a4 > 0,
(d) 3a2a4  2a1a3 > 0.
Consider now the expression A  25. By reducing to a common denominator and
regrouping the similar members, using the property (a) and presenting the expres-
sion a1a2a3a4 in the form a1a2a3(a1 þ a3  a2), we deduce that A  25 ¼
5a1 a3 ða2 þa4 Þ5a2 a4 ða1 þa3 Þ2a2 a3 ða1 a3 a2 a4 Þþa1 a2 ða1 a3 a2 a4 Þ
5a1 a2 a3 a4 .
Replacing in the obtained expression a2 þ a4 by a1 þ a3 we obtain that
A  25 ¼ ða1 a3 a2 a4 Þð55aða11aþa 3 Þþa1 a2 2a2 a3 Þ
2 a3 a4
. According to the property (b), from the last
2
expression we obtain that A  25 ¼  2ða5a1 a13aa 2 a4 Þ
2 a3 a4
 0. Thus A  25. Note that the
equality holds true if and only if a1a3  a2a4 ¼ 0. However from the condition (a) it
follows that 2(a1a3  a2a4) ¼ (a2  a1)(a2 þ a1  a3  a4). Since a1a3  a2a4 ¼ 0,
then either a2  a1 ¼ 0 or a2 þ a1  a3  a4 ¼ 0. If a2 ¼ a1, then we obtain that
4λμ þ 3μ þ 2λ þ 1 ¼ 4μ þ 3 þ 2λμ þ λ, or μ ¼ 2λ1 2λ
.
But if a2 þ a1 ¼ a3 þ a4, then accounting to (a) it follows that a1 ¼ a4,
i.e. 4λμ þ 3μ þ 2λ þ 1 ¼ 4λ þ 3λμ þ 2 þ μ or μ ¼ 2λþ1 λþ2 .
Now, let us note that from a2  a1 ¼ 0 (or a2 þ a1  a3  a4 ¼ 0) and the condi-
tion (a) we deduce that a1a3  a2a4 ¼ 0. Therefore the last condition is equivalent to
either μ ¼ 2λ1
2λ
or μ ¼ 2λþ1
λþ2 .
2
Now, we need to prove that A > 13. Since A ¼ 25  2ða5a1 a13aa 2 a4 Þ
2 a3 a4
, then it
2
13a1 a2 a3 a4 6a21 a23 6a22 a24
remains to prove that 2
5  2ða5a1 a13aa 2 a4 Þ
2 a3 a4
> 13, or 15a1 a2 a3 a4 > 0, or
ð3a1 a3 2a2 a4 Þð3a2 a4 2a1 a3 Þ
15a1 a2 a3 a4 > 0.
The last inequality is holds true due to conditions (c) and (d).
3.1.37. Note that (see Figure 3.33).
pffiffiffi
c2 a2 2    a2 þ b2 þ c 2 2 3
O2 O3 ¼ þ  ac cos 60 þ β ¼
2
 S:
3 3 3 6 3
pffiffi
Similarly we find that O1 O3 2 ¼ O1 O2 2 ¼ a þb6 þc  2 3 3 S.
2 2 2

pffiffi pffiffi     pffiffi 


2 2
Thus SO1 O2 O3 ¼ 43 O2 O3 2 ¼ 43 c3 þ a3  23ac cos 60  β þ 4 3 3 S  S.
3.1.38. Let A1B1C1 and A2B2C2 be two nonintersecting triangles. Note that there
exists a straight line l, containing one of the sides of one of these triangles, so that
triangles A1B1C1 and A2B2C2 are on different sides of this line. Indeed, let O be any
point inside triangle A1B1C1 and k be the minimal positive number at which
3.1 Inequalities with Areas 129

Figure 3.33
B
O2
O3
b
c a

A b C

O1

А2

B¢ B¢ B2
A¢ A¢ B1
A1 B1 A1
C2
А2

C1 B2 C1 l

l C2
C¢ C¢
a b

Figure 3.34

0 0 0 0 0 0
triangles A B C and A2B2C2 have a common point, where A B C is the image of
triangle A1B1C1 under similarity transformation with a center O and similarity
coefficient k. The existence of line l follows from Figure 3.34.
Let A1B1C1 and A2B2C2 be two given triangles. Note that if line l contains sides
A1C1 or B1C1, then parallelograms A1C1B1D1 and A2C2B2D2 do not have any
common internal point, while if line l contains side A1B1, then hexagons
A1M1N1B1K1P1 and A2M2N2B2K2P2 do not have common internal points [here
MiNi and PiKi are midlines of triangles AiBiCi and AiBiDi (i ¼ 1, 2), respectively
(Figure 3.35)].
From the aforesaid it follows that, if given triangles AiBiCi, i ¼ 1, 2, . . . , n do
not have any common internal point, then any two of the hexagons AiMiNiBiKiPi,
i ¼ 1, 2, . . . , n also do not have any common internal point.
P
n P
n
Therefore, S0  SA i M i N i B i K i P ¼ 2 SAi Bi Ci ¼ 2 S.
3 3
i¼1 i¼1
130 3 Areas

Figure 3.35 D2

P2 K2

A2 B2
D1
M2 N2
P1 K1
A1 C2 B1 l

M1 N1

C1

Figure 3.36 N

A C
A1 C1

F E1 D

M E K

3.1.39. Let us draw through points A, C and E straight lines MN, NK and MK parallel
to BF, BD and DF, respectively (Figure 3.36).
Then ΔBFD  ΔMNK, and let MN ¼ λBF.
Note that

λ2 SBDF ¼ SMNK ¼
¼ SBDF þ SMNBF þ SNKDB þ SMKDF :

Thus, it follows that

ðλ þ 1ÞBF ðλ þ 1ÞBD ðλ þ 1ÞDF  


AA1 þ CC1 þ EE1 ¼ λ2  1 SBDF :
2 2 2
Therefore, we deduce that

BF  AA1 BD  CC1 DF  EE1


SABCDEF ¼ SBDF þ þ þ ¼ λSBDF :
2 2 2

We have that R > r1 (see the solution of problem 7.1.79), where r1 is the radius of
the incircle of triangle BDF. Hence, we obtain that
3.1 Inequalities with Areas 131

Figure 3.37 A

B M E

D
C

R R pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
SABCDEF  SBDF ¼ SACE  SBDF :
r1 r
Remark 1. If center O of the circumcircle of a triangle ACE is in a convex hexagon
ABCDEF, then SABCDEF ¼ SABOF þ SBCDO þ SDEFO  BFR 2 þ 2 þ 2 ¼
BDR FDR
R
r1 SBDF .
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
2. If ABCDEF is a convex hexagon, then SABCDEF  Rr  Rr11  SACE  SBDF , where r,
R and r1, R1 are the inradius and circumradius of triangles ACE and BDF,
respectively.
3.1.40. Denote given five points by A, B, C, D, E. If the pentagon with vertices at A,
B, C, D, E is not convex, then we can assume that point D is inside triangle ABC,
pffiffiffi
then SABC ¼ SABD þ SDBC þ SDAC > 6 > 5 þ 1.
Consider now the case when pentagon ABCDE is convex. Let M be the point of
intersection of BE with AC (Figure 3.37).
pffiffi pffiffi pffiffi pffiffiffi
Suppose that BM ME
 1þ2 5, then SSACE ¼ BM
ME
 1þ2 5, SACE  SABC 1þ2 5 > 1 þ 5.
pffiffi ABC
pffiffi
51
ME
In the case BM < 1þ2 5, SMDE  min (SCDE, SADE) > 2, SSBMD ¼ BM
ME > 2 , SBMD >
pffiffi p ffiffi
ffi p ffiffi
MDE
ffi pffiffiffi
51
2 SMDE ¼ 5  1. Therefore SBDE ¼ SBMD þ SMDE > 5  1 þ 2 ¼ 5 þ 1.
3.1.41. In the case when four vertices of the hexagon A1A2A3A4A5A6 are on two
adjacent sides of the unit square ABCD, we have that if A1, A2 2 AB, A3, A4 2 BC,
 4
then SA1 A2 A3 SA2 A3 A4 ¼ 14 A1 A2  BA3  A2 B  A3 A4  14 A1 A2 þBA3 þA
4
2 BþA3 A4
 64
1
.
Consequently, minðSA1 A2 A3 ; SA2 A3 A4 Þ  18.
It remains to consider the case when A1, A2 2 AB, A3 2 BC, A4, A5 2 CD,
A6 2 AD.
Let A4C  A2B. If DA5  AA1, then we proceed to the proof by contradiction
argument. Suppose that the areas of all these triangles are greater than 18. Then by
approaching point A3 to C, and point A6 to D, one can obtain SA3 A4 A5 ¼ SA4 A5 A6 ¼ 18,
while other areas are greater than 18. Now by drawing together points A1 and A2, we
can reach SA6 A1 A2 ¼ SA1 A2 A3 ¼ 18, while areas of other two triangles are greater than 18.
Then we have that
132 3 Areas

1 þ A1 A2 1 þ A4 A5
SA1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 ¼ SA1 A2 A3 A6 þ SA6 A3 A4 A5 ¼ BA3 þ CA3 ¼
2 2
1 A1 A2  BA3 A4 A5  CA3 3
¼ þ þ ¼ :
2 2 2 4
On the other hand
1 A1 A2 þ A4 A5 1
SA1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 ¼ SA6 A1 A5 þ SA2 A3 A4 þ SA1 A2 A4 A5 > þ ¼
  4 2 4
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3
þ þ ¼¼ þ  þ ¼ :
8 BA3 A3 C 4 8  BA3  A3 C 4 2  ðBA3 þ A3 CÞ 2 4

This leads to a contradiction.


If DA5 < AA1, then moving point A3 closer to C, and point A6 to A, one can obtain
that SA6 A1 A2 ¼ 18 , SA5 A3 A4 ¼ 18, while the areas of remaining four triangles are greater
than 18. Now, let us move points A3 and A6 in a direction parallel to AB, so that
SA6 A1 A2 ¼ SA6 A1 A5 ¼ 18, SA2 A3 A4 ¼ SA3 A4 A5 ¼ 18, SA1 A2 A3 > 18, SA6 A5 A4 > 18, PQ ¼ 1,
QR < 1 (Figure 3.38).
Note that A1A6||A2A5||A3A4. Let PO ¼ 1 and SV||A3A4. Denote A1A6 ¼ a,
A3A4 ¼ b, ∠QA1A6 ¼ α, then α > 45 and RA3 > QA6. Therefore,
a sin α þ b sin α < 1.
We have that
pffiffiffi
2 ¼ QO > QV ¼ QM þ MN þ NU þ UV ¼
a cos α sin α 1 1 b cos α sin α
¼   þ   þ   þ   ¼
sin α þ 45  4a sin α þ 45 4b sin α þ 45 sin α þ 45
1 aþb
¼    ða þ bÞ cos α sin α þ
sin α þ 45  4ab

1 1
    ða þ bÞ cos α sin α þ :
sin α þ 45 aþb

Figure 3.38 Q A1 A2 R
0 1
45 a
4a
M
a
N
A3
U
A6 1 b V
4b
a
P A5 A4 S O
3.1 Inequalities with Areas 133

 i
Since the function f ðxÞ ¼ x cos α sin α þ 1x decreases in 0; pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1
cos α sin α
ffi and
aþb< 1
< pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1 ffi, ða þ bÞ cos α sin α þ
then > cos α sin αþ
1 1
sin α cos α sin α sin α
pffiffiffi  aþb

sin α ¼ cos α þ sin α. Consequently, 2 > sin αþ45 1
 ða þ bÞ cos α sin α þ aþb
1
ð Þ
cos αþ sin α
pffiffiffi
> sin  ¼ 2 . This leads to a contradiction.
ðαþ45 Þ
This ends the proof.
Remark The number 18 cannot be made smaller, because if A1
A, A4
C,
A1 A2 ¼ A1 A6 ¼ 12 ¼ A3 A4 ¼ A4 A5 , then SA1 A2 A3 ¼ SA2 A3 A4 ¼ ::: ¼ SA6 A1 A2 ¼ 18.
0 0
3.1.42. Let us consider point B and P , such that BB ~ 0 ¼ PP~ 0 ¼ AC. ~ Let O be the
0
midpoint of segment BC and AB ¼ c, BC ¼ a, AC ¼ b, PB ¼ d.
0 0
According to problem 1.1.14a, for points P, B , P , C we have that bc  d þ 6.
0 0
Since quadrilateral ABB C is a parallelogram, then O is the midpoint of segment AB .
0 2 0
Consequently, PO2 ¼ 2þ2d 4AB , AB 2 ¼ 2b2 þ 2c2  a2, PO2 ¼ 8þ18a
2 2
4 .
Hence, we obtain that b þ c  a ¼ d  12, then d  12 ¼ bc  d þ 6. Thus
2 2 2 2 2
pffiffiffiffi pffiffi pffiffi  pffiffiffiffiffi pffiffi
d  1þ2 73, therefore SABC ¼ 43 bc  43 ðd þ 6Þ  13 þ 73 83.
3.1.43. First we prove that if given an angle ∠MAN ¼ α, then on sides AM, AN one
can find points B0, C0, respectively, and inside the given angle a point P, such that
PA0 ¼ r1, PB0 ¼ r2, PC ¼ r3 and ∠PB0A ¼ ∠PC0A.
Indeed, let point K be inside angle MAN and ρ(K, AM) ¼ r2, ρ(K, AN) ¼ r3.
Denote by P the intersection point of the circle with a center at A and radius r1
with ray AK. Then AP ¼ r1 and ρρððP;AM Þ
P;AN Þ ¼ r3 , and it remains to use the conditions
r2

r2 > r1 and r3 > r1 to choose on rays AM and AN points B0 and C0, such that
PB0 ¼ r2, PC0 ¼ r3 (Figure 3.39).
Then ΔPEB0 and ΔPFC0 are similar.
Hence ∠PB0A ¼ ∠PC0A. We need to prove that SABC  SAB0 C0 .
Let ΔABC and point P satisfy the conditions of the problem.
0 0
Consider points B and P , such that BB ~ 0 ¼ PP~ 0 ¼ AC~ 0 , then (see the solution of
0
problem 3.1.42), if PB ¼ d, we obtain that

Figure 3.39 B0
M

r2
E
P
r1 r3

a
A F C0 N
134 3 Areas

bc  dr 1 þ r 2 r 3 ð3:12Þ

and d2 ¼ r 22 þ r 23  r 21 þ 2bc cos α.


Consequently,

d2  r 22 þ r 23 
r 21 þ 2ðdr 1 þ r 2 r 3 Þ cos α:
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Hence d  r 1 cos α þ r 22 þ r 23 þ 2r 2 r 3 cos α  r 21 sin 2 α.
Therefore,

1
SABC ¼ bc sin α 
2 qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 
1 2
 r 1 cos α þ r 1 r 22 þ r 23 þ 2r 2 r 3 cos α  r 21 sin 2 α þ r 2 r 3 sin α ¼ SAB0 C0 ,
2

since for triangle AB0C0 the inequality (3.12) turns into equality.
Now we will find the minimal value of SABC. To do that, let us note that points A,
B, C are on the circles with a center at point P and with radiuses r1, r2, r3, respec-
tively (see Figure 3.40).
0 0
Note that triangle AB C also satisfies the  conditions of the problem and
SABC  SAB0 C0 ¼ 14 AB  AB0  AC  AC0 sin 2 α ¼ 14 r 22  r 21 r 23  r 21 sin 2 α.
Thus, it follows that
 2  
1 2  2  1 r 2  r 21 r 23  r 21 sin 2 α
SABC ¼ r 2  r 1 r 3  r 1  sin α
2 2 2
 :
4 SAB0 C0 4SAB0 Co

ðr22 r21 Þðr23 r21 Þsin 2 α


This means that the minimal value of SABC is equal to 4SAB0 Co .
This ends the proof.

Figure 3.40 C

a B
A
a
B¢ P

C'
3.1 Inequalities with Areas 135

Figure 3.41

3.1.44. Consider the following two cases.


(a) If any two of the constructed parallelograms (Figure 3.41а) do not have a
common point, denote by S0 the intersection area of the parallelograms and
let SA1 B1 C1 D1 ¼ S1 , then we have that S0 > S1  S0.

Thus, it follows that S0 > S21 :


(b) If two of the constructed parallelograms have common points (Figure 3.41b),
then any two among the other four constructed parallelograms do not have a
common point.
Therefore S0 > S2 , where S ¼ SABCD.

Problems for Self-Study

3.1.45. Prove that in any convex polygon one can place a rectangle having the area
not less than 14 of the area of the given polygon.
3.1.46. There are 5 patches placed on the shirt with area 1, the area of each of them
being not less than 12. Prove that one can find two patches so that the area of their
common parts is not less than 15.
3.1.47. Let T1 and T2 be two triangles with sides a1, b1, c1 and a2, b2, c2. Prove that
there exists a triangle T with sides a, b, c, such that if S1, S2 and S are the areas of
triangles T1, T2 and T, respectively, then
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
S1 þS2 a21 þa22 b21 þb22 c21 þc22
(a) S  2 , where a ¼ 2 , b¼ 2 ,c ¼ 2 ,
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
(b) S  4 S1  S2 , where a ¼ a1 þ a2, b ¼ b1 þ b2, c ¼ c1 þ c2.
136 3 Areas

3.1.48. The area of a convex quadrilateral ABCD is equal to S. Prove that the area of
the quadrilateral, with the vertices at the midpoints of segments AC, AD, BD and
BC, is less than S2.
3.1.49. Prove that in a triangle with area S one can inscribe a regular triangle, such
that its area is not greater than S4.
3.1.50. Prove that any acute triangle with area 1 can be placed into right-angled
pffiffiffi
triangle with area not greater than 3.
3.1.51. Given several squares the sum of area of which is equal to S. Prove that
(a) one can place them without overlapping inside a square with area 2S,
(b) with these squares one can always cover the square with area S4.

3.1.52. Let AD be the altitude of the right-angled triangle ABC, ∠A ¼ 90 . The
straight line passing through the centers of the incircles of triangles ABD and ACD
intersects sides AB and AC, respectively, at points K and L. Prove that
SABC  2SAKL.
3.1.53. Bisectors of angles A, B, C of an acute triangle ABC intersect its circumcir-
cle at points A1, B1, C1, respectively. The straight line AA1 intersects the bisectors of
the external angles B and Cof triangle ABC at point A0. Points B0, C0 are defined
similarly. Prove that SA0 B0 C0  4SABC .
3.1.54. Let ABC be an acute triangle, points M, N and P be the feet of the
perpendiculars drawn from the centroid of the triangle to sides AB, BC and CA,
respectively. Prove that SMNP > 27
4
SABC .
3.1.55. Let ABCD be a unit square. For any internal points M and N, such that line
MN does not contain any of the vertices of the square, denote by S(M, N ) the least of
the areas of the triangles with the vertices from the set of the points {A, B, C, D, M,
N}. Find the smallest number k, such that S(M, N )  k for all such points M and N.
Hint Let point N be inside of triangle CMD, then
SAMB þ SCMD ¼ 12, SCMD ¼ SCMN þ SMND þ SCND  3S(M, N ). Therefore
4SðM; N Þ  12. Hence, it follows that SðM; N Þ  18.
3.1.56. Points K, L, M and N are taken on sides AB, BC, CD and DA of a convex
quadrilateral ABCD, respectively. Denote by S1, S2, S3 and S4 the areas of
pffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffi
triangles AKN, BKL, CLM and DMN, respectively. Prove that 3 S1 þ 3 S2 þ
p ffiffiffiffi
ffi p ffiffiffiffi
ffi p ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

3
S3 þ 3 S4  2 3 SABCD .
sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
3
 
Hint Prove that SABCD ¼ AK S1
 
AN SABD
 þ þ SABD
3 1 AK AN
AB AD SABCD 3 AB AD SABCD .

3.1.57. Prove that if a convex pentagon A1A2A3A4A5 is inside of a parallelogram


with area 1, then one of the triangles A1A2A3, A2A3A4, A3A4A5, A4A5A1, A5A1A2 has
an area that does not exceed 14.
3.1 Inequalities with Areas 137

Hint Draw a segment connecting the opposite sides of the parallelogram, then one
can assume that ΔA1A2A3 is inside the parallelogram with area 12.
Consequently, SA1 A2 A3  14.
3.1.58. (a) Let ABCDEF be a convex hexagon, such that AB||ED, BC||FE and CD||
AF. Prove that
 6
1
SABC  SBCD  SCDE  SDEF  SEFA  SFAB  SABCDEF : ð3:13Þ
6

Hint Prove that SABCDEF  2SABC þ 2SCDE þ 2SEFA.

Remark If BCEF is a rectangle, AB ¼ CD ¼ 3, AF ¼ DE ¼ 4, BF ¼ 5, BC ¼ 10,


then (3.13) is wrong.
(b) Let ABCDEF be a convex hexagon. Prove that minðSABC; SBCD; SCDE; SDEF; SEFA; SFABÞ
 16 SABCDEF .
3.1.59. Given points A, B, C, D inside a square with a side equal to 6, such that the
distance between each two of them is not less than 5. Prove that points A, B, C, D
form a convex quadrilateral with the area greater than 21.
3.1.60. Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral and K be the intersection point of its
diagonals. Let also the conditions KL||AB, LM||DC, MN||AB hold true for the points
L 2 [AD], M 2 [AC], N 2 [BC]. Prove that SSKLMN
ABCD
< 27
8
.

3.1.61. Let S be the area of a convex quadrilateral ABCD, a, b, c, d be the lengths of


its consecutive sides, e, f be the lengths of the diagonals, and m, n the lengths of its
medians connecting the midpoints of the opposite sides of the quadrilateral.
Prove that:
(a) S  12 ef ,
(b) S  mn,
(c) S  abþcd
2 ,
(d) S  2 ,
acþbd

(e) S  14 ða þ cÞðb þ dÞ,


(f) S  14 p2 , where p ¼ aþbþcþd ,
 2
2
(g) S  4 ða þ cÞ þ bd .
1

3.1.62. Prove that none of the triangles inscribed into polygon M can have an area
greater than the maximal area of the triangles, the vertices of which coincide with
some of the vertices of M.
3.1.63. (a) Let M be a convex polygon and l be an arbitrary straight line. Prove that
one can inscribe into M a triangle, оne side of which is parallel to l and the area of
which is not less than 38 of the area of M.
138 3 Areas

(b) Let M be a regular hexagon and l be a line parallel to one of its sides. Prove that
one cannot inscribe into M a triangle, оne side of which is parallel to l and the
area of which is greater than 38 of the area of M.
3.1.64. Solve problem 3.1.43 in the case of α > π2.

Hint Prove that there exists a triangle PB0C0 and a point A inside it, such that
PA ¼ r1, PB0 ¼ r2, PC0 ¼ r3 and ∠BAC ¼ α, ∠AB0P ¼ ∠AC0P. Then
SABC  SAB0 C0 .
3.1.65. A triangle with the area 1 is cut out of paper. Prove that one can flex it over
pffiffiffi
the segment of a line, so that area S of obtained figure would be less than 2  2.
Hint Let AB  AC  BC, if we flex triangle ABC (SABC ¼ 1) over the bisector of
angle C, then S ¼ BCþAC
BC
. On the other hand, if we flex triangle ABC over a segment
perpendicular to side BC, then one can prove that

2
S ∠C
,
3 þ tg
tg ∠B

and that the equality can hold true. Then, prove that
!
1 2 pffiffiffi
min sin ∠B
; tg ∠C
<2 2:
1þ sin ð∠Cþ∠BÞ 3þ tg ∠B

3.1.66. Given a triangle ABC. Prove that there exists a straight line l, such that if
points A1, B1, C1 are symmetric to points A, B, C with respect to line l, then the area
pffiffiffi 
of the common parts of triangles ABC and A1B1C1 is greater than 2 2  1 .
Hint See the Hint of problem 3.1.64.
3.1.67. Let diagonals AD, BE and CF of the convex hexagon intersect at one point
and A1 ¼ AD \ BF, D1 ¼ AD \ CE, B1 ¼ BE \ AC, E1 ¼ BE \ DF, C1 ¼ CF \ BD,
F1 ¼ CF \ AE. Prove that
1
SA1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F1  SABCDEF :
4

Hint Let diagonals AD, BE, and CF intersect at a point O. Prove that
AOB SBOC SAOF
SA1 OB1 ¼ ðSAOBSþS BOC ÞðSAOB þSAOF Þ
 18 ðSAOF þ SBOC Þ.

3.1.68. The medians of triangle ABC intersect the circumcircle of the triangle for
the second time at points A1, B1, C1. Prove that SA1 B1 C1  SABC .
Remark Let point M be the centroid of triangle ABC. Then
ða2 þb2 þc2 Þ
2

SMA1 B1 ¼ 48m2 m2 SABC .


a b
Chapter 4
Application of Vectors

This chapter is devoted to the application of vectors for proving geometric


(or trigonometric) inequalities and consists of only one section, that is, Section 4.1.
One of the methods of proving geometric inequalities is the use of vectors and
the application of their properties. In particular, the following properties of the
scalar product of two vectors is widely used.
(a) ~
a  ~
a¼ j~
aj2 0. Moreover, the equality holds true if and only if ~a ¼~ 0.
 ~ ~
(b) ~a  b  j~ a and ~
aj  b. Moreover, the equality holds true if and only if ~ b are
collinear vectors (parallel to one line or lying on one line).
One of the main inequalities in Section 4.1 is the inequality of problem 4.1.8a.
Very important inequality is also the inequality of problem 4.1.13.
In Section 4.1 consider different types of problems and using vectors the authors
apply some famous algebraic inequalities in order to prove geometric inequalities.
Some problems in this chapter were inspired by [1, 7, 9, 10, 13]. Nevertheless,
even for these problems the authors have mostly provided their own solutions.

4.1 Application of Vectors for Proving Geometric


and Trigonometric Inequalities

4.1.1. Let R be the radius of the circumsphere of tetrahedron SABC. Prove that
(a) SA2 + SB2 + SC2 + 4R2  AB2 + BC2 + AC2,
(b) SA2 + SB2 + SC2 + AB2 + BC2 + AC2  16R2,
(c) xyAB2 + yzBC2 + xzAC2 + xtSA2 + ytSB2 + ztSC2  (x + y + z + t)2R2, where x, y, z, t
are arbitrary numbers.

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017 139


H. Sedrakyan, N. Sedrakyan, Geometric Inequalities, Problem Books
in Mathematics, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-55080-0_4
140 4 Application of Vectors

4.1.2. Let O be the circumcenter of regular tetrahedron SABC. Prove that


cos φ þ cos ψ  23, where φ ¼ ∠AOS, ψ ¼ ∠AOB.
4.1.3. Given four points A, B, C, and D. Prove that
(а) AB2 + BC2 + CD2 + AD2  AC2 + BD2,
(b) 4(AP2 + BQ2 + CR2 + DS2)  5(AB2 + BC2 + CD2 + AD2), where P, Q, R, S are the
midpoints of segments BC, CD, DA, AB, respectively.
4.1.4. For arbitrary points A, B, C, D, E, and F prove the following inequalities:
(a) 2(AB2 + BC2 + CD2 + DE2 + EF2 + FA2)  AD2 + BE2 + CF2,
(b) 4(A1D12 + B1E12 + C1F12)  3((AB + DE)2 + (BC + EF)2 + (CD + AF)2), where A1,
B1, C1, D1, E1, F1 are the midpoints of segments AB, BC, CD, DE, EF, and FA,
respectively.
4.1.5. Given a trapezoid ABCD (AB k CD). Prove that, if AD > BC and AC > BD,
then AB > CD.
4.1.6. Prove that for any tetrahedron A1A2A3A4 and for any point M inside of it
min cos ∠Ai MAj  13  max cos ∠Ai MAj .
i<j i<j

4.1.7. (a) Given 7 points on a unit sphere. Prove that among them one can find
pffiffiffi
2 points, such that the distance between them is less than 2.
(b) Given 5 points on a unit sphere. Prove that among them one can find 2 points,
pffiffiffi
such that the distance between them is not greater than 2.
4.1.8. For any points A, B, C, M and arbitrary numbers x, y, z prove that
(a) (x + y + z)(xMA2 + yMB2 + zMC2)  xyc2 + yza2 + xzb2, where AB ¼ c, BC ¼ a,
AC ¼ b ,
(b) aMA2 + bMB2 + cMC2  abc,
(c) MA  MBc + MB  MCa + MC  MAb  abc,
(d) (x + y + z)(xMB2MC2 + yMA2MC2 + zMA2MB2)  xyc2MC2 + yza2MA2 + xzb2MB2,
(e) (a + b + c)(aMB2MC2 + bMA2MC2 + cMA2MB2)  a2b2c2,
(f) (MA  MB + MB  MC + MC  MA)(MA + MB + MC)  a2MA + b2MB + c2MC.
4.1.9. Prove the following inequality

A1 A2 A 2 A3 An1 An A1 An
þ þ ::: þ  ,
MA1  MA2 MA2  MA3 MAn1  MAn MA1  MAn

where M, A1, . . . , An are arbitrary distinct points.


4.1.10. Let n-gon with area S be inscribed into a circle with radius R, such that on
each side of the n-gon is marked one point. Prove that, if one connects consecu-
tively these marked points then the perimeter of the obtained n-gon is less than 2S
R.

4.1.11. Let M be a given point inside of triangle ABC and P, Q, R be points on


straight lines AB, BC, AC, respectively, such that ∠PMA, ∠PMB, ∠QMB, ∠QMC,
∠RMA, ∠RMC  π2. Prove that
4.1 Application of Vectors for Proving Geometric and Trigonometric Inequalities 141

pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
MA þ MB þ MC  2 p
MA  MB  cos ∠PMA  cos ∠PMBþ ffi
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
þ2pMB  MC  cos ∠QMB  cos ∠QMCffi þ
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
þ2 MA  MC  cos ∠RMA  cos ∠RMC:

4.1.12. Let M be a given point inside of triangle ABC. Denote the distances from the
point M to lines BC, CA, AB by da, db, dc and the distances from point M to vertices
A, B, C by Ra, Rb, Rc, respectively. Prove that
(a) Ra + Rb + Rc  2da + 2db + 2dc,
(b) RaRb + RbRc + RcRa  2Rada + 2Rbdb + 2Rcdc.
4.1.13.1 For any points A1, A2, . . ., An, M and any numbers m1, . . ., mn prove the
following inequality m1 MA21 þ ::: þ mn MA2n  m1 GA21 þ ::: þ mn GA2n , where
! !
m1 + . . . + mn  0 and m1 GA 1 þ ::: þ mn GA n ¼ ~0.
4.1.14. Let points A1, A2, . . ., An be on the same circle, m1, . . ., mn > 0 and G be
! !
such a point that m1 GA 1 þ ::: þ mn GA n ¼ ~ 0. Given that straight lines GA1, . . .,
GAn intersect the circle for the second time at points B1, . . ., Bn. Prove that
(a) m1GB1 + . . . + mnGBn  m1GA1 + . . . + mnGAn,
(b) m1 GB21 þ ::: þ mn GB2n  m1 GA21 þ ::: þ mn GA2n .
4.1.15. (а) Let M be a point inside of the convex n-gon with vertices A1, A2, . . ., An.
Perpendiculars MB1, MB2, . . ., MBn are drawn from point M to lines A1A2, A2A3,
. . ., AnA1, respectively, and C1 2 A1A2, C2 2 A2A3, . . ., Cn 2 AnA1 are arbitrary
A2 ¼ A2 A3 ¼ ::: ¼ An A1 .
mn MBn
points. Given positive numbers m1, . . ., mn, such that mA11MB 1 m2 MB2
P P
Prove that mi mj Ci C2j  mi mj Bi B2j .
i<j i<j

(b) Let M be a point inside of convex n-hedron. Perpendiculars MB1, . . ., MBn are
draw from point M to planes Π1, . ., Πn containing the faces of the polyhedrons
with areas S1, . . ., Sn, respectively, and C1 2 Π1, . . ., Cn 2 Πn are arbitrary
points. Given positive numbers m1, . . ., mn such that m1SMB
1
1
¼ ::: ¼ mnSMB
n
n
.
P P
Prove that mi mj Ci C2j  mi mj Bi B2j :
i<j i<j
4.1.16. (a) Given a triangle ABC and positive numbers x, y, z. Points A1, B1, and C1
are taken on straight lines BC, CA, and AB, respectively. Prove that
xA1 B21 þ yB1 C21 þ zA1 C21  xAB42ðþyBC
xyþyzþzxÞ
2 S2 , and that the equality holds true.
þzAC2 ABC

1
The point Gis called center of mass for the system of points A1, A2, . . ., An with masses m1,
m2, . . ., mn, and the expression IM ¼ m1 MA21 þ ::: þ mn MA2n is called the moment of inertia of the
system of points A1, . . ., An with masses m1, . . ., mn relative to the point M.
142 4 Application of Vectors

(b) Given a tetrahedron A1A2A3A4. Find on planes A2A3A4, A1A3A4, A1A2A4,


and A1A2A3 such points B1, B2, B3, and B4, respectively, that the sum B1 B22
þB1 B23 þ B1 B24 þ B2 B23 þ B2 B24 þ B3 B24 is minimal.
4.1.17. Given different points A1, A2, . . ., An and positive numbers m1, m2, . . ., mn.
Pn
Find a point M, such that the sum mi MAi is minimal.
i¼1
4.1.18. Given a convex polygon A1A2 . . . An and positive numbers m1, m2, . . ., mn.
Inscribe in a polygon A1A2 . . . An a polygon C1C2 . . . Cn (C1 2 A1A2, C2 2 A2A3,
P
n
. . .,Cn 2 AnA1, Ci 6 Aj), so that the sum mi Ci Ciþ1 is minimal, where Cn + 1  C1.
i¼1
4.1.19. Let centers O1 and O2 of the incircles of triangles A1B1C1 and A2B2C2,
respectively, do not coincide. Prove that

O1 O2 p1 þ p2
< ,
A1 A2 þ B1 B2 þ C1 C2 2maxðp1 ; p2 Þ

where p1 and p2 are perimeters of triangles A1B1C1 and A2B2C2, respectively.


4.1.20. (a) Let O be the center of a unit sphere tangent to all faces of trihedral angle
with a vertex A. It is known that the measure of all linear angles of the trihedral
pffiffiffi
angle is not less than π2 and is not greater than π  arc cos 23. Prove that OA  3.
(b) Is it possible that the distances of all vertices of the centihedron outscribed
around the unit sphere from the center of the sphere is greater than 100?
4.1.21. Let ABCDA0 B0 C0 D0 be a cube. Consider points K, L, M on edges AB, CC0 ,
0 pffiffiffi
D0 A , respectively. Prove that KL þ LM þ MK  1, 5 6AB.
4.1.22. The radius of the circumsphere of tetrahedron ABCD is equal to R, the
lengths of the segments connecting vertices A, B, C, and D with centers of the
opposite faces are equal to ma, mb, mc, and md, respectively. Prove that ma þ mb þ
mc þ md  16R3 .

4.1.23. Let ABCDbe a tetrahedron, such that AC ⊥ BC and AD ⊥ BD. Prove that the
cosine of the angle between straight lines AC and BD is less than CD
AB .

4.1.24. (a) Given points A1 and B1, A2 and B2, . . ., An and Bn on faces Γ1, Γ2, . . ., Γn
of a convex m-hedron (m  n  3), respectively. Given that for any i 2 {1, 2, ..., n}
vector mi~ ei  mi1~ ei1 is perpendicular to the plane containing face Γi, where m1,
!
A Aiþ1
m2, . . ., mn are given positive numbers and~ ei ¼ Aii Aiþ1 , i ¼ 1, 2, . . ., n, An + 1  A1,
m0 ¼ mn, ~ e0 ¼ ~en . Prove that

m1 B1 B2 þ m2 B2 B3 þ ::: þ mn1 Bn1 Bn þ mn Bn B1


 m1 A1 A2 þ m2 A2 A3 þ ::: þ mn1 An1 An þ mn An A1 :

Given a tetrahedron C1C2C3C4, such that C1C2 ¼ C2C3 ¼ C3C4 ¼ C4C1. Find on
faces C2C3C4, C1C3C4, C1C2C4, and C1C2C3 points B1, B2, B3, and B4, respec-
tively, such that sum B1B2 + B2B3 + B3B4 + B4B1 is minimal.
4.1 Application of Vectors for Proving Geometric and Trigonometric Inequalities 143

(c) Given a cube ABCDA0 B0 C0 D0 . Find on faces ABCD, AA0 BB0 , BB0 C0 C, A0 B0 C0 D0 ,
DD0 C0 C, and AA0 D0 D points B1, B2, B3,B4, B5, and B6, respectively, such that the
sum B1B2 + B2B3 + B3B4 + B4B5 + B5B6 + B6B1 is minimal.
4.1.25. Given that circumcenter O of the tetrahedron is inside of that tetrahedron.
Prove that
(a) DA2 + DB2 + DC2 + AB2 + BC2 + AC2 > 12  OA2,
(b) DA + DB + DC + AB + BC + AC > 6  OA.

Solutions

4.1.1. (a) The proof follows from problem 4.1.1c, if we take x ¼ y ¼ z ¼ 1, t ¼  1.


(b) The proof follows from problem 4.1.1c, if we take x ¼ y ¼ z ¼ t ¼ 1.
(c) Let O be the circumcenter of tetrahedron SABC. Then, we have that

xyAB2 þ yzBC2 þ xzAC2 þ xtSA2 þ ytSB2 þ ztSC2  ðx þ y þ z þ tÞ2 R2


 ! !2  ! !2  ! !2  ! !2
¼ xy OB  OA þ yz OC  OB þ xz OC  OA þ xt OA  OS
 ! !2  ! !2
þyt OB  OS þ þ zt OC  OS  ðx þ y þ z þ tÞ2 R2
 ! ! ! !2
¼  xOA þ yOB þ zOC þ t OS  0:

4.1.2. We have that


 ! ! ! !2
4R2 þ 6R2 cos φ þ 6R2 cos ψ ¼ OA þ OB þ OC þ OS  0 ðR ¼ OAÞ:

Therefore, cos φ þ cos ψ  23.


! ! !
4.1.3. Let us denote AB ¼ ~
r B , AC ¼ ~
r C , AD ¼ ~
rD .
(a) We need to prove that ~ r B 2 þ ð~ r B Þ2 þ ð~
r C ~ r C Þ2 þ ~
r D ~ r 2D  ~
r 2C þ ð~ r B Þ2 ,
r D ~
or ð~
r B þ~ r C Þ2  0.
r D ~
(b) We need to prove that
  ~rC þ~rD  2 2  2 
~
rB þ~rC 2
4 þ þ ~
~
rBr C  ~r2D þ ~ r D  ~r2B 
2 2

5 ~r B 2 þ ð~ r B Þ2 þ ð~
r C ~ r D ~ r C Þ2 þ~r 2D ,

or ð~
r B þ~ r C Þ2  0.
r D ~
144 4 Application of Vectors

! ! ! ! !
a, BC ¼ ~
4.1.4. (a) Let us denote AB ¼ ~ c, DE ¼ ~
b, CD ¼ ~ d, EF ¼ ~
e, then one has
to prove that
 2

2 ~ 2 ~
a þ b þ~
2 2 ~
c þ d þ~
2
e þ ~
2 ~
a þ b þ~ ~
c þ d þ~e 
 2  2  2
 ~ a þ~b þ~ c þ ~ c þ~
b þ~ d þ ~ c þ~d þ~ e ,

But this inequality is equivalent to the following inequality


 2  2  2
ð~
a þ~ e Þ2 þ ~
c þ~ a þ~
d þ ~ e þ ~
b þ~ a þ~
b þ~
d þ~
e  0:

! ! ! ! ! !
(b) Let AB ¼ ~ a, BC ¼ ~
b, CD ¼ ~ c, DE ¼ ~
d, EF ¼ ~
e. Note that 2A1 D1 ¼
! ! ! !
BE þ AD , consequently, 4A1 D21 ¼ BE2 þ AD2 þ 2 BE  AD . Consider paral-
 2 !  ! !2
lelogram BADM. We have that a ~
~ d ¼ EM 2 ¼ BM  BE ¼
 ! !2    2
AD  BE , hence4A1 D21 ¼ 2 AD2 þ BE2  ~ a ~
d . Then, we have that

 
4 A1 D21 þ B1 E21 þ C1 F21 ¼ 4CF2 þ 4BE2 þ 4AD2 
 2  2  2
 ~ a ~d  ~ a þ~ c þ~
b þ 2~ d þ~e  ~ b ~e ¼
 2  2  2
¼4 ~ c þ~ d þ~ e þ4 ~ a þ~ b þ~c þ4 ~ c þ~
b þ~ d 
 2  2  2
 ~ a ~d  ~ a þ~ b þ~d þ~e þ 2~c  ~ b ~e ¼
 2  2  2
¼3 ~ a ~d þ3 ~ a þ~ b þ~d þ~ c þ3 ~
e þ 2~ e  4ð~
b ~ a þ~ e Þ2 
c þ~
 2  2  2
3 ~ a ~ d þ3 ~ a þ~ b þ~d þ~e þ 2~c þ3 ~ b ~
e 
 3ðAB þ DEÞ2 þ 3ðBC þ EFÞ2 þ 3ðCD þ AFÞ2 :

! ! ! !  
a, AC ¼ ~
4.1.5. Let AD ¼ ~ b, then DC ¼ ~
b ~ a, and AB ¼ k ~ b ~a , where k > 0.
 2
One has to prove that k > 1. We have that ~ a2 > ðk  1Þ~ b  k~
a and
0
 2 k1 ðk  1Þ~
b  k~
2
~ B aÞ
b2 > k~ b  ðk þ 1Þ~
a . Therefore, ¼ ~
a 2
 @  2 .
k þ 1‘ ~ ~
b  kb  ðk þ 1Þ~
2 a >0
Hence, k > 1.
4.1 Application of Vectors for Proving Geometric and Trigonometric Inequalities 145

!
ei ¼ MA
4.1.6. Let ~ MAi , i ¼ 1, 2, 3, 4, and ~
i e ¼~e1 þ~ e2 þ~e3 þ~ e4 . Let us draw through
point M a plane Π perpendicular to vector ~ e. It is clear that, if all points Ai were in
the same half-space with boundary Π, then point M would have been inside the
given tetrahedron. This means that there exists a vector~ ek , such that~e ~
ek  0. Then
we have that ð~ e ~ ek Þ~
ek  1. Hence, we deduce that min cos ∠Ai MAj 
i<j

3 ð~ ek Þ~
e ~  13.
1
ek
Similarly, we obtain that there exists a vector ~ em , such that ~
e ~em  0. In that
case, we have that ð~
e ~em Þ ~
em  1. Thus, it follows that
max cos ∠Ai MAj  13 ð~
e ~em Þ ~em  13. This inequality can be proven as follows:
i<j
P
max cos∠Ai MAj  16 cos∠Ai MAj ¼ 12 1
ð~
e2 ~e2 1 ~ e2 2 ~
e2 3 ~e2 4 Þ  13, beca-
i<j i<j
use ~
e2  0 and ~
e2 1 ¼ ~
e2 2 ¼ ~
e2 3 ¼ ~
e2 4 ¼ 1.
4.1.7. (а) Let points A1, A2, . . ., A7 are on the unit sphere with center O. Let us
pffiffiffi ! 2  2
assume that Ai Aj  2 ði 6¼ jÞ, then Ai Aj 2 ¼ Ai Aj ¼ ~ aj  ~
ai  2, where
!
OA i ¼ ~ai , i ¼ 1, . . ., 7. This means that for i 6¼ j we have that

~
ai  ~
aj  0: ð4:1Þ

Let ~e1 ¼ ~a1 ,~


e2 ,~e3 be mutually perpendicular unit vectors and
~
ai ¼ xi~ e1 þ yi~e2 þ zi~ e3i , i ¼ 1, . . ., 7. As x1 ¼ 1, y1 ¼ z1 ¼ 0, and ~ ai  ~
aj  0
(i 6¼ j), then x2, . . ., x7  0.
Let us consider vectors on a plane: ~ b2 ðy2 ; z2 Þ, :::, ~
b7 ðy7 ; z7 Þ. Note that there are
non-zero vectors among them. Indeed, if, for example, ~ b2 ¼ ~ b3 ¼ ~0, then some two
of the vectors ~ a3 coincide. This leads to a contradiction with (4.1). Let ~
a2 ,~
a1 ,~ b3 , ::
~
:, b7 be non-zero vectors. Then, some two of them form an acute angle, for example,
b3 and ~
~ b4 . Then, we have that ~ a4 ¼ x3 x4 þ y3 y4 þ z3 z4 ¼ x3 x4 þ ~
a3~ b3~b4 > 0,
~ ~
because x3x4  0 and b3 b4 > 0. This leads to a contradiction with (4.1).
Remark Vectors ~ a1 ð1; 0; 0Þ, ~
a2 ð1; 0; 0Þ, ~
a3 ð0; 1; 0Þ, ~
a4 ð0; 1; 0Þ, ~
a5 ð0; 0; 1Þ, ~
a6
ð0; 0; 1Þ satisfy condition (4.1).
 2
(b) If ~ aj  ~
ai > 2, (i 6¼ j), i, j, 2 {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, then

~
ai  ~
aj < 0, ði 6¼ jÞ: ð4:2Þ

Then, among vectors ~ b2 , ~


b3 , ~
b4 , ~
b5 there is non-zero vector
 !  (see the proof of
4.1.7a), because otherwise, if ~ b2 ¼ ~ 0, then ~a2 ¼ 1; 0; 0 and 0 ¼ ~ a3  ~
a1 þ
a3~
~ a2 < 0.
This leads to a contradiction.
146 4 Application of Vectors

Therefore, among vectors ~ b2 , ~


b3 , ~
b4 , ~
b5 some two form an angle not greater than
 ~ ~
90 . Let b2 b3  0, then ~ a3 ¼ x2 x3 þ b2~
a2~ ~ b3 > 0, because x2, x3 < 0 and ~
b2~
b3  0.
This leads to a contradiction.
 pffiffi   pffiffi pffiffi 
Remark Vectors ~
a1 ð0; 0; 1Þ, ~
a2 2 3 2 ; 0; 13 , ~
a3  32;  36 ; 13 , and
 pffiffi pffiffi 
~
a4  32; 36 ; 13 satisfy condition (4.2).
4.1.8. (а) Note that
 
ðx þ y þ zÞ xMA2 þ yMB2 þ zMC2  xyc2  yza2  xzb2 ¼
   ! !2
¼ ðx þ y þ zÞ xMA2 þ yMB2 þ zMC2  xy MB  MA 
 ! !2  ! !2  ! ! !2
yz MC  MB  xz MC  MA ¼ xMA þ yMB þ zMC  0:

(b) Using problem 4.1.8a for x ¼ a, y ¼ b, z ¼ c, we deduce that aMA2 + bMB2 +


cMC2  abc.
(c) For four points M, A, B, C we call their H-image the points M1, A1, B1, C1, where
M1A1 ¼ MB  MC, M1B1 ¼ MA  MC, M1C1 ¼ MA  MB, A1C1 ¼ MB  AC,
B1C1 ¼ MA  BC, A1B1 ¼ MC  AB (see Figure 4.1).
Let us rewrite inequality 4.1.8b for points M1, A1, B1, C1, this means that
B1 C1  M1 A21 þ A1 C1  M1 B21 þ B1 A1  M1 C21  B1 C1  A1 C1  A1 B1 , or

MB2  MC2  MA  BC þ MA2  MC2  MB  AC þ MA2  MB2  MC  AB 


 MA  MB  MC  AB  BC  AC:

Therefore, MB  MCa + MA  MCb + MA  MBc  abc.


If MA  MB  MC ¼ 0, then the proof of the inequality is straightforward.
(d) Let M1, A1, B1, C1 be the H-image of points M, A, B, C. We have that ðx þ y þ zÞ
 
xM1 A21 þ yM1 B21 þ zM1 C21  xyB1 A21 þ yzC1 B21 þ xzA1 C21 (see problem
4.1.8a). Therefore, (x + y + z)(xMB2MC2 + yMA2MC2 + zMA2MB2)  xyc2MC2
+ yza2MA2 + xzb2MB2.

A1
B
MB×MC

MB×AC
H- image MC×AB
M C M1 C1
MA×MB
MA×BC
MA×MC
A

B1

Figure 4.1
4.1 Application of Vectors for Proving Geometric and Trigonometric Inequalities 147

(e) Using problems 4.1.8e and 4.1.8b, we obtain that for x ¼ a, y ¼ b, z ¼ c


 
ða þ b þ cÞ aMB2 MC2 þ bMA2 MC2 þ cMA2 MB2  abc2 MC2 þ bca2 MA2
þacb2 MB2  a2 b2 c2 :

Thus, (a + b + c)(aMB2MC2 + bMA2MC2 + cMA2MB2)  a2b2c2.


(f) If MA  MB  MC ¼ 0, then the proof of the inequality is straightforward. But, if
MA  MB  MC 6¼ 0, then we obtain the required inequality from inequality
4.1.8a by taking x ¼ MA
1
, y ¼ MB
1
, z ¼ MC
1
.

! !
4.1.9. Let us denote MA i ¼ ~ r i and MA MAi 2
i
¼!ρ i , i ¼ 1, . . ., n. Note that
rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
! ! 2 ! ! 
rj j ¼ ð~ri2~r2j Þ ¼
j~ri~
2

ρ i  ρ j ¼  ρ i  ρ j . We have to prove
Ai Aj
MAi MAj ¼ ~ 
ri ~ rj  ~r i ~
r j
       
that ! ρ1! ρ 2 þ ! ρ2! ρ 3  þ ::: þ !ρ n1  ! ρ n   !ρ1! ρ n . This can be
obtained, if we use the following inequality j~ a1 j þ j~
a2 j þ ::: þ j~
an1 j 
a1 þ ~
j~ a2 þ ::: þ ~ an1 j (see Section 1.2) for vectors ~ ! !
ai ¼ ρ iþ1  ρ i , i ¼
1, :::, n  1.
4.1.10. Let us draw tangents to the circle at the vertices of the inscribed n-gon
A1 . . . An, and choose unit vectors ~
e1 , :::,~
en on these tangents (Figure 4.2).
Let B1 2 A1An, B2 2 A1A2, . . ., Bn 2 An  1An be the marked points, then

B1 B2 þ B2 B3 þ ::: þ Bn1 Bn þ Bn B1 
! ! ! !
 B1 B2~
e1 þ B2 B3~ e2 þ ::: þ Bn1 Bn~
en1 þ Bn B1~ en ¼
 ! !   ! !   ! ! 
¼ B1 A1 þ A 1 B2 ~ e 1 þ B2 A2 þ A 2 B3 ~e2 þ ::: þ Bn An þ An B1 ~
en ¼
! ! ! 2S
¼ A1 A2~
e1 þ A2 A3~
e2 þ ::: þ An A1~
en ¼ ,
R
! ! ! !
because B2 A2~
e2 ¼ B2 A2~
e1 , :::, An B1~
en ¼ An B1~
e1 .

Figure 4.2 
A2 e2

e1 A3 
A1 B2 B3 e3

 B1
en
An
148 4 Application of Vectors

4.1.11. We have that cos ∠PMA cos ∠BMP  cos ð∠PMAþ∠PMB 2


Þþ1
¼
2 ∠PMAþ∠PMB 2 ∠AMB
cos 2  cos 2 , consequently, it is sufficient to prove that

MA þ MB þ MC 
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi ∠AMB pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi ∠BMC pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi ∠AMC
 2 MA  MB cos þ 2 MB  MC cos þ 2 MA  MC cos :
2 2 2
ð4:3Þ
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Let A1, B1, C1 be such points that MA1 ¼
MA, MB1 ¼ MB, MC1 ¼ MC and
∠A1 MB1 ¼ ∠AMB , ∠B1 MC1 ¼ ∠BMC
2 , ∠A1 MC1 ¼ π 
∠AMC. Then, from inequality
 ! ! 2 ! 2 2

MA1  MB1 þ MC1  0 we obtain inequality (4.3).

Remark Inequality (4.3) coincides with the inequality of problem 5.1.22a by


replacing MA ¼ x2, MB ¼ y2, MC ¼ z2, ∠AMB
2 ¼ α, ∠BMC
2 ¼ β, ∠AMC
2 ¼ γ.
4.1.12. (a) Let MP ⊥ AB, P 2 AB, MQ ⊥ BC, Q 2 BC, MR ⊥ AC, R 2 AC. Then
MA cos ∠PMA ¼ MB cos ∠PMB ¼ dc, MB cos ∠QMB ¼ MC cos ∠QMC ¼ da,
and MA cos ∠RMA ¼ MC cos ∠RMC ¼ db. Consequently, using problem 4.1.11,
we deduce that Ra + Rb + Rc  2da + 2db + 2dc.
(b) The required inequality for the H-image of points M, A, B, C can be obtained
from 4.1.12a (see the proof of problem 4.1.8c)).
4.1.13. We have that
Xn Xn  ! ! 2
IM ¼ mi MA2i ¼ mi MG þ GAi
i¼1 ! i¼1
X n
!2 !X n
! Xn
¼ mi MG þ 2MG mi  GAi þ mi GA2i ¼
i¼1 i¼1 i¼1
¼ m  MG2 þ I G ,

P
n
where mi ¼ m. Therefore, IM  IG.
i¼1

4.1.14. (a) As mR2 ¼ I0 ¼ mOG2 + IG (see the proof of problem 4.1.13), then
m(R2  OG2) ¼ IG, where O is the center and R is the radius of the given circle.
Hence, point Gis inside of the given circle, thus GAi  GBi ¼ R2  OG2.
4.1 Application of Vectors for Proving Geometric and Trigonometric Inequalities 149

We have that
! ! !2
X
n X
n n pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi2 X
X n pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi2 X
n pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
mi GBi mi GAi ¼ mi GBi mi GAi  mi GAi  GBi ¼
i¼1 i¼1 i¼1 i¼1 i¼1
! ! !2
  n pffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
X X X
n
pffiffiffiffiffi 2
n
¼ m2 R2  OG2 ¼ mI G ¼ mi 2 ð mi GAi Þ  mi GAi
i¼1 i¼1 i¼1

P
n P
n
(see the proof of problem 4.1.15a). Therefore, mi GBi  mi GAi .
i¼1 i¼1

Remark Inequality holds true, if instead of a circle one considers a sphere.


(b) We have that
! ! ! ! !2
X
n X
n X
n
pffiffiffiffiffi 2
X
n
pffiffiffiffiffi 2
X
n
mi GB2i mi GA2i ¼ ð mi GBi Þ ð mi GAi Þ  mi GAi  GBi ¼
i¼1 i¼1 i¼1 i¼1 i¼1
!2
X
n     2
¼ mi R2  OG2 ¼ m R2  OG2 ¼ I 2G
i¼1
 2
¼ m1 GA21 þ ::: þ mn GA2n :

P
n P
n
Therefore, mi GB2i  mi GA2i (see the proof of problem 4.1.14 a)
i¼1 i¼1

P
n P
n
Remark If 0 < p  2, then mi GBip  mi GAip .
i¼1 i¼1
Indeed, we have that
! ! !2
X
n X
n X
n pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffip  pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffip 2
mi GBip mi GAip  mi GBi  GAi ¼ m R2  OG2 ¼
i¼1 i¼1 i¼1
 p
¼ m2 mm1 GA21 þ ::: þ mmn GA2n :

p
Because f ðxÞ ¼ x2 at 0 < p  2 is concave function on the interval [0 ; + 1 ) and
P
n
mi
m ¼ 1, then by using the Jensen’s inequality we deduce that
i¼1
m mn 2  m1  2  mn  2 
1
f GA21 þ ::: þ
GAn  f GA1 þ ::: þ f GAn , or
m m m m
m mn p2 m mn
1 1
GA21 þ ::: þ GA2n  GA1p þ ::: þ GAnp , consequently,
m m m m
150 4 Application of Vectors

! !
X
n X
n m mn p
1
mi GBip mi GAip  m2 GA21 þ ::: þ GA2n
i¼1 i¼1
m m
 2
 m1 GA1p þ ::: þ mn GAnp :

P
n P
n
Hence, it follows that mi GBip  mi GAip .
i¼1 i¼1
! !
4.1.15. (а) Note that mi MB 1 þ ::: þ mn MB n ¼ ~0. Indeed, let m1MB1 ¼ kA1A2, . . .,
! !
mnMBn ¼ kAnA1. Under rotations by 90 or –90 vectors mi MB 1 , :::, mn MB n trans-
! ! ! !
form into vectors kA1 A2 , :::, kAn A1 , and because kA1 A2 þ ::: þ kAn A1 ¼ ~
0, then
! ! ~
m1 MB 1 þ ::: þ mn MB n ¼ 0.
! !
Let C0 be such a point that m1 C0 C þ ::: þ mn C0 C ¼ ~
1 0, then n

X X  ! ! 2 X
mi mj Ci C2j ¼ C0 Cj  C0 Ci mi mj ¼ mi mj C0 C2j
i<j i<j i<j
X X ! !
þ mi mj C0 C2i  2mi mj C0 Ci  C0 Cj ¼
i<j i<j

!2
X
n X
n
! X
n
¼ ðm1 þ ::: þ mn Þ mi C0 C2i  mi C0 Ci ¼ ðm1 þ ::: þ mn Þ mi C0 C2i :
i¼1 i¼1 i¼1

P
n P
n
Similarly, we obtain that mi mj Bi B2j ¼ ðm1 þ ::: þ mn Þ
mi MB2i .
i<j i¼1
 
It is known that for any a1, . . ., an and b1, . . ., bn > 0 inequality a21 þ ::: þ a2n
 2 
b1 þ ::: þ b2n  ða1 b1 þ ::: þ an bn Þ2 holds true, the equality being reached only if
 2 
b1 ¼ ::: ¼ bn . Indeed, it is not difficult to check that a1 þ ::: þ a2n
a1 an
 2  P 2
b1 þ ::: þ b2n  ða1 b1 þ ::: þ an bn Þ2 ¼ ai bj  aj bi  0, where the equality
i<j
holds true, only if aibj  ajbi ¼ 0, ( i < j), or equivalently, if ab11 ¼ ::: ¼ abnn . Then, we
have that
4.1 Application of Vectors for Proving Geometric and Trigonometric Inequalities 151

X n

n
Ai A 2 X X Ai Aiþ1 2 X pffiffiffiffiffi 2
iþ1
mi mj Ci C2j ¼
pffiffiffiffiffi  ð mi Co Ci Þ  ðm1 þ ::: þ mn Þ 
i¼1
m i i<j i¼1
m i i<j
!2 !2
X
n X n
 ðm1 þ ::: þ mn Þ Ai Aiþ1 Co Ci  4ðm1 þ ::: þ mn Þ SCo Ai Aiþ1 
i¼1 i¼1
! 2
X
n
 4ðm1 þ ::: þ mn ÞS2A1 A2 :::An ¼ 4ðm1 þ ::: þ mn Þ SMAi Aiþ1 ¼
i¼1
!2
Xn
Ai Aiþ1 pffiffiffiffiffi
¼ ðm1 þ ::: þ mn Þ pffiffiffiffiffi mi MBi
i¼1
mi
! !2
X A i A2
n Xn
¼ ðm1 þ ::: þ mn Þ iþ1
mi MBi ¼
i¼1
mi i¼1
X n
Ai A2iþ1 X
¼ mi mj Bi B2j ,
i¼1
m i i<j

P P
where Cn + 1  C1. Therefore, mi mj Ci C2j  mi mj Bi B2j .
i<j i<j

! !
(b) It is sufficient to prove that mi MB 1 þ ::: þ mn MB n ¼ ~ 0 and to replace in the
proof of (a) term Ai A2iþ1 by S2i and areas by volumes.
Pn ! ! n !  ! 
P
Let N be any point inside, then V ¼ 13 NB i  MB
MBi Si ¼ 3
i k
NB i  mi MB i ,
i¼1 i¼1
where mi SMB
i
i
¼ 1k, i ¼ 1, . . ., n.
! ! !
By making (in the obtained equality) the replacement NB i ¼ NM þ MB i , we
! Pn !
deduce that the expression NM mi MB i is constant for any N. Hence,
i¼1
P
n !
mi MB i ¼ ~
0.
i¼1

4.1.16. (a) Let m1, m2, m3 be positive numbers, such that x ¼ m1m2, y ¼ m2m3,
z ¼ m1m3. Then,

xA1 B21 þ yB1 C21 þ zC1 A21 ¼ m1 m2 A1 B21 þ m2 m3 B1 C21 þ m1 m3 C1 A21 


4ðm1 þ m2 þ m3 ÞS2ABC 4ðxy þ yz þ zxÞS2ABC
 ¼
BC2 AC2 AB2 xAB2 þ yBC2 þ zAC2
þ þ
m1 m2 m3

(see the proof of problem 4.1.15a). To prove that the equality holds true, it is
sufficient to prove that inside of triangle ABC there exists point M, such that
m1 MA1 m2 MB1 m3 MC1
BC ¼ AC ¼ AB , where MA1 ⊥ BC, MB1 ⊥ AC, MC1 ⊥ AB, and A1 2 BC,
B1 2 AC, C1 2 AB.
152 4 Application of Vectors

Take a point M inside of triangle ABC, such that ctg ∠MAC ¼


ctg ∠A þ sin1∠A mm32AC
AB
and ctg ∠MCA ¼ ctg ∠C þ sin1∠C m
m2 BC
1 AC
. Then

MC1 MA  sin ð∠A  ∠MACÞ m2  AB


¼ ¼ and
MB1 MA  sin ∠MAC m3  AC
MA1 MC  sin ð∠C  ∠ACMÞ m2  BC
¼ ¼ :
MB1 MC  sin ∠ACM m1  AC
m1  MA1 m2  MB1 m3  MC1
Therefore, ¼ ¼ :
BC AC AB

(b) Let us choose points C1, C2, and C3 on edges A1A4, A2A4, and A3A4, respectively,
S2 S2 S2
so that A1 C 1
C1 A 4 ¼ SA2 1 A2 A3 , A 2 C2
C2 A 4 ¼ SA2 1 A2 A3 , A3 C 3
C3 A 4 ¼ SA2 1 A2 A3 . Then, it is not difficult to
A2 A3 A4 A1 A 3 A4 A1 A2 A4

construct common point M of planes A1C2A3, A2C1A3, and A1C3A2.


The point M is inside of tetrahedron A1A2A3A4. We need to prove that
MB1
S A2 A A
¼ SAMB 2
A A
¼ SAMB 3
A A
¼ SAMB 4
A A
, where B1 2 (A2A3A4), B2 2 (A1A3A4),
3 4 1 3 4 1 2 4 1 2 3
B3 2 (A1A2A4), B4 2 (A1A2A3) and MB1 ⊥ (A2A3A4), MB2 ⊥ (A1A3A4),
MB3 ⊥ (A1A2A4) и MB4 ⊥ (A1A2A3).
S2A V V S
Indeed, we have that S2A
1 A2 A3
¼ AC11CA14 ¼ V AA1 AA2 AA3 CC1 ¼ V AA1 AA2 AA3 MM ¼ MB 4 A1 A2 A3
MB1 SA A A , conse-
2 A3 A4 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 2 3 4

quently, SAMB 4
A A
¼ SAMB 1
A A
. Similarly, we obtain that SAMB 4
A A
¼ SAMB 2
A A
and SAMB 4
A A
¼ SAMB 3
A A
.
1 2 3 2 3 4 1 2 3 1 3 4 1 2 3 1 2 4
Now, by using problem 4.1.15b for numbers m1 ¼ m2 ¼ m3 ¼ m4 ¼ 1, we obtain
that the given sum is minimal at those points.
4.1.17. Lemma 1 Let M0 be such a point, that for any point M the following
P
n P
n
inequality holds true: mi MAi  mi M0 Ai . If
i¼1 i¼1

Pn !
M A
(a) M0 6 Ai , i ¼ 1, 2, . . ., n, then mi M00 Ai i ¼ ~
0, (4.4)
 i¼1
 P !
 n M A
(b) M0  Ak, then  mi M00 Ai i j  mk : (4.5)
i¼1, i6¼k

The Proof
P
n !
M A
(a) Let ei ¼ ~
mi~ S 6¼ ~
0, where ~
ei ¼ M00 Ai i . Take point Mt so that the equality
i¼1

!
M0 Mt ¼ t  ~
S 6¼ ~
0 holds true, where t > 0.
!
M t Ai
Let us denote ~
ei ðtÞ ¼ M t Ai , then we have that
4.1 Application of Vectors for Proving Geometric and Trigonometric Inequalities 153

!
X
n X
n
! ! X

n X
n
!
mi M0 Ai  mi M0 Ai ~
ei ðtÞ ¼ M0 Mt mi ~
ei ðtÞ þ mi Mt Ai ~
ei ðt Þ
i¼1 i¼1 i¼1 i¼1
X
n
¼ f ðt Þ þ mi Mt Ai : ð4:6Þ
i¼1

Now, we need to prove that there exists t0 > 0, such that f(t0) > 0, then from (4.6)
P
n Pn
it follows that mi M0 Ai > mi Mt0 Ai . This leads to a contradiction the condition
i¼1 i¼1
of the lemma. Hence ~ S ¼~ 0.
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Because j~ ei j ¼ ð~
ei ðtÞ ~ ei ðtÞ ~ ei Þ2 ¼ 2 sin ∠Mt2Ai M0 < ∠Mt Ai M0 , then there
j~Sj
exists t0 > 0, such that j~ei ðt0 Þ ~ ei j < 2nmi , for all i ¼ 1, 2, . . ., n. Then,

! X ! X X
n
 
n n

!
f ðt0 Þ ¼ M0 Mt0 mi~
ei ðt0 Þ ¼ M0 Mt0 mi~
ei þ mi M0 Mt0 ð~
ei ðt0 Þ ~
ei Þ 
i¼1 i¼1 i¼1
X
n  
 
! 
 t0~
S2  mi M0 Mt0 j~
ei ðt0 Þ ~
ei j
i¼1
 
 X n ~
S t0 2
~ ~
> t0 S  t0 S
2  mi ¼ ~S > 0:
i¼1
2nm i 2

 
   P n 
 
!
~
(b) Let S ¼  ei  > mk . Take point Mt so that the equality Ak Mt ¼ t~
mi~ S
i¼1, i6¼k 
holds true, where t > 0. Then, we have that

X
n X
n
!
m i Ak Ai  mi Ak Ai~
ei ðtÞ ¼
i¼1, i6¼k i¼1, i6¼k
! X X X
n n n
 
!
¼ Ak M t mi~ei þ mi Ak Mt ð~
ei ðtÞ ~
ei Þ þ m i M t Ai :
i¼1, i6¼k i¼1, i6¼k i¼1, i6¼k

 
Let us denote ~ S ¼ mk þ q and choose t0, such that j~ ei j < ðn1q Þmi , i ¼ 1,
ei ðt0 Þ ~
2, . . ., n, i 6¼ k. Then,

Xn   X n
q X
n
S2  t0 ~
mi Ak Ai > t0~ S mi þ mi Mt0 Ai
i¼1 i¼1, i6¼k
ðn  1Þmi i¼1, i6¼k
Xn Xn
¼ mk Mt0 Ak þ mi Mt0 Ai ¼ m i M t 0 Ai :
i¼1, i6¼k i¼1
154 4 Application of Vectors

The obtained
 inequality
 contradicts to the conditions of the lemma. Conse-
 P 
 n

quently,  m~e   mk . This ends the proof of the lemma.
i¼1, i6¼k i i 

Remark By using the Weierstrass theorem one can prove that there exists a point
P
n
M, such that the sum mi MAi is minimal (see [2], problem 19).
i¼1

Lemma 2 If for point M0 the condition (4.4) or (4.5) is fulfilled and points A1, . . .,
An are not on the same line, then for any point M, different from M0, the inequality
Pn P
n
mi  MAi > mi  M0 Ai holds true.
i¼1 i¼1

Proof Indeed, if condition (4.4) is satisfied, then at M 6 M0 , we have that

X
n X
n
! ! X

n X ! n X n
mi  MAi > mi  MAi~ei ¼ MM0 mi~
ei þ mi M0 Ai~
ei ¼ mi  M0 Ai ,
i¼1 i¼1 i¼1 i¼1 i¼1

and if condition (4.5) is satisfied, then we have that

X
n X
n
! ! X
n Xn  ! ! 
mi  MAi > mi  MAi~ei  MAk mi~
ei ¼ mi MAi  MAk ~
ei
i¼1 i¼1, i6¼k i¼1, i6¼k i¼1, i6¼k

X n
¼ mi  Ak Ai :
i¼1

Remark 1. From lemmas 1 and 2 it follows that, if points A1, A2, . . ., An are not on
the same line, then point M0 is unique.
2. If in a statement of lemma 2 the condition that points A1, A2, . . ., An are not on
P
n Pn
the same line was not given, then mi  MAi  mi  M0 Ai
i¼1 i¼1

4.1.18. The proof of the problem follows from the following two lemmas.
Lemma 1 If B1B2 . . . Bn is a polygon inscribed into a polygon A1A2 . . . An,
( Bi 6 Aj and Bi 2 AiAi + 1, An + 1  A1), so that for any polygon C1C2 . . . Cn
(Ci 6 Aj , Ci 2 AiAi + 1) and any positive numbers mi the inequality
Pn Pn
mi Ci Ciþ1  mi Bi Biþ1 , where Cn + 1  C1, Bn + 1  B1, holds true, then the
i¼1 i¼1
following conditions are satisfied:
!
Ai Aiþ1 ðmi1~
ei1  mi~
ei Þ ¼ 0, i ¼ 1, :::, n, ð4:7Þ

!
Bi Biþ1
where ~
ei ¼ Bi Biþ1 , m 0 ¼ m n, ~
eo ¼ ~
en .
4.1 Application of Vectors for Proving Geometric and Trigonometric Inequalities 155

Proof Suppose that, at i ¼ k condition (4.7) does not hold true, that means that
! !
! 0 0 Bk1 B0k 0 B0k Bkþ1
~ ~
0 6¼ Ak Akþ1 ðmk1 ek1  mk ek Þ. Let Bk 2 Ak Akþ1 ,~
ek1 ¼ Bk1 B0 ,~
ek ¼ B0 Bkþ1 .
k k
If points B0k and Bk are different, then we have that

! 0 þ m B !
mk1 Bk1 Bk þ mk Bk Bkþ1 > mk1 Bk1 Bk~e k1 k k Bkþ1~ e0k ¼
! 0 ! 0 ! 0 !
¼ mk1 Bk1 B0k~
ek1 þ mk1 B0k Bk~
ek1 þ mk Bk B0k~ek þ mk B0k Bkþ1~e0k ¼
!  
¼ mk1 Bk1 B0k þ mk B0k Bkþ1 þ B0k Bk mk1~e0k1  mk~e0k : ð4:8Þ

! ! !   !  
Let B0k Bk ¼ λAk Akþ1 , B0k Bk mk1~ e0k1  mk~e0k ¼ λAk Akþ1 mk1~ e0k1  mk~
e0k .
!
Let us choose λ, so that λ  Ak Akþ1 ðmk1~ ek1  mk~ek Þ > 0. We need to prove that
!  
0 0
one can choose Bk , so that Bk 2 Ak Akþ1 and λ  Ak Akþ1 mk1~ e0k1  mk~e0k > 0.
!
Indeed, let Ak Akþ1 ðmk1~ ek1  mk~ ek Þ ¼ a 6¼ 0. Let us choose B0k , so that

 0  a
~
e ~ ei  < , at i ¼ k  1 ; k (see the proof of lemma 1 of problem 4.1.17),
i 4mi Ak Akþ1
then
 
 !   ! 
e0k1  mk~
λ  Ak Akþ1 mk1~ e0k  λ  Ak Akþ1 ðmk1~ek1  mk~ ek Þ ¼
 
 !   0   0 
¼ λ  Ak Akþ1 mk1 ~ ek1 ~ek1  mk ~ ek ~ek  
  
  !   0   0  aλ
  
 λ Ak Akþ1  mk1 ~ ek1 ~ ek1  mk ~ ek ~ 
ek  :
2

Therefore,
  
!   !  a  λ 
0 0
λ  Ak Akþ1 mk1~ek1  mk~
ek  λ  Ak Akþ1 ðmk1~
ek1  mk~
ek Þ 
   2
aλ
¼ > 0:
2

From the last expression and (4.8) we deduce that

mk1 Bk1 Bk þ mk Bk Bkþ1 > mk1 Bk1 B0k þ mk B0k Bkþ1 :

We have obtained that for polygon B1 B2 :::Bk1 B0k Bkþ1 :::Bn that the considered
sum is less than for polygon B1B2 . . . Bk . . . Bn. This leads to a contradiction.
Remark If m1 ¼ m2 ¼ . . . ¼ mn, then it is possible to prove lemma 1 more simply
than in the general case. On the other hand, Bi  Aj is impossible.
Lemma 2 If for the inscribed polygon B1B2 . . . Bn the condition (4.7) is satisfied,
P
n !
then for any inscribed polygon C1C2 . . . Cn the sum mi Ci Ciþ1~
ei is constant and
i¼1
156 4 Application of Vectors

P
n P
n
mi Ci Ciþ1  mi Bi Biþ1 .
i¼1 i¼1

Proof We have that

X
n
! X
n  ! ! 
mi Ci Ciþ1~
ei ¼ mi Ci Aiþ1 þ Aiþ1 Ciþ1 ~
ei
i¼1 i¼1
X
n
! X
n
!
¼ mi Ci Aiþ1~
ei þ mi Aiþ1 Ciþ1~
ei ¼
i¼1 i¼1
X
n
! X
n
!
¼ mi Ci Aiþ1~
ei þ mi1 Ai Ci~
ei1
i¼1 i¼1
X
n  ! !  X
n
!
¼ mi1 Ai Aiþ1  Ci Aiþ1 ~
ei1 þ mi Ci Aiþ1~
ei ¼
i¼1 i¼1
X
n
! X
n
!
¼ mi1 Ai Aiþ1~
ei1  Ci Aiþ1 ðmi1~
ei1  mi~
ei Þ
i¼1 i¼1
X
n
!
¼ mi1 Ai Aiþ1~
ei1 ,
i¼1

note that the last one is a constant.


Pn Pn ! P
n ! P
n
Thus, mi Ci Ciþ1  mi Ci Ciþ1~
ei ¼ mi Bi Biþ1~
ei ¼ mi Bi Biþ1 .
i¼1 i¼1 i¼1 i¼1

Remark If n is odd, then there exists no more than one polygon B1B2 . . . Bn, while
for even n there can exist an infinite number of polygons B1B2 . . . Bn.
4.1.19. Let O be the incenter of triangle ABC. We need the following property of
point O:
! ! !
BC  OA þ AC  OB þ AB  OC ¼ ~
0: ð4:9Þ

Let us consider points A1, B1, C1 (Figure 4.3). Since, the circle with diameter OA
passes through points B1 and C1, then B1 C1 ¼ OA sin ∠A ¼ BCOA 2R , where R is the
circumradius of triangle ABC. From the above said conditions OA ⊥ B1C1,
OB ⊥ C1A1, OC ⊥ A1B1, it follows that, under the rotation by 90 vectors
! ! ! ! ! !
2RB1 C1 , 2RC1 A1 , 2RA1 B1 transform into vectors BC  OA , AC  OB , AB  OC .
Thus, we have that condition (4.9) is satisfied. According to that condition
4.1 Application of Vectors for Proving Geometric and Trigonometric Inequalities 157

Figure 4.3 B B1
A1
C1

A B1 C


! 
! ! 
!
B1 C1  O1 A1 þ A1 C1  O1 B1 þ A1 B1  O1 C1 ¼ B2 C2  O2 A2
 ! !
þA2 C2  O2 B2 þ A2 B2  O2 C2 :
ð4:10Þ


! !  ! !  ! !
Taking into account that O2 A2 ¼ O2 O1 þ O1 A1 þ A1 A2 , O2 B2 ¼ O2 O1 þ

! ! ! ! !  !
O1 B1 þ B1 B2 , O2 C2 ¼ O2 O1 þ O1 C1 þ C1 C2 , from (4.10) it follows that
! 
! 
!
p2  O1 O2 ¼ O1 A1 ðB2 C2  B1 C1 Þ þ O1 B1 ðA2 C2  A1 C1 Þ
! ! ! ð4:11Þ
þO1 C1 ðA2 B2  A1 B1 Þ þ þB2 C2  A1 A2 þ A2 C2 B1 B2
!
þA2 B2  C1 C2 :

Therefore,
     
p2  O1 O2  O1 A1 B2 C2  B1 C1  þ O1 B1 A2 C2  A1 C1  þ O1 C1 A2 B2  A1 B1 þ
þB2 C2  A1 A2 þ A2 C2  B1 B2 þ A2 B2  C1 C2 :
ð4:12Þ

Let us further note that |B2C2  B1C1|  B1B2 + C1C2, |A2C2  A1C1| 
A1A2 + C1C2, |A2B2  A1B1|  A1A2 + B1B2, then from (4.12) it follows that

p2  O1 O2  ðO1 B1 þ B2 C2 þ O1 C1 ÞA1 A2 þ ðO1 A1 þ A2 C2 þ O1 C1 ÞB1 B2


þ ðO1 A1 þ A2 B2 þ O1 B1 ÞC1 C2 :
ð4:13Þ

Let us come back again to Figure 4.3.


Let point B01 be symmetric to B1 with respect to point O. For medians AO and CO
0
of triangles AB1 B01 and CB1 B01 we have the inequalities AO < (AB 1 + AB1)/2 and
0  0 
CO < (CB 1 + CB1)/2. Therefore, AO þ CO < AB 1 þ B01 C =2 þ AC=2. On the
other hand, point B01 is inside of triangle ABC, AB0 1 þ B01 C < AB þ BC, and
AB þ BC þ AC
AO þ CO < : ð4:14Þ
2
Then, using inequalities (4.13) and (4.14) we deduce that
158 4 Application of Vectors

p  p  p 
p2  O 1 O 2  1
þ B2 C2 A1 A2 þ 1 þ A2 C2 B1 B2 þ 1 þ A2 B2 C1 C2 <
2 2 2
p1 þ p2
< ðA1 A2 þ B1 B2 þ C1 C2 Þ:
2
Thus, A1 A2 þBO11BO22þC1 C2 < p12pþp2 .
2
It is clear that, from the very beginning we could assume that max( p1, p2) ¼ p2.
Remark If A1 6 A2, B1 6 B2, then (4.13) takes the following form
p2  O1O2  (O1A1 + A1B1 + O1B1)C1C2. Thus, p2  O1O2 < (C1A1 + A1B1 + C1B1)
C1C2 ¼ p1  C1C2.  
p1 p2
Hence, it follows that OC11 O
C2
2
< min ;
p p .
2 1

4.1.20. (a) Let P, Q, and R be the tangential points of the unit sphere with the faces
! ! !
 Then, ~
of trihedral angle. p ¼ OP, ~ q ¼ OQ , and ~r¼ OR  are unit vectors and
arccos3  ~
2 c
p,~ π
q  2, arccos3  ~ 2 c
q,~ π
r  2, arccos3  ~
2 c
p,~r  π2 . On the other
!
hand, for vector ~ a ¼ OA , we have that ~ p ¼~
a~ q ¼~
a~ a~r ¼ 1.
pffiffiffi
We needto prove that
        j~
a j  3 .
Let max ~ cq ; ~
p,~ cr ; ~
p,~ cr
q,~ ¼ ~ cq ¼ φ, then there exist angles φ1 and
p,~
 !   ! 
α, such that φ2  φ1  φ, α < π2, and ~ p ¼ 1; 0; 0 , ~ q ¼ cos φ; sin φ; 0 ,
 ! 
~
r ¼ cos φ1 cos α; sin φ1 cosα; sin α (see Figure 4.4).
  pffiffiffi
If α ¼ π2, then a ¼ 3.
 
y,!z , then we find that x ¼ 1, x cos φ + y sin φ ¼ 1 and x cos φ
If ~ a ¼ x, 1
cos α + y sin φ1 cos α + z sin α ¼ 1. Consequently, x ¼ 1, y ¼ tg φ2 , z¼
 φ
 φ
   φ

cos 2  cos α cos φ1  2 = sin α cos 2 .
  2
Then, we have to prove that cos φ2  cos α cos φ1  φ2  sin 2 α 1þ32cos φ.

Figure 4.4
z


r

О a
y
 
p j1 q

x
4.1 Application of Vectors for Proving Geometric and Trigonometric Inequalities 159

Figure 4.5

Figure 4.6 B¢ C¢

L
A¢ M0 M D¢

e2 L0

e3
B C

e1
K0
K
A D

   2
We have that cos φ2  cos φ1  φ2  1. Therefore, f ðtÞ ¼ cos φ2  t cos α 
   
max f cos φ2 ; f ð1Þ , at t 2 cos φ2 ; 1 .
   4  4
Note that f cos φ2 ¼ 1þ cos φ
4 sin α2  1þ32cos φ 4 sin α2  1þ32cos φ sin 2 α.
2
 2
It remains to prove that f ð1Þ ¼ cos φ2  cos α  1þ32cos φ sin 2 α, or
3ð1 þ cos φÞcos 2 α  4 cos φ2 cos α  2 cos φ  0.
 
We have that cos ~ cr ¼ cos α cos ðφ  φ Þ. Thus, it follows that
q,~ 1
pffiffi
π φ
cos α cos 4  cos α cos 2  cos α cos ðφ  φ1 Þ  3. Hence cos α  2 3 2. We have
2
h pffiffii
that t ¼ cos α 2 0; 2 3 2 . We deduce that gðtÞ ¼ 3ð1 þ cos φÞt2  4 cos φ2 t
  pffiffi 
2 cos φ  max g 2 3 2 ; gð0Þ .
 pffiffi pffiffi
Note that g(0) ¼  2 cos φ  0, and g 2 3 2 ¼ 83 ð1 þ cos φÞ  8 3 2 cos φ2 
pffiffi hpffiffi i
2 cos φ ¼ 43 cos 2 φ2  8 3 2 cos φ2 þ 2  0, because t ¼ cosφ2 2 22; 1 . Therefore,
160 4 Application of Vectors

pffiffi  pffiffi  pffiffi


φðtÞ ¼ 43 t2  8 3 2 t  2  max φ 22 ; φð1Þ  0, because φ 2
2
¼0 and
pffiffi
φð1Þ ¼ 103  3 < 0.
8 2

(b) Yes, it is possible (see Figure 4.5). First one has to construct “such” tetrahedron
and then add another 96 faces. One should take AB ¼ CD, AD ¼ DB ¼ BC ¼ AC,
where AB is large enough.
4.1.21. Let points K0, L0, M0 be the midpoints of edges AB, CC0 , and A0 D0 ,
! ! !
e1 ¼ KK00M
respectively. Let us denote ~ 0 e ¼ M0 L0 ,~
M0 ,~2
L0 M 0
M0 L0 e3 ¼ L0 M0 (see Figure 4.6).
Note that
 ! ! ! 
! ! e þ ! e3 ¼ KA þ AA0 þ A0 M ~
KM~e1 þ ML ~2 LK ~ e1 þ
 ! ! !   ! ! !
þ MD0 þ D0 C0 þ C0 L ~ e2 þ LC þ CB þ BK ~e3 ¼
! ! !  ! ! 
¼ AA0~e1 þD0 C0~
e2 þ CB~e3 þ KA~ e1 þ BK~e3 þ
 ! !   ! ! 
þ A0 M~ e1 þ MD0~ e2 þ C0 L~ e2 þ LC~e3 ¼
! ! ! ! !
¼ AA0~
e1 þD0 C0~ e2 þ CB~ e3 þ BA~ e1 þ BK ð~
e3 ~
e1 Þ
! 
!  !
þ þA0 D0~ e2 þ A0 M ð~
e1 ~e2 Þ þ C0 C~e3
!
þ C0 L ð~
e2 ~e3 Þ:
ð4:15Þ

! ! !
Because BK ð~ e3 ~e1 Þ ¼ 0, A0 M ð~ e2 Þ ¼ 0, C0 L ð~
e1 ~ e2 ~
e3 Þ ¼ 0 (see the proof
! ! !
of problem 2.4.18а), then from (4.15) it follows that, the sum KM~ e1 þ ML~ e2 þ LK
~
e3 is constant, this means that

! e þ ! ! ! ! !


KM ~1 ML~ e3 ¼ K 0 M0~
e2 þ LK ~ e1 þ M0 L0~
e2 þ L0 K 0~
e3
¼ K 0 M 0 þ M 0 L 0 þ L0 K 0 :
Thus,
rffiffiffi
! ! ! 3
KM þ ML þ LK  KM~ e1 þ ML~e2 þ LK ~
e3 ¼ K 0 M0 þ M0 L0 þ L0 K 0 ¼ 3 AB
2
pffiffiffi
¼ 1, 5 6AB:
4.1.22. Let G be the center of mass of tetrahedron ABCD, and O be the circumcenter.
Then, ma ¼ 43 AG, mb ¼ 43 BG, mc ¼ 43 CG, md ¼ 43 DG. We have that ma þ mb þ mc
4.1 Application of Vectors for Proving Geometric and Trigonometric Inequalities 161

pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
þmd ¼ 43 ðAG þ BG þ CG þ DGÞ  83 AG2 þ BG2 þ CG2 þ DG2 , because R2 ¼
 ! !2 ! !
AO2 ¼ AG þ GO ¼ AG2 þ GO2 þ 2  GO  AG . We obtain that

! ! ! ! !
4R2 ¼ AG2 þ BG2 þ CG2 þ DG2 þ 4GO2 þ 2GO AG þ BG þ CG þ DG ¼
¼ AG2 þ BG2 þ CG2 þ DG2 þ 4GO2  AG2 þ BG2 þ CG2 þ DG2 :
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Thus, ma þ mb þ mc þ md  83 AG2 þ BG2 þ CG2 þ DG2  16 3 R (see prob-
lem 4.1.13).
! ! !
4.1.23. Let CA ¼ a ~i, CB ¼ b ~j, CD ¼ x ~i þ y ~j þ z  ~ k, where ~i,~j, ~k are

! ! BD 
coordinate vectors and z 6¼ 0. We have that 
cos φ ¼ CA  ACBD
 
x
¼ qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi, where φ is the angle between lines AC and BD, as
x2 þ ðy  bÞ2 þ z2
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
x2 þy2 þz2 ! !
AB ¼
CD p ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi and 0 ¼ AD  BD ¼ xðx  aÞ þ yðy  bÞ þ z2 . We have to prove
a2 þb2
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
  qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
 ffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
 
that x2 a2 þ b2 < ðx2 þ y2 þ z2 Þ x2 þ y2 þ z2 þ b2  2by , or x2 a2 þ b2
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
 ffi
< ðax þ byÞ ax  by þ b2 , b2(x2 + y2) < b2(ax + by), 0 < z2.

4.1.24. (a) From the statement of the problem we have that


!
ðmi~
ei  mi1~
ei1 ÞAi Bi ¼ 0, i ¼ 1, 2, . . ., n. Consequently,

m1 A1 A2 þ m2 A2 A3 þ ::: þ mn1 An1 An þ mn An A1 ¼


! ! ! !
¼ m1 A1 A2~e1 þ m2 A2 A3~ e2 þ ::: þ mn1 An1 An~
en1 þ mn An A1~
en ¼
 ! ! !   ! ! ! 
¼ m1 A1 B1 þ B1 B2 þ B2 A2 ~ e1 þ m2 A2 B2 þ B2 B3 þ B3 A3 ~e2 þ þ :::
 ! ! !   ! ! ! 
þ mn1 An1 Bn1 þ Bn1 Bn þ Bn An ~ en1 þ þmn An Bn þ Bn B1 þ B1 A1 ~
en ¼
! ! !
¼ A1 B1 ðm1~e1  mn~en Þ þ A2 B2 ðm2~e2  m1~ e1 Þ þ ::: þ An Bn ðmn~en  mn1~
en1 Þ
! ! ! !
þ þm1 B1 B2~ e1 þ þ m2 B2 B3~ e2 þ ::: þ mn1 Bn1 Bn~ en1 þ mn Bn B1~
en ¼
! ! ! !
¼ m1 B1 B2~e1 þ m2 B2 B3~e2 þ ::: þ mn1 Bn1 Bn~ en1 þ mn Bn B1~ en 

 m1 B1 B2 þ m2 B2 B3 þ ::: þ mn1 Bn1 Bn þ mn Bn B1 :

Hence, we deduce that m1B1B2 + m2B2B3 + . . . + mn  1Bn  1Bn + mnBnB1 


m 1A1A2 + m 2A2A3 + . . . + m n  1A n  1An + m nAnA1.
(b) Let point M be the midpoint of edge C1C3 and point N be the midpoint of edge
C2C4. Let segment A1A4 be the common perpendicular of lines C3N and C2M,
that is, A1 2 C3N, A4 2 C2M, A1A4 ⊥ C2M, A1A4 ⊥ C3N. From the statement of
the problem it follows that points C1 and C3 are symmetric with respect to plane
162 4 Application of Vectors

C2C4M. Therefore, if point A3, symmetric to A1 with respect to plane C2C4M,


then A3 2 C1N, A3A4 ⊥ C2M, A3A4 ⊥ C1N.
Similarly, we obtain that, if point A2 is symmetric to A4 with respect to plane
C1C3N, then A2 2 C4M and A2A3 ⊥ C1N, A2A3 ⊥ C4M, A1A2 ⊥ C4M,
A1A2 ⊥ C3N.
!
A Aiþ1
Let~ei ¼ Aii Aiþ1 , i ¼ 1, 2, 3, 4; A5  A1. Because~ e3 ⊥C2 M and~ e4 ⊥C2 M, we have
that ~
e4 ~e3 ⊥C2 M. Also, A4A1 ¼ A4A3, A1A3 ⊥ C2C4M, C1C3 ⊥ C2C4M.
Consequently, A1A3||C1C3 and ~ e4 ~e3 ⊥A1 A3 . Hence ~
e4 ~ e3 ⊥C1 C3 . We have
obtained that ~ e4 ~ e3 ⊥C2 M, ~e4 ~e3 ⊥C1 C3 . Therefore, ~
e4 ~ e3 ⊥C1 C2 C3 . The
proof that other three conditions of problem 4.1.24a hold also true can be done
similarly. Thus, B1B2 + B2B3 + B3B4 + B4B1  A1A2 + A2A3 + A3A4 + A4A1. To
complete the solution we have to notice that points A1, A2, A3, A4 are on
segments C3N, C4M, C1N, C2M, respectively. Indeed, to prove, for example,
that point A1 is on segment C3N one has to consider projections of points A4, A1,
C3, N on a plane passing through point C2 and perpendicular to line C2M.
(c) Let points A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6 belong to the segments AC, A0 B, B0 C, A0 C0 , CD0 ,
DA0 , respectively, and

AA1 : AC ¼ BA2 : BA0 ¼ B0 A3 : B0 C ¼ C0 A4 : C0 A0 ¼ D0 A5 : D0 C


¼ DA6 : DA0 ¼ 1 : 3:

Now, it is not difficult to check that the conditions of problem 4.1.24a are
satisfied, where m1 ¼ m2 ¼ m3 ¼ m4 ¼ m5 ¼ m6 ¼ 1. Thus, it follows that

B1 B 2 þ B2 B 3 þ B3 B4 þ B4 B5 þ B5 B6 þ B6 B1
 A1 A2 þ A2 A3 þ A3 A4 þ A4 A5 þ A5 A6 þ A 6 A1 :

4.1.25. (a) Let us consider midpoints M, N, P, K, F, E of edges AD, BD, CD, AB,
AC, BC, respectively.
As OM ⊥ AD, OK ⊥ AB, OF ⊥ AC, then AO > AM, AO > AK, and AO > AF.
According to problem 7.1.38a tetrahedron AMKF does not contain point O. Then,
we obtain that point O is inside of the polyhedron with faces MPF, MFK, FKE,
PNE, MNK, FPE, MPN, NKE. For point X 6 O draw a plane α passing through
!
point O and perpendicular to vector OX . It is obvious, that at least one of the points
M, N, P, K, F, E and point X are on the different sides of plane α. If that is the point
! !
M, then OM  OX < 0.
! ! ! !
Let ~e1 ¼ OA ,~ e2 ¼ OB ,~e3 ¼ OC ,~ e4 ¼ OD and ~ e ¼~e1 þ~ e2 þ~ e3 þ~ e4 . We
OA OB OC OD
need to prove that
4.1 Application of Vectors for Proving Geometric and Trigonometric Inequalities 163

 
~
e < 2: ð4:16Þ

e 6¼ ~
Indeed, it is sufficient to prove inequality (4.16) in case ~ 0.
! ! !
Let OX ¼ ~ e, then as it was mentioned
  OM  OX < 0. Consequently,
ð~
e1 þ~ e < 0. We have that ~
e4 Þ~ e2~e  ~
e and ~ e  ~
e3~ e. Thus, ð~
e1 þ~
e2 þ
   2    
~
e3 þ~ e < 2~
e4 Þ~   
e . Hence ~ 
e < 2~   
e , then ~ 
e < 2. Note that

DA2 þ DB2 þ DC2 þ AB2 þ BC2 þ AC2 ¼ 


¼ AO2 ð~e1 ~e4 Þ2 þ ð~ e4 Þ2 þ ð~
e2 ~ e4 Þ2 þ ð~
e3 ~ e2 Þ2 þ ð~
e1 ~ e3 Þ2 þ ð~
e2 ~ e3 Þ2 ¼
e1 ~
¼ AO2 ð16  j~
e2 Þ > 12  AO2 :

Thus, DA2 + DB2 + DC2 + AB2 + BC2 + AC2 > 12  AO2.


(b) Note that

2OA  DA þ 2OA  DB þ 2OA  DC þ 2OA  AB þ 2OA  BC þ 2OA  AC >


> DA2 þ DB2 þ DC2 þ AB2 þ BC2 þ AC2 > 12  AO2

(see problem 4.1.25a).


Therefore, DA + DB + DC + AB + BC + AC > 6  OA.
Remark Given a polyhedron with n vertices and a point M inside of it. Let ~
ei be a
unit
 vector directed
 from point M to the i-th vertex of the polyhedron, then
~e1 þ~e2 þ ::: þ~en  < n  2.

Problems for Self-Study

4.1.26. Let ABCD be a quadrilateral circumscribed around a circle. Given that the
opposite sides AB and CD, BC and AD are on the lines intersecting at points M and
N. Prove that cos ∠A + cos ∠B + cos ∠C + cos ∠D + cos ∠M + cos ∠N  2.
4.1.27. Let ABC be an arbitrary triangle. Prove that for any equilateral triangle
 
A1B1C1 the inequality A1 A2 þ B1 B2 þ C1 C2  16 AB2 þ BC2 þ CA2  p2ffiffi3 SABC
holds true.
4.1.28. Given points A1, . . ., An and positive numbers m1, . . ., mn. For any point
X let us denote by f(X) the expression m1A1X + . . . + mnAnX. Given that point M is
on segment AB, such that BM AB ¼ α. Prove that f(M )  αf(A) + (1  α)f(B).

4.1.29. Given that pointsA1, A2, . . ., An are on the same sphere, m1, . . ., mn > 0 and
! !
G is such a point that m1 GA1 þ ::: þ mn GAn ¼ ~ 0. Let straight lines GA1, . . ., GAn
intersect this sphere (for the second time) at points B1, B2, . . . , Bn. Prove that
m1 GB1P þ ::: þ mn GBnP  m1 GA1P þ ::: þ mn GAnP , where 0  p  2.
164 4 Application of Vectors

4.1.30. Let O be the incenter of triangle ABC. Prove that ab + bc + ac  (AO + BO


+ CO)2.
Hint Prove that aAO2 + bBO2 + cCO2 ¼ abc (see problem 4.1.8b).
4.1.31. Let the medians of faces ABD, ACD, BCD drawn from vertex D of tetrahe-
dron ABCDform equal angles with edges AB, AC, BC, respectively. Prove that the
area of each of these faces is not greater than the sum of the areas of the other two
faces.
! !

DA þ DB ! 
Hint Let 2 ; AB ¼ α 6¼ 90 , then
 
 ! ! !  
SADB ¼ 12  AB  DA þ2 DB jctgαj ¼ 14 DA2  DB2 ctgα.
For α ¼ 90 see problem 1.1.14a (not only α ¼ 90 ).
4.1.32. Let in a tetrahedron ABCD the angles ADB, ADC, BDC be obtuse and the
lengths of edges AD, BD, CD be equal. Prove that ABC is an acute triangle.
! !
Hint Prove that CA  CB > 0.
4.1.33. Prove that the difference of the squares of the lengths of the adjacent sides of
a parallelogram is less than the product of its diagonals.
4.1.34. Let n points be inside of the unit sphere. Prove that the sum of the squares of
distances between all possible pairs of these points does not exceed n2.
4.1.35. (a) Consider a convex hexagon, such that the length of each of its sides is
more than 1. Will there always be in it a diagonal with the length more than 2?
(b) Consider a convex hexagon ABCDEF, such that the lengths of the diagonals AD,
BE, CFare greater than 2. Will it always have a side with the length more than 1?
Hint See problem 4.1.4a.
4.1.36. Let M be the intersection point of the diagonals of an inscribed quadrilateral,
N be the intersection point of its midlines and O be its circumcenter. Prove that
OM  ON (the midline is a segment connecting the midpoints of the opposite sides).
!
Hint Let ABCD be an inscribed quadrilateral, then ON ¼
 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
2
!2 OA þ OB þ OC þ OD .
4 OA þ OB þ OC þ OD , Prove that OM 
1
4

4.1.37. Prove that for any triangle ABC the following inequalities hold true:
(a) a2 þ b2 þ c2  9R2 ; cos 2α þ cos 2β þ cos 2γ  32,
(b) a3 þ b3 þ c3 þ 3abc  a2 b þ b2 a þ a2 c þ ac2 þ b2 c þ bc2 ; cos α þ cos β þ cos
γ  32,
(c) c2  a2 þ b2 þ R2 ; cos 2α þ cos 2β  cos 2γ  32.
4.1 Application of Vectors for Proving Geometric and Trigonometric Inequalities 165

4.1.38. Let α1, α2, . . ., α6 be (the linear angles of) the dihedral angles of a
tetrahedron. Prove that cosα1 + cos α2 + . . . + cos α6  2.
4.1.39. Use problem 4.1.8a for x ¼ y ¼ z ¼ 13 to prove problem 4.1.4b.
! ! ! ! !
Hint Consider points X, Y, Z, and M, such that XY ¼ BC þ CD  EF  FA ,
! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
YZ ¼ FA þ AB  DE  CD , and XM ¼ BC  EF .
4.1.40. The rectangular projection of a triangular pyramid to some plane has the
greatest possible area. Prove that this plane is parallel either to one of the sides of a
pyramid or to two skew edges of the pyramid.
4.1.41. (a) Given that in a tetrahedron ABCD the sum of the cosines of all plane
angles at vertex D does not exceed –1. Prove that for any point M, other than D,
holds true MA + MB + MC + MD > DA + DB + DC.
(b) Given that in a tetrahedron ABCD the sum of the cosines of all
plane angles at vertex D does not exceed –1. Prove that inside this
tetrahedron one can find a point M0, such that ∠AM0B ¼ ∠CM0D, ∠AM0C ¼
∠BM0D, ∠AM0D ¼ ∠BM0C.
Moreover, for any point M, other than M0, it holds true MA + MB + MC +
MD > M0A + M0B + M0C + M0D.
Hint See the proof of problem 4.1.17.
4.1.42. Let triangles A1A2A3 and B1B2B3 with orthocenters H1 and H2, respectively,
be inscribed in a circle of radius R. Prove that H1H2 < 4R + A1B1.
Hint Let G1 and G2 be the centroids of those triangles A1A2A3 and B1B2B3,
! 1  ! ! ! 
respectively. Prove that H1H2 ¼ 3G1G2 and G1 G2 ¼ 3 A1 B1 þ A2 B2 þ A3 B3 :
Chapter 5
Application of Trigonometric Inequalities

This chapter consists of five sections, that is, Sections 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, and 5.5.
Many problems in geometry can be solved by applying trigonometry. In partic-
ular, many problems related to geometric inequalities can be deduced to trigono-
metric inequalities.
Section 5.1 mainly provides trigonometric inequalities concerning to angles of a
triangle. Let us emphasize few methods of proving such inequalities: note that, if
πβ πγ
α, β, γ are the angles of some triangle, then πα2 , 2 , 2 are the angles of some
acute triangle. Therefore, if some inequality holds true for angles α, β, γ of some
πβ πγ
triangle, then substituting these angles by πα 2 , 2 , 2 one can obtain a “new”
inequality for angles α, β, γ.
Moreover, if some inequality holds true for the angles of any acute triangle, then
from this inequality one can obtain a “new” inequality for the angles of any triangle.
In Section 5.1 many problems are proved using the maximal (minimal) values of
a quadratic polynomial. One of the crucial methods explained in this section is the
method based on the following statement: if the quadratic coefficient of a quadratic
function is positive (negative), then on any segment that function accepts its
maximal (minimal) value in one of the endpoints of the considered segment.
Section 5.2 selects such inequalities, concerning the angles of a triangle, that
hold true either only for acute triangles or only for obtuse triangles.
One of the most important methods of proving geometric inequalities is based on
modifications of trigonometric expressions. Therefore, Section 5.3 is devoted to
some important mathematical identities related to triangles.
Section 5.4 considers some trigonometric inequalities that are later on applied in
Section 5.5 in order to prove geometric inequalities.
Summarizing the above mentioned, Sections 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, and 5.4 provides
methods related to trigonometry in order to prove geometric inequalities. These
types of geometric inequalities are considered in Section 5.5.
Some problems in this chapter were inspired by [1, 2]. Nevertheless, even for
these problems the authors have mostly provided their own solutions.

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017 167


H. Sedrakyan, N. Sedrakyan, Geometric Inequalities, Problem Books
in Mathematics, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-55080-0_5
168 5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities

5.1 Inequalities for the Angles of a Triangle

Let α, β, and γ be the angles of some triangle. In the problems of this section it is
required to prove the following inequalities.
5.1.1. cos2 α þ cos2 β þ cos2 γ  34.
5.1.2. cosαcosβcosγ  18.
5.1.3. cos2α þ cos2β  cos2γ  32.
5.1.4. (a) 1 < cosα þ cosβ þ cosγ  32,
pffiffiffi 2  
(b) 3 cos α2 þ cos β2 þ cos 2γ  4 cos α2 þ cos β2 þ cos 2γ þ 2 cos α2 cos β2 cos 2γ .

5.1.5. 1 < sin α2 þ sin β2 þ sin 2γ  32.


pffiffi
5.1.6. sin α þ sin β þ sin γ  3 2 3.
pffiffi
5.1.7. cos α2 þ cos β2 þ cos 2γ  3 2 3.
pffiffiffi
5.1.8. (a) ctgα þ ctgβ þ ctgγ  3,
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
2α 1þ8cos 2 β 1þ8cos 2 γ
(b) 1þ8cos
sin α þ sin β þ sin γ  6.
p ffiffi

5.1.9. (a) tg α2 þ tg β2 þ tg 2γ  3,
 
(b) tg α2 tg β2 tg 2γ tg α2 þ tg β2 þ tg 2γ  13.
 
(c) ctg 2α2 þ ctg 2 β2 þ ctg 2 2γ  ctg α2 þ ctg β2 þ ctg 2γ ðctgα þ ctgβ þ ctgγ Þ.
pffiffiffi
5.1.10. ctg α2 þ ctg β2 þ ctg 2γ  3 3.
5.1.11. sin α2 sin β2 sin 2γ  18.
pffiffi
5.1.12. sin α  sin β  sin γ  3 8 3.
pffiffi
5.1.13. cos α2 cos β2 cos 2γ  3 8 3.
5.1.14. cos α cos β þ cos β cos γ þ cos γ cos α  34.
5.1.15. sin2α þ sin 2β þ sin 2γ  sin α þ sin β þ sin γ.
5.1.16. sin α þ sin β þ sin γ  cos α2 þ cos β2 þ cos 2γ .
5.1.17. ctgα þ ctgβ þ ctgγ  tg α2 þ tg β2 þ tg 2γ .
5.1.18. cos α þ cos β þ cos γ  sin α2 þ sin β2 þ sin 2γ .
5.1.19. ctg 2 α þ ctg 2 β þ ctg 2 γ  tg 2α2 þ tg 2 β2 þ tg 2 2γ .
5.1.20. (a) cos α  cosβ  cos γ  sin α2 sin β2 sin 2γ ,

(b) sin α  sin β  sin γ  cos α2 cos β2 cos 2γ ,


(c) cos α cos β cos γ  8sin 2α2 sin2 β2 sin2 2γ ,
5.1 Inequalities for the Angles of a Triangle 169

pffiffiffi
(d) sin α2 þ sin β2 þ sin 2γ  12  sin α2 sin β2 sin 2γ þ 3 cos α2 cos β2 cos 2γ .
(e) cos 2 αβ
4 þ cos
2 βγ
4 þ cos
2 γα
4  2ð cos α þ cos β þ cos γ Þ,
αβ βγ γα
(f) cos 2 þ cos 2 þ cos 2  p2ffiffi3 ð sin α þ sin β þ sin γ Þ,
pffiffiffi
(g) cos α þ cos β þ cos γ þ ctgα þ ctgβ þ ctgγ  1, 5 þ 3,
(h) (1  cos α)(1  cos β)(1  cos γ)  cos α cos β cos γ
(4  2 cos α  2 cos β  2 cos γ),
pffiffiffi
(i) sin 2α þ sin 2β þ sin 2γ  2 3ð cos α cos β þ cos β cos γ þ cos γ cos αÞ:
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
pffiffiffiffiffi
jαβj jβγ j jγαj
5.1.21. sin 2 þ sin 2 þ sin 2  71þ17 17
32 .

5.1.22. (a) 2xy cos α þ 2yzcosβ þ 2xz cos γ  x2 þ y2 þ z2, where α þ β þ γ ¼ π and
α, β, γ, x, y, z are arbitrary numbers.
cos α cos β cos γ
(b) þ sin
sin α1 β1 þ sin γ 1  ctg α1 þ ctg β1 þ ctg γ 1 , where α þ β þ γ ¼ π and
α1, β1, γ 1 are angles of some triangle.
(c) a2ctgα1 þ b2ctgβ1 þ c2ctgγ 1  4S, where a, b, c, S are respectively, the sides and
the area of some triangle, and α1, β1, γ 1 the angles of another triangle.
(d) (b2 þ c2)(1  cos φ) þ a2 cos φ  4S| sin φ|, where φ is any angle and S is the
area of the triangle with sides a, b, c.
     
(e) a2 b21 þ c21  a21 þ b2 a21 þ c21  b21 þ c2 a21 þ b21  c21  16SS1 , where a, b,
c, S are respectively, the sides and the area of some triangle, and a1, b1, c1, S1 of
another triangle.
(f) (xa2 þ yb2 þ zc2)2  16S2(xy þ yz þ zx), where x, y, z are arbitrary numbers and
S is the area of a triangle with sides a, b, c.
(g) k2tgα1 þ l2tgβ1 þ m2tgγ 1  S, where k, l, m are the distances from the circum-
center of triangle ABC to lines BC, AC, AB, respectively, S is the area of triangle
ABC, and α1, β1, γ 1 are the angles of some other acute triangle.
 2
5.1.23. cos 2α2 þ cos 2 β2 þ cos 2 2γ  sin α2 þ sin β2 þ sin 2γ .
πþα πþβ πþγ
5.1.24. sin 2α þ sin 2β þ sin 2γ  cos 8 þ cos 8 þ cos 8 .

5.1.25. cos 2 α þ cos 2 β þ cos γ > 34.


5.1.26. cos 2 αcos 2 β þ cos 2 βcos 2 γ þ cos 2 γcos 2 α  32 cos α cos β cos γ.
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
x2 þy2 þ2xy cos α y2 þz2 þ2yz cos β z2 þx2 þ2zx cos γ
5.1.27. sin α þ sin β þ sin γ  2x þ 2y þ 2z, where
x  0, y  0, z  0.
5.1.28. 3(cosα þ cos β þ cos γ)  2(sinα sin β þ sin β sin γ þ sin γ sin α).
5.1.29. sin α3  sin β3  sin 3γ  8sin 3π9  sin α2  sin β2  sin 2γ .
5.1.30. tg 2α2 þ tg 2 β2 þ tg 2 2γ  2, where γ  2arctg43.
5.1.31. sin α sin α1 þ sin β sin β1 þ sin γ sin γ 1  144 sin α2 sin β2 sin 2γ sin α21 sin β21 sin γ21 ,
where α, β, γ and α1, β1, γ 1 are angles of some triangles.
170 5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities

5.1.32. Prove that

sin α sin α1 þ sin β sin β1 þ sin γ sin γ 1 


 2 þ ð cos α þ cos β þ cos γ  1Þð cos α1 þ cos β1 þ cos γ 1  1Þ,

where α, β, γ and α1, β1, γ 1 are the angles of some triangles.

Solutions

5.1.1. We have that


1 þ cos 2α 1 þ cos 2β
cos 2 α þ cos 2 β þ cos 2 γ ¼ þ þ cos 2 γ ¼
2 2
¼ 1 þ cos ðα þ βÞ cos ðα  βÞ þ cos 2 γ ¼
3 sin 2 ðα  βÞ
¼ 1  cos γ cos ðα  βÞ þ cos 2 γ ¼ þ
 2 3 4 4
cos ðαβÞ
þ cos γ  2  :
4
This ends the proof.
5.1.2. Since (see the proof of the problem 5.1.1)

cos 2 α þ cos 2 β þ cos 2 γ ¼


3
¼ 1  cos γ ð cos ðα  βÞ  cos γ Þ ¼ 1  2 cos α cos β cos γ  ,
4
1
then cos α  cos β  cos γ  .
8
This ends the proof.
5.1.3. Let us note that
3 1
 ð cos 2α þ cos 2β  cos2γ Þ ¼ 2cos 2 γ þ 2 cos γ cos ðα  βÞ þ ¼
2 2
1 
¼ ð2 cos γ þ cosðα  βÞÞ2 þ sin 2 ðα  βÞ  0:
2
This ends the proof.
5.1.4. (a) We have that
γ αβ γ
cos α þ cosβ þ cos γ ¼ 2 sin cos þ 1  2sin 2 ¼
2 2 2
α β γ
¼ 1 þ 4 sin sin sin > 1:
2 2 2
πβ πγ
If α, β, γ are the angles of a triangle, then πα
2 , 2 , 2 are also angles of some
acute triangle. Therefore, using the inequality of the problem 5.1.2, we deduce that
πβ πγ β γ
cos πα α
2 cos 2 cos 2  8 or sin 2 sin 2 sin 2  8, hence cos α þ cos β þ cos γ 
1 1

1 þ 4  8 ¼ 2.
1 3
5.1 Inequalities for the Angles of a Triangle 171

(b) We have that


α β γ αþβ βþγ γþα
cos þ cos þ cos ¼ 4 cos cos cos ,
2 2 2 4 4 4
α β γ βþγ αþγ αþβ
cos cos cos ¼ sin sin sin ¼
2 2 2 2 2 2
αþβ βþγ αþγ αþβ βþγ γþα
¼ 8 cos cos cos  sin sin sin :
4 4 4 4 4 4
We have to prove that
pffiffiffi αþβ βþγ γþα αþβ βþγ γþα
3 cos cos cos  1 þ sin sin sin ,
4 4 4 4 4 4

or
pffiffiffi    
3 α β γ 1 α β γ
cos þ cos þ cos 1þ sin þ sin þ sin  1 ,
4 2 2  2  4 2 2 2
α π  β π γ π 3
cos þ þ cos þ þ cos þ  ,
2 6 2 6 2 6 2

(see the problem 5.1.4a).


This ends the proof.
πα πβ πγ
5.1.5. From the problem 5.1.4a, we have that 1 < cos 2 þ cos 2 þ cos 2  32.
Hence, 1 < sin α2 þ sin β2 þ sin 2γ  32.
This ends the proof.
5.1.6. If x, y 2 [0, π], then sin x þ sin y ¼ 2 sin xþy xy
2 cos 2  2 sin xþy
2 .
Consequently,

π αþβ γ þ π3 αþβ
þ γþπ=3 π
sin α þ sin β þ sin γ þ sin  2 sin þ 2 sin  4 sin 2 2
¼ 4 sin :
3 2 2 2 3
pffiffi
Hence, we obtain that sin α þ sin β þ sin γ  3 sin π3 ¼ 3 2 3.
This ends the proof.
πβ πγ
5.1.7. Using the inequality of the
pffiffi
problem 5.1.6 for angles πα
2 , 2 , 2 , we deduce
α β γ
that cos 2 þ cos 2 þ cos 2  2 .
3 3

This ends the proof.


5.1.8. (a) Note that
sin γ cos γ 2 sin γ cos γ
ctgα þ ctgβ þ ctgγ ¼ þ ¼ þ 
sin α sin β sin γ cosðα  βÞ þ cos γ sin γ
0 1
2γ vffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
2 sin γ cos γ γ 1  tg 2 1@ 1 γA u u 1 γ pffiffiffi
 þ ¼ 2tg þ γ ¼ γ þ 3tg  t γ 3tg ¼ 3:
1 þ cos γ sin γ 2 2tg 2 tg 2 tg 2
2 2 2
172 5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities

(b) We have that


pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1 þ 8cos 2 α 1 þ 8cos 2 β 1 þ 8cos 2 γ pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
þ þ ¼ 1 þ 9ctg 2 α þ 1 þ 9ctg 2 β þ 1 þ 9ctg 2 γ 
sin α sin β sin γ
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
 9 þ 9ðctgα þ ctgβ þ ctgγ Þ2  6

(see the problem 1.2.5a and 5.1.8a).


This ends the proof.
πβ πγ
5.1.9. (a) Using the inequality of the problem p ffiffi
ffi 5.1.8a for angles πα 2 , 2 , 2p, ffiffiwe

πβ πγ
obtain that ctg πα
2 þ ctg 2 þ ctg 2  3. Therefore, tg α2 þ tg β2 þ tg 2γ  3.
 
(b) We have that tg α2 þ β2 ¼ ctg 2γ , consequently tg α2 tg β2 þ tg β2 tg 2γ þ tg 2γ tg α2 ¼ 1.
 
Hence 1  3 tg α2tg β2tg β2tg 2γ þ tg α2tg 2γ tg α2tg β2 þ tg α2tg 2γ tg β2tg 2γ , since (x þ y þ z)2
 3(xy þ yz þ zx).
 
(c) One needs to prove that tg α2  tg β2  tg 2γ ctg 2α2 þ ctg 2 β2 þ ctg 2 2γ  ctgαþ
ctgβ þ ctgγ, or equivalently
   
α β α γ α α β β γ β
1  tg  tg  tg  tg  ctg þ 1  tg  tg  tg  tg  ctg þ
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
  α β γ
α γ β γ γ 1 tg 1 tg 1 tg
þ 1  tg  tg  tg  tg  ctg   2 þ  2 þ 2
2 2 2 2 2 2tg α 2 β 2 γ 2 ,
2tg 2tg
2 2 2
 
1 α β γ α β γ
or  tg  tg  tg tg þ tg þ tg .
3 2 2 2 2 2 2
The last inequality follows from problem 5.1.9b.
This ends the proof.
 ðxþyÞ 2 sin ðxþyÞ
5.1.10. If x, y 2 0; π2 , then ctgx þ ctgy ¼ sin
sin x sin y  1 cos ðxþyÞ ¼ 2ctg 2 . Hence, it
xþy

follows that
γ π αþβþγ π
α β γ π αþβ þ þ
ctg þ ctg þ ctg þ ctg  2ctg þ 2ctg 2 6  4ctg 4 12 ¼ 4ctg π :
2 2 2 6 4 2 2 6
β γ
p ffiffi

Therefore, ctg α2 þ ctg 2 þ ctg 2  3ctg π6 ¼ 3 3.
This ends the proof.
πβ πγ
5.1.11. Using the inequality of the problem 5.1.2 for angles πα
2 , 2 , 2 , we obtain
that sin α2 sin β2 sin 2γ  18.
This ends the proof.
5.1.12. Note that
1 1  cos ðx þ yÞ
sin x  sin y ¼ ð cos ðx  yÞ  cos ðx þ yÞÞ  ¼
2 2
x þ y
¼ sin 2 :
2
5.1 Inequalities for the Angles of a Triangle 173

Therefore, we obtain that


αþβ γþπ3
π αþβ γ þ π3 þ π
sin α sin β sin γ sin  sin 2  sin 2  sin 4 2 2
¼ sin 4 :
3 2 2 2 3
pffiffi
This means that sin α sin β sin γ  sin 3π3 ¼ 3 8 3.
This ends the proof.
πα πβ πγ
5.1.13. Using the inequality ofpffiffithe problem 5.1.12 for angles 2 , 2 , 2 , we
obtain that cosα2 cos β2 cos 2γ  3 8 3.
This ends the proof.
5.1.14. Let α < π2, then

3
cos αcosβ þ cosβ cos γ þ cos γ cos α  ¼
4
βþγ βγ 1 3
¼ 2 cos α cos cos þ ð cos ðβ  γ Þ þ cos ðβ þ γ ÞÞ  
2 2 2 4 
α 1 3 1 α 2  α
 2 cos α sin þ ð1  cos αÞ  ¼  2 sin  1 4 sin þ 3  0:
2 2 4 4 2 2

This ends the proof.


5.1.15. We have that sin2α þ sin 2β ¼ 2 sin(α þ β) cos(α  β)  2 sin γ.
Similarly, sin2β þ sin 2γ  2 sin α and sin2α þ sin 2γ  2 sin β.
Summing up these three inequalities, we deduce that
sin2α þ sin 2β þ sin 2γ  sin α þ sin β þ sin γ.
This ends the proof.
πα πβ πγ
5.1.16. Using the inequality of the problem 5.1.15 for angles 2 , 2 , 2 , we
deduce that sin α þ sin β þ sin γ  cosα2 þ cos β2 þ cos 2γ .
This ends the proof.
5.1.17. We have that

sin ðα þ βÞ 2 sin γ 2 sin γ γ


ctgα þ ctgβ ¼ ¼  ¼ 2tg :
sin α sin β cos ðα  βÞ  cos ðα þ βÞ 1 þ cos γ 2

Similarly, we obtain that ctgβ þ ctgγ  2tg α2 and ctgγ þ ctgα  2tg β2.
Therefore, ctgα þ ctgβ þ ctgγ  tg α2 þ tg β2 þ tg 2γ .
This ends the proof.
5.1.18. Note that cos α þ cosβ ¼ 2 sin 2γ cos αβ
2  2 sin 2γ . Thus, it follows that
cosα þ cos β cosβ þ cos γ cos γ þ cosα
cos α þ cosβ þ cos γ ¼ þ þ 
2 2 2
γ α β
 sin þ sin þ sin :
2 2 2
This ends the proof.
174 5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities

5.1.19. We have that ctg 2 α þ ctg 2 β  12 ðctgα þ ctgβÞ2  2tg 2 2γ (see the proof of
the problem 5.1.17). Hence ctg 2 α þ ctg 2 β þ ctg 2 γ  tg 2α2 þ tg 2 β2 þ tg 2 2γ .
This ends the proof.
5.1.20. (a) If the triangle is not acute angled, then inequality is correct, as
cos α cos β cos γ  0 < sin α2 sin β2 sin 2γq . ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

π pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
If x, y 2 0; 2 , then cos x cos y  1þ cos2ðxþyÞ ¼ cos xþy 2 .
But if the triangle is an acute triangle, then
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffipffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffipffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
cos α cos β cos γ ¼ cos α cos β cos β cos γ cos γ cos α 
αþβ βþγ αþγ γ α β
 cos cos cos ¼ sin sin sin :
2 2 2 2 2 2

(b) We have that


pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffipffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffipffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
sin α sin β sin γ ¼ sin γ sin β sin α sin γ sin α sin β 
α β γ
 cos cos cos
2 2 2
(see the proof of the problem 5.1.12).
(c) Let α  β  γ, then we need to prove that ð cos ðα  βÞ þ cos γ Þ cos γ  4
 
γ 2
 
cos αβ 2γ
2  sin 2 sin 2, f cos 2
αβ
 0, where f ðtÞ ¼ ð2 cos γ  1Þt2 þ 4
γ γ γ
sin 3 2 t  cos 2 2 cos γ  2sin 4 2.
 
Since 0  cos αβ 2  1, then we have that f cos 2
αβ
 maxðf ð0Þ; f ð1ÞÞ.

We need to prove that, if f(0)  0, f(1)  0, then f cos αβ 2  0.
2γ 4γ
We have that f ð0Þ ¼ cos 2 cos γ  2sin 2  0, and f ð1Þ ¼ sin 2 2γ
 γ
2
2 sin 2  1  0.
(d) Let α  β  γ. We need to prove that
γ π  γ π 
sin α2 þ sin β2 þ sin 2γ  12 þ cos αβ γ

  2 cos 2 þ 6 þ sin 2 cos 2  6 , or


f cos αβ  0, where
4   γ π  γ π 
f ðtÞ ¼ 2 cos 2γ þ π6 t2  2 sin πγ γ γ
4  t þ2  sin 2  cos 2 þ 6 þ sin 2 cos 2  6 :
1

As 0  cos αβ 4  1, then f cos 4
αβ
 maxðf ð0Þ; f ð1ÞÞ.
 
We need to prove that, if f(0)  0 and f(1)  0, then we have that f cos αβ4  0.
We have that
1 γ γ π  γ γ π 
f ð0Þ ¼  sin  cos þ þ sin cos  ¼
2 2 2 6 2 2 6
p ffiffi
ffi p ffiffi
ffi 
1  π γ 3 3 γ
¼ sin γ   sin þ  cos  0,
2 6 2 2 2 2
since π6 < γ  π6  2γ  π6.
5.1 Inequalities for the Angles of a Triangle 175

Because
γ γ π   1 γ π  πγ
f ð1Þ ¼ sin
cos   1 þ þ cos þ  2 sin 
2 2 6 2 2 6 4
1  γ π  πγ πγ   πγ π  
 þ cos þ  2 sin ¼ 2 sin sin þ  1  0,
2 2 6 4 4 4 3
we have that f(1)  0.
(e) Let γ  β  α. One needs to prove that
 
3 1 αβ βγ γα
þ cos þ cos þ cos  cos α þ cos β þ cos γ:
4 4 2 2 2
 
γ 1 βα 1 βα π  3γ 3
2 sin  cos  cos cos þ cos γ   0:
2 4 2 2 4 4 4

Note that γ  π3. Therefore, 2 sin 2γ  14  34.


 
If f ðxÞ ¼ 2 2 sin 2γ  14 x2  12 x cos π3γ γ
4 þ cos γ  2 sin 2  2, then one needs to
1

prove that
 
f cos βα4  0, as 0  cos βα 4  1 and for x 2 [0, 1].

We have that f(x)  max( f(0), f(1)), then it is sufficient to prove that f(0)  0 and
f(1)  0.
Indeed, we have that

γ 1 1 γ γ 1 1 1
f ð0Þ ¼ cos γ  2 sin  ¼  2sin 2  2sin 2   2   2  < 0:
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4
γ 1 π  3γ
f ð1Þ ¼ 2 sin  1  cos þ cos γ:
2 2 4

Let γ ¼ π  2φ, then


 2  
f ð1Þ ¼ 2 cos φ  1  12 sin 3φ
2  cos 2φ ¼ 12 sin φ2 2 sin φ2  1 4 sin φ2 þ 3  0,
as 0 < φ  π3 :

Remark For α þ β þ γ ¼ π the inequality of problem 5.1.20e may not hold true.
For example, if α ¼ π2 , β ¼ 5π
2 , γ ¼ 2π.

(f) Let α  β  γ. One needs to prove that

αβ αβ π  3γ 4 γ αβ 2


cos þ 2 cos cos  pffiffiffi cos cos þ pffiffiffi sin γ,
2 4 4 3 2 2 3
176 5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities

or
 
4 γ αβ π  3γ αβ 2 4 γ
2 pffiffiffi cos  1 cos 2  2 cos cos þ pffiffiffi sin γ  pffiffiffi cos þ 1  0:
3 2 4 4 4 3 3 2
 
Let f ðxÞ ¼ 2 p4ffiffi cos γ  1 x2  2 cos π3γ
þ p2ffiffi3 sin γ  p4ffiffi3 cos 2γ þ 1.
3 2 4 x
Note that
    pffiffi
2 p4ffiffi3 cos 2γ  1  2 p4ffiffi3 cos π6  1 ¼ 2 and 22  cos αβ
4  1, as 0  αβ π
4  4.

One needs to prove that


 
αβ
f cos  0: ð5:1Þ
4

We have that
   pffiffiffi
αβ 2
f cos  max f ð1Þ; f :
4 2
pffiffi
Let us prove that f 22  0 and f(1)  0, then (5.1) holds true.
We have that
pffiffiffi
2 2 pffiffiffi π  3γ 2 π pffiffiffi π  3γ
f ¼ pffiffiffi sin γ  2 cos  pffiffiffi sin  2 cos ¼
2 3 4 3 3 4
pffiffiffi π  3γ pffiffiffi π pffiffiffi π
¼ 1  2 cos < 1  2 cos < 1  2 cos ¼ 0,
4 4 4
pffiffi
therefore f 22 < 0.
Now, let us prove that f(1)  0.
We need to prove that 1 þ 2 cos π3γ γ
4  3 cos 2 þ 3 sin γ.
p4ffiffi p2ffiffi

Consider the following function


π
gðγ Þ ¼ 1 þ 2 cos π3γ γ
4  3 cos 2  3 sin γ on 0; 3 .
p4ffiffi p2ffiffi

For 0 < γ  π3, we have that

0 3 π  3γ 2 γ 2 2 γ 2
g ðγ Þ ¼  sin þ pffiffiffi sin  pffiffiffi cos γ  pffiffiffi sin  pffiffiffi cos γ 
2 4 3 2 3 3 2 3
2 π 2 π
 pffiffiffi sin  pffiffiffi cos ¼ 0:
3 6 3 3
π 
Hence, gðγ Þ  g 3 ¼ 0.
Hence, it follows that f(1)  0.
5.1 Inequalities for the Angles of a Triangle 177

(g) Let max(α, β, γ) ¼ γ, then γ  π3.


We need to prove that
γ αβ sin γ 3 pffiffiffi
2 sin cos þ cos γ þ αβ γ
þ ctgγ  þ 3:
2 2 cos 2  sin 2
2 2 2

Consider the following function


 γ sin γ  γ i
f ðxÞ ¼ 2 sin x þ cos γ þ 2 γ þ ctgγ on sin ;1 :
2 x  sin 2 2 2

We have that
 2 
2γ 2 γ  
2γ 2 γ γ
0 γ x  sin 2  2x cos 2 γ 1  sin 2  2 sin 2 cos 2
f ðxÞ ¼ 2 sin   2 < 2 sin   2 ¼
2 x2  sin 2 γ 2
2 x2  sin 2 γ 2
3γ γ γ
cos  2 sin cos 3  1
¼ sin γ   2 2 2
2  sin γ   2  0:
x2  sin 2 2γ x2  sin 2 2γ


Thus, it follows that for x 2 sin 2γ ; 1 , we have that f 0 (x) < 0. Therefore, f(x) is a
decreasing function on sin 2γ ; 1 .  
αβ 3 pffiffiffi
Note that, it is sufficient to prove that f cos  þ 3.
  2 2
αβ  γ i αβ
As cos 2 sin ; 1 , then f cos  f ð1Þ.
2 2 2 
3 pffiffiffi αβ 3 pffiffiffi
Let us prove that f ð1Þ  þ 3, then f cos  þ 3.
2 2 2
γ sin γ
We have that f ð1Þ ¼ 2 sin þ cos γ þ þ ctgγ.
2 1  sin 2 2γ
Let γ ¼ π  2φ, then 0 < φ < π3 pffiffiffi and one needs to prove that
2 cos φ  cos 2φ þ 2ctgφ  ctg 2φ  32 þ 3, or
 
3 þ tg 2 φ pffiffiffi 1 2
 3  2 cos φ  :
2tgφ 2
pffiffiffi 2   2
3  tgφ  4tgφ cos φ  12 ,
pffiffiffi 2  2
3 cos φ  sin φ  4 cos φ sin φ cos φ  12 ,
2  2 pffiffiffi 2
ð3cos 2 φ  sin 2 φÞ  2 sin 2φ cos φ  12 3 cos φ þ sin φ ,
1 pffiffiffi 2
ð2 cos φ  1Þ2 ð2 cos φ þ 1Þ2  sin 2φð2 cos φ  1Þ2 3 cos φ þ sin φ :
2
178 5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities

It is sufficient to prove that

1 pffiffiffi 2
ð2 cos φ þ 1Þ2  sin 2φ 3 cos φ þ sin φ :
2
pffiffiffi
The last inequality holds true, as (2 cos φ þ 1)2  4 and 1
2 sin 2φ 3 cos φþ
sin φÞ2  12  1  4 ¼ 2.
(h) Let α  β  γ, then we need to prove that

1  ð cosα þ cosβ þ cosγ Þ þ cosαcosβ þ ð cosα þ cosβÞcosγ 


 5cosαcosβ cosγ  2cosαcosβ cosγ ð cosα þ cosβ þ cosγ Þ,
αβ γ 1 αβ γ
1  2cos sin  cosγ þ ð cos ðα  βÞ  cosγ Þ þ 2cos sin cosγ 
2 2 2 2 2
 
5 αβ γ
 cosγ ð cos ðα  βÞ  cosγ Þ  ð cos ðα  βÞ  cosγ Þcosγ 2cos sin þ cosγ ,
2 2 2
 
αβ γ 1 α  β α  β γ
1  2cos sin  cosγ þ 2cos 2  1  cosγ þ 2cos sin cosγ 
2 2 2 2 2 2
     
5 αβ αβ αβ γ
 cosγ 2cos 2  1  cosγ  2cos2  1  cosγ cosγ 2cos sin þ cosγ :
2 2 2 2 2

Let us consider the following function


γ   γ 
f ðxÞ ¼ 4 cos γ sin x3 þ 1  5 cos γ þ 2cos 2 γ x2  2 sin 1 þ cos 2 γ x
2 2
cos 3 γ þ 1, 5cos 2 γ þ cos γ þ 0, 5

on [0; 1].  
We need to prove that f cos αβ2  0.
We have that 0 < γ  π3 , therefore

γ   γ 
f 0 ðxÞ ¼ 12 cos γ sin x2 þ 2 1  5 cos γ þ 2cos 2 γ x  2 sin 1 þ cos 2 γ ,
2 2
γ 
f 0 ð0Þ ¼ 2 sin 1 þ cos 2 γ < 0,
2
γ 
f 0 ð1Þ ¼ 2 sin 6 cos γ  1  cos 2 γ þ 2  10 cos γ þ 4cos 2 γ 
2
 6 cos γ  1  cos 2 γ þ 2  10 cos γ þ 4cos 2 γ ¼
¼ ð cos γ  1Þð3 cos γ  1Þ < 0:

As 0  x  1, then f0 (x)  max( f0 (0), f0 (1)) < 0.


As 0  cos αβ2  1, then
 
αβ γ   γ 
f cos  f ð1Þ ¼ 4 cos γ sin þ 1  5 cos γ þ 2cos 2 γ  2 sin 1 þ cos 2 γ 
2 2 2
 2
cos 3 γ þ 1, 5cos 2 γ þ cos γ þ 0, 5 ¼ 2ð1  cos γ Þ2 sin 2γ  0; 5  0:
5.1 Inequalities for the Angles of a Triangle 179

(i) Let α  β  γ. If γ ¼ π3, then α ¼ β ¼ π3 and


pffiffiffi
3 3 pffiffiffi
sin 2α þ sin 2β þ sin 2γ ¼ ¼ 2 3ð cos α cos β þ cos β cos γ þ cos γ cos αÞ:
2

If γ < π3, then


pffiffiffi
sin 2α þ sin 2β þ sin 2γ  2 3ð cos α cos β þ cos β cos γ þ cos γ cos αÞ ¼
pffiffiffi
¼ 2 sin ðα þ βÞ cos ðα  βÞ þ sin 2γ  3ð cos ðα  βÞ þ cos ðα þ βÞÞ
pffiffiffi αþβ αβ  pffiffiffi
4 3 cos γ cos cos ¼ 2 sin γ  3 cos ðα  βÞ
2 2
pffiffiffi γ αβ pffiffiffi  pffiffiffi αβ
4 3 cos γ sin cos þ sin 2γ þ 3 cos γ ¼ 2 2 sin γ  3 cos 2 
2 2 2
pffiffiffi γ αβ pffiffiffi pffiffiffi
4 3 cos γ sin cos þ sin 2γ þ 3 cos γ  2 sin γ þ 3:
2 2

Let us consider the following function


 pffiffiffi pffiffiffi γ pffiffiffi pffiffiffi
f ðxÞ ¼ 2 2 sin γ  3 x2  4 3 cos γ sin x þ sin 2γ þ 3 cos γ  2 sin γ þ 3
2

on [0; 1].  pffiffiffi


We have that 2 2 sin γ  3 < 0, and
pffiffiffi pffiffiffi pffiffiffi γ γ γ
f ð0Þ ¼ sin 2γ þ 3 cos γ  2 sin γ þ 3 ¼ 2 3cos 2  8 cos sin 3 ¼
2 2 2
   
γ pffiffiffi γ 3 3 γ
¼ 2 cos 3 cos  þ  4sin 3 > 0,
2 2 2 2 2
 pffiffiffi pffiffiffi γ pffiffiffi pffiffiffi
f ð1Þ ¼ 2 2 sin γ  3  4 3 cos γ sin þ sin 2γ þ 3 cos γ  2 sin γ þ 3 ¼
2
pffiffiffi pffiffiffi γ
¼ 2 sin γ þ sin 2γ  3ð1  cos γ Þ  4 3 cos γ sin ¼
2
γ γ pffiffiffi pffiffiffi γ
¼ 2 sin 4cos 3  2 3 cos γ  3 sin :
2 2 2
pffiffiffi pffiffiffi

Consider a function gðxÞ ¼ 4cos 3x2  2 3 cos x  3 sin 2x on 0; π3 :
As 0 < x < π3 , we have that
 pffiffiffi
0 x x pffiffiffi x 3
g ðxÞ ¼ cos 2 sin 2 3  3 cos  < 0,
2 2 2 2
pffiffiffi pffiffi
as sin 2x < 12 , 0 < 2 3  3 cos 2x < 23.
180 5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities


Then, for 0 < x < π3 , it follows that gðxÞ > g π3 ¼ 0. Thus, it follows that
f ð1Þ ¼ 2 sin 2γ gðγ Þ > 0:
Note that, for 0 < x  1, f(x)  min( f(0), f(1)) > 0. Hence, we obtain that
pffiffiffi
sin 2αþ sin 2β þsin 2γ  2 3ð cos α cos β þ cos β cos γ þ cos γ cos αÞ ¼
αβ αβ
¼ f cos > 0, as 0 < cos  1:
2 2

This ends the proof.


5.1.21. Let α  β  γ. Let us denote α  β ¼ 2y, β  γ ¼ 2x. We have that x  0,
y  0 and π2 ¼ α2 þ β2 þ 2γ ¼ 32γ þ 2x þ y. Therefore, 2x þ y  π2 and x  π4.
Then

jα  β j jβ  γ j jγ  αj π  π 
sin þ sin þ sin  sin  2x þ sin x þ sin x ¼
2 2 2 2 2
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
¼ sin x þ cos x þ cos 2x ¼ 1 þ sin 2x þ 1  sin 2x: 2

pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Consider the function f ðtÞ ¼ 1 þ t þ 1  t2 on the interval [0; 1]. Since
pffiffiffiffiffiffi
f 0 ðtÞ ¼ 2p1ffiffiffiffiffi
1þt
ffi  pffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
t
1t2
¼ 2p 1t 2t
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1t2
¼  2pffiffiffiffiffiffiffi4t2 þt1
pffiffiffiffiffiffi
1t2 ð 1tþ2tÞ
.
pffiffiffiffi  q ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
pffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
pffiffiffiffiffi
171
Consequently, max f ðtÞ ¼ f 8 ¼ 7þ 17
8 þ 23þ 17
32 .
½0;1
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffipffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
pffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
pffiffiffiffiffi
Thus, sin jαβ 2
j
þ sin jβγ j
2 þ sin jγαj
2  7þ 17
8 þ 23þ 17
32 ¼ 71þ17 17
32 .
pffiffiffiffi
Remark The given estimate is exact since at β  arcsin 1781, we have that
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
pffiffiffiffiffi
sin jαβ
2
j
þ sin jβγ j
2 þ sin jγαj
2  71þ17 17
32 .
Note that
sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
pffiffiffiffiffiffi
jα  β j jβ  γ j jγ  αj 71 þ 17 17
sin þ sin þ sin < :
2 2 2 32

This ends the proof.


5.1.22. (a) We have that

x2 þ y2 þ z2  2xy cos α  2yzcosβ  2zx cos γ ¼


¼ ðx  ðy cos α þ z cos γ ÞÞ2 þ ðy sin α  z sin γ Þ2  0

(b) Let x, y, z > 0 and 2xy ¼ sin1α1 , 2yz ¼ sin1β , 2xz ¼ sin1 γ , this means that
1 1
sin β1 sin γ 1 sin α1
x ¼ pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ffi, y ¼ pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ffi, z ¼ pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ffi. Then from the
2 sin α1 sin β1 sin γ 1 2 sin α1 sin β1 sin γ 1 2 sin α1 sin β1 sin γ 1
problem 5.1.22a, it follows that
5.1 Inequalities for the Angles of a Triangle 181

cos α cos β cos γ


þ þ ¼ 2xy cos α þ 2yz cos β þ 2xz cos γ  x2 þ y2 þ z2 ¼
sin α1 sin β1 sin γ 1
 
1 sin β1 sin γ 1 sin α1
¼ þ þ ¼
2 sin α1 sin γ 1 sin α1 sin β1 sin γ 1 sin β1
1
¼ ððctg α1 þ ctg γ 1 Þ þ ðctg α1 þ ctg β1 Þ þ ðctg γ 1 þ ctg β1 ÞÞ
2
¼ ctg α1 þ ctg β1 þ ctg γ 1 :

(c) Let the angles and circumradius of the triangle with sides a, b, c be equal to u, v,
w and R, respectively. Then

1 1 1 1 
S ¼ R2 sin 2u þ R2 sin 2v þ R2 sin 2w ¼ a2 ctgu þ b2 ctgv þ c2 ctgw :
2 2 2 4
Therefore,

a2 ctg α1 þ b2 ctg β1 þ c2 ctg γ 1  4S ¼


¼ a2 ðctg α1  ctguÞ þ b2 ðctg β1  ctgvÞ þ c2 ðctg γ 1  ctgwÞ ¼
 
sin ðu  α1 Þ sin u sin ðv  β1 Þ sin v sin ðw  γ 1 Þ sin w
¼ 4R2 þ þ ¼
sin α1 sin β1 sin γ 1
 
cos ð2u  α1 Þ cos ð2v  β1 Þ cosð2w  γ 1 Þ
¼ 2R2 ctg α1  þ ctg β1  þ ctg γ 1  ¼
sin α1 sin β1 sin γ 1
 
cosα cosβ cosγ
¼ 2R2 ctg α1 þ ctg β1 þ ctg γ 1    0
sin α1 sin β1 cos γ 1

(see the problem 5.1.22b),


since α ¼ 2u  α1, β ¼ 2v  β1, γ ¼ 2w  γ 1 and α þ β þ γ ¼ π.
(d) It is sufficient to prove the inequality for 0  φ  2π. For φ ¼ 0 or π the
inequality is obvious. Using the inequality 5.1.22c, for the angles given
below, we obtain the required inequality:
If 0 < φ < π, then we take γ 1 ¼ β1 ¼ π2  φ2 , α1 ¼ φ.
If π < φ < 2π, then we take γ 1 ¼ β1 ¼ φπ 2 and α1 ¼ 2π  φ.
 
(e) Note that a2 b21 þ c21  a21 ¼ a2 2b1 c1 cos α1 ¼ 4S1 a2 ctg α1 . Therefore,
     
a2 b21 þ c21  a21 þ b2 a21 þ c21  b21 þ c2 a21 þ b21  c21 ¼
 2 
¼ 4S1 a ctg α1 þ b2 ctg β1 þ c2 ctg γ 1  16SS1 ,

(see the problem 5.1.22c).


182 5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities

(f) If xy þ yz þ zx ¼ 0, then the proof is obvious.


If xy þ yz þ zx 6¼ 0, then without loss of generality one can assume that xy þ yz þ
zx ¼ 1 and x  0, y  0.
We need to prove that (xa2 þ yb2 þ zc2)2  16S2. 
Let x ¼ ctgα1, y ¼ ctgβ1, z ¼ ctgγ 1, where α1 , β1 2 0; π2 , γ 1 2 ð0; π Þ.
Then, we have that ctgα1ctgβ1 þ ctgβ1ctgγ 1 þ ctgγ 1ctgα1 ¼ 1. Therefore
α1 ctg β1
ctg γ 1 ¼ 1ctg
ctg α1 þctg β1 or ctgγ 1 ¼ ctg(π  α1  β1). Thus, it follows that α1, β1, γ 1 are
the angles of some triangle.
According to problem 5.1.22c, we obtain that xa2 þ yb2 þ zc2  4S.
Hence, we deduce that
 2
xa2 þ yb2 þ zc2  16S2

(g) Let points A1, B1, and C1 be the midpoints of sides BC, AC, and AB, respec-
tively. Using the problem 4.1.8а for x ¼ tgα1, y ¼ tgβ1, z ¼ tgγ 1, we obtain that
tg α tg β A B2 þtg β1 tg γ 1 B1 C21 þtg α1 tg γ 1 A1 C21
tg α1  OA21 þ tg β1  OB21 þ tg γ 1  OC21  1 1 1 1 tg α1 þtg β þtg γ ,
1 1
2 2 2
or k2 tg α1 þ l2 tg β1 þ m2 tg γ 1  ctg γ 1  c4 þ ctg α1  a4 þ ctg β1  b4 , as
tgα1 þ tgβ1 þ tgγ 1 ¼ tgα1tgβ1tgγ 1.

According to problem 5.1.22c, it follows that 14 a2 ctg α1 þ b2 ctg β1 þ
c2 ctg γ 1 Þ  S.
Therefore, k2tgα1 þ l2tgβ1 þ m2tgγ 1  S.
This ends the proof.
5.1.23. In any triangle there are angles α and β, such that either α2 , β2  π6 or α2 , β2  π6,
  
then 1  2 sin α2 1  2 sin β2  0. Thus, it follows that
 2
α β γ α β γ
cos 2 þ cos 2 þ cos 2  sin þ sin þ sin ¼
2 2 2 2 2 2
 
α β γ α β
¼ cos α þ cos β þ cos γ  2 sin sin  2 sin sin þ sin ¼
2 2 2 2 2
 
α β γ α β γ α β
¼ 1 þ 4 sin sin sin  2 sin sin  2 sin sin þ sin ¼
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
 
γ α β α β γ
¼ 1 þ sin 1  2 sin 1  2 sin  2 sin sin  sin ¼
2 2 2 2 2 2
 
αβ γ α β
¼ 1  cos þ sin 1  2 sin 1  2 sin  0,
2 2 2 2

(see the proof of the problem 5.1.4a). Hence, we obtain that


5.1 Inequalities for the Angles of a Triangle 183

 2
α β γ α β γ
cos 2 þ cos 2 þ cos 2  sin þ sin þ sin :
2 2 2 2 2 2

This ends the proof.


5.1.24. We have that (see the problem 5.1.15)

sin 2α þ sin 2β þ sin 2γ  sin α þ sin β þ sin γ: ð5:2Þ


πβ πγ
Using (5.2) for angles πα
2 , 2 , 2 , we obtain that

α β γ
sin α þ sin β þ sin γ  cos þ cos þ cos : ð5:3Þ
2 2 2
In the same way from (5.3), we deduce that
π α   π γ 
α β γ π β
cos þ cos þ cos  cos  þ cos  þ cos  : ð5:4Þ
2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4

From the last inequality, in the same way, it follows that


π  
α π β π γ  πþα πþβ πþγ
cos  þ cos  þ cos   cos þ cos þ cos :
4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8
ð5:5Þ
From inequalities (5.2)–(5.5), we deduce that
πþα πþβ πþγ
sin 2α þ sin 2β þ sin 2γ  cos þ cos þ cos :
8 8 8
This ends the proof.

5.1.25. If γ < 90 , then cos 2 α þ cos 2 β þ cos γ > cos 2 α þ cos 2 β þ cos 2 γ  34, (see
the problem 5.1.1).

In the case γ  90 , we have that

cos 2 α þ cos 2 β þ cos γ ¼ 1 þ cos ðα þ βÞ cos ðα  βÞ


 
3 1 2 3
þ cos γ  1 þ cos 2 ðα þ βÞ þ cos γ ¼¼ þ cos γ þ  :
4 2 4

Here the equality cannot hold true. Otherwise, we obtain that α þ β ¼ 90 and

γ ¼ 120 . This leads to a contradiction.
This ends the proof.
184 5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities

5.1.26. We have that

cos 2 α cos 2 β þ cos 2 β cos 2 γ þ cos 2 γ cos 2 α ¼


qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
¼ ðcos 2 α cos 2 βÞ2 þ ðcos 2 β cos 2 γ Þ2 þ ðcos 2 γ cos 2 αÞ2 þ

þ2cos 2 α cos 2 β cos 2 γ ðcos 2 α þ cos 2 β þ cos 2 γ Þ 


pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 3
 3 cos 2 α cos 2 β cos 2 γ ðcos 2 α þ cos 2 β þ cos 2 γ Þ  cos α cos β cos γ:
2
Here, we have used the inequality x2 þ y2 þ z2  xy þ yz þ zx and the
problem 5.1.1.
This ends the proof.
5.1.27. Note that
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
x2 þ y2 þ 2xy cos α ðx sin γ þ y sin βÞ2 þ ðx cos γ  y cos βÞ2 sin γ sin β
¼ x þy :
sin α sin α sin α sin α
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
y2 þz2 þ2yz cos β α sin γ
Similarly, we get the inequalities:  y sin
sin β þ z sin β and
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi sin β
z2 þx2 þ2zx cos γ β sin α
sin γ  z sin
sin γ þ x sin γ . By summing up these inequalities, we get
ffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
x2 þ y2 þ 2xy cos α þ y þ z þ 2yz cos β þ z þ x þ 2zx cos γ 
2 2 2 2

sin α sin β sin γ


     
sin γ sin α sin β sin α sin γ sin β
x þ þy þ þz þ  2x þ 2y þ 2z,
sin α sin γ sin α sin β sin β sin γ

as for a > 0, we have that a þ 1a  2.


This ends the proof.
5.1.28. Let α  β  γ, then we have that
2ð sin α sin β þ sin β sin γ þ sin γ sin αÞ  3ð cos α þ cos β þ cos γ Þ ¼
βþγ γβ γβ βþγ
¼ 4 sin α sin cos þ cos ðγ  βÞ  cos ðγ þ βÞ  3 cos α  6 cos cos ¼
2 2 2 2
γβ γβ  α α 
¼ 2cos 2 þ 2 cos 2 sin α cos  3 sin  2 cos α  1:
2 2 2 2
Since 0  γβ γ π
2 < 2 < 2, then 0 < cos
γβ
2  1.
 
Consider the function f ðxÞ ¼ 2x2 þ 2x 2 sin α cos α2  3 sin α2  2 cos α  1 in
the interval [0; 1]. Note that max f ðxÞ ¼ maxðf ð0Þ; f ð1ÞÞ. We need to prove that, if
 ½0;1 γβ
f(0)  0 and f(1)  0, then f cos 2  0.  
Indeed, we have that f(0) ¼  1  2 cos α < 0, 0 < α  π3 .
5.1 Inequalities for the Angles of a Triangle 185

   2  
α 3α α α α
f ð1Þ ¼ 1  2 cos α þ 2 sin þ sin  3 sin ¼  2 sin  1 2 sin þ 1  0:
2 2 2 2 2
This ends the proof.
5.1.29. We need to prove that, if 0 < x, y < π3, then

sin 2x sin 2y sin 2 ðx þ yÞ


 : ð5:6Þ
sin 3x sin 3y sin 2 3xþ3y
2

Let x  y, denote x  y ¼ α, x þ y ¼ β, then 0  α < β < 2π 3 . Therefore,


cos α2 > cos β2. We have to prove that cos 2α cos 2β
cos 3α cos 3β  1 cos 2β
1 cos 3β , or (cos2α  cos 2β)
(1  cos 3β)  (cos3α  cos 3β)(1  cos 2β).
Note that
ð cos 2α  cos 2βÞð1  cos 3βÞ  ð cos 3α  cos 3βÞð1  cos 2βÞ ¼
 
3α 3β
¼ 4 sin 2 βsin 2  sin 2 αsin 2 ¼
2 2
   
α β α β α β 3α 3β
¼ 8 sin sin 4 cos cos þ 1 cos  cos sin β sin þ sin α sin  0:
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Using the inequality (5.6), we obtain that


 
 π
α β γ π 2 α β
2 γ
sin 2 sin 2 sin 2 sin 2 sin þ sin þ
6 6 6 18  6 6
  6γ 18π  
α β sin 3γ sin 3 π α β 2
sin 3 þ
sin 3 sin 3 18 sin 3 12 þ 12
2
6 6 6 12 36
 
4 α β γ π π
sin þ þ þ sin 4
12 12 12 36 9
 ¼ π:
α β γ π 4
þ þ þ sin
6
sin 4 3 12 12 12 36
2
Therefore, sin α3 sin β3 sin 3γ  8sin 3π9 sin α2 sin β2 sin 2γ .
This ends the proof.
 2
5.1.30. We have that tg 2α2 þ tg 2 β2 þ tg 2 2γ ¼ tg α2 þ tg β2 þ tg 2γ  2, (see the proof
of the problem 5.2.1b. Note that
αþγ αþγ
α γ 2 sin 2 sin
tg þ tg ¼ 2  2 ¼
2 2 cos γ  α þ cos γ þ α 2φ  ðγ þ α  2φÞ γþα
cos þ cos
2 2 2 2
γ þ α  2φ 2φ
¼ tg þ tg ,
2 2
2φðγþα2φÞ
since αγ
2  2  γα π
2 , where φ ¼ arctg3, φ > 4. Thus
4
186 5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities

α β γ β γ þ α  2φ 4
tg þ tg þ tg  tg þ tg þ ¼
2 2 2 2 2 3
π 
2 sin φ 4 2 cos φ 4
¼  2  þ  þ ¼ 2:
β γ þ α  2φ  π  3 1 þ sin φ 3
cos  þ cos φ
2 2 2

Therefore, tg 2α2 þ tg 2 β2 þ tg 2 2γ  2.
This ends the proof.
5.1.31. We have that

sin α sin α1 þ sin β sin β1 þ sin γ sin γ 1


¼
α β γ α1 β γ
sin sin sin sin sin 1 sin 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
0 1
α α1 β β γ γ
cos cos cos cos 1 cos cos 1
B 2 2 2 2 2 2 C
¼ 4@ þ þ A
β β1 γ γ 1 sin α sin α1 sin γ sin γ 1 β β1 α α1
sin sin sin sin 2 2 2 2 sin sin sin sin
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0
α α1 β β
B cos cos cos cos 1
 16B 2 2 þ 2 2
@ βþγ β1 þ γ 1 α þ γ  α1 þ γ 1  þ
1  cos 1  cos 1  cos 1  cos
2 2 2 2
1
γ γ
cos cos 1 C
þ  2
2 C ¼
βþα β 1 þ α1 A
1  cos 1  cos
2 2
 
π þ α π þ α1 π þ β π þ β1 π þ γ π þ γ1
¼ 16 tg tg þ tg tg þ tg tg 
4 4 4 4 4 4
rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
π þ α π þ α1 π þ β π þ β 1 π þ γ π þ γ 1 p pffiffiffi pffiffiffi
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
 48 tg  48 3 3  3 3¼ 144
3 3
tg tg tg tg tg
4 4 4 4 4 4

Since πþα πþβ πþγ


4 þ 4 þ 4 ¼ π,
πþα1
4 þ πþβ πþγ 1
4 þ 4 ¼ π, (see the proof of the prob-
1

lems 5.2.1a and 5.2.9).


This ends the proof.
5.1.32. Without loss of generality, we can assume that α  β  γ. The expression
cosα1 þ cos β1 þ cos γ 1 is symmetric with respect to α1, β1, γ 1, and the value of the
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 sin0 α sin
expression
0
α1 þ sin β sin β1 þ sin γ sin γ 1 is maximal, when α1  β1  γ 1 ,
where α1 ; β1 ; γ 1 ¼ fα1 ; β1 ; γ 1 g. Therefore, without loss of generality, we can
assume that α1  β1  γ 1. pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Since sin α sin α1 þ sin β sin β1  ðsin 2 α þ sin 2 βÞðsin 2 α1 þ sin 2 β1 Þ, then it is
sufficient to prove that
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffipffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
sin 2 α þ sin 2 β sin 2 α1 þ sin 2 β1 þ sin γ sin γ 1 
ð5:7Þ
 2 þ ð cos α þ cos β þ cos γ  1Þð cos α1 þ cos β1 þ cos γ 1  1Þ:
5.1 Inequalities for the Angles of a Triangle 187

Note that

cos 2α þ cos 2β
sin 2 α þ sin 2 β ¼ 1  ¼ 1 þ cos γ cos ðα  βÞ
2
αβ
¼ 2 cos γcos 2 þ 1  cos γ
and 2

γ αβ
cos α þ cos β ¼ 2 sin cos :
2 2

We have to prove that


 
αβ
2 cos γcos 2 þ 1  cos γ ðsin 2 α1 þ sin 2 β1 Þ 
2

γ αβ
 2 þ 2 sin ð cos α1 þ cos β1 þ cos γ 1  1Þ cos þ
2 2
þð cos γ  1Þð cos α1 þ cos β1 þ cos γ 1  1Þ   sin γ sin γ 1 Þ2 :

The last inequality can be rewritten as:


 γ  αβ
2 cos γ ðsin 2 α1 þ sin 2 β1 Þ  4sin 2 ð cos α1 þ cos β1 þ cos γ 1  1Þ2 cos 2 þ
2 2
αβ
þB cos þ C  0:
2
ð5:8Þ

We need to prove that

sin 2 α1 þ sin 2 β1  ð cos α1 þ cos β1 þ cos γ 1  1Þ2 : ð5:9Þ

Indeed, we have that

sin 2 α1 þ sin 2 β1  ð cos α1 þ cos β1 þ cos γ 1  1Þ2 ¼ 1 þ cos γ 1 cos ðα1  β1 Þ


 2  
2 γ1 α1  β1
 2 sin γ21 cos α1 β
2
1
þ cos γ 1  1 ¼ 2 cos γ 1  4sin cos 2 þ
2 2
γ α1  β1
þ 4ð1  cos γ 1 Þ sin 1 cos þ cos γ 1 ð1  cos γ 1 Þ  0:
2 2
As γ 1  π3, then 2 cos γ 1  1  4sin 2 γ21 and 4ð1  cos γ 1 Þ sin γ21 cos α1 β1
2  0,
cosγ 1(1  cos γ 1)  0.
According to (5.9) and 2 cos γ  4sin 2 2γ , we obtain that
A ¼ 2 cos γ ðsin 2 α1 þ sin 2 β1 Þ  4sin 2 2γ ð cos α1 þ cos β1 þ cos γ 1  1Þ2  0.
188 5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities

γ αþβ αβ
Let f(x) ¼ Ax2 þ  þ γC.
 Bx  Since sin 2 ¼ cos 2  cos 2  1 and A  0, then
max f ðxÞ ¼ max f sin 2 ; f ð1Þ ; thus, if we prove that the inequality (5.7)
½ sin 2γ ;1
holds true for cos αβ γ αβ
2 ¼ sin 2 and cos 2 ¼ 1, then it holds true (in the
general case).
If cos αβ γ
2 ¼ sin 2, then (5.7) has the following form:
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffipffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1  cos 2 γ 1 þ cos γ 1 cos ðα1  β1 Þ þ sin γ sin γ 1  2

or
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
sin γ  1 þ cos γ 1 cos ðα1  β1 Þ þ sin γ sin γ 1  2:
pffiffi

pffiffiffiSince sin γ  3, cos(α1  β1)  1, then it is sufficient to prove that


pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi p2ffiffiffi
þ cos γ 1 þ p3ffiffiffi sin γ 1  4,
p3ffiffiffip1ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffi but the last inequality holds true, as

3 1 þ cos γ 1 þ 3 sin γ 1  6 þ 32 < 4.
If cos αβ 2 ¼ 1, then (5.7) has the form:
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
r
πγ π  γ
sin 2 þ sin 2 ðsin 2 α1 þ sin 2 β1 Þ þ sin γ sin γ 1 
2 2
 πγ πγ 
 2 þ cos þ cos þ cos γ  1 ð cos α1 þ cos β1 þ cos γ 1  1Þ:
2 2
ð5:10Þ

Similarly, to the proof given above in this case too it is sufficient to prove the
inequality (5.10) for cos α1 β π
2 ¼ 1. Then under the condition γ, γ 1  3 one has to
1

prove the inequality


pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ð1 þ cos γ Þð1 þ cos γ 1 Þ þ sin γ sin γ 1 
 γ  γ 
 2 þ 2 sin þ cos γ  1 2 sin 1 þ cos γ 1  1 ,
2 2
or
γ γ γ γ  γ  γ
2 cos cos 1 þ sin γ sin γ 1  2 þ 4 sin sin 1 1  sin 1 1  sin : ð5:11Þ
2 2 2 2 2 2

Indeed, we have that


γ γ γ γ  γ  γ γ  γ1
D ¼ 2 cos cos 1 þ sin γ sin γ 1  4 sin sin 1 1  sin 1 1  sin ¼ cos þ
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
γ þ γ1 γ γ  γ γ γ γ γ γ 
þ cos þ 4 sin sin 1 cos cos 1  1 þ sin 1 þ sin  sin 1 sin ¼
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
γ  γ1 γ þ γ1 γ γ  γ γ  γ þ γ1 γ  γ1 
¼ cos þ cos þ 4 sin sin 1 cos þ 1  1 þ 2 sin cos :
2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4
γ 
If cos 2 þ γ21  1 þ 2 sin γþγ 1
4 cos γγ 1
4  0, then D  cos γγ 1
2 þ cos γþγ 1
2  2.
5.1 Inequalities for the Angles of a Triangle 189

γ 
If cos 2 þ γ21  1 þ 2 sin γþγ 1
4 cos γγ 1
4 > 0, then

γ  γ1 γ þ γ1 γ γ  γ þ γ1 γ þ γ1 γ  γ1
D ¼ cos þ cos þ 4 sin sin 1 cos  1 þ 2 sin cos 
2 2 2 2 2 4 4
γ þ γ1 γ γ  γ þ γ1 γ þ γ1 
 1 þ cos þ 4 sin sin 1 cos  1 þ 2 sin 
2 2 2 2 4
γ þ γ1  γ þ γ1   γ þ γ1 γ þ γ1
 1 þ cos þ 2 1  cos cos  1 þ 2 sin ¼ D0 :
2 2 2 4
 2
Then D0 ¼ 2cos2 γ20 þ sin 2 γ 0  4sin 2 γ20 1  sin γ20 , where γ 0 ¼ γþγ
2 .
1

2 γ0
 
γ0 2
As 2  D0 ¼ 2sin 2 1  2 sin 2  0, then D0  2. Hence, D  2.
This ends the proof of (5.11).

Problems for Self-Study

Prove the inequalities 5.1.33–5.1.52. qffiffi


pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
5.1.33. sin α þ sin β þ sin γ  3 4 34.
sin αþ sin βþ sin γ
5.1.34. sin α sin β sin γ  4.
pffiffi
5.1.35. 2  sin 3α þ sin 3β þ sin 3γ  3 2 3.
pffiffiffi
5.1.36. sin 2 α þ sin 2 β þ sin 2 γ  2 3 sin α sin β sin γ.
pffiffiffi
5.1.37. 3sin 2 α þ 3sin 2 β  sin 2 γ  2 3 sin α sin β sin γ.
5.1.38. 2 sin α sin β þ 2 sin β sin γ þ 2 sin γ sin α  sin 2 α  sin 2 β  sin 2 γ 
pffiffiffi
 2 3 sin α sin β sin γ:
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
5.1.39. sin α þ sin β þ sin γ  3 6 sin α2 sin β2 sin 2γ .

5.1.40. (sin2β þ sin2γ)(1  cos φ) þ sin2α cos φ  2 sin α sin β sin γ sin φ, where φ is
any angle.
5.1.41. sin2α þ sin2β þ sin2γ < 2(sinα sin β þ sin β sin γ þ sin γ sin α).
     
5.1.42. sin α2 þ β þ sin β2 þ γ þ sin 2γ þ α > sin α þ sin β þ sin γ.
5.1.43. (a) 1
sin α2 sin β2
þ 1
sin β2 sin 2γ
þ 1
sin α2 sin 2γ
 12,
pffiffiffi
cos α2 þ cos β þ cos 2γ  2 3,
1 1 1
(b)
2

sin α2 þ sin β þ sin 2γ  6,


1 1 1
(c)
2

sin α þ sin β þ sin γ  4 cos α cos β cos γ .


1 1 1 9
(d)
2 2 2

5.1.44. ctgα  ctgβ  ctgγ  tg α2  tg β2  tg 2γ .


190 5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities

pffiffi
5.1.45. sin α  sin β  sin 2γ  2 9 3.
5.1.46. ctg2β  ctgαctgγ, if 2sin2β ¼ sin2α þ sin2γ.

5.1.47. (a) cos α cos β cos ðα  βÞ þ cos β cos γ cos ðβ  γ Þ þ cos γ cos α cos ðγ  αÞ 
 1  cos α cos β cos γ,
pffiffi
(b) sin α4 sin β4 sin 4γ þ cos α4 cos β4 cos 4γ  3 8 6,
α β γ
 α β β γ γ α

4  sin 2 þ sin 2 þ sin 2 k sin 2 sin 2 þ sin 2 sin 2 þ sin 2 sin2 , where k  3,
(c) 63k 2
β γ β β γ γ
(d) sin α2 þ sin 2 þ sin 2  k sin α2 sin 2 þ sin 2 sin 2 þ sin 2 sin α2  63k 4 , where 0 <
k  27,
 
(e) sin α2 þ sin β2 þ sin 2γ þ k sin α2 sin β2 þ sin β2 sin 2γ þ sin 2γ sin α2  sin α2 sin β2 sin 2γ 
 32 þ 5k
8 , where k  5,
4
 
(f) 7 k α β γ α β β γ γ α where
þ  sin þ sin þ sin þ k sin sin þ sin sin þ sin sin 
5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
 
4 α β γ
 þ 2k sin sin sin
5 2 2 2
k  45.
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
5.1.48. (a) sin α þ sin β þ sin γ  15 4 þ cos ðα  βÞ þ cos ðβ  γ Þ þ cos ðγ  αÞ,

(b) 18  cos ðα  βÞ cos ðβ  γ Þ cos ðγ  αÞ  1,


pffiffi pffiffi
(c)  3 8 3  sin ðα  βÞ sin ðβ  γ Þ sin ðγ  αÞ  3 8 3.
Hint (c) If sin(β  γ)  0, then sin ðα  βÞ sin ðβ  γ Þ sin ðγ  αÞ  12 sin ðβ  γ Þ
ð1  cos ðβ  γ ÞÞ, while at sin(β  γ) < 0 we have sin ðα  βÞ sin ðβ  γ Þ
sin ðγ  αÞ  sin ð2γβÞ ð1 þ cos ðβ  γ ÞÞ.
5.1.49. (a) cos(α  β) cos(β  γ) cos(γ  α)  8 cos α cos βcosγ,
(b) cos2(α  β) þ cos2(β  γ) þ cos2(γ  α)  24 cos α cos βcosγ.
 
γ 3
5.1.50. cos 2 αβ
2 cos
2 βγ
2 cos
2 γα α β
2  8 sin 2 sin 2 sin 2 .

Hint See the problems 5.5.1b and 5.3.4.


 
5.1.51. 8 sin α2 sin β2 sin 2γ  min cos 2 αβ
2 ; cos
2 βγ
2 ; cos
2 γα
2 .

5.1.52. sin2α þ sin2β þ sin2γ  2 þ (cosα þ cos β þ cos γ  1)2.


5.1.53. Find the smallest value of the expression

cos ð2α þ βÞ þ cos ð2β þ γ Þþ


þ cos ð2γ þ αÞ  cos 2α  cos 2β  cos 2γ þ cos α þ cos β þ cos γ:
5.2 Inequalities for the Angles of Acute and Obtuse Triangles 191

5.2 Inequalities for the Angles of Acute


and Obtuse Triangles

Let α, β, and γ be the angles of some acute triangle. Prove the inequalities of the
problems 5.2.1–5.2.8.
pffiffiffi
5.2.1. (a) tgα þ tgβ þ tgγ  3 3,
(b) tg 2α2 þ tg 2 β2 þ tg 2 2γ < 2.
5.2.2. (a) tgα þ tgβ þ tgγ  ctg α2 þ ctg β2 þ ctg 2γ ,

(b) tgα  tgβ  tgγ  ctg α2 ctg β2 ctg 2γ .


5.2.3. (a) sinα þ sin β þ sin γ > 2,
(b) cos α2 cos β2 cos 2γ > 12.
5.2.4. cos(α  β) cos(β  γ) cos(γ  α)  8 cos α cos β cos γ.
5.2.5. (4 cos α þ 1)2 þ (4 cos β þ 1)2 þ (4 cos γ þ 1)2  27.
5.2.6. tg 2 α þ tg 2 β þ tg 2 γ  ctg 2α2 þ ctg 2 β2 þ ctg 2 2γ .
5.2.7. cos2α þ cos2β þ cos2γ  4cos2αcos2β þ 4cos2βcos2γ þ 4cos2γcos2α.
5.2.8. (a) sin α þ sin β þ sin γ  p2ffiffi3 ð cos α þ cos β þ cos γ Þ2 ,
pffiffiffi
(b) sin α þ sin β þ sin γ  2 3ð cos α cos β þ cos β cos γ þ cos γ cos αÞ,
(c) sin2α þ sin2β þ sin2γ  (cosα þ cos β þ cos γ)2.
Let α, β, and γ be the angles of some obtuse triangle. Prove the inequalities.
5.2.9. tgα þ tgβ þ tgγ < 0.
5.2.10. cos2α þ cos 2β  cos 2γ > 1, if γ > π2.
pffiffiffi
5.2.11. (a) sin α þ sin β þ sin γ < 1 þ 2,
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffi
(b) sin α þ sin β þ sin γ < 1 þ 4 8,
(c) sin α sin β sin γ < 12.
pffiffi
5.2.12. (a) cos α2 cos β2 cos 2γ < 1þ4 2,
pffiffi
(b) sin α2 sin β2 sin 2γ < 241.
5.2.13. 1 þ cos α cos β cos γ > 2 sin α sin β sin γ.

Solutions
πβ1 πγ 1
5.2.1. (a) Note that, if α ¼ πα 2 , β ¼ 2 , γ ¼ 2 , then α1 þ β 1 þ γ 1 ¼ π and
1

α1, β1, γ 1 > 0. Hence, α1, β1, γ 1 are anglespof


ffiffiffi some triangle. By such replacement
we obtain that ctg α21 þ ctg β21 þ ctg γ21  3 3 (see the problem 5.1.10).
192 5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities

π
Remark For α ¼ 2π
3 , β ¼ γ ¼ 6, we have that tgα þ tgβ þ tgγ ¼  3.
p1ffiffi

(b) Note that tg α2 tg β2 þ tg β2 tg 2γ þ tg α2 tg 2γ ¼ 1. Indeed,


    
α β γ β γ α β γ β γ β γ
tg tg þ tg þ tg tg ¼ tg tg þ 1  tg tg þ tg tg ¼
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
 
α α β γ β γ
¼ tg ctg 1  tg tg þ tg tg ¼ 1:
2 2 2 2 2 2

Then,

α β γ
tg 2 þ tg 2 þ tg 2 ¼
2 2 2
 
 2 α β β γ γ α
¼ tg α2 þ tg β2 þ tg 2γ  2 tg tg þ tg tg þ tg tg :
2 2 2 2 2 2

We need to prove that tg α2 þ tg β2 þ tg 2γ < 2. We have that


 
αþβ
2 sin
α β γ 2 γ
tg þ tg þ tg ¼ þ tg <
2 2 2 α  β α þ β 2
cos þ cos
2 2
 
αþβ
2 sin
2 γ
<    þ tg ,
90  α þ β  90 αþβ 2
cos þ cos
2 2
    αþβ
since 90  αþβ αβ
2 > 2 > 90 . This means that cos 90  2 < cos αβ
2 .
   
Thus tg α2 þ tg β2 þ tg 2γ < tg 45 þ tg αþβ90
2 þ tg  γ
2 < tg 45 þ tg 45 ¼ 2, since
  
αþβ90
tg 2 þ tg 2γ ¼ tg αþβ90 2
þγ
 1  tg αþβ90
2 tg 2γ .
 2
Therefore, tg 2α2 þ tg 2 β2 þ tg 2 2γ ¼ tg α2 þ tg β2 þ tg 2γ  2 < 2.
sin ðxþyÞ 2 sin ðxþyÞ
5.2.2. (a) If 0 < x, y < π2, then tgx þ tgy ¼ cos x cos y  1þ cos ðxþyÞ ¼ 2tg
xþy
2 .
Therefore,
 
1 αþβ βþγ αþγ γ α β
tgα þ tgβ þ tgγ  2tg þ 2tg þ 2tg ¼ ctg þ ctg þ ctg :
2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Remark If γ > π2, then tgα þ tgβ þ tgγ < 0 < ctg α2 þ ctg β2 þ ctg 2γ , (see the
problem 5.2.9).
(b) As tgα þ tgβ þ tgγ ¼ tgαtgβtgγ (see the proof of the problem 5.2.9) and
5.2 Inequalities for the Angles of Acute and Obtuse Triangles 193

α β γ πα πβ πγ πα πβ πγ


ctg þ ctg þ ctg ¼ tg þ tg þ tg ¼ tg tg tg ¼
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
α β γ
¼ ctg ctg ctg ,
2 2 2

then according to the problem 5.2.2a, we have that tgαtgβtgγ  ctg α2 ctg β2 ctg 2γ .

Remark If γ > π2, then tgαtgβtgγ < 0 < ctg α2 ctg β2 ctg 2γ ,
5.2.3. (a) Note that

sin α þ sin β þ sin γ > sin 2 α þ sin 2 β þ sin 2 γ ¼


¼ 2  cos ðα þ βÞ cos ðα  βÞ  cos 2 γ ¼ 2 þ 2 cos α cos β cos γ > 2:

pffiffi
π
Remark For γ ¼ 2π
3 , α ¼ β ¼ 6, we have that sin α þ sin β þ sin γ ¼ 1 þ 2
3
< 2:

(b) We have that sin α þ sin β þ sin γ ¼ 2 cos 2γ cos αβ


2 þ 2 sin 2γ cos 2γ ¼ 4
cos α2 cos β2 cos 2γ :
Therefore, according to the problem 5.2.3a, we deuce that cos α2 cos β2 cos 2γ > 12.
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
5.2.4. We have that sin α cosp  γ Þ ¼ 12 ð sin 2γ þ sin 2βÞ  sin 2β sin 2γ .
ðβffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
sin 2β sin 2γ
Therefore, cos ðβ  γ Þ  . Similarly, we deduce that cos ðα  βÞ 
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
sin α
sin 2α sin 2β sin 2α sin 2γ
sin γ and cos ðγ  αÞ  sin β . By multiplying last three inequalities, we
obtain that cos(α  β) cos(β  γ) cos(γ  α)  8 cos α cos β cos γ.
Remark The inequality holds true for any triangle.
Indeed, let α  β < π2  γ. If γ  π2 þ α or γ  π2 þ β, then cos(α  β) cos(β  γ)
cos(γ  α)  0  8 cos α cos β cos γ. If π2 þ α < γ < π2 þ β, then 0 <  cos(γ  α) <
cos γ and 0 < cos(α  β) cos(β  γ)<cos(α  β) < 4 cos(β  α) þ 4 cos(α þ β) ¼
8 cos α cos β. Hence, cos(α  β) cos(β  γ) cos(γ  α) > 8 cos α cos β cos γ.
5.2.5. Note that
cos2α þ cos2β ¼ 1 þ cos(α þ β) cos(α  β) ¼ 1  cos γ cos(α  β)  1  cos γ.
Thus, it follows that

1 2     
cos 2 α þ cos 2 β þ cos 2 γ ¼ cos α þ cos 2 β þ cos 2 β þ cos 2 γ þ cos 2 γ þ cos 2 α 
2
1
 ð3  cos α  cos β cos γ Þ:
2

Therefore,

ð4 cos α þ 1Þ2 þ ð4 cos β þ 1Þ2 þ ð4 cos γ þ 1Þ2  27:


194 5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities

2
5.2.6. Note that tg 2 α þ tg 2 β  ðtgαþtgβ
2
Þ
 2tg 2 αþβ 2γ
2 ¼ 2ctg 2 (see the proof of the
problem 5.2.2a). Thus,

tg 2 α þ tg 2 β þ tg 2 γ ¼
1  1  1  γ α β
¼ tg 2 α þ tg 2 β þ tg 2 β þ tg 2 γ þ tg 2 α þ tg 2 γ  ctg 2 þ ctg 2 þ ctg 2 :
2 2 2 2 2 2
Remark For angles β ¼ α, γ ¼ π  2α, where α is a sufficiently small number, the
inequality does not hold true.
5.2.7. We have that

4cos 2 αcos 2 β þ 4cos 2 βcos 2 γ þ 4cos 2 γcos 2 α  cos 2 α  cos 2 β  cos 2 γ ¼


¼ ð cos ðα  βÞ  cos γ Þ2 þ 4cos 2 γ ð1  cos γ cos ðα  βÞÞ  1 þ cos γ cos ðα  βÞ  cos 2 γ ¼
¼ cos 2 ðα  βÞ  ð4cos 3 γ þ cos γ Þcos ðα  βÞ þ 4cos 2 γ  1:

Consider a quadratic trinomial f(x) ¼ x2  (4cos3γ þ cos γ)x þ 4cos2γ  1.


Note that f(cosγ) ¼  4cos4γ þ 4cos2γ  1 ¼  (2cos2γ  1)2  0, f(1) ¼  4cos3
γ  cos γ þ 4cos2γ ¼  cos γ(2 cos γ  1)2  0. Therefore,
max f ðxÞ ¼ maxðf ð cos γ Þ; f ð1ÞÞ  0.
½ cos γ;1
As 0  |α  β|  γ, then cosγ  cos(α  β)  1, this means that

4cos 2 αcos 2 β þ 4cos 2 βcos 2 γ þ 4cos 2 γcos 2 α  cos 2 α  cos 2 β  cos 2 γ ¼


¼ f ð cos ðα  βÞÞ  0:

Remark For α ¼ β ¼ π6 , γ ¼ 2π
3 the inequality does not hold true.

5.2.8. (a) Note that

2
pffiffiffið cos α þ cos β þ cos γ Þ2  sin α  sin β  sin γ ¼
3
 2
2 γ αβ γ αβ 8 γ αβ
¼ pffiffiffi 2 sin cos þ cos γ  2 cos cos  sin γ ¼ pffiffiffisin 2 cos 2 þ
3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2
 
4 γ γ αβ 2
þ2 pffiffiffi sin cos γ  cos cos þ pffiffifficos 2 γ  sin γ:
3 2 2 2 3

Consider a quadratic trinomial


 
8 2γ 2 4 γ γ 2
f ðxÞ ¼ pffiffiffi sin x þ 2 pffiffiffi sin cos γ  cos x þ pffiffiffi cos 2 γ  sin γ:
3 2 3 2 2 3
Let γ  π3, then

2  γ 2 γ 2 3 γ  γ
f ð1Þ ¼ pffiffiffi 2 sin þ cos γ  2 cos  sin γ  pffiffiffi  2 sin þ cos γ  2 cos  sin γ,
3 2 2 3 2 2 2
5.2 Inequalities for the Angles of Acute and Obtuse Triangles 195

 2
since 2 sin 2γ þ cos γ ¼ 32  2 sin 2γ  12  32. Thus, it follows that
pffiffiffi γ  γ  γ π  π 
f ð1 Þ  3 2 sin þ cos γ  2 cos  sin γ ¼ 2 2 sin  þ sin γ ¼
2 2 2 6 3
γ π   γ π 
¼ 4 sin  1  cos   0: Therefore; f ð1Þ  0:
2 6 2 6
 
We need to prove that f cos 2γ ¼ p2ffiffi3 ð sin γ þ cos γ Þ2  ð sin γ þ cos γ Þ  1  0.
pffiffiffi  π
 pffiffiffi
Indeed, we have that 1 ¼ sin 2 γþ cos 2 γ  sin γ þ cos γ  2sin γ þ  2.
 γ pffiffiffi 2pffiffi2  4
Thus, f cos 2 ¼ ð sinγ þ cosγ Þ pffiffi3ð sinγ þ cosγ Þ1 1 2 pffiffi3 1 1<0.
2

Since 0  αβ  γ , then we have that cos γ  cos αβ  1, this means that
2 2 2 2

2
pffiffiffið cos α þ cos β þ cos γ  1Þ2  sin α  sin β  sin γ ¼
3  
αβ   γ 
¼ f cos  h max i f ðxÞ ¼ max f cos ; f ð1Þ  0:
2 γ 2
cos ; 1
2
Therefore,

2
sin α þ sin β þ sin γ  pffiffiffi ð cos α þ cos β þ cos γ Þ2 :
3

Remark For angles β ¼ α, γ ¼ π  2α, where α is a sufficiently small number the


inequality does not hold true.
 
(b) We have ðx þ y þ zÞ2  3xy  3yz  3xz ¼ 12 ðx  yÞ2 þ ðy  zÞ2 þ ðx  zÞ2  0.

Therefore, (x þ y þ z)2  3xy þ 3yz þ 3xz.


Thus, it follows that
2
sin α þ sin β þ sin γ  pffiffiffið cos α þ cos β þ cos γ Þ2 
3
pffiffiffi
 2 3ð cos α cos β þ cos β cos γ þ cos γ cos αÞ
(see the problem 5.2.8а).
This means that
pffiffiffi
sin α þ sin β þ sin γ  2 3ð cos α cos β þ cos β cos γ þ cos γ cos αÞ:

(c) Let max(α, β, γ) ¼ γ, then γ  π3 and cos 2γ  cos αβ


2  1.
196 5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities

We have to prove that

αβ
ð4 cos γ  2Þcos 2
2
γ αβ
 4 sin cos γ cos þ 1  cos γ þ sin 2 γ  cos 2 γ  0: ð5:12Þ
2 2
   
Since 4 cos γ  2  0, then min f ðxÞ ¼ min f cos 2γ ; f ð1Þ , where f ðxÞ ¼
½ cos 2γ ;1
γ
ð4 cos γ  2Þx  4 sin 2 cos γx þ 1  cos γ þ sin 2 γ  cos 2 γ:
2
 2  
We have that f ð1Þ ¼ 2 sin 2γ  1 cos γ  0 and f cos 2γ ¼ 1  sin 2γ  0.
Thus, the inequality (5.12) holds true.
5.2.9. We have that

tgα þ tgβ þ tgγ ¼ tg ðα þ βÞð1  tgαtgβÞ þ tgγ ¼


 π π
¼ tgγ ð1  tgαtgβÞ þ tgγ ¼ tgαtgβtgγ < 0 0 < α; β < ; γ > :
2 2

5.2.10. We have that

cos 2α þ cos 2β  cos 2γ ¼


¼ 1 þ 2 cos ðα þ βÞ cos ðα  βÞ  2cos 2 γ ¼ 1  4 sin α sin β cos γ > 1:

5.2.11. (a) Let γ > π2, then α þ β < π2. Consequently,

sin α þ sin β þ sin γ ¼


αþβ αβ αþβ π pffiffiffi
¼ 2 sin cos þ sin γ  2 sin þ sin γ < 2 sin þ 1 ¼ 1 þ 2:
2 2 2 4
pffiffi pffiffiffi
Remark For α ¼ β ¼ γ ¼ π3, we have that sin α þ sin β þ sin γ ¼ 3 2 3 > 1 þ 2.
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
(b) Let γ > π2. Note that x þ y  2ðx2 þ y2 Þ. Therefore,

pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi


pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi2 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
sin α þ sin β þ sin γ  2 sin α þ 2ð sin βÞ þ sin γ 
rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
α þ β pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffi pffiffiffi
 4 sin þ sinγ < 2 2 þ 1 ¼ 1 þ 4 8:
2
5.2 Inequalities for the Angles of Acute and Obtuse Triangles 197

(c) Let γ > π2, then


1
sin α  sin β  sin γ ¼ ð cos ðα  βÞ  cos ðα þ βÞÞ sin γ 
2
1 sin γ sin 2γ sin γ 1
 ð1 þ cos γ Þ sin γ ¼ þ < < :
2 2 4 2 2

Hence, sin α sin β sin γ < 12.


5.2.12. (a) Let γ > π2, then
 
α β γ 1 αβ αþβ γ 1 γ γ
cos cos cos ¼ cos þ cos cos  1 þ cos cos ¼
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
pffiffiffi pffiffiffi
1 γ 1 2 1 1þ 2
¼ cos þ sin γ < þ ¼ :
2 2 4 4 4 4
pffiffi pffiffi
Remark For α ¼ β ¼ γ ¼ π3, we have that cos α2  cos β2  cos 2γ ¼ 3 8 3 > 1þ4 2.

(b) Let γ > 90 , then

  
α β γ α γ þ β  90  45 45 
sin sin sin < sin sin sin 45  sin sin sin 45 ¼
2 2 2 2 pffiffiffi 2 2 2 
1  cos 45  21 β γ 1 γβ βþγ
¼ sin 45 ¼ , since sin sin ¼ cos  cos ,
2 4 2 2 2 2 2
   
sin γþβ90
2 sin 45 ¼ 12 cos α2  cos βþγ 2
        
sin α2 sin γþβ90
2 ¼ 12 cos 45  α  cos 45 , sin 2452 ¼ 12 1  cos 45 ,

cos(45  α)  1, and 0 < α2 < γβ π
2 < 2. Therefore, cos
γβ
2 < cos α2.
5.2.13. Let γ > π2, then

1 þ cos α cos β cos γ  2 sin α sin β sin γ ¼


1 
¼ 2 þ cos ðα  βÞð cos γ  2 sin γ Þ  cos 2 γ  2 sin γ cos γ 
2
1 
 2 þ cos γ  2 sin γ  cos 2 γ  2 sin γ cos γ ,
2

since cosγ  2 sin γ < 0.


Consider a quadratic trinomial f(x) ¼  x2 þ (1  2 sin γ)x þ 2  2 sin γ. Note
that f(0) ¼ 2  2 sin γ > 0 and f(1) ¼ 0. Hence,f(x) > 0, for all 1 < x < 0 . Thus
2 þ cos γ  2 sin γ  cos2γ  2 sin γ cos γ ¼ f(cosγ) > 0. Therefore, 1 þ cos α
cos β cos γ > 2 sin α sin β sin γ.
Remark For α ¼ β ¼ γ ¼ π3, we have that 1 þ cos α cos β cos γ < 2 sin α sin β sin γ.
198 5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities

Problems for Self-Study

Let α, β, and γ be the angles of some acute triangle.


Prove the following inequalities.
5.2.14. sin2α > sin 2β > sin 2γ, if α < β < γ.
5.2.15. cos2α þ cos 2β  cos 2γ < 1.
5.2.16. 2 cos(α  β) cos(β  γ) cos(γ  α)  1 þ 8 cos α cos β cos γ.
5.2.17. 2 < sin 2 α þ sin 2 β þ sin 2 γ  32 þ 12 ð cos α þ cos β þ cos γ Þ.
5.2.18. (a) sinα þ sin β þ sin γ > cos α þ cos β þ cos γ,
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
(b) sin α þ sin β þ sin γ > 2.
pffiffiffiffiffi
5.2.19. tg n α þ tg n β þ tg n γ  3 3n , where n 2 N.
5
αþtg βþtg γ
5 5
5.2.20. tg tgαþtgβþtgγ 9.

5.2.21. 1  tg 2α2 þ tg 2 β2 þ tg 2 2γ < 2.


     
5.2.22. tgα þ tgβ þ tgγ  ctg π8 þ α8 þ ctg π8 þ β8 þ ctg π8 þ 8γ .
3
αþsin 3 βþsin 3 γ
pffiffiffi
sin βð sin αþ sin βþ sin γ Þ >
5.2.23. sin αsin 2.

Hint Prove that

sin 3 α þ sin 3 β þ sin 3 γ >


> ð sin α þ sin βÞ sin α sin β þ sin γ ðsin 2 α þ sin 2 βÞ  sin α sin βðsinα þ sin β þ 2 sin γ Þ:

5.2.24. ð cos α cos β þ cos α cos γ þ cos β cos γ Þ2 


 cos 2 αsin 2 γ þ cos 2 γsin 2 β þ cos 2 βsin 2 α:
Let α, β, and γ be the angles of some obtuse triangle.
Prove the following inequalities.
5.2.25. sin2α þ sin2β þ sin2γ < 2.
5.2.26. cosα cos β cos γ >  1.

5.3 Some Relations for a Triangle

Let α, β, γ be the angles of triangle ABC. Prove the following relations.


5.3.1. (a) sin α þ sin β þ sin γ ¼ Rp ,
5.3 Some Relations for a Triangle 199

(b) sin α sin β sin γ ¼ 2R


pr
2,

(c) sin 2α þ sin 2β þ sin 2γ ¼ 2pr


R2
.
5.3.2. ctg α2 þ ctg β2 þ ctg 2γ ¼ pr.
5.3.3. cos α2 cos β2 cos 2γ ¼ 4R
p
.
5.3.4. sin α2 sin β2 sin 2γ ¼ 4R
r
.
5.3.5. tg α2 tg β2 tg 2γ ¼ pr .
5.3.6. cos α þ cos β þ cos γ ¼ Rþr
R .
2
þb2 þc2 2
r2 4rR
5.3.7. ctgα þ ctgβ þ ctgγ ¼ a 4S ¼p 2pr .
2
r2 4rR
5.3.8. (a) sin 2 α þ sin 2 β þ sin 2 γ ¼ p 2R2
,

(b) cos 2 α þ cos 2 β þ cos 2 γ ¼ 6R p2Rþ4Rrþr


2 2 2
2 .
2
p2 þr2 þ4rR
5.3.9. (a) cos 2α þ cos 2β þ cos 2γ ¼ 3R R2
,
2
ð2RþrÞ2
(b) cos α cos β cos γ ¼ p 4R2
.

5.3.10. (a) sin α sin β þ sin β sin γ þ sin γ sin α ¼ p þ4Rrþr


2 2

4R2
,
2
þp2 4R2
(b) cos α cos β þ cos β cos γ þ cos γ cos α ¼ r 4R2
,
¼ pp2 þrð2Rþr
4R
2 2 2
(c) 1
cos α þ 1
cos β þ 1
cos γ Þ2
.
αβ βγ γα
¼ p þ2Rrþr
2 2
5.3.11. cos 2 cos 2 cos 2 8R2
.
5.3.12. tgα þ tgβ þ tgγ ¼ a2 þb2 þc
4S
2 8R2 ¼ 2
2pr
p ð2RþrÞ2
.

5.3.13. tgαtgβ þ tgβtgγ þ tgγtgα ¼ pp2 rð2Rþr


4Rr 2 2

Þ2
.

5.3.14. tg α2 þ tg β2 þ tg 2γ ¼ 4Rþr
p .

5.3.15. sin 3 α cos β cos γ þ sin 3 β cos αcos γ þ sin 3 γ cos α cos β ¼
pr  2
¼ 4 2R  p2 þ ð2R þ r Þ2 :
4R
βγ αγ αβ
5.3.16. sin 2 α cos 2 þ sin 2 β cos 2 þ sin 2 γ cos 2 ¼
2 2 2
ð2R þ r Þp þ 4Rr þ r
2 2 3
¼ :
8R3
200 5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities

Solutions

5.3.1. (a) Taking into account the relation sin α þ sin β þ sin γ ¼ 2R
a
þ 2R
b
þ 2R
c
, we
obtain that sin α þ sin β þ sin γ ¼ R.
p

(b) Since sin α sin β sin γ ¼ 8R3 and 4R ¼ S ¼ pr, then sin α sin β sin γ ¼
abc abc pr
2R2
.

(c) Note that

sin 2α þ sin 2β þ sin 2γ ¼


¼ 2 sin ðα þ βÞ cos ðα  βÞ þ sin 2γ ¼ 2 sin γ ð cos ðα  βÞ  cos ðα þ βÞÞ
¼ 4 sin α sin β sin γ,

then sin 2α þ sin 2β þ sin 2γ ¼ 42R


pr
2 ¼
2pr
R2
(see the problem 5.3.1).
β γ
5.3.2. Taking into account that ctg α2 ¼ pa
r , ctg 2 ¼ r , ctg 2 ¼ r
pb pc
and p  a þ
α β γ
p  b þ p  c ¼ p, we deduce that ctg 2 þ ctg 2 þ ctg 2 ¼ r .
p

5.3.3. Note that

αþβ αβ γ γ
sin α þ sin β þ sin γ ¼ 2 sin cos þ 2 sin cos ¼
 2  2 2 2
γ αβ αþβ α β γ
¼ 2 cos cos þ cos ¼ 4 cos cos cos :
2 2 2 2 2 2

Therefore,

α β γ 1 p
cos cos cos ¼ ð sin α þ sin β þ sin γ Þ ¼ ,
2 2 2 4 4R

(see the problem 5.3.1a).


5.3.4. We have that

α β γ sin α sin β sin γ pr 2p r


sin sin sin ¼ α β γ
¼ 2: ¼ ,
2 2 2 8 cos 2 cos 2 cos 2 2R R 4R

(see the problem 5.3.1b and 5.3.3).


5.3 Some Relations for a Triangle 201

5.3.5. Since

α β γ sin α2 sin β2 sin 2γ r p r


tg tg tg ¼ ¼ : ¼
2 2 2 cos α2 cos β2 cos 2γ 4R 4R p

(problems 5.3.3 and 5.3.4).


5.3.6. Note that

αþβ αβ γ αβ γ


cos α þ cos β þ cos γ ¼ 2 cos cos þ cos γ ¼ 2 sin cos þ 1  2sin 2 ¼
2 2 2 2 2
 
γ αβ αþβ α β γ r Rþr
¼ 2 sin cos  cos þ 1 ¼ 1 þ 4 sin sin sin ¼ 1 þ ¼ ,
2 2 2 2 2 2 R R

(see the problem 5.3.4).


5.3.7. We have that

cos α cos β cos γ b2 þ c2  a2 a2 þ c2  b2 a2 þ b2  c2


ctgα þ ctgβ þ tgγ ¼ þ þ ¼ þ þ ¼
sin α sin β sin γ 2bc sin α 2ac sin β 2ab sin γ
b2 þ c2  a2 a2 þ c2  b2 a2 þ b2  c2 a2 þ b2 þ c2
¼ þ þ ¼ :
4S 4S 4S 4S
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Taking into account that pr ¼ pðp  aÞðp  bÞðp  cÞ and abc ¼ 4SR,
we obtain that p2r2 ¼ p( p  a)( p  b)( p  c). Thus, it follows that pr2 ¼ p3  p2
(a þ b þ c) þ p(ab þ bc þ ac)  4SR ¼ p3  2p3 þ p(ab þ bc þ ac)  4pRr, this
means that ab þ bc þ ac ¼ p2 þ r2 þ 4Rr and
a2 þ b2 þ c2 ¼ (a þ b þ c)2  2(ab þ bc þ ac) ¼ 2p2  2r2  8Rr.
Thus,
a2 þ b2 þ c2 2p2  2r 2  8Rr p2  r 2  4Rr
¼ ¼ :
4S 4pr 2pr

5.3.8. (a) We have that


a2 þ b2 þ c2 p2  r 2  4Rr
sin 2 α þ sin 2 β þ sin 2 γ ¼ ¼ ,
4R2 2R2

(see the proof of the problem 5.3.7).


(b) Note that
  6R2  p2 þ r 2 þ 4Rr
cos 2 α þ cos 2 β þ cos 2 γ ¼ 3  sin 2 α þ sin 2 β þ sin 2 γ ¼ ,
2R2
(see the problem 5.3.8a).
202 5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities

5.3.9. (a) We have that

cos 2α þ cos 2β þ cos 2γ ¼ cos 2 α þ cos 2 β þ cos 2 γ  ðsin 2 α þ sin 2 β þ sin 2 γ Þ ¼


6R2  p2 þ r 2 þ 4Rr p2  r2  4Rr 3R2  p2 þ r 2 þ 4Rr
¼  ¼ ,
2R2 2R2 R2

(see the problems 5.3.8a and b).


(b) Note that

cos 2α þ cos 2β þ cos 2γ ¼ 2 cos ðα þ βÞ cos ðα  βÞ þ 2cos 2 γ  1


¼ 1  4 cos α cos β cos γ:

Hence,
1 p2  ð2R þ r Þ2
cos α cos β cos γ ¼  ð1 þ cos 2α þ cos 2β þ cos 2γ Þ ¼ ,
4 4R2
(see the problem 5.3.9a).
5.3.10. (a) We have that

sin α sin β þ sin β sin γ þ sin γ sin α


1 
¼ ð sin α þ sin β þ sin γ Þ2  sin 2 α  sin 2 β  sin 2 γ ¼
2
 
1 p2 p2  r 2  4rR p2 þ r 2 þ 4Rr
¼  ¼
2 R2 2R2 4R2

(see the problems 5.3.1a and 5.3.8a).


(b) We have that
cos α cos β þ cos β cos γ þ cos γ cos α ¼
1 
¼  ð cos α þ cos β þ cos γ Þ2  cos 2 α  cos 2 β  cos 2 γ ¼
2
!
1 ðR þ r Þ2 6R2  p2 þ 4Rr þ r 2 p2  4R2 þ r 2
¼  ¼ ,
2 R2 2R2 4R2

(see the problems 5.3.6 and 5.3.8b).


(c) Note that

1 1 1 cos α cos β þ cos β cos γ þ cos α cos γ


þ þ ¼ ¼
cos α cos β cos γ cos α cos β cos γ
r 2 þ p2  4R2 p2  ð2R þ r Þ2 r 2 þ p2  4R2
¼ : ¼ ,
4R2 4R2 p2  ð2R þ r Þ2

(see the problems 5.3.10b and 5.3.9b).


5.3 Some Relations for a Triangle 203

5.3.11. Note that


 
αβ βγ γα 1 αγ α þ γ  2β γ α
cos cos cos ¼ cos þ cos cos ¼
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 αγ 1 α þ γ  2β γ α 1
¼ cos 2 þ cos cos ¼ ð1 þ cos ðγ  αÞ þ cos ðβ  γ Þ þ cos ðα  βÞÞ ¼
2 2 2 2 2 4
1  
¼ 1 þ cos γ cos α þ cos β cos γ þ cos α cos β þ sin αsinβ þ sinβ sinγ þ sin γ sinα ¼
4
 
1 r 2 þ p2  4R2 p2 þ 4Rr þ r 2 p2 þ r2 þ 2Rr
¼ 1þ þ ¼ ,
4 4R2 4R2 8R2

(see the problems 5.3.10a and 5.3.10b).


5.3.12. We have that

tgα þ tgβ þ tgγ ¼ tg ðα þ βÞð1  tgαtgβÞ þ tgγ ¼ tgγ ð1  tgαtgβÞ þ tgγ ¼


sin α sin β sin γ pr p2  ð2R þ r Þ2 2pr
¼ tgαtgβtgγ ¼ ¼ 2: ¼ ,
cos α cos β cos γ 2R 4R 2
p  ð2R þ r Þ2
2

(see the problems 5.3.1b and 5.3.9b).


Since a2 þ b2 þ c2  8R2 ¼ 2p2  2r2  8Rr  8R2 ¼ 2( p2  (2R þ r)2), (see the
proof of the problem 5.3.7) and S ¼ pr, then

2pr 4S
tgα þ tgβ þ tgγ ¼ ¼ :
p2  ð2R þ r Þ 2
a2 þ b þ c2  8R2
2

5.3.13. Note that

ctgα þ ctgβ þ ctgγ p2  r2  4rR


tgαtgβ þ tgβtgγ þ tgαtgγ ¼ ¼ tgαtgβtgγ ¼
ctgαctgβctgγ 2pr
p2  r2  4rR p2  r2  4rR 2pr p2  r2  4rR
¼ ðtgα þ tgβ þ tgγ Þ ¼ 2
¼ ,
2pr 2pr p2  ð2R þ rÞ p2  ð2R þ rÞ2

(see the problem 5.3.7 and the proof of the problem 5.3.12).
5.3.14. Note that

α β γ r r r
tg þ tg þ tg ¼ þ þ
2 2 2 pa pb pc
ab þ bc þ ac  p2 r 2 þ 4Rr r þ 4R
¼ r¼ r¼ ,
ðp  aÞðp  bÞðp  cÞ pr 2 p

(see the proof of the problem 5.3.7).


204 5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities

5.3.15. We have that


sin 3 α cos β cos γ þ sin 3 βcosα cos γ þ sin 3 γcosα cos β ¼
¼ sin 3 αð cos ðβ þ γ Þ þ sin β sin γ Þ þ sin 3 βð cos ðα þ γ Þ þ sin α sin γ Þþ
þsin 3 γ ð cos ðα þ βÞ þ sin α sin βÞ ¼
1  cos 2α sin 2α 1  cos 2β sin 2β 1  cos 2γ sin 2γ
¼   þ
2 2 2 2 2 2
þ sin α sin β sin γ ðsin 2 α þ sin 2 β þ sin 2 γ Þ ¼
1 1
¼  ð sin 2α þ sin 2β þ sin 2γ Þ þ ð sin 4α þ sin 4β þ sin 4γ Þþ
4 8
þ sin α sin β sin γ ðsin 2 α þ sin 2 β þ sin 2 γ Þ ¼
1
¼  sin α sin β sin γ þ ð2 sin ð2α þ 2βÞ cos ð2α  2βÞ þ 2 sin 2γ cos 2γ Þþ
8
þ sin α sin β sin γ ðsin 2 α þ sin 2 β þ sin 2 γ Þ ¼
1
¼  sin α sin β sin γ þ ð sin 2γ cos ð2α  2βÞ þ sin 2γ cos ð2α þ 2βÞÞþ
4
þ sin α sin β sin γ ðsin 2 α þ sin 2 β þ sin 2 γ Þ ¼
1  
¼  sin α sin β sin γ  sin 2α sin 2β sin 2γ þ sin α sin β sin γ sin 2 α þ sin 2 β þ sin 2 γ ¼
2
¼ sin α sin β sin γ ðsin 2 α þ sin 2 β þ sin 2 γ  1  4cosα cos β cos γ Þ ¼
¼ sin α sin β sin γ ðsin 2 α þ sin 2 β þ sin 2 γ þ cos 2α þ cos 2β þ cos 2γ Þ ¼
pr 6R2  p2 þ 4Rr þ r 2
¼ sin α sin β sin γ ðcos 2 α þ cos 2 β þ cos 2 γ Þ ¼ 2 ¼
  2R 2R2
pr
¼ 4 2R2  p2 þ ð2R þ r Þ2 ,
4R

(see the proof of the problems 5.3.1c, 5.3.9b and the problems 5.3.1b, 5.3.8b).
5.3.16. We have that
βγ αγ α  β sin 2 α
sin 2 αcos 2 þ sin 2 βcos 2 þ sin 2 γcos 2 ¼ ð1 þ cos ðβ  γ ÞÞ þ
2 2 2 2
sin β
2
sin γ
2
þ ð1 þ cos ðα  γ ÞÞ þ ð1 þ cos ðα  βÞÞ ¼
2 2
1  ð1  cos 2 αÞ cos β cos γ ð1  cos 2 βÞ cos α cos γ
¼ sin 2 α þ sin 2 β þ sin 2 γ þ þ þ
2 2 2
ð1  cos 2 γ Þ cos α cos β sin α sin β sin γ
þ þ ð sin α þ sin β þ sin γ Þ ¼
2 2
sin 2 α þ sin 2 β þ sin 2 γ cos α cos β þ cos β cos γ þ cos γ cos α
¼ þ 
2 2
cosα cos β cos γ sin α sin β sin γ
 ðcosα þ cos β þ cos γ Þ þ ð sin α þ sin β þ sin γ Þ ¼
2 2
p2  r2  4rR r2 þ p2  4R2 p2  ð2R þ r Þ2 R þ r pr p
¼ 2
þ 2
 2
 þ 2 ¼
4R 8R 8R R 4R R
ð2R þ rÞp þ 4Rr þ r
2 2 3
¼
8R3
(see the problems 5.3.1a, 5.3.1b, 5.3.6, 5.3.8a, 5.3.9b, 5.3.10b).
5.4 Trigonometric Inequalities 205

Problems for Self-Study

Let α, β, γ be the angles of triangle ABC. Prove the following relations.


 2
5.3.17. cos1 2 α þ cos1 2 β þ cos1 2 γ ¼ 1 þ 4Rþr
p .
2 2 2

5.3.18. cos 2 α1cos 2 β þ cos 2 β1cos 2 γ þ cos 2 α1cos 2 γ ¼ 32R pþ8Rr


2
2 .
2 2 2 2 2 2

5.4 Trigonometric Inequalities


αþβ βþγ γþα
5.4.1. Prove that ctgα þ tgβ þ ctgγ  ctg 2 þ ctg 2 þ ctg 2 , where 0 < α,
β, γ < π2.
5.4.2. Prove that
(a) sin α cos β þ sin β cos γ þ sin γ cos α  32,
(b) sin 2 α cos β þ sin 2 β cos γ þ sin 2 γ cos α < 32.
pffiffiffi
5.4.3. Prove that cos α þ cos β þ cos γ  5, if sinα þ sin β þ sin γ  2.
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
 ffi
5.4.4. Prove that a sin α þ b sin β þ c sin γ  2 a2 þ b2 þ c2 , if cos2α þ cos2
β þ cos2γ ¼ 1.
5.4.5. Prove that ctg α21 þ ctg β21 þ ctg γ21 > ctg α2 þ ctg β2 þ ctg 2γ , if 0 < α1  α  β,
0 < γ 1  γ  β, β1 6¼ β and α1 þ β1 þ γ 1 ¼ α þ β þ γ ¼ π.
5.4.6. Prove that α1 þ α2 þ ::: þ αn < π2 ðn  1Þ, if 0 < αi < π2, i ¼ 1, 2, . . . , n and
cos2α1 þ cos2α2 þ . . . þ cos2αn > 1.
5.4.7. Prove that cos φ1 cos φ2  :::  cos φn  cos nπn, if φ1, φ2, . . . , φn > 0, and
φ1 þ . . . þ φn ¼ π
5.4.8. Prove that
(a) tgα þ tgβ þ tgγ  pffiffi3 cos α 2cos β cos γ, if 0  α, β, γ < π2,
pffiffi
(b) tgα þ tgβ þ tgγ þ tgδ  4 cos α cos3 β 3cos γ cos δ, if 0  α, β, γ, δ < π2.

5.4.9. Prove that sin2α þ sin 2β þ sin 2γ þ sin 2δ  16 sin α sin β sin γ sin δ, if
α, β, γ, δ > 0 and α þ β þ γ þ δ ¼ π.
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
5.4.10. Prove that ab sin α þ cd sin β  2 ðp  aÞðp  bÞðp  cÞðp  d Þ, if a, b, c,
d, p  a, p  b, p  c, p  d are positive numbers, where p ¼ aþbþcþd 2 and a2 þ b2
 2ab cos α ¼ c þ d  2cd cos β.
2 2
206 5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities

5.4.11. Prove that


(a) 1 þ 4 cos α cos β cos γ  cos α þ cos β þ cos γ, if α, β, γ > 0 and α þ β þ γ ¼ π,
(b) cos α þ cos β þ cos γ  17 12 þ 3 cos α cos β cos γ, if
2
0 < α, β, γ < π2 and
α þ β þ γ ¼ π,
(c) 1 þ 4 sin α2 sin β2 sin 2γ  sin α2 þ sin β2 þ sin 2γ  17 α β γ
12 þ 3 sin 2 sin 2 sin 2, if 0 < α,
2

β, γ and α þ β þ γ ¼ π,
(d) sin α2 sin β2 þ sin β2 sin 2γ þ sin 2γ sin α2  12 þ 2 sin α2 sin β2 sin 2γ , where α, β, γ > 0
and α þ β þ γ ¼ π.
5.4.12. Prove that cosα þ cos β  1, if α, β > 0 and 2α þ β  π, 2β þ α  π.
sin ðβþλαÞ sin β
5.4.13. Prove that sin ðαþλβÞ  sin α, if 0 < α  β, α þ β < π, and 0  λ  1.

5.4.14. Prove that, if α1 þ . . . þ αn  βi þ . . . þ βn  π, α1, . . . , αn > 0 and


β1 cos βn cos α1 cos αn
β1, . . . , βn  0, i ¼ 1, . . . , n, then cos
sin α1 þ ::: þ sin αn  sin α1 þ ::: þ sin αn .

5.4.15. Prove that sin α1 þ sin α2 þ ::: þ sin αn  n sin αn, if 0  αi  π, i ¼ 1, . . . , n,


and α1 þ . . . þ αn ¼ α.
5.4.16. Prove that tg α1 þ tg α2 þ ::: þ tg αn  ntg α1 þα2 þ:::þα
n
n
, if 0  αi < π2,
i ¼ 1, 2, . . . , n.
5.4.17. Prove that 0  α  sin α  sin β  sin γ þ sin(α þ β) þ sin(α þ γ)  π, if
α þ β þ γ  π and α, β, γ > 0.
 
5.4.18. Prove that φ  min π6; βþγ
3 , if sin φ ¼ sin(α  φ) sin(β  φ) sin(γ  φ) and
3

0 < φ < γ  β  α, α þ β þ γ ¼ π.
5.4.19. Prove that

x1 x2 cos α1 þ x2 x3 cos α2 þ ::: þ xn1 xn cos αn1 þ xn x1 cos αn


π 
 cos x21 þ x22 þ ::: þ x2n , ð5:13Þ
n

where α1 þ α2 þ . . . þ αn ¼ π, for (a) n ¼ 3, (b) n ¼ 4, and (c) n ¼ 6.

Solutions
 
5.4.1. Note that if x, y 2 0; π2 , then

2 sin ðx þ yÞ 2 sin ðx þ yÞ xþy


ctgx þ ctgy ¼  ¼ 2ctg ,
cos ðx  yÞ  cos ðx þ yÞ 1  cos ðx þ yÞ 2

thus
5.4 Trigonometric Inequalities 207

1 1 1
ctgα þ ctgβ þ ctgγ ¼ ðctgα þ ctgβÞ þ ðctgβ þ ctgγ Þ þ ðctgγ þ ctgαÞ 
2 2 2
αþβ βþγ γþα
 ctg þ ctg þ ctg :
2 2 2

5.4.2 (a) Since ab  a þb


2 2
2 , then

sin 2 α þ cos 2 β sin 2 β þ cos 2 γ sin 2 γ þ cos 2 α


sin α cos β þ sin β cos γ þ sin γ cos α  þ þ ¼
2 2 2
ðsin 2 α þ cos 2 αÞ þ ðsin 2 β þ cos 2 βÞ þ ðsin 2 γ þ cos 2 γ Þ 3
¼ ¼ :
2 2

Remark Similarly, one can prove that

j sin α cos βj þ j sin β cos γ j þ j sin γ cos αj  32.


(b) We have that sin 2 α cos β þ sin 2 β cos γ þ sin 2 γ cos α  j sin α cos βjþ
j sin β cos γ j þ j sin γ cos αj  32.
The equality cannot hold true. Otherwise, the following conditions must be
fulfilled: |sin α| ¼ |cos β| ¼ 0 or 1, |sin β| ¼ |cos γ| ¼ 0 or 1, |sin γ| ¼ |cos α| ¼ 0 or 1.
This leads to a contradiction, as (sin2α þ cos2β) þ (sin2β þ cos2γ) þ (sin2γ þ cos
2
α) ¼ 3 is an odd number.
Therefore, sin 2 α cos β þ sin 2 β cos γ þ sin 2 γ cos α < 32.
5.4.3. Note that

ð cos α þ cos β þ cos γ Þ2 þ ð sin α þ sin β þ sin γ Þ2 ¼


¼ 3 þ 2 cos ðα  βÞ þ 2 cos ðβ  γ Þ þ 2 cos ðγ  αÞ  9

and since (sinα þ sin β þ sin γ)2  4, then (cosα


pffiffiffi þ cos β þ cos γ)  5.
2

Consequently, cos α þ cos β þ cos γ  5.


5.4.4. Note that sin2α þ sin2β þ sin2γ ¼ 1  cos2α þ 1  cos2β þ 1  cos2γ ¼ 2,
consequently, if a2 þ b2 þ c2 6¼ 0. Then,

a sin α b sin β c sin γ


ffi þ qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
  ffi þ qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
 ffi ¼
2 a2 þ b þ c 2 2
2 a2 þ b þ c2 2
2 a2 þ b2 þ c 2
a sin α b sin β c sin γ
¼ qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
  pffiffi2ffi þ qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
  pffiffi2ffi þ qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
 pffiffi2ffi 
a2 þ b þ c2 2
a2 þ b þ c2 2
a2 þ b þ c 2
2
   
1 a 2
sin α
2
1 b 2
sin β 2
 þ þ þ
2 aþ b þ c
2 2 2 2 2 a þ b þ c
2 2 2 2
1 c2 sin 2 γ
þ þ ¼ 1,
2 a2 þ b2 þ c 2 2
208 5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities

(see theqproof of the problem


ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 5.4.2a), this means that a sin α þ b sin β þ c
 ffi
sin γ  2 a þ b þ c .
2 2 2
2
þ b2 þ c2 ¼ 0,ffi then a ¼ b ¼ c ¼ 0 and
Ifqaffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi a sin α þ b sin β þ c sin γ ¼
 
0 ¼ 2 a2 þ b2 þ c 2 .

5.4.5. We need to prove that ctg α21 þ ctg β21 þ ctg γ21  ctg α21 þ ctg β1 þγ 1 γ
2 þ
ctg 2γ  ctg α2 þ ctg β2 þ ctg 2γ .
As α1  α and γ 1  γ, then β1  β (β1 ¼
6 β). Hence, β1 > β.
We have to prove that

β1 γ β þ γ1  γ γ
ctg þ ctg 1  ctg 1 þ ctg , ð5:14Þ
2 2 2 2

this means that

β1 þγ 1 β1 þγ 1
sin sin
β1 γ 1
2
β1 þγ 1
 β1 þγ 1 2γ
2
:
cos 2  cos 2 cos 2  cos β1 þγ
2
1

The last inequality holds true, as π2 > β1 γ


2 
1 β1 þγ 1 2γ
2 >  β1 γ π
2 > 2.
1

Let us prove the second inequality:

α1 β þ γ1  γ α β
ctg þ ctg 1  ctg þ ctg , ð5:15Þ
2 2 2 2

that is
πγ πγ
sin sin
α1 þγβ1 γ 1
2
πγ
 βα
2
πγ
:
cos 2  cos 2
cos 2  cos 2

This holds true, as π2 > β1 þγ 12α1 γ  βα 2 


α1 þγβ1 γ 1
2 > π2.
Note that in (5.14) and (5.15) the equality cannot simultaneously hold true.
Otherwise, γ 1 ¼ γ and α1 ¼ α, then β1 ¼ β. This leads to a contradiction. Thus,
ctg α21 þ ctg β21 þ ctg γ21 > ctg α2 þ ctg β2 þ ctg 2γ .
5.4.6. Consider the triangle in Figure 5.1.
a2 þa2 þ:::þa2n
We have that cos 2 α1 þ cos 2 α2 þ ::: þ cos 2 αn ¼ 1 2 4 > 1, from which it
follows that
a21 þ a22 þ ::: þ a2n > 4: ð5:16Þ

Now we shall arrange triangles in a way shown in Figure 5.2.

Figure 5.1
1 1
ai ai
ai
5.4 Trigonometric Inequalities 209

Figure 5.2

an-1 a2

p-2an-1 p-2a2

p-2an p-2a1 a1

an

Figure 5.3 an-1


b2
an
bn-2 a2
b1
а a1

Note that π  2α1 þ π  2α2 þ . . . þ π  2αn > π, or α1 þ α2 þ ::: þ αn < π n1 2 .


Indeed, if π  2α1 þ π  2α2 þ . . . þ π  2αn  π, then (see Figure 5.3)
a2  a21 þ b21  a21 þ a22 þ b22  :::  a21 þ ::: þ a2n2 þ b2n2 
 a21 þ ::: þ a2n2 þ a2n1 þ a2n . Hence, we obtain that 4  a21 þ a22 þ ::: þ a2n . This
leads to a contradiction with (5.16).
Remark When α1  0, α2 ¼ ::: ¼ αn  π2 and α1 þ α2 þ ::: þ αn  π n1
2 , cos α1 þ
2

cos α2 þ . . . þ cos αn  1.
2 2

5.4.7. Let 0 < φi  π2, i ¼ 1, . . . , n.


If φ1 ¼ φ2 ¼ . . . ¼ φn(1), then cos φ1 cos φ2  :::  cos φn ¼ cos nπn. If the condi-
tion (5.16) is not satisfied, then there exist such i, j, that φi < πn < φj , but then
 
 
    cos φi þ φj þ cos φi þ φj  2π
cos φi þ φj þ cos φj  φi n
cos φi cos φj ¼ < ¼
2 2
 π  π
¼ cos φi þ φj  cos ,
n n
210 5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities

since π2 < φi  φj < φi þ φj  2π π


n < φj  φ i < 2 .
Thus, it follows that, if φi þ φj is replaced by n and φi þ φj  πn, then the product
π

cosφ1  . . .  cos φn increases and if we repeat this action not more than n  1 times,
we deduce that cos φ1  :::  cos φn < cos nπn.
If for some i we have that φi > π2, then at n  2, we obtain cos φ1  :::
cos φn < 0  cos nπn.
5.4.8. (a) Since
A ¼ cos α cos β cos γ ðtgα þ tgβ þ tgγ Þ ¼
¼ sin ðα þ βÞ cos γ þ cos α cos β sin γ,
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
 2  
then using the inequality α1 b1 þ α2 b2  a1 þ a22 b21 þ b22 , we obtain that
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
A ðsin 2 ðα þ βÞ þ cos 2 αcos 2 βÞðcos 2 γ þ sin 2 γ Þffi ¼
rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
 1
¼ sin 2 ðα þ βÞ þ ð cos ðα þ βÞ þ cos ðα  βÞÞ2 
4
rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
 
1 4 3 1 2 2
 sin 2 ðα þ βÞ þ ðj cos ðα þ βÞj þ 1Þ2 ¼  j cos ðα þ βÞj   pffiffiffi:
4 3 4 3 3

Thus, cos α cos β cos γ ðtgα þ tgβ þ tgγ Þ  p2ffiffi3.


Hence, it follows that tgα þ tgβ þ tgγ  p2ffiffi3  cos α cos1 β cos γ.

(b) We have that

B ¼ cos α cos β cos γ cos δðtgα þ tgβ þ tgγ þ tgδÞ ¼


¼ sin ðα þ βÞ cos γ cos δ þ sin ðγ þ δÞ cos α cos β 
 2  2
 sin ðα þ βÞ cos γþ2 cos δ þ sin ðγ þ δÞ cos αþ2 cos β 
γþδ αþβ
 sin ðα þ βÞcos 2 þ sin ðγ þ δÞcos 2 ¼
2 2
αþβ γþδ αþβþγþδ
¼ 2 cos cos sin ¼
2 2 2
 
αþβþγþδ αþβγδ αþβþγþδ
¼ cos þ cos sin 
2 2 2
 
αþβþγþδ αþβþγþδ αþβþγþδ αþβþγþδ
 1 þ cos sin  2cos 2 sin ¼
2 2 4 2
αþβþγþδ αþβþγþδ
¼ 4cos 3 sin :
4 4


We have obtained that B  4cos3t sin t, where t ¼ αþβþγþδ 2 0; π2 .
 2 4
Since ab  aþb 2 , then
5.4 Trigonometric Inequalities 211

cos 2 t cos 2 t cos 2 t  


cos 6 tsin 2 t ¼ 27 1  cos 2 t 
 2 32 23 3 
4
3 þ 3 þ 3 þ1cos t
cos t cos t cos t 2 27
 27 4 ¼ 4:
4
pffiffi pffiffi pffiffi
Consequently, B  4 3423 ¼ 3 4 3, thus tgα þ tgβ þ tgγ þ tgδ  4 cos α cos3 β 3cos γ cos δ.

5.4.9. We have that

sin 2α þ sin 2β þ sin 2γ þ sin 2δ


¼
sin α sin β sin γsinδ
4 sin α sin β sin ðγ þ δÞ  sin ð2γ þ 2δÞ þ 4 sin γ sin δ sin ðα þ βÞ  sin ð2α þ 2βÞ
¼ ¼
sin α sin β sin γsinδ
4 sin α sin β sin ðγ þ δÞ þ 4 sin γ sin δ sin ðα þ βÞ
¼
sin α sin β sin γ sin δ
¼ 4ðctgα þ ctgβ þ ctgγ þ ctgδÞ,

(see the proof of the problem 5.3.1c).


Note that, if 0 < x, y and x þ y  π, then ctgx þ ctgy  2ctg xþy
2 .
Indeed, we have that

sin ðx þ yÞ 2 sin ðx þ yÞ 2 sin ðx þ yÞ xþy


ctgx þ ctgy ¼ ¼  ¼ 2ctg :
sin x sin y cos ðx  yÞ  cos ðx þ yÞ 1  cos ðx þ yÞ 2

Therefore,
αþβ γþδ αþβþγþδ
ctgα þ ctgβ þ ctgγ þ ctgδ  2ctg þ 2ctg  4ctg ¼ 4:
2 2 4

Thus, sin 2αþ sin 2βþ sin 2γþ sin 2δ


sin α sin β sin γ sin δ  16, this means that sin2α þ sin 2β þ sin 2γ þ
sin 2δ  16 sin α sin β sin γ sin δ.
5.4.10. We have that (ab sin α þ cd sin β)2 þ (ab cos α  cd cos β)2 ¼ a2b2 þ c2d2
 2abcd cos(α þ β), since ab cos α  cd cos β ¼ a þb c d 2
2 2 2
2 , then we deduce that
 2 2 2 2 2
ðab sin α þ cd sin βÞ2 ¼ a2 b2 þ c2 d 2  2abcd cos ðα þ βÞ  a þb c 2
d
¼
 2 2 2 2 2
¼ ðab þ cd Þ2  a þb c 2
d
 2abcd ð1 þ cos ðα þ βÞÞ ¼
  
a2 þ b2  c2  d2 a2 þ b2  c2  d 2 αþβ
¼ ab þ cd  ab þ cd þ  4abcd cos 2 ¼
2 2 2
ðc þ d Þ2  ða  bÞ2 ða þ bÞ2  ðc  d Þ2 αþβ
¼  4abcd cos 2 ¼
2 2 2
αþβ
¼ 4ðp  aÞðp  bÞðp  cÞðp  d Þ  4abcd cos 2  4ðp  aÞðp  bÞðp  cÞðp  dÞ:
2
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Therefore, ab sin α þ cd sin β  2 ðp  aÞðp  bÞðp  cÞðp  dÞ.
212 5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities

5.4.11. (a) According to the problem 5.1.20, it follows that 1 þ 4 sin α2


sin β2 sin 2γ  1 þ 4 cos α cos β cos γ and it remains to note that cos α þ cos β þ cos γ
¼ 1 þ 4 sin α2 sin β2 sin 2γ (see the proof of the problem 5.3.6).
(b) Using the problems 5.3.6 and 5.3.9b, we need to prove the inequality:
p2 ð2Rþr Þ2
Rþr
R  17
12 þ 3
2
4R2
, that is p2  32 R2 þ 10Rr þ r 2 .
According to the problem 5.5.23, we have that p2  2R2 þ 8Rr3 þ2 3r . Note that
2

2R þ 8Rr þ 3r  2 R þ 10Rr þ r , since 2R þ 8Rr þ 3r  2R þ 10Rr þ r 2
2 2 3 2 2 2 2

¼ 12 ðR  2r Þ2  0. Consequently, p2  32 R2 þ 10Rr þ r 2 .
πβ πγ
(c) Since πα
2 þ 2 þ 2 ¼ π, then according to the problems 5.4.11a and b, we
obtain that
πα πβ πγ πα πβ πγ
1 þ 4 cos cos cos  cos þ cos þ cos 
2 2 2 2 2 2
17 2 πα πβ πγ
 þ cos cos cos ,
12 3 2 2 2

or 1 þ 4 sin α2 sin β2 sin 2γ  sin α2 þ sin β2 þ sin 2γ  17 α β γ


12 þ 3 sin 2 sin 2 sin 2.
2

qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi  
(d) We have that 2 sin α2 sin β2 ¼ tg β2 sin αtg α2 sin β  12 tg β2 sin α þ sin βtgα2 ,
this means that

α β β γ α γ
2 sin sin þ 2 sin sin þ 2 sin sin 
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 α 1 β 1 γ
 tg ð sin β þ sin γ Þ þ tg ð sin α þ sin γ Þ þ tg ð sin α þ sin βÞ ¼
2 2 2 2 2 2
α βγ β αγ γ αβ
¼ sin cos þ sin cos þ sin cos ¼
2 2 2 2 2 2
α β γ
¼ cosα þ cos β þ cos γ ¼ 1 þ 4 sin sin sin ,
2 2 2

(see the proof of the problem 5.3.6).


Another proof of the problem can be obtained by the inequality of the problem
πβ πγ
5.2.8c for the triangle with angles πα
2 , 2 , 2 .

5.4.12. Since α < α þ β  π  α, then sin(α þ β)  sin α, analogously sin(α þ β) 


sin β.
It is clear that 0 < α, β < π2, consequently, sin(α þ β) ¼ sin α cos β þ sin β cos α 
sin(α þ β) cos β þ sin(α þ β) cos α.
Thus, it follows that cosα þ cos β  1.
5.4.13. If α þ λβ2 > π2, then β þ λα λβ π
2  α þ 2 > 2. Therefore, α þ λβ þ β þ λα > π, thus
sin α sin ðαþλβÞ sin ðβþλαÞ sin β
sin β  1  sin ðβþλαÞ or sin ðαþλβÞ  sin α.
5.4 Trigonometric Inequalities 213

   
If α þ λβ2  π2, then cos β þ λα λβ λβ λα
2  cos α þ 2 , as α þ 2  β þ 2 < β þ α < π.
We have that sin 2  sin 2 and sin β  sin α, consequently, at α þ λβ2  π2 the
λα λβ 1 1

following inequality holds true:


  λβ
 
λα
cos β þ λα cos α þ λβ2
2 sin 2 2
 2 sin 2
:
sin β sin α
sin ðβþλαÞ sin β sin ðαþλβÞ sin α sin ðβþλαÞ sin β
Hence, we deduce that sin β  sin α . Thus sin ðαþλβÞ  sin α.

5.4.14. We proceed to prove by mathematical induction.


β1 cos α1
For n ¼ 1we have that 0 < α1  β1  π, consequently, cossin α1  sin α1 .
At n ¼ 2 we have that α1, α2 > 0, β1, β2  0, and α1 þ α2  β1 þ β2  π.
We have to prove that

cos β1 cos β2 cos α1 cos α2


þ  þ :
sin α1 sin α2 sin α1 sin α2

Let α1 and α2 be constant numbers. Consider the expression cos sin α1 þ sin α2 , where
x1 cos x2

α1 > 0, α2 > 0, α1 þ α2  x1 þ x2  π, and x1, x2  0 and let this expression accept its
maximal value at x1 ¼ β1 and x2 ¼ β2.
Let α1  α2, then one can assume that β1  β2. Otherwise, we have that
β1 cos β2
cosβ1 < cos β2. Therefore, (cosβ1  cos β2)(sinα2  sin α1)  0 or cos sin α1 þ sin α2 
cos β2 cos β1
sin α1 þ sin α2 .
If β1 ¼ 0, then

cos β1 cos β2 cos α1 cos α2 1 cos ðα1 þ α2 Þ cos α1 cos α2


þ    þ   ¼
sin α1 sin α2 sin α1 sin α2 sin α1 sin α2 sin α1 sin α2
α1 α  α1
1
α1 2 sin 2 sin þ α2 sin sin ðα1 þ α2 Þ
¼ tg  2 ¼ 2  0:
2 sin α2 α1
cos sin α2
2
β1
If 0 < β1  β2, then with the decrease of the value of β1, the expression cos sin α1
cos β2 sin β1 sin β2
þ increases. Thus, β1 þ β2 ¼ α1 þ α2. We need to prove that sin α1 ¼ sin α2 .
sin α2
ðβ1 þxÞ cos ðβ2 xÞ
Indeed, note that the function f ðxÞ ¼ cossin α1 þ sin α2 accepts its maximal
value on the interval [β1; β2] at the point x ¼ 0. Therefore, according to the
sin β1 sin β2
Fermat’s theorem f 0 ð0Þ ¼  sin α1 þ sin α2 ¼ 0.

Lemma

If α1 , :::, αn , β1 , :::, βn > 0, α1 þ ::: þ αn ¼ β1 þ ::: þ βn


sin β1 sin βn
 π, and ¼ ::: ¼ ¼ λ, ð5:17Þ
sin α1 sin αn

then λ ¼ 1.
214 5 Application of Trigonometric Inequalities

We proceed the proof by contradiction argument. Let λ 6¼ 1, then one can assume
that λ < 1. Let α1  α2  . . .  αn, then it follows from (5.17) that
β1  β2  . . .  βn and β1 < α1 , :::, βn1 < αn1  π2.
Note that

sin ðβ1 þ β2 Þ ¼ λð sin α1 cos β2 þ sin α2 cos β1 Þ > λð sin α1 cos α2 þ sin α2 cos α1 Þ ¼
¼ λ sin ðα1 þ α2 Þ:

Analogously, we obtain that

sin ððβ1 þ β2 Þ þ β3 Þ ¼ sin ðβ1 þ β2 Þ cos β3 þ sin β3 cos ðβ1 þ β2 Þ >


> λð sin ðα1 þ α2 Þ cos β3 þ sin α3 cos ðβ1 þ β2 ÞÞ >
> λð sin ðα1 þ α2 Þ cos α3 þ sin α3 cos ðα1 þ α2 ÞÞ ¼ λ sin ðα1 þ α2 þ α3 Þ,
etc., sin(β1 þ ... þ βn  1) > λ sin(α1 þ ... þ αn  1).
sin βn
Hence, sin ðφ  βn Þ > sin αn sin ðφ  αn Þ, where φ ¼ α1 þ . . . þ αn ¼ β1 þ . . .
þ βn.
Thus, sinαn sin(φ  βn) > sin βn sin(φ  αn) or
sinαn sin φ cos βn  sin αn sin βn cos φ > sin βn sin φ cos αn  sin βn sin αn cos φ,
sinφ sin(αn  βn) > 0. Since 0 < φ  π, then φ 6¼ π and sinφ > 0, then
αn  βn > 0. This means that