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© R. Shankar Nair 2007
Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will
be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.

Thank you!
Nair 1 Nair 2

A New Approach A New Approach


to to
Design for Stability Design for Stability
as reflected in the
R. Shankar Nair Stability and Analysis Provisions
of the
Teng & Associates, Inc.
2005 AISC Specification

Nair 3 Nair 4

ØWhat is stability? ØWhat is stability?


ØHow have we been designing for it? ØHow have we been designing for it?
ØWhy do we need to change? ØWhy do we need to change?
ØThe new approach

Nair 5 Nair 6

1
ØWhat is stability?
ØHow have we been designing for it?
ØWhy do we need to change?
What is stability?
ØThe new approach

These are the AIA


“learning objectives”
Nair 7 Nair 8

Buckling Buckling
P P

No No
P displacement P displacement

y y
P P P P

Nair 9 Nair 10

Buckling Buckling
Pcr Pcr Pcr

Pcr P
y No y
P displacement
…until y
bifurcation Buckling of this type
y is a theoretical
Pcr Pcr Pcr Pcr
y y
abstraction …it does
not happen in real
structures
Nair 11 Nair 12

2
Amplification Amplification
P

F
No y F
P displacement

y F y
P P
y

Nair 13 Nair 14

Amplification F
y0 Amplification
P F
tP

tP
F
hou

hou
y0
P

P
F
ith

ith
Wit

Wit
y F
W

W
P

F
F y y0 y
y
P P
F
y P P
y
Nair 15 Nair 16

F
y0 Amplification F
y0 Amplification
F F While buckling
is a theoretical
y0 y0 abstraction that
P does not happen in
P Constant P real structures…
F
F F
y y y
y0
F F
P P P P
y y
Nair 17 Nair 18

3
F
y0 Amplification F
y0 Amplification
F While buckling F y0 may be the
is a theoretical result of either a
y0 abstraction that y0 lateral load …
does not happen in
P real structures… P

F Amplification F
y y
( y >y0 )
F is real F
P P P P
y y
Nair 19 Nair 20

P
y0 Amplification
Initial imperfection y0 y0 may be the Buckling
result of either a
y0 lateral load … Amplification
P or an initial
imperfection y
y0
y
Due to lateral
P P
load or initial
imperfections
y
Nair 21 Nair 22

P P

Buckling Buckling

Amplification Amplification

y y
y0 y0
Buckling is not a “real” Failure of a frame or member loaded
phenomenon because there is in compression always involves
always a y0 lateral displacement and flexure
Nair 23 Nair 24

4
P P P

Pure
compression;
no flexure

y y

Perfect column Perfect column


(plumb, straight) (plumb, straight)
Nair 25 Nair 26

P P P P
AFy π2EI
4L2
Pure Pure
compression; compression;
no flexure no flexure
-- until failure -- or failure
by yield y by buckling y

Perfect column Perfect column


(plumb, straight) (plumb, straight)
Nair 27 Nair 28

P P P P

Pure Pure
compression; compression;
no flexure no flexure
-- until failure at AFy -- until failure at AFy
by yield y by yield y
or buckling 2
or buckling 2
at π EI at π EI
4L2 4L2
Perfect column Perfect column
(plumb, straight) (plumb, straight)
Nair 29 Nair 30

5
y0 y0
P y P
P

Load causes
y
compression y
y0 and flexure y0

Real column Real column


(out of plumb) (out of plumb)
Nair 31 Nair 32

y0 y0
y P y P
P P

Load causes Load causes


compression y
compression y
and flexure y0 and flexure y0
…the flexure increases
more rapidly than the
Real column Real column compression
(out of plumb) (out of plumb)
Nair 33 Nair 34

y0
y Failure of a “real” member loaded
Pn in “pure” compression is by:
P
…not crushing in compression (AFy)
Load causes
compression y
and flexure y0
…the flexure increases
more rapidly than the
Real column compression
(out of plumb) …until the strength limit
Nair 35

6
Failure of a “real” member loaded Failure of a “real” member loaded
in “pure” compression is by: in “pure” compression is by:

…not crushing in compression (AFy) …not crushing in compression (AFy)

…not buckling (π2EI/(KL)2) …not buckling (π2EI/(KL)2)

…but compression & flexure

y0
y
Pn y0 Pn
P
Initial imperfection y0

Load causes Load causes


compression y
compression y
and flexure y0 P and flexure y0
…the flexure increases …the flexure increases
more rapidly than the y more rapidly than the
Real column compression compression
(out of plumb) …until the strength limit …until the strength limit
Nair 39 Nair 40

P
P
Pn
Idealized

y0 Load causes Actual


y
compression y
and flexure y0 y
…the flexure increases y0
more rapidly than the Failure of a frame or member
compression loaded in compression always
…until the strength limit
Initial
condition P involves flexure
Nair 41 Nair 42

7
P Capturing F
“actual” y0 P
response
requires
Idealized second-order
analysis 2nd-order
Actual analysis
P Linear
analysis
y F
y0 y y
y0
Failure of a frame or member (due to
lateral load)
loaded in compression always
involves flexure
Nair 43 Nair 44

y0 P P

Initial imperfection y0 No lateral load


Neglect initial imperfections
2nd-order 2nd-order
analysis* analysis
P Linear P Linear
analysis* analysis

y y y
y0 0
(due to *with
initial imperfection
imperfection) included in
the analysis

Nair 45 Nair 46

P P

Second-order Second-order CORRECT


analysis analysis
Linear analysis Linear analysis
y y
0 y0 0 y0

Nair 47 Nair 48

8
P
For correct prediction of response:
Ø Second-order analysis
Second-order CORRECT Ø Correct y0 (including imperfections)
analysis
Linear analysis
y
0 y0
Correct prediction of response also
requires correct y0
... including initial imperfections
Nair 49 Nair 50

For correct prediction of response: For correct prediction of response:


Ø Second-order analysis Ø Second-order analysis
Ø Correct y0 (including imperfections) Ø Correct y0 (including imperfections)

The second-order analysis can be either: The second-order analysis can be either:
Ø Rigorous second-order analysis or Ø Rigorous second-order analysis or
Ø Amplified first-order analysis Ø Amplified first-order analysis
…apply multiplier of the form 1/(1-P/Pcr)
to the results of first-order analysis
Nair 51 Nair 52

Second-order analysis Second-order analysis


(either rigorous or by P
(either rigorous or by P
amplification) is not amplification) is not
enough enough

…must also have


correct y0
y y
y0 y0

Due to lateral Due to lateral


load or initial load or initial
imperfections imperfections
Nair 53 Nair 54

9
Second-order analysis Second-order analysis
Typical residual
(either rigorous or by (either rigorous or by
P stress in a rolled
amplification) is not amplification) is not
section = 0.3 Fy
enough enough

…must also have …must also have


correct y0 correct y0
y
y0
…must also adjust …must also adjust
for stiffness Due to lateral
for stiffness
reduction due to load or initial reduction due to
inelasticity imperfections inelasticity
Nair 55 Nair 56

Second-order analysis Second-order analysis


Typical residual Typical residual
(either rigorous or by (either rigorous or by
stress in a rolled stress in a rolled
amplification) is not amplification) is not
section = 0.3 Fy section = 0.3 Fy
enough enough
… part of section … part of section
…must also have yields when stress …must also have yields when stress
correct y0 due axial force & correct y0 due axial force &
flexure reaches flexure reaches
0.7 Fy 0.7 Fy
…must also adjust …must also adjust
for stiffness for stiffness … then stiffness
reduction due to reduction due to decreases
inelasticity inelasticity
Nair 57 Nair 58

Compression Member Strength Compression Member Strength


Perfect
P For perfect member (no Yielding
member—
imperfection, no residual no
stress): AFy Buckling
imperfections
or residual
stresses

Pn = lesser of { π2EI/L2
AFy
Pn

P
L/r
Nair 59 Nair 60

10
Compression Member Strength Compression Member Strength

Yielding Adjusted for Yielding Adjusted for


imperfections & imperfections &
AFy Buckling inelasticity AFy Buckling inelasticity

This is the
“compressive
Pn Pn strength for
flexural
buckling” in the
Specification
(Chapter E)

L/r L/r
Nair 61 Nair 62

Compression Member Strength P

Pn
Yielding Adjusted for
imperfections &
AFy Buckling inelasticity

y y0
Load causes
Failure by compression y
Pn compression and flexure y0
and flexure …the flexure increases
NOT more rapidly than the
BUCKLING compression
L/r …until the strength limit
P
Nair 63 Nair 64

Compression Member Strength

Yielding Adjusted for


imperfections &
How have we been designing
AFy Buckling inelasticity
for stability?
Failure by
Pn compression
and flexure
NOT
BUCKLING
L/r
Nair 65 Nair 66

11
Conventional design approach (pre-2005) Conventional design approach (pre-2005)
ØFind P & M in members from second- ØFind P & M in members from second-
order analysis* neglecting imperfections order analysis* neglecting imperfections
and inelasticity and inelasticity
ØCheck member capacity using column
curve (strength equation) that includes
effects of imperfections and inelasticity

*The 2nd-order analysis may consist of either rigorous 2nd-order *The 2nd-order analysis may consist of either rigorous 2nd-order
analysis or 1st-order analysis adjusted by B1 and B2 analysis or 1st-order analysis adjusted by B1 and B2

Nair 67 Nair 68

Compression Member Strength Conventional design approach (pre-2005)

Adjusted for ØFind P & M in members from second-


Yielding imperfections & order analysis* neglecting imperfections
AFy inelasticity (in and inelasticity
Buckling Specification)
ØCheck member capacity using column
curve (strength equation) that includes
Pn effects of imperfections and inelasticity

*The 2nd-order analysis may consist of either rigorous 2nd-order


analysis or 1st-order analysis adjusted by B1 and B2
L/r
Nair 69 Nair 70

Conventional design approach (pre-2005) Conventional design approach (pre-2005)

Applied Applied Include


Loads Loads imperfections &
Neglect Neglect inelasticity in
2nd-ORDER

2nd-ORDER
ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS

imperfections imperfections member


& inelasticity & inelasticity capacity
in analysis in analysis calculations
Member Member Member
P&M P&M Capacity

Nair 71 Nair 72

12
Conventional design approach (pre-2005) Conventional design approach (pre-2005)

Applied Include Applied Include


Loads imperfections & Loads imperfections &
Neglect 2nd-ORDER inelasticity in Neglect inelasticity in

2nd-ORDER
ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS
imperfections member imperfections member
& inelasticity capacity & inelasticity capacity
in analysis calculations in analysis calculations
Member Member Member Member
P&M Capacity P&M Capacity

Do these compensate? Do these compensate?


THEY DO NOT.
Nair 73 Nair 74

Conventional design approach (pre-2005) Conventional design approach (pre-2005)

Applied Include Applied Include


Loads imperfections & Loads imperfections &
Neglect inelasticity in Neglect inelasticity in
2nd-ORDER

2nd-ORDER
ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS
imperfections member imperfections member
& inelasticity capacity & inelasticity capacity
in analysis calculations in analysis calculations
Member Member Member Member
P&M Capacity P&M Capacity
This error causes This error causes Gives correct
understatement of understatement of member capacity
member demand member demand
Nair 75 Nair 76

Conventional design approach (pre-2005)

Applied Include y0
Loads imperfections & Structure braced
against sidesway
Neglect inelasticity in
2nd-ORDER

… y0 will not greatly


ANALYSIS

Initial imperfection y0
imperfections member affect P & M in frame
& inelasticity capacity members
in analysis calculations
Member Member
P&M Capacity
This error causes Important only in
understatement of structures subject to
member demand sidesway
Nair 77

13
Conventional design approach (pre-2005)

y0 Applied Include
Structure braced Loads imperfections &
against sidesway
Neglect inelasticity in

2nd-ORDER
… y0 will not greatly

ANALYSIS
Initial imperfection y0
affect P & M in frame imperfections member
members & inelasticity capacity
in analysis calculations
Member Member
y0 Structure not braced P&M Capacity
against sidesway
… y0 will significantly …understates member
Initial imperfection y0 affect P & M in frame demand in structures
members subject to sidesway
Nair 80

Conventional design approach (pre-2005) Conventional design approach (pre-2005)

Applied Include Applied Include


Loads imperfections & Loads imperfections &
Neglect inelasticity in Neglect inelasticity in

2nd-ORDER
2nd-ORDER

ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS

imperfections member imperfections member


& inelasticity capacity & inelasticity capacity
in analysis calculations in analysis calculations
Member Member Member Member
P&M Capacity P&M Capacity
…understates member …understates member
demand in structures Compensate demand in structures Compensate
subject to sidesway by using K>1 subject to sidesway by using K>1
Nair 81 Nair 82

P P
Consider a Consider a
cantilever column cantilever column

… apply conventional
analysis/design approach

Nair 83 Nair 84

14
Conventional design approach (pre-2005)
P Second-order analysis indicates:
Axial force = P
Applied Include Base moment = 0
Loads imperfections &
Neglect 2nd-ORDER inelasticity in
imperfections ANALYSIS member
& inelasticity capacity
in analysis calculations
Member Member
P&M Capacity
…understates member
demand in structures Compensate
subject to sidesway by using K>1
Nair 85 Nair 86

P Second-order analysis indicates: P Second-order analysis indicates:


Axial force = P Axial force = P
Base moment = 0 Base moment = 0

Design member for force P and Design member for force P and
zero moment, using column zero moment, using column
strength equation (which includes strength equation (which includes
effect of initial imperfection) effect of initial imperfection)
with K=2

P
Nair 87 Nair 88

Compression Member Strength Compression Member Strength


P
Adjusted for
Yielding imperfections & Yielding

AFy inelasticity (in AFy y0


Buckling Specification) Buckling
initial

Pn Pn
P

L/r L/r
Nair 89 Nair 90

15
P Second-order analysis indicates: P Second-order analysis indicates:
Axial force = P Axial force = P
Base moment = 0 Base moment = 0

Design member for force P and Design member for force P and
zero moment, using column zero moment, using column
strength equation (which includes strength equation (which includes
effect of initial imperfection) effect of initial imperfection)
with K=2 with K=2
y0
initial

P P
Nair 91 Nair 92

P P Second-order analysis indicates: P P Second-order analysis indicates:


Axial force = P Axial force = P
Base moment = 0 Base moment = 0
y0 y0
initial Design member for force P and initial Design member for force P and

L
zero moment, using column zero moment, using column
strength equation (which includes strength equation (which includes
effect of initial imperfection) effect of initial imperfection)
with K=2 … same result as with K=2 … same result as
y0 y0
including y0 in the analysis including y0 in the analysis
initial initial
2L
1000
P P
Nair 93 Nair 94

P P Second-order analysis indicates: P P Second-order analysis indicates:


Axial force = P Axial force = P
Base moment = 0 Base moment = 0
y0 y0
initial Design member for force P and initial Design member for force P and
L

L zero moment, using column L zero moment, using column


500 strength equation (which includes 500 strength equation (which includes
effect of initial imperfection) effect of initial imperfection)
with K=2 … same result as with K=2 … same result as
y0 y0
sam

including y0 in the analysis including y0 in the analysis


initial initial
e

2L 2L
1000 1000
P P
Nair 95 Nair 96

16
Conventional design approach (pre-2005) Conventional design approach (pre-2005)

Applied Include
Loads
Neglect 2nd-ORDER
imperfections &
inelasticity in … appears to work,
ANALYSIS
imperfections
& inelasticity
member
capacity
but there are problems
in analysis calculations
Member Member
P&M Capacity
…understates member
demand in structures Compensate
subject to sidesway by using K>1
Nair 97 Nair 98

y0
P Second-order analysis indicates: y P
Axial force = P
Base moment = 0 P

Design member for force P and


zero moment, using column
strength equations that include
effect of initial imperfection, Fails by
with K=2
compression y
y0
and flexure

Real column
(out of plumb)
Nair 99 Nair 100

Conventional design approach (pre-2005)


P Second-order analysis indicates:
Axial force = P
Applied Include
Base moment = 0
Loads imperfections &
Neglect inelasticity in
2nd-ORDER
ANALYSIS

imperfections member
… the conventional design & inelasticity capacity
process does not indicate in analysis calculations
the correct moment at the Member Member
base P&M Capacity
Understates Compensate
moment in column design
by using K>1
Nair 101 Nair 102

17
Conventional design approach (pre-2005) Conventional design approach (pre-2005)

Applied This process gives Applied This process gives


Loads correct column sizes Loads correct column sizes
Neglect 2nd-ORDER Neglect but

2nd-ORDER
ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS
imperfections imperfections under-designed beams
& inelasticity & inelasticity and connections
in analysis in analysis
Member Member Member Member
P&M Capacity P&M Capacity
Understates Compensate Understates Compensate
moment in column design moment in column design
by using K>1 by using K>1
Nair 103 Nair 104

Conventional design approach (pre-2005) Conventional design approach (pre-2005)

… indicates incorrect … indicates incorrect


design moments design moments

… requires calculation of K--

Nair 105 Nair 106

Conventional design approach (pre-2005)


“Sidesway uninhibited” alignment chart
for column effective length—

… indicates incorrect
design moments

… requires calculation of K--


how??

Nair 107 Nair 108

18
“Sidesway uninhibited” alignment chart “Sidesway uninhibited” alignment chart
for column effective length— for column effective length—
The Commentary to the AISC The Commentary to the AISC
Specification lists nine conditions for the Specification lists nine conditions for the
applicability of this chart. applicability of this chart.
Ø 8. All columns buckle simultaneously.

Nair 109 Nair 110

“Sidesway uninhibited” alignment chart OK for


P/2 P P P/2
for column effective length—
alignment
The Commentary to the AISC chart
Specification lists nine conditions for the I/2 I I I/2
applicability of this chart.
Ø 8. All columns buckle simultaneously.
Ratio of π2EI
column force P to
(KL)2
must be same for all columns
in a story
Nair 111 Nair 112

P/2 P P P/2 OK for P/2 P P P/2 OK for


alignment alignment
I/2 I I I/2
chart I/2 I I I/2
chart

P/2 P P P/2 P P
NG for NG for
alignment alignment
I/2 I I I/2 I/2 I I I/2
chart chart

Nair 113 Nair 114

19
NG for NG for
Moment-resisting frame alignment Moment-resisting frame alignment
chart chart

Moment-resisting frame

Moment-resisting frame
Moment-resisting frame

Moment-resisting frame
Moment-resisting frame Moment-resisting frame

Nair 115 Nair 116

“Sidesway uninhibited” alignment chart


Forget for column effective length—
Moment-resisting frame about
it !! The Commentary to the AISC
Moment-resisting frame

Specification lists conditions required for


the applicability of these charts.

Few real-world buildings meet the


Brace

conditions for applicability of the


alignment chart.
Brace

Nair 117 Nair 118

Conventional design approach (pre-2005)


“Sidesway uninhibited” alignment chart
for column effective length—
… indicates incorrect
design moments

… requires calculation of K--


how ?

Nair 119 Nair 120

20
Conventional design approach (pre-2005) Conventional design approach

… indicates incorrect Applied Include


design moments Loads imperfections &
Neglect inelasticity in

2nd-ORDER
ANALYSIS
imperfections member
… requires calculation of K-- & inelasticity capacity
how indeed? in analysis calculations
Member Member
P&M Capacity
…understates member
demand in structures Compensate
subject to sidesway by using K>1
Nair 121 Nair 122

Conventional design approach Conventional design approach (pre-2005)

Applied Include … indicates incorrect


Loads imperfections & design moments
Neglect inelasticity in
2nd-ORDER
ANALYSIS

imperfections member
& inelasticity capacity … requires calculation of K--
in analysis calculations how?
Member Member
P&M Capacity … sometimes,
…understates member
too conservative
demand in structures Compensate
subject to sidesway by using K>1
Nair 123 Nair 124

Conventional design approach (pre-2005) Conventional design approach (pre-2005)

… indicates incorrect Applied Include


design moments Loads imperfections &
Neglect inelasticity in
2nd-ORDER
ANALYSIS

imperfections member
… requires calculation of K-- & inelasticity capacity
how? in analysis calculations
Member Member
… sometimes, P&M Capacity
too conservative …understates member
demand in structures Compensate
subject to sidesway by using K>1
Nair 125 Nair 126

21
Conventional design approach (pre-2005)

Applied Include … indicates incorrect


Loads imperfections & design moments
Include
Neglect 2nd-ORDER inelasticity in
imperfections ANALYSIS member
& inelasticity capacity … requires calculation of K--
in analysis calculations how?
Member Member
P&M Capacity … sometimes,
…understates member
too conservative
demand in structures Compensate
subject to sidesway by using K>1
K=1 Nair 127 Nair 128

Conventional design approach (pre-2005) Conventional design approach (pre-2005)


Direct Analysis Method
Applied Include Applied Include
Loads imperfections & Loads imperfections &
Include Include
Neglect inelasticity in Neglect inelasticity in
2nd-ORDER

2nd-ORDER
ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS
imperfections member imperfections member
& inelasticity capacity & inelasticity capacity
in analysis calculations in analysis calculations
Member Member Member Member
P&M Capacity P&M Capacity
…understates member …understates member
demand in structures Compensate demand in structures Compensate
subject to sidesway by using K>1 subject to sidesway by using K>1
K=1 Nair 129
K=1 Nair 130

Direct Analysis Method


Stability and Analysis Provisions
Applied Include
Loads imperfections & of the
Include inelasticity in
2nd-ORDER

2005 AISC Specification


ANALYSIS

imperfections member
& inelasticity capacity for Steel Buildings
in analysis calculations
Member Member
P&M Capacity
Use K=1

Nair 131 Nair 132

22
CHAPTER B CHAPTER C
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS STABILITY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

B1. GENERAL PROVISIONS


“The design of members and
connections shall be consistent with the
intended behavior and the assumptions
made in the structural analysis.”

Nair 133 Nair 134

CHAPTER C Effects to be considered:

STABILITY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN Ø Flexural, shear and axial deformations of


members

…specifies that the design of the structure for


stability must consider various effects.

Nair 135 Nair 136

Effects to be considered: Effects to be considered:


Ø Member deformations Ø Member deformations
Ø All component and connection Ø Other deformations
deformations that contribute to lateral Ø P- Δ effects
displacement

Nair 137 Nair 138

23
Effects to be considered: Effects to be considered:
Ø Member deformations Ø Member deformations
Ø Other deformations Ø Other deformations
Ø P- Δ effects Ø P- Δ effects
Ø P- δ effects Ø P- δ effects
Ø Geometric imperfections
…member shape imperfections
δ (out-of-straightness)
…node position imperfections
(out-of-plumbness)

Nair 139 Nair 140

Effects to be considered: Effects to be considered:


Ø Member deformations Ø Member deformations
Ø Other deformations Ø Other deformations
Ø P- Δ effects
Ø P- Δ effects
Ø P- δ effects
Ø P- δ effects Ø Geometric imperfections
Ø Geometric imperfections Ø Residual stresses
Ø Stiffness reductions due to
When the analysis has considered all these
residual stresses
effects, members can be designed using
the provisions for individual members
(Chapters D, E, F, G, H, I)
Nair 141 Nair 142

Effects to be considered: Effects to be considered:


Ø Member deformations Any method of Ø Member deformations General analysis
Ø Other deformations analysis and Ø Other deformations requirements
Ø P- Δ effects design that Ø P- Δ effects
Ø P- δ effects considers all Ø P- δ effects
Ø Geometric imperfections these effects is Ø Geometric imperfections
Ø Residual stresses permissible Ø Residual stresses

When the analysis has considered all these When the analysis has considered all these
effects, members can be designed using effects, members can be designed using
the provisions for individual members the provisions for individual members
(Chapters D, E, F, G, H, I) (Chapters D, E, F, G, H, I)
Nair 143 Nair 144

24
Effects to be considered: APPENDIX 7
Ø Member deformations DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD
Ø Other deformations
Ø P- Δ effects Spec presents
Ø P- δ effects approaches
Ø Geometric imperfections that consider
Ø Residual stresses these effects

When the analysis has considered all these


effects, members can be designed using
the provisions for individual members
(Chapters D, E, F, G, H, I)
Nair 145 Nair 146

DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD

APPENDIX 7 Ø P- Δ effects
Ø P- δ effects
DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD Ø Geometric imperfections
Ø Residual stresses

Applicable to all types of structures


Does not distinguish between
…Braced frames
…Moment frames
…Shear wall systems
…Combinations

Nair 147 Nair 148

DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD

Ø P- Δ effects Ø P- Δ effects
Ø P- δ effects Ø P- δ effects
Ø Geometric imperfections Ø Geometric imperfections
Ø Residual stresses Ø Residual stresses

Use second-order elastic analysis that Use second-order elastic analysis that
considers both P-Δ and P-δ effects. considers both P-Δ and P-δ effects. Options:
… any general second-order analysis method

Nair 149 Nair 150

25
DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD

Ø P- Δ effects
Ø P- δ effects
Ø Geometric imperfections
First-order analysis
Ø Residual stresses
amplified by B1 and B2
Use second-order elastic analysis that is
considers both P-Δ and P-δ effects. Options:
… any general second-order analysis method Second-order analysis
… amplified first-order analysis (B1 & B2 )

Nair 151 Nair 152

DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD

Ø P- Δ effects Ø P- Δ effects
Ø P- δ effects Ø P- δ effects
Ø Geometric imperfections Ø Geometric imperfections
Ø Residual stresses Ø Residual stresses

Use second-order elastic analysis that Use second-order elastic analysis that
considers both P-Δ and P-δ effects. Options: considers both P-Δ and P-δ effects. Options:
…any general second-order analysis method …any general second-order analysis method
…amplified first-order analysis (B1 & B2 ) …amplified first-order analysis (B1 & B2 )
Exception: P-δ effects can be neglected when
member axial loads are below a specified level.

Nair 153 Nair 154

DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD

Ø P- Δ effects Ø P- Δ effects
Ø P- δ effects Ø P- δ effects
Ø Geometric imperfections Ø Geometric imperfections
Ø Residual stresses Ø Residual stresses

Apply “notional loads”:


Ni = 0.002 Yi

Nair 155 Nair 156

26
DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD

Ø P- Δ effects
Ø P- δ effects
Y3 Ø Geometric imperfections
N3 Ø Residual stresses
Y2
N2
Y1 Apply “notional loads”:
N1 Ni = 0.002 Yi
The 0.002Yi notional load is equivalent to an
initial out-of-plumbness of 1/500
Ni = 0.002 Yi

Nair 157 Nair 158

DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD

Ø P- Δ effects
Ø P- δ effects
Y3 Y3 Ø Geometric imperfections
N3 1 Ø Residual stresses
Y2 Y2
N2
500

Y1 Y1 Apply “notional loads”:


N1 Ni = 0.002 Yi
The 0.002 coefficient corresponds to an initial
Ni = 0.002 Yi Equivalent out-of-plumbness of 1/500
structure
… lower value can be used if justified by the
actual anticipated out-of-plumbness

Nair 159 Nair 160

DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD

Ø P- Δ effects Ø P- Δ effects
Ø P- δ effects Ø P- δ effects
Ø Geometric imperfections Ø Geometric imperfections
Ø Residual stresses Ø Residual stresses

Apply “notional loads” Apply “notional loads”


Logically, these notional loads should be Logically, these notional loads should be
additive to other lateral loads in all cases. additive to other lateral loads in all cases.
But in a concession to past practice, the
notional loads can be treated as a minimum
lateral load when Δ/Δ0 < 1.5

Nair 161 Nair 162

27
DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD

Ø P- Δ effects Ø P- Δ effects
Ø P- δ effects Ø P- δ effects
Ø Geometric imperfections Ø Geometric imperfections
Ø Residual stresses Ø Residual stresses

Alternative: Instead of applying notional loads


to account for geometric imperfections…
the designer may model imperfections
directly in the analysis.

Nair 163 Nair 164

DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD

Ø P- Δ effects Ø P- Δ effects
Ø P- δ effects Ø P- δ effects
Ø Geometric imperfections Ø Geometric imperfections
Ø Residual stresses Ø Residual stresses

Use reduced flexural and axial stiffnesses Use reduced flexural and axial stiffnesses
EI* and EA* in the analysis EI* and EA* in the analysis
EI* = 0.8 τb EI
EA* = 0.8 EA

Nair 165 Nair 166

DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD

Ø P- Δ effects Ø P- Δ effects
Ø P- δ effects Ø P- δ effects
Ø Geometric imperfections Ø Geometric imperfections
Ø Residual stresses Ø Residual stresses

Use reduced flexural and axial stiffnesses Use reduced flexural and axial stiffnesses
EI* and EA* in the analysis EI* and EA* in the analysis
EI* = 0.8 τb EI EI* = 0.8 τb EI
EA* = 0.8 EA EA* = 0.8 EA
τb depends on level of axial stress in member; τb can be taken as 1 in all cases if additional
τb = 1 when P < 0.5 Py notional load of 0.001Yi is applied.
Nair 167 Nair 168

28
DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD

Ø P- Δ effects Ø P- Δ effects
Ø P- δ effects Ø P- δ effects
Ø Geometric imperfections Ø Geometric imperfections
Ø Residual stresses Ø Residual stresses

Use reduced flexural and axial stiffnesses Use reduced flexural and axial stiffnesses
EI* and EA* in the analysis EI* and EA* in the analysis
EI* = 0.8 τb EI EI* = 0.8 τb EI
EA* = 0.8 EA EA* = 0.8 EA
The EI and EA adjustments also account for
the effects of member out-of-straightness on
the stiffness of the overall structure
Nair 169 Nair 170

DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD

Ø P- Δ effects
Ø P- δ effects Applied Include
Ø Geometric imperfections Loads imperfections3
Ø Residual stresses Include & inelasticity3 in

2nd-ORDER
ANALYSIS

or B1 & B2
Rigorous
imperfections1 member
& inelasticity2 capacity
Design members using the provisions for in analysis calculations
individual members (Chapters D, E, F, G, H, I),
with K=1 for computing compression strengths Member Member
P&M Capacity
K=1
1Notional 3The usual column
loads or direct modeling
2Reduced EI & EA strength formulas

Nair 171 Nair 172

APPENDIX 7 APPENDIX 7
DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD

Applicable to all types of structures


MAY be used in all cases
Does not distinguish between
…Braced frames MUST be used when Δ/Δ0 > 1.5
…Moment frames
…Shear wall systems
…Combinations

Nair 173 Nair 174

29
APPENDIX 7 CHAPTER C
DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD STABILITY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

C2. CACULATION OF REQUIRED STRENGTHS


MAY be used in all cases 2. Design Requirements DIRECT ANALYSIS
METHOD
Can use Appendix 7 in all cases
MUST be used when Δ/Δ0 > 1.5
Can use C2.2a or C2.2b if Δ/Δ0 < 1.5
When Δ/Δ0 < 1.5 EFFECTIVE
2a. Design by Second-Order Analysis LENGTH
there are other options… METHOD
2b. Design by First-Order Analysis
FIRST-ORDER
ANALYSIS METHOD
Nair 175 Nair 176

EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD

Generally similar to the method in the Perform second-order elastic analysis


1999 Specification use nominal geometry
use nominal stiffness

Nair 177 Nair 178

EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD

Perform second-order elastic analysis


use nominal geometry
First-order analysis use nominal stiffness
amplified by B1 and B2
is
Second-order analysis

Nair 179 Nair 180

30
EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD

Perform second-order elastic analysis Perform second-order elastic analysis


use nominal geometry use nominal geometry
use nominal stiffness use nominal stiffness
Apply notional loads, Ni = 0.002 Yi Apply notional loads, Ni = 0.002 Yi
as a minimum lateral load as a minimum lateral load …(NEW)

Nair 181 Nair 182

EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD

Perform second-order elastic analysis Perform second-order elastic analysis


use nominal geometry use nominal geometry
use nominal stiffness use nominal stiffness
Apply notional loads, Ni = 0.002 Yi Apply notional loads, Ni = 0.002 Yi
as a minimum lateral load as a minimum lateral load
Determine K factors for columns in moment Determine K factors for columns in moment
frames by sidesway buckling analysis frames by sidesway buckling analysis.
(Exception: Use K=1 if Δ/Δ0 < 1.1)

Nair 183 Nair 184

EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD

Perform second-order elastic analysis


Applied Include
use nominal geometry
Loads imperfections3
use nominal stiffness
Include & inelasticity3 in
2nd-ORDER
ANALYSIS

or B1 & B2
Rigorous

Apply notional loads, Ni = 0.002 Yi imperfections1 member


as a minimum lateral load but neglect capacity
inelasticity in calculations
Determine K factors for columns in moment analysis
Member Member
frames by sidesway buckling analysis P&M Capacity
Design individual members using K from K>1
step 3 for computing compression strengths 1Notional loads 3The usual column
strength formulas

Nair 185 Nair 186

31
EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD

CHAPTER C
Applied Include
Loads imperfections3 STABILITY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
Include & inelasticity3 in
2nd-ORDER
ANALYSIS

or B1 & B2
Rigorous
imperfections1 member
but neglect capacity C2. CACULATION OF REQUIRED STRENGTHS
inelasticity in calculations 2. Design Requirements DIRECT ANALYSIS
analysis METHOD
Member Member Can use Appendix 7 in all cases
P&M Capacity Can use C2.2a or C2.2b if Δ/Δ0 < 1.5
K>1 EFFECTIVE
2a. Design by Second-Order Analysis LENGTH
METHOD
1Notional loads 3The usual column 2b. Design by First-Order Analysis
strength formulas FIRST-ORDER
ANALYSIS METHOD
Nair 187 Nair 188

FIRST-ORDER ANALYSIS METHOD FIRST-ORDER ANALYSIS METHOD

Can be used only when P < 0.5 P y in all Perform first-order elastic analysis
columns whose flexural stiffness contributes use nominal geometry
to the lateral stability of the structure use nominal stiffness

Nair 189 Nair 190

FIRST-ORDER ANALYSIS METHOD FIRST-ORDER ANALYSIS METHOD

Perform first-order elastic analysis Perform first-order elastic analysis


use nominal geometry use nominal geometry
use nominal stiffness use nominal stiffness
Apply additional lateral loads: Apply additional lateral loads:
Ni = 2.1(Δ/L) Yi > 0.0042 Yi Ni = 2.1(Δ/L) Yi > 0.0042 Yi
Apply B1 multiplier to full moment in all
beam-columns

Nair 191 Nair 192

32
FIRST-ORDER ANALYSIS METHOD FIRST-ORDER ANALYSIS METHOD

Perform first-order elastic analysis


use nominal geometry … is the Direct Analysis Method
use nominal stiffness
by the back door
Apply additional lateral loads:
Ni = 2.1(Δ/L) Yi > 0.0042 Yi … uses mathematical manipulation
to get roughly the same results
Apply B1 multiplier to full moment in all as the DAM for typical structures
beam-columns
Design individual members using K=1 for
computing compression strengths

Nair 193 Nair 194

CHAPTER C DIRECT EFFECTIVE FIRST


ANALYSIS LENGTH ORDER
STABILITY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN Limitations --- Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Δ/Δ0 <1.5
P/Py <0.5

C2. CACULATION OF REQUIRED STRENGTHS


2. Design Requirements DIRECT ANALYSIS
METHOD
Can use Appendix 7 in all cases
Can use C2.2a or C2.2b if Δ/Δ0 < 1.5
EFFECTIVE
2a. Design by Second-Order Analysis LENGTH
METHOD
2b. Design by First-Order Analysis
FIRST-ORDER
ANALYSIS METHOD
Nair 195 Nair 196

DIRECT EFFECTIVE FIRST DIRECT EFFECTIVE FIRST


ANALYSIS LENGTH ORDER ANALYSIS LENGTH ORDER
Limitations --- Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Limitations --- Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Δ/Δ0 <1.5
P/Py <0.5 P/Py <0.5
Analysis Second- Second- First- Analysis Second- Second- First-
Order Order Order Order Order Order
(but apply
B1 to
moment
in beam-
columns)

Nair 197 Nair 198

33
DIRECT EFFECTIVE FIRST DIRECT EFFECTIVE FIRST
ANALYSIS LENGTH ORDER ANALYSIS LENGTH ORDER
Limitations --- Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Limitations --- Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Δ/Δ0 <1.5
P/Py <0.5 P/Py <0.5
Analysis Second- Second- First- Analysis Second- Second- First-
Order Order Order Order Order Order
Geometry Nominal Nominal Nominal Geometry Nominal Nominal Nominal
EI & EA Reduced Nominal Nominal

Nair 199 Nair 200

DIRECT EFFECTIVE FIRST DIRECT EFFECTIVE FIRST


ANALYSIS LENGTH ORDER ANALYSIS LENGTH ORDER
Limitations --- Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Limitations --- Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Δ/Δ0 <1.5
P/Py <0.5 P/Py <0.5
Analysis Second- Second- First- Analysis Second- Second- First-
Order Order Order Order Order Order
Geometry Nominal Nominal Nominal Geometry Nominal Nominal Nominal
EI & EA Reduced Nominal Nominal EI & EA Reduced Nominal Nominal
Notional 0.002 Yi 0.002 Yi >0.0042Yi Notional 0.002 Yi 0.002 Yi >0.0042Yi
Load minimum* minimum additive Load minimum* minimum additive
K for Sidesway
member K=1 buckling K=1
Pn analysis
*additive when Δ/Δ0 >1.5 Nair 201
*additive when Δ/Δ0 >1.5 Nair 202

DIRECT EFFECTIVE FIRST DIRECT EFFECTIVE FIRST


ANALYSIS LENGTH ORDER ANALYSIS LENGTH ORDER
Limitations --- Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Limitations --- Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Δ/Δ0 <1.5
P/Py <0.5 P/Py <0.5
Analysis Second- Second- First- Analysis Second- Second- First-
Order Order Order Order Order Order
Geometry Nominal Nominal Nominal Geometry Nominal Nominal Nominal
EI & EA Reduced Nominal Nominal EI & EA Reduced Nominal Nominal
Notional 0.002 Yi 0.002 Yi >0.0042Yi Notional 0.002 Yi 0.002 Yi >0.0042Yi
Load minimum* minimum additive Load minimum* minimum additive
K for Sidesway K for Sidesway
member K=1 buckling K=1 member K=1 buckling K=1
Pn analysis Pn analysis
*additive when Δ/Δ0 >1.5 Nair 203
*additive when Δ/Δ0 >1.5 Nair 204

34
DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD —the right way!

Applied Include
Loads imperfections3
Include
2nd-ORDER
& inelasticity3 in … summary of how DAM
ANALYSIS

or B1 & B2
Rigorous
imperfections1 member
& inelasticity2 capacity accounts for basic Spec
in analysis calculations
Member Member
requirements for stability
P&M Capacity design
K=1
1Notional 3The usual column
loads or direct modeling
2Reduced EI & EA strength formulas

Nair 205 Nair 206

Design for stability must Design for stability must


account for: account for:

P-Δ and P-δ effects P-Δ and P-δ effects


Out-of-plumbness

Nair 207 Nair 208

Design for stability must Design for stability must


account for: account for:

P-Δ and P-δ effects P-Δ and P-δ effects


Out-of-plumbness Out-of-plumbness
Member out-of-straightness Member out-of-straightness
-- effect on member strength -- effect on member strength
Member out-of-straightness Member out-of-straightness
-- effect on structure stiffness -- effect on structure stiffness
Residual stresses
-- effect on member strength
Residual stresses
-- effect on structure stiffness

Nair 209 Nair 210

35
Stability Design Features of Direct Stability Design
Requirements: Analysis Method: Requirements:

P-Δ and P-δ effects Second-order P-Δ and P-δ effects


analysis*
Out-of-plumbness Out-of-plumbness
Member out-of-straightness Member out-of-straightness
-- effect on member strength -- effect on member strength
Member out-of-straightness Member out-of-straightness
-- effect on structure stiffness -- effect on structure stiffness
Residual stresses Residual stresses
-- effect on member strength -- effect on member strength
Residual stresses Residual stresses
-- effect on structure stiffness -- effect on structure stiffness
*Rigorous or B1-B2
Nair 211 Nair 212

Features of Direct Stability Design Features of Direct Stability Design


Analysis Method: Requirements: Analysis Method: Requirements:

Second-order P-Δ and P-δ effects Second-order P-Δ and P-δ effects
analysis* analysis*
Out-of-plumbness Out-of-plumbness
Notional loads or Member out-of-straightness Notional loads or Member out-of-straightness
direct modeling -- effect on member strength direct modeling -- effect on member strength
Member out-of-straightness Member out-of-straightness
Usual column
-- effect on structure stiffness -- effect on structure stiffness
strength formulas
Residual stresses Residual stresses
-- effect on member strength -- effect on member strength
Residual stresses Residual stresses
-- effect on structure stiffness -- effect on structure stiffness
*Rigorous or B1-B2 *Rigorous or B1-B2
Nair 213 Nair 214

Features of Direct Stability Design Features of Direct Stability Design


Analysis Method: Requirements: Analysis Method: Requirements:

Second-order P-Δ and P-δ effects Second-order P-Δ and P-δ effects
analysis* analysis*
Out-of-plumbness Out-of-plumbness
Notional loads or Member out-of-straightness Notional loads or Member out-of-straightness
direct modeling -- effect on member strength direct modeling -- effect on member strength
Member out-of-straightness Member out-of-straightness
Usual column Usual column
-- effect on structure stiffness -- effect on structure stiffness
strength formulas strength formulas
Residual stresses Residual stresses
Stiffness -- effect on member strength Stiffness -- effect on member strength
reductions reductions
Residual stresses Residual stresses
-- effect on structure stiffness -- effect on structure stiffness
*Rigorous or B1-B2 *Rigorous or B1-B2
Nair 215 Nair 216

36
Features of Direct Stability Design
Analysis Method: Requirements:

Second-order P-Δ and P-δ effects


analysis*
Out-of-plumbness
Notional loads or Member out-of-straightness … a word about loading
direct modeling -- effect on member strength
Member out-of-straightness
Usual column
-- effect on structure stiffness
strength formulas
Residual stresses
Stiffness -- effect on member strength
reductions
Residual stresses
-- effect on structure stiffness
*Rigorous or B1-B2
Nair 217

W2/ W1 =α
W2 W2
Non-linear
W1 response W1
indicated by
Load

Load

2nd-order
analysis

R1 R2 R1 R2
R2/R1 >α

Member force or moment Member force or moment

Nair 219 Nair 220

WLRFD WLRFD
Design by Design by
W ASD
LRFD ASD
Load

Load

Cannot use RASD

RLRFD RASD RLRFD

Member force or moment Member force or moment

Nair 221 Nair 222

37
WLRFD WLRFD
Design by Design by
W ASD W ASD
ASD ASD
Load

Load
Design by ASD for this force
Cannot use RASD will yield smaller member
than design by LRFD

RASD RLRFD RASD RLRFD


RASD is smaller than RLRFD by more than the usual RASD is smaller than RLRFD by more than the usual
ASD to LRFD load factor ASD to LRFD load factor
Member force or moment Member force or moment

Nair 223 Nair 224

1.6 W ASD 1.6 W ASD Analyze


Multiply Multiply
by 1.6 Design by by 1.6 Design by
W ASD W ASD
ASD ASD
Load

Load

R1.6 ASD

Member force or moment Member force or moment

Nair 225 Nair 226

1.6 W ASD Analyze 1.6 W ASD Analyze


Multiply Multiply
by 1.6 Design by by 1.6 Design by
W ASD W ASD
ASD ASD
Load

Load

Divide Divide
by 1.6 by 1.6
R1.6 ASD R1.6 ASD
RASD RASD
DESIGN DESIGN

Member force or moment Member force or moment

Nair 227 Nair 228

38
Members Shankar Nair Chairman Members Shankar Nair Chairman
Greg Deierlein Vice-Chairman Greg Deierlein Vice-Chairman
of Bill Baker of Bill Baker
AISC Reidar Bjorhovde AISC Reidar Bjorhovde
TC-10 Charlie Carter TC-10 Charlie Carter
(Stability) Shu-Jin Fang (Stability) Shu-Jin Fang
Jim Fisher Jim Fisher
Ted Galambos Ted Galambos
Larry Griffis Much of the early Larry Griffis
Jerry Hajjar work on the 2005 Jerry Hajjar
Todd Helwig stability provisions Todd Helwig
Richard Henige was done under Richard Henige
Leroy Lutz the leadership of Leroy Lutz
Clint Rex former TC-10
Clint Rex
Steve Thomas Steve Thomas
Don White chairman Don White
Ron Ziemian Joe Yura Ron Ziemian
Nair 229 Nair 230

Looking ahead… Looking ahead…

The paper in the 2007 NASCC proceedings The paper in the 2007 NASCC proceedings
(for this presentation) includes a model (for this presentation) includes a model
specification written exclusively around the specification written exclusively around the
Direct Analysis Method. Direct Analysis Method.

That model specification is a tentative


preview of the stability section of the 2010
AISC Specification.

Nair 231 Nair 232

Thank you

Questions

This concludes the


American Institute of Architects
Continuing Education System Program

Nair 233

39