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completion of this program will be reported to CES Records for Copyright Materials

AIA members. Certificates of Completion for non-AIA members

available on request.

This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing This presentation is protected by US and

professional education. As such, it does not include content that International copyright laws. Reproduction,

distribution, display and use of the

may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by

presentation without written permission of the

the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of speaker is prohibited.

handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product.

© R. Shankar Nair 2007

Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will

be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.

Thank you!

Nair 1 Nair 2

to to

Design for Stability Design for Stability

as reflected in the

R. Shankar Nair Stability and Analysis Provisions

of the

Teng & Associates, Inc.

2005 AISC Specification

Nair 3 Nair 4

ØHow have we been designing for it? ØHow have we been designing for it?

ØWhy do we need to change? ØWhy do we need to change?

ØThe new approach

Nair 5 Nair 6

1

ØWhat is stability?

ØHow have we been designing for it?

ØWhy do we need to change?

What is stability?

ØThe new approach

“learning objectives”

Nair 7 Nair 8

Buckling Buckling

P P

No No

P displacement P displacement

y y

P P P P

Nair 9 Nair 10

Buckling Buckling

Pcr Pcr Pcr

Pcr P

y No y

P displacement

…until y

bifurcation Buckling of this type

y is a theoretical

Pcr Pcr Pcr Pcr

y y

abstraction …it does

not happen in real

structures

Nair 11 Nair 12

2

Amplification Amplification

P

F

No y F

P displacement

y F y

P P

y

Nair 13 Nair 14

Amplification F

y0 Amplification

P F

tP

tP

F

hou

hou

y0

P

P

F

ith

ith

Wit

Wit

y F

W

W

P

F

F y y0 y

y

P P

F

y P P

y

Nair 15 Nair 16

F

y0 Amplification F

y0 Amplification

F F While buckling

is a theoretical

y0 y0 abstraction that

P does not happen in

P Constant P real structures…

F

F F

y y y

y0

F F

P P P P

y y

Nair 17 Nair 18

3

F

y0 Amplification F

y0 Amplification

F While buckling F y0 may be the

is a theoretical result of either a

y0 abstraction that y0 lateral load …

does not happen in

P real structures… P

F Amplification F

y y

( y >y0 )

F is real F

P P P P

y y

Nair 19 Nair 20

P

y0 Amplification

Initial imperfection y0 y0 may be the Buckling

result of either a

y0 lateral load … Amplification

P or an initial

imperfection y

y0

y

Due to lateral

P P

load or initial

imperfections

y

Nair 21 Nair 22

P P

Buckling Buckling

Amplification Amplification

y y

y0 y0

Buckling is not a “real” Failure of a frame or member loaded

phenomenon because there is in compression always involves

always a y0 lateral displacement and flexure

Nair 23 Nair 24

4

P P P

Pure

compression;

no flexure

y y

(plumb, straight) (plumb, straight)

Nair 25 Nair 26

P P P P

AFy π2EI

4L2

Pure Pure

compression; compression;

no flexure no flexure

-- until failure -- or failure

by yield y by buckling y

(plumb, straight) (plumb, straight)

Nair 27 Nair 28

P P P P

Pure Pure

compression; compression;

no flexure no flexure

-- until failure at AFy -- until failure at AFy

by yield y by yield y

or buckling 2

or buckling 2

at π EI at π EI

4L2 4L2

Perfect column Perfect column

(plumb, straight) (plumb, straight)

Nair 29 Nair 30

5

y0 y0

P y P

P

Load causes

y

compression y

y0 and flexure y0

(out of plumb) (out of plumb)

Nair 31 Nair 32

y0 y0

y P y P

P P

compression y

compression y

and flexure y0 and flexure y0

…the flexure increases

more rapidly than the

Real column Real column compression

(out of plumb) (out of plumb)

Nair 33 Nair 34

y0

y Failure of a “real” member loaded

Pn in “pure” compression is by:

P

…not crushing in compression (AFy)

Load causes

compression y

and flexure y0

…the flexure increases

more rapidly than the

Real column compression

(out of plumb) …until the strength limit

Nair 35

6

Failure of a “real” member loaded Failure of a “real” member loaded

in “pure” compression is by: in “pure” compression is by:

y0

y

Pn y0 Pn

P

Initial imperfection y0

compression y

compression y

and flexure y0 P and flexure y0

…the flexure increases …the flexure increases

more rapidly than the y more rapidly than the

Real column compression compression

(out of plumb) …until the strength limit …until the strength limit

Nair 39 Nair 40

P

P

Pn

Idealized

y

compression y

and flexure y0 y

…the flexure increases y0

more rapidly than the Failure of a frame or member

compression loaded in compression always

…until the strength limit

Initial

condition P involves flexure

Nair 41 Nair 42

7

P Capturing F

“actual” y0 P

response

requires

Idealized second-order

analysis 2nd-order

Actual analysis

P Linear

analysis

y F

y0 y y

y0

Failure of a frame or member (due to

lateral load)

loaded in compression always

involves flexure

Nair 43 Nair 44

y0 P P

Neglect initial imperfections

2nd-order 2nd-order

analysis* analysis

P Linear P Linear

analysis* analysis

y y y

y0 0

(due to *with

initial imperfection

imperfection) included in

the analysis

Nair 45 Nair 46

P P

analysis analysis

Linear analysis Linear analysis

y y

0 y0 0 y0

Nair 47 Nair 48

8

P

For correct prediction of response:

Ø Second-order analysis

Second-order CORRECT Ø Correct y0 (including imperfections)

analysis

Linear analysis

y

0 y0

Correct prediction of response also

requires correct y0

... including initial imperfections

Nair 49 Nair 50

Ø Second-order analysis Ø Second-order analysis

Ø Correct y0 (including imperfections) Ø Correct y0 (including imperfections)

The second-order analysis can be either: The second-order analysis can be either:

Ø Rigorous second-order analysis or Ø Rigorous second-order analysis or

Ø Amplified first-order analysis Ø Amplified first-order analysis

…apply multiplier of the form 1/(1-P/Pcr)

to the results of first-order analysis

Nair 51 Nair 52

(either rigorous or by P

(either rigorous or by P

amplification) is not amplification) is not

enough enough

correct y0

y y

y0 y0

load or initial load or initial

imperfections imperfections

Nair 53 Nair 54

9

Second-order analysis Second-order analysis

Typical residual

(either rigorous or by (either rigorous or by

P stress in a rolled

amplification) is not amplification) is not

section = 0.3 Fy

enough enough

correct y0 correct y0

y

y0

…must also adjust …must also adjust

for stiffness Due to lateral

for stiffness

reduction due to load or initial reduction due to

inelasticity imperfections inelasticity

Nair 55 Nair 56

Typical residual Typical residual

(either rigorous or by (either rigorous or by

stress in a rolled stress in a rolled

amplification) is not amplification) is not

section = 0.3 Fy section = 0.3 Fy

enough enough

… part of section … part of section

…must also have yields when stress …must also have yields when stress

correct y0 due axial force & correct y0 due axial force &

flexure reaches flexure reaches

0.7 Fy 0.7 Fy

…must also adjust …must also adjust

for stiffness for stiffness … then stiffness

reduction due to reduction due to decreases

inelasticity inelasticity

Nair 57 Nair 58

Perfect

P For perfect member (no Yielding

member—

imperfection, no residual no

stress): AFy Buckling

imperfections

or residual

stresses

Pn = lesser of { π2EI/L2

AFy

Pn

P

L/r

Nair 59 Nair 60

10

Compression Member Strength Compression Member Strength

imperfections & imperfections &

AFy Buckling inelasticity AFy Buckling inelasticity

This is the

“compressive

Pn Pn strength for

flexural

buckling” in the

Specification

(Chapter E)

L/r L/r

Nair 61 Nair 62

Pn

Yielding Adjusted for

imperfections &

AFy Buckling inelasticity

y y0

Load causes

Failure by compression y

Pn compression and flexure y0

and flexure …the flexure increases

NOT more rapidly than the

BUCKLING compression

L/r …until the strength limit

P

Nair 63 Nair 64

imperfections &

How have we been designing

AFy Buckling inelasticity

for stability?

Failure by

Pn compression

and flexure

NOT

BUCKLING

L/r

Nair 65 Nair 66

11

Conventional design approach (pre-2005) Conventional design approach (pre-2005)

ØFind P & M in members from second- ØFind P & M in members from second-

order analysis* neglecting imperfections order analysis* neglecting imperfections

and inelasticity and inelasticity

ØCheck member capacity using column

curve (strength equation) that includes

effects of imperfections and inelasticity

*The 2nd-order analysis may consist of either rigorous 2nd-order *The 2nd-order analysis may consist of either rigorous 2nd-order

analysis or 1st-order analysis adjusted by B1 and B2 analysis or 1st-order analysis adjusted by B1 and B2

Nair 67 Nair 68

Yielding imperfections & order analysis* neglecting imperfections

AFy inelasticity (in and inelasticity

Buckling Specification)

ØCheck member capacity using column

curve (strength equation) that includes

Pn effects of imperfections and inelasticity

analysis or 1st-order analysis adjusted by B1 and B2

L/r

Nair 69 Nair 70

Loads Loads imperfections &

Neglect Neglect inelasticity in

2nd-ORDER

2nd-ORDER

ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS

& inelasticity & inelasticity capacity

in analysis in analysis calculations

Member Member Member

P&M P&M Capacity

Nair 71 Nair 72

12

Conventional design approach (pre-2005) Conventional design approach (pre-2005)

Loads imperfections & Loads imperfections &

Neglect 2nd-ORDER inelasticity in Neglect inelasticity in

2nd-ORDER

ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS

imperfections member imperfections member

& inelasticity capacity & inelasticity capacity

in analysis calculations in analysis calculations

Member Member Member Member

P&M Capacity P&M Capacity

THEY DO NOT.

Nair 73 Nair 74

Loads imperfections & Loads imperfections &

Neglect inelasticity in Neglect inelasticity in

2nd-ORDER

2nd-ORDER

ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS

imperfections member imperfections member

& inelasticity capacity & inelasticity capacity

in analysis calculations in analysis calculations

Member Member Member Member

P&M Capacity P&M Capacity

This error causes This error causes Gives correct

understatement of understatement of member capacity

member demand member demand

Nair 75 Nair 76

Applied Include y0

Loads imperfections & Structure braced

against sidesway

Neglect inelasticity in

2nd-ORDER

ANALYSIS

Initial imperfection y0

imperfections member affect P & M in frame

& inelasticity capacity members

in analysis calculations

Member Member

P&M Capacity

This error causes Important only in

understatement of structures subject to

member demand sidesway

Nair 77

13

Conventional design approach (pre-2005)

y0 Applied Include

Structure braced Loads imperfections &

against sidesway

Neglect inelasticity in

2nd-ORDER

… y0 will not greatly

ANALYSIS

Initial imperfection y0

affect P & M in frame imperfections member

members & inelasticity capacity

in analysis calculations

Member Member

y0 Structure not braced P&M Capacity

against sidesway

… y0 will significantly …understates member

Initial imperfection y0 affect P & M in frame demand in structures

members subject to sidesway

Nair 80

Loads imperfections & Loads imperfections &

Neglect inelasticity in Neglect inelasticity in

2nd-ORDER

2nd-ORDER

ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS

& inelasticity capacity & inelasticity capacity

in analysis calculations in analysis calculations

Member Member Member Member

P&M Capacity P&M Capacity

…understates member …understates member

demand in structures Compensate demand in structures Compensate

subject to sidesway by using K>1 subject to sidesway by using K>1

Nair 81 Nair 82

P P

Consider a Consider a

cantilever column cantilever column

… apply conventional

analysis/design approach

Nair 83 Nair 84

14

Conventional design approach (pre-2005)

P Second-order analysis indicates:

Axial force = P

Applied Include Base moment = 0

Loads imperfections &

Neglect 2nd-ORDER inelasticity in

imperfections ANALYSIS member

& inelasticity capacity

in analysis calculations

Member Member

P&M Capacity

…understates member

demand in structures Compensate

subject to sidesway by using K>1

Nair 85 Nair 86

Axial force = P Axial force = P

Base moment = 0 Base moment = 0

Design member for force P and Design member for force P and

zero moment, using column zero moment, using column

strength equation (which includes strength equation (which includes

effect of initial imperfection) effect of initial imperfection)

with K=2

P

Nair 87 Nair 88

P

Adjusted for

Yielding imperfections & Yielding

Buckling Specification) Buckling

initial

Pn Pn

P

L/r L/r

Nair 89 Nair 90

15

P Second-order analysis indicates: P Second-order analysis indicates:

Axial force = P Axial force = P

Base moment = 0 Base moment = 0

Design member for force P and Design member for force P and

zero moment, using column zero moment, using column

strength equation (which includes strength equation (which includes

effect of initial imperfection) effect of initial imperfection)

with K=2 with K=2

y0

initial

P P

Nair 91 Nair 92

Axial force = P Axial force = P

Base moment = 0 Base moment = 0

y0 y0

initial Design member for force P and initial Design member for force P and

L

zero moment, using column zero moment, using column

strength equation (which includes strength equation (which includes

effect of initial imperfection) effect of initial imperfection)

with K=2 … same result as with K=2 … same result as

y0 y0

including y0 in the analysis including y0 in the analysis

initial initial

2L

1000

P P

Nair 93 Nair 94

Axial force = P Axial force = P

Base moment = 0 Base moment = 0

y0 y0

initial Design member for force P and initial Design member for force P and

L

500 strength equation (which includes 500 strength equation (which includes

effect of initial imperfection) effect of initial imperfection)

with K=2 … same result as with K=2 … same result as

y0 y0

sam

initial initial

e

2L 2L

1000 1000

P P

Nair 95 Nair 96

16

Conventional design approach (pre-2005) Conventional design approach (pre-2005)

Applied Include

Loads

Neglect 2nd-ORDER

imperfections &

inelasticity in … appears to work,

ANALYSIS

imperfections

& inelasticity

member

capacity

but there are problems

in analysis calculations

Member Member

P&M Capacity

…understates member

demand in structures Compensate

subject to sidesway by using K>1

Nair 97 Nair 98

y0

P Second-order analysis indicates: y P

Axial force = P

Base moment = 0 P

zero moment, using column

strength equations that include

effect of initial imperfection, Fails by

with K=2

compression y

y0

and flexure

Real column

(out of plumb)

Nair 99 Nair 100

P Second-order analysis indicates:

Axial force = P

Applied Include

Base moment = 0

Loads imperfections &

Neglect inelasticity in

2nd-ORDER

ANALYSIS

imperfections member

… the conventional design & inelasticity capacity

process does not indicate in analysis calculations

the correct moment at the Member Member

base P&M Capacity

Understates Compensate

moment in column design

by using K>1

Nair 101 Nair 102

17

Conventional design approach (pre-2005) Conventional design approach (pre-2005)

Loads correct column sizes Loads correct column sizes

Neglect 2nd-ORDER Neglect but

2nd-ORDER

ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS

imperfections imperfections under-designed beams

& inelasticity & inelasticity and connections

in analysis in analysis

Member Member Member Member

P&M Capacity P&M Capacity

Understates Compensate Understates Compensate

moment in column design moment in column design

by using K>1 by using K>1

Nair 103 Nair 104

design moments design moments

“Sidesway uninhibited” alignment chart

for column effective length—

… indicates incorrect

design moments

how??

18

“Sidesway uninhibited” alignment chart “Sidesway uninhibited” alignment chart

for column effective length— for column effective length—

The Commentary to the AISC The Commentary to the AISC

Specification lists nine conditions for the Specification lists nine conditions for the

applicability of this chart. applicability of this chart.

Ø 8. All columns buckle simultaneously.

P/2 P P P/2

for column effective length—

alignment

The Commentary to the AISC chart

Specification lists nine conditions for the I/2 I I I/2

applicability of this chart.

Ø 8. All columns buckle simultaneously.

Ratio of π2EI

column force P to

(KL)2

must be same for all columns

in a story

Nair 111 Nair 112

alignment alignment

I/2 I I I/2

chart I/2 I I I/2

chart

P/2 P P P/2 P P

NG for NG for

alignment alignment

I/2 I I I/2 I/2 I I I/2

chart chart

19

NG for NG for

Moment-resisting frame alignment Moment-resisting frame alignment

chart chart

Moment-resisting frame

Moment-resisting frame

Moment-resisting frame

Moment-resisting frame

Moment-resisting frame Moment-resisting frame

Forget for column effective length—

Moment-resisting frame about

it !! The Commentary to the AISC

Moment-resisting frame

the applicability of these charts.

Brace

alignment chart.

Brace

“Sidesway uninhibited” alignment chart

for column effective length—

… indicates incorrect

design moments

how ?

20

Conventional design approach (pre-2005) Conventional design approach

design moments Loads imperfections &

Neglect inelasticity in

2nd-ORDER

ANALYSIS

imperfections member

… requires calculation of K-- & inelasticity capacity

how indeed? in analysis calculations

Member Member

P&M Capacity

…understates member

demand in structures Compensate

subject to sidesway by using K>1

Nair 121 Nair 122

Loads imperfections & design moments

Neglect inelasticity in

2nd-ORDER

ANALYSIS

imperfections member

& inelasticity capacity … requires calculation of K--

in analysis calculations how?

Member Member

P&M Capacity … sometimes,

…understates member

too conservative

demand in structures Compensate

subject to sidesway by using K>1

Nair 123 Nair 124

design moments Loads imperfections &

Neglect inelasticity in

2nd-ORDER

ANALYSIS

imperfections member

… requires calculation of K-- & inelasticity capacity

how? in analysis calculations

Member Member

… sometimes, P&M Capacity

too conservative …understates member

demand in structures Compensate

subject to sidesway by using K>1

Nair 125 Nair 126

21

Conventional design approach (pre-2005)

Loads imperfections & design moments

Include

Neglect 2nd-ORDER inelasticity in

imperfections ANALYSIS member

& inelasticity capacity … requires calculation of K--

in analysis calculations how?

Member Member

P&M Capacity … sometimes,

…understates member

too conservative

demand in structures Compensate

subject to sidesway by using K>1

K=1 Nair 127 Nair 128

Direct Analysis Method

Applied Include Applied Include

Loads imperfections & Loads imperfections &

Include Include

Neglect inelasticity in Neglect inelasticity in

2nd-ORDER

2nd-ORDER

ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS

imperfections member imperfections member

& inelasticity capacity & inelasticity capacity

in analysis calculations in analysis calculations

Member Member Member Member

P&M Capacity P&M Capacity

…understates member …understates member

demand in structures Compensate demand in structures Compensate

subject to sidesway by using K>1 subject to sidesway by using K>1

K=1 Nair 129

K=1 Nair 130

Stability and Analysis Provisions

Applied Include

Loads imperfections & of the

Include inelasticity in

2nd-ORDER

ANALYSIS

imperfections member

& inelasticity capacity for Steel Buildings

in analysis calculations

Member Member

P&M Capacity

Use K=1

22

CHAPTER B CHAPTER C

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS STABILITY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

“The design of members and

connections shall be consistent with the

intended behavior and the assumptions

made in the structural analysis.”

members

stability must consider various effects.

Ø Member deformations Ø Member deformations

Ø All component and connection Ø Other deformations

deformations that contribute to lateral Ø P- Δ effects

displacement

23

Effects to be considered: Effects to be considered:

Ø Member deformations Ø Member deformations

Ø Other deformations Ø Other deformations

Ø P- Δ effects Ø P- Δ effects

Ø P- δ effects Ø P- δ effects

Ø Geometric imperfections

…member shape imperfections

δ (out-of-straightness)

…node position imperfections

(out-of-plumbness)

Ø Member deformations Ø Member deformations

Ø Other deformations Ø Other deformations

Ø P- Δ effects

Ø P- Δ effects

Ø P- δ effects

Ø P- δ effects Ø Geometric imperfections

Ø Geometric imperfections Ø Residual stresses

Ø Stiffness reductions due to

When the analysis has considered all these

residual stresses

effects, members can be designed using

the provisions for individual members

(Chapters D, E, F, G, H, I)

Nair 141 Nair 142

Ø Member deformations Any method of Ø Member deformations General analysis

Ø Other deformations analysis and Ø Other deformations requirements

Ø P- Δ effects design that Ø P- Δ effects

Ø P- δ effects considers all Ø P- δ effects

Ø Geometric imperfections these effects is Ø Geometric imperfections

Ø Residual stresses permissible Ø Residual stresses

When the analysis has considered all these When the analysis has considered all these

effects, members can be designed using effects, members can be designed using

the provisions for individual members the provisions for individual members

(Chapters D, E, F, G, H, I) (Chapters D, E, F, G, H, I)

Nair 143 Nair 144

24

Effects to be considered: APPENDIX 7

Ø Member deformations DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD

Ø Other deformations

Ø P- Δ effects Spec presents

Ø P- δ effects approaches

Ø Geometric imperfections that consider

Ø Residual stresses these effects

effects, members can be designed using

the provisions for individual members

(Chapters D, E, F, G, H, I)

Nair 145 Nair 146

APPENDIX 7 Ø P- Δ effects

Ø P- δ effects

DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD Ø Geometric imperfections

Ø Residual stresses

Does not distinguish between

…Braced frames

…Moment frames

…Shear wall systems

…Combinations

Ø P- Δ effects Ø P- Δ effects

Ø P- δ effects Ø P- δ effects

Ø Geometric imperfections Ø Geometric imperfections

Ø Residual stresses Ø Residual stresses

Use second-order elastic analysis that Use second-order elastic analysis that

considers both P-Δ and P-δ effects. considers both P-Δ and P-δ effects. Options:

… any general second-order analysis method

25

DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD

Ø P- Δ effects

Ø P- δ effects

Ø Geometric imperfections

First-order analysis

Ø Residual stresses

amplified by B1 and B2

Use second-order elastic analysis that is

considers both P-Δ and P-δ effects. Options:

… any general second-order analysis method Second-order analysis

… amplified first-order analysis (B1 & B2 )

Ø P- Δ effects Ø P- Δ effects

Ø P- δ effects Ø P- δ effects

Ø Geometric imperfections Ø Geometric imperfections

Ø Residual stresses Ø Residual stresses

Use second-order elastic analysis that Use second-order elastic analysis that

considers both P-Δ and P-δ effects. Options: considers both P-Δ and P-δ effects. Options:

…any general second-order analysis method …any general second-order analysis method

…amplified first-order analysis (B1 & B2 ) …amplified first-order analysis (B1 & B2 )

Exception: P-δ effects can be neglected when

member axial loads are below a specified level.

Ø P- Δ effects Ø P- Δ effects

Ø P- δ effects Ø P- δ effects

Ø Geometric imperfections Ø Geometric imperfections

Ø Residual stresses Ø Residual stresses

Ni = 0.002 Yi

26

DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD

Ø P- Δ effects

Ø P- δ effects

Y3 Ø Geometric imperfections

N3 Ø Residual stresses

Y2

N2

Y1 Apply “notional loads”:

N1 Ni = 0.002 Yi

The 0.002Yi notional load is equivalent to an

initial out-of-plumbness of 1/500

Ni = 0.002 Yi

Ø P- Δ effects

Ø P- δ effects

Y3 Y3 Ø Geometric imperfections

N3 1 Ø Residual stresses

Y2 Y2

N2

500

N1 Ni = 0.002 Yi

The 0.002 coefficient corresponds to an initial

Ni = 0.002 Yi Equivalent out-of-plumbness of 1/500

structure

… lower value can be used if justified by the

actual anticipated out-of-plumbness

Ø P- δ effects Ø P- δ effects

Ø Geometric imperfections Ø Geometric imperfections

Ø Residual stresses Ø Residual stresses

Logically, these notional loads should be Logically, these notional loads should be

additive to other lateral loads in all cases. additive to other lateral loads in all cases.

But in a concession to past practice, the

notional loads can be treated as a minimum

lateral load when Δ/Δ0 < 1.5

27

DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD

Ø P- δ effects Ø P- δ effects

Ø Geometric imperfections Ø Geometric imperfections

Ø Residual stresses Ø Residual stresses

to account for geometric imperfections…

the designer may model imperfections

directly in the analysis.

Ø P- δ effects Ø P- δ effects

Ø Geometric imperfections Ø Geometric imperfections

Ø Residual stresses Ø Residual stresses

Use reduced flexural and axial stiffnesses Use reduced flexural and axial stiffnesses

EI* and EA* in the analysis EI* and EA* in the analysis

EI* = 0.8 τb EI

EA* = 0.8 EA

Ø P- δ effects Ø P- δ effects

Ø Geometric imperfections Ø Geometric imperfections

Ø Residual stresses Ø Residual stresses

Use reduced flexural and axial stiffnesses Use reduced flexural and axial stiffnesses

EI* and EA* in the analysis EI* and EA* in the analysis

EI* = 0.8 τb EI EI* = 0.8 τb EI

EA* = 0.8 EA EA* = 0.8 EA

τb depends on level of axial stress in member; τb can be taken as 1 in all cases if additional

τb = 1 when P < 0.5 Py notional load of 0.001Yi is applied.

Nair 167 Nair 168

28

DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD

Ø P- δ effects Ø P- δ effects

Ø Geometric imperfections Ø Geometric imperfections

Ø Residual stresses Ø Residual stresses

Use reduced flexural and axial stiffnesses Use reduced flexural and axial stiffnesses

EI* and EA* in the analysis EI* and EA* in the analysis

EI* = 0.8 τb EI EI* = 0.8 τb EI

EA* = 0.8 EA EA* = 0.8 EA

The EI and EA adjustments also account for

the effects of member out-of-straightness on

the stiffness of the overall structure

Nair 169 Nair 170

Ø P- Δ effects

Ø P- δ effects Applied Include

Ø Geometric imperfections Loads imperfections3

Ø Residual stresses Include & inelasticity3 in

2nd-ORDER

ANALYSIS

or B1 & B2

Rigorous

imperfections1 member

& inelasticity2 capacity

Design members using the provisions for in analysis calculations

individual members (Chapters D, E, F, G, H, I),

with K=1 for computing compression strengths Member Member

P&M Capacity

K=1

1Notional 3The usual column

loads or direct modeling

2Reduced EI & EA strength formulas

APPENDIX 7 APPENDIX 7

DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD

MAY be used in all cases

Does not distinguish between

…Braced frames MUST be used when Δ/Δ0 > 1.5

…Moment frames

…Shear wall systems

…Combinations

29

APPENDIX 7 CHAPTER C

DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD STABILITY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

MAY be used in all cases 2. Design Requirements DIRECT ANALYSIS

METHOD

Can use Appendix 7 in all cases

MUST be used when Δ/Δ0 > 1.5

Can use C2.2a or C2.2b if Δ/Δ0 < 1.5

When Δ/Δ0 < 1.5 EFFECTIVE

2a. Design by Second-Order Analysis LENGTH

there are other options… METHOD

2b. Design by First-Order Analysis

FIRST-ORDER

ANALYSIS METHOD

Nair 175 Nair 176

1999 Specification use nominal geometry

use nominal stiffness

use nominal geometry

First-order analysis use nominal stiffness

amplified by B1 and B2

is

Second-order analysis

30

EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD

use nominal geometry use nominal geometry

use nominal stiffness use nominal stiffness

Apply notional loads, Ni = 0.002 Yi Apply notional loads, Ni = 0.002 Yi

as a minimum lateral load as a minimum lateral load …(NEW)

use nominal geometry use nominal geometry

use nominal stiffness use nominal stiffness

Apply notional loads, Ni = 0.002 Yi Apply notional loads, Ni = 0.002 Yi

as a minimum lateral load as a minimum lateral load

Determine K factors for columns in moment Determine K factors for columns in moment

frames by sidesway buckling analysis frames by sidesway buckling analysis.

(Exception: Use K=1 if Δ/Δ0 < 1.1)

Applied Include

use nominal geometry

Loads imperfections3

use nominal stiffness

Include & inelasticity3 in

2nd-ORDER

ANALYSIS

or B1 & B2

Rigorous

as a minimum lateral load but neglect capacity

inelasticity in calculations

Determine K factors for columns in moment analysis

Member Member

frames by sidesway buckling analysis P&M Capacity

Design individual members using K from K>1

step 3 for computing compression strengths 1Notional loads 3The usual column

strength formulas

31

EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD

CHAPTER C

Applied Include

Loads imperfections3 STABILITY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Include & inelasticity3 in

2nd-ORDER

ANALYSIS

or B1 & B2

Rigorous

imperfections1 member

but neglect capacity C2. CACULATION OF REQUIRED STRENGTHS

inelasticity in calculations 2. Design Requirements DIRECT ANALYSIS

analysis METHOD

Member Member Can use Appendix 7 in all cases

P&M Capacity Can use C2.2a or C2.2b if Δ/Δ0 < 1.5

K>1 EFFECTIVE

2a. Design by Second-Order Analysis LENGTH

METHOD

1Notional loads 3The usual column 2b. Design by First-Order Analysis

strength formulas FIRST-ORDER

ANALYSIS METHOD

Nair 187 Nair 188

Can be used only when P < 0.5 P y in all Perform first-order elastic analysis

columns whose flexural stiffness contributes use nominal geometry

to the lateral stability of the structure use nominal stiffness

use nominal geometry use nominal geometry

use nominal stiffness use nominal stiffness

Apply additional lateral loads: Apply additional lateral loads:

Ni = 2.1(Δ/L) Yi > 0.0042 Yi Ni = 2.1(Δ/L) Yi > 0.0042 Yi

Apply B1 multiplier to full moment in all

beam-columns

32

FIRST-ORDER ANALYSIS METHOD FIRST-ORDER ANALYSIS METHOD

use nominal geometry … is the Direct Analysis Method

use nominal stiffness

by the back door

Apply additional lateral loads:

Ni = 2.1(Δ/L) Yi > 0.0042 Yi … uses mathematical manipulation

to get roughly the same results

Apply B1 multiplier to full moment in all as the DAM for typical structures

beam-columns

Design individual members using K=1 for

computing compression strengths

ANALYSIS LENGTH ORDER

STABILITY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN Limitations --- Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Δ/Δ0 <1.5

P/Py <0.5

2. Design Requirements DIRECT ANALYSIS

METHOD

Can use Appendix 7 in all cases

Can use C2.2a or C2.2b if Δ/Δ0 < 1.5

EFFECTIVE

2a. Design by Second-Order Analysis LENGTH

METHOD

2b. Design by First-Order Analysis

FIRST-ORDER

ANALYSIS METHOD

Nair 195 Nair 196

ANALYSIS LENGTH ORDER ANALYSIS LENGTH ORDER

Limitations --- Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Limitations --- Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Δ/Δ0 <1.5

P/Py <0.5 P/Py <0.5

Analysis Second- Second- First- Analysis Second- Second- First-

Order Order Order Order Order Order

(but apply

B1 to

moment

in beam-

columns)

33

DIRECT EFFECTIVE FIRST DIRECT EFFECTIVE FIRST

ANALYSIS LENGTH ORDER ANALYSIS LENGTH ORDER

Limitations --- Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Limitations --- Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Δ/Δ0 <1.5

P/Py <0.5 P/Py <0.5

Analysis Second- Second- First- Analysis Second- Second- First-

Order Order Order Order Order Order

Geometry Nominal Nominal Nominal Geometry Nominal Nominal Nominal

EI & EA Reduced Nominal Nominal

ANALYSIS LENGTH ORDER ANALYSIS LENGTH ORDER

Limitations --- Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Limitations --- Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Δ/Δ0 <1.5

P/Py <0.5 P/Py <0.5

Analysis Second- Second- First- Analysis Second- Second- First-

Order Order Order Order Order Order

Geometry Nominal Nominal Nominal Geometry Nominal Nominal Nominal

EI & EA Reduced Nominal Nominal EI & EA Reduced Nominal Nominal

Notional 0.002 Yi 0.002 Yi >0.0042Yi Notional 0.002 Yi 0.002 Yi >0.0042Yi

Load minimum* minimum additive Load minimum* minimum additive

K for Sidesway

member K=1 buckling K=1

Pn analysis

*additive when Δ/Δ0 >1.5 Nair 201

*additive when Δ/Δ0 >1.5 Nair 202

ANALYSIS LENGTH ORDER ANALYSIS LENGTH ORDER

Limitations --- Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Limitations --- Δ/Δ0 <1.5 Δ/Δ0 <1.5

P/Py <0.5 P/Py <0.5

Analysis Second- Second- First- Analysis Second- Second- First-

Order Order Order Order Order Order

Geometry Nominal Nominal Nominal Geometry Nominal Nominal Nominal

EI & EA Reduced Nominal Nominal EI & EA Reduced Nominal Nominal

Notional 0.002 Yi 0.002 Yi >0.0042Yi Notional 0.002 Yi 0.002 Yi >0.0042Yi

Load minimum* minimum additive Load minimum* minimum additive

K for Sidesway K for Sidesway

member K=1 buckling K=1 member K=1 buckling K=1

Pn analysis Pn analysis

*additive when Δ/Δ0 >1.5 Nair 203

*additive when Δ/Δ0 >1.5 Nair 204

34

DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD —the right way!

Applied Include

Loads imperfections3

Include

2nd-ORDER

& inelasticity3 in … summary of how DAM

ANALYSIS

or B1 & B2

Rigorous

imperfections1 member

& inelasticity2 capacity accounts for basic Spec

in analysis calculations

Member Member

requirements for stability

P&M Capacity design

K=1

1Notional 3The usual column

loads or direct modeling

2Reduced EI & EA strength formulas

account for: account for:

Out-of-plumbness

account for: account for:

Out-of-plumbness Out-of-plumbness

Member out-of-straightness Member out-of-straightness

-- effect on member strength -- effect on member strength

Member out-of-straightness Member out-of-straightness

-- effect on structure stiffness -- effect on structure stiffness

Residual stresses

-- effect on member strength

Residual stresses

-- effect on structure stiffness

35

Stability Design Features of Direct Stability Design

Requirements: Analysis Method: Requirements:

analysis*

Out-of-plumbness Out-of-plumbness

Member out-of-straightness Member out-of-straightness

-- effect on member strength -- effect on member strength

Member out-of-straightness Member out-of-straightness

-- effect on structure stiffness -- effect on structure stiffness

Residual stresses Residual stresses

-- effect on member strength -- effect on member strength

Residual stresses Residual stresses

-- effect on structure stiffness -- effect on structure stiffness

*Rigorous or B1-B2

Nair 211 Nair 212

Analysis Method: Requirements: Analysis Method: Requirements:

Second-order P-Δ and P-δ effects Second-order P-Δ and P-δ effects

analysis* analysis*

Out-of-plumbness Out-of-plumbness

Notional loads or Member out-of-straightness Notional loads or Member out-of-straightness

direct modeling -- effect on member strength direct modeling -- effect on member strength

Member out-of-straightness Member out-of-straightness

Usual column

-- effect on structure stiffness -- effect on structure stiffness

strength formulas

Residual stresses Residual stresses

-- effect on member strength -- effect on member strength

Residual stresses Residual stresses

-- effect on structure stiffness -- effect on structure stiffness

*Rigorous or B1-B2 *Rigorous or B1-B2

Nair 213 Nair 214

Analysis Method: Requirements: Analysis Method: Requirements:

Second-order P-Δ and P-δ effects Second-order P-Δ and P-δ effects

analysis* analysis*

Out-of-plumbness Out-of-plumbness

Notional loads or Member out-of-straightness Notional loads or Member out-of-straightness

direct modeling -- effect on member strength direct modeling -- effect on member strength

Member out-of-straightness Member out-of-straightness

Usual column Usual column

-- effect on structure stiffness -- effect on structure stiffness

strength formulas strength formulas

Residual stresses Residual stresses

Stiffness -- effect on member strength Stiffness -- effect on member strength

reductions reductions

Residual stresses Residual stresses

-- effect on structure stiffness -- effect on structure stiffness

*Rigorous or B1-B2 *Rigorous or B1-B2

Nair 215 Nair 216

36

Features of Direct Stability Design

Analysis Method: Requirements:

analysis*

Out-of-plumbness

Notional loads or Member out-of-straightness … a word about loading

direct modeling -- effect on member strength

Member out-of-straightness

Usual column

-- effect on structure stiffness

strength formulas

Residual stresses

Stiffness -- effect on member strength

reductions

Residual stresses

-- effect on structure stiffness

*Rigorous or B1-B2

Nair 217

W2/ W1 =α

W2 W2

Non-linear

W1 response W1

indicated by

Load

Load

2nd-order

analysis

R1 R2 R1 R2

R2/R1 >α

WLRFD WLRFD

Design by Design by

W ASD

LRFD ASD

Load

Load

37

WLRFD WLRFD

Design by Design by

W ASD W ASD

ASD ASD

Load

Load

Design by ASD for this force

Cannot use RASD will yield smaller member

than design by LRFD

RASD is smaller than RLRFD by more than the usual RASD is smaller than RLRFD by more than the usual

ASD to LRFD load factor ASD to LRFD load factor

Member force or moment Member force or moment

Multiply Multiply

by 1.6 Design by by 1.6 Design by

W ASD W ASD

ASD ASD

Load

Load

R1.6 ASD

Multiply Multiply

by 1.6 Design by by 1.6 Design by

W ASD W ASD

ASD ASD

Load

Load

Divide Divide

by 1.6 by 1.6

R1.6 ASD R1.6 ASD

RASD RASD

DESIGN DESIGN

38

Members Shankar Nair Chairman Members Shankar Nair Chairman

Greg Deierlein Vice-Chairman Greg Deierlein Vice-Chairman

of Bill Baker of Bill Baker

AISC Reidar Bjorhovde AISC Reidar Bjorhovde

TC-10 Charlie Carter TC-10 Charlie Carter

(Stability) Shu-Jin Fang (Stability) Shu-Jin Fang

Jim Fisher Jim Fisher

Ted Galambos Ted Galambos

Larry Griffis Much of the early Larry Griffis

Jerry Hajjar work on the 2005 Jerry Hajjar

Todd Helwig stability provisions Todd Helwig

Richard Henige was done under Richard Henige

Leroy Lutz the leadership of Leroy Lutz

Clint Rex former TC-10

Clint Rex

Steve Thomas Steve Thomas

Don White chairman Don White

Ron Ziemian Joe Yura Ron Ziemian

Nair 229 Nair 230

The paper in the 2007 NASCC proceedings The paper in the 2007 NASCC proceedings

(for this presentation) includes a model (for this presentation) includes a model

specification written exclusively around the specification written exclusively around the

Direct Analysis Method. Direct Analysis Method.

preview of the stability section of the 2010

AISC Specification.

Thank you

Questions

American Institute of Architects

Continuing Education System Program

Nair 233

39

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