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What is Design of Experiment?

Why study Design of Experiment?


The Basic Principles of Experimental Design
Guidelines for Designing Experiments

Design and Analysis of Experiments


Strategy and Principles of Experimental Design
and Analysis

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering


Texas A&M University-Kingsville

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What is Design of Experiment?
Why study Design of Experiment?
The Basic Principles of Experimental Design
Guidelines for Designing Experiments

Outline

1 What is Design of Experiment?

2 Why study Design of Experiment?

3 The Basic Principles of Experimental Design


General model of a process or system
The Basic Principles
Factorial Designs

4 Guidelines for Designing Experiments


Guidelines
An example
Cause-and-effect diagram
Planning, Conducting & Analyzing an Experiment

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What is Design of Experiment?
Why study Design of Experiment?
The Basic Principles of Experimental Design
Guidelines for Designing Experiments

What is Design of Experiment?

An experiment is a test or a series of tests


Experiments are used widely in the engineering world
All experiments are designed experiments, some are poorly
designed, some are well-designed

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What is Design of Experiment?
Why study Design of Experiment?
The Basic Principles of Experimental Design
Guidelines for Designing Experiments

Generation of new knowledge

Data (facts, phenomena)

… Deduction Induction Deduction Induction


Idea (model, hypothesis, theory, conjecture)

Iterative learning process

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What is Design of Experiment?
Why study Design of Experiment?
The Basic Principles of Experimental Design
Guidelines for Designing Experiments

An integral part of learning how systems and processes work


Reduce time to design/develop new products & processes
Improve performance of existing processes
Improve reliability and performance of products
Achieve product & process robustness
Evaluation of materials, design alternatives, setting component
& system tolerances, etc.

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What is Design of Experiment?
General model of a process or system
Why study Design of Experiment?
The Basic Principles
The Basic Principles of Experimental Design
Factorial Designs
Guidelines for Designing Experiments

General model of a process or system

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What is Design of Experiment?
General model of a process or system
Why study Design of Experiment?
The Basic Principles
The Basic Principles of Experimental Design
Factorial Designs
Guidelines for Designing Experiments

General model of a process or system

Which variables are most influential on the response variables?


Where to set the influential x’s, so that y is almost always the
desired nominal value? variability in y is minimal? the effects
of uncontrollable variables are minimized?
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What is Design of Experiment?
General model of a process or system
Why study Design of Experiment?
The Basic Principles
The Basic Principles of Experimental Design
Factorial Designs
Guidelines for Designing Experiments

The Basic Principles of Experimental Design

Randomization
Running the trials in an experiment in random order
Notion of balancing out effects of “lurking” variables
Replication
An independent repeat run of each factor combination
Sample size (improving precision of effect estimation,
estimation of error or background noise)
Replication versus repeat measurements?
Blocking
A design technique used to improve the precision with which
comparisons among the factors of interest are made
Dealing with nuisance factors

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What is Design of Experiment?
General model of a process or system
Why study Design of Experiment?
The Basic Principles
The Basic Principles of Experimental Design
Factorial Designs
Guidelines for Designing Experiments

Strategy of Experimental Design

“Best-guess” experiments
One-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) experiments
Statistically designed experiments
Factorial experimental design: 2k factorial design

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What is Design of Experiment?
General model of a process or system
Why study Design of Experiment?
The Basic Principles
The Basic Principles of Experimental Design
Factorial Designs
Guidelines for Designing Experiments

Factorial Designs

In a factorial experiment, all possible combinations of factor


levels are tested
A golf experiment
Type of driver (Oversized or regular sized)
Type of ball (balata or three piece)
Walking vs. riding
Type of beverage
Time of round
Weather
Type of golf spike

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What is Design of Experiment?
General model of a process or system
Why study Design of Experiment?
The Basic Principles
The Basic Principles of Experimental Design
Factorial Designs
Guidelines for Designing Experiments

A golf experiment

A two-factor factorial experiment involving type of driver and type of ball

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What is Design of Experiment?
General model of a process or system
Why study Design of Experiment?
The Basic Principles
The Basic Principles of Experimental Design
Factorial Designs
Guidelines for Designing Experiments

A golf experiment

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What is Design of Experiment?
General model of a process or system
Why study Design of Experiment?
The Basic Principles
The Basic Principles of Experimental Design
Factorial Designs
Guidelines for Designing Experiments

A golf experiment

Driver effect:
92+94+93+91 88+91+88+90
4 − 4 = 3.25
Ball effect:
88+91+92+94
4 − 88+90+93+91
4 = 0.75
Ball-driver interaction effect:
92+94+88+90
4 − 88+91+93+91
4 = 0.25

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What is Design of Experiment?
General model of a process or system
Why study Design of Experiment?
The Basic Principles
The Basic Principles of Experimental Design
Factorial Designs
Guidelines for Designing Experiments

Factorial design with several factors

A three-factor factorial experiment

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What is Design of Experiment?
General model of a process or system
Why study Design of Experiment?
The Basic Principles
The Basic Principles of Experimental Design
Factorial Designs
Guidelines for Designing Experiments

Factorial design with several factors

A four-factor factorial experiment

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What is Design of Experiment?
General model of a process or system
Why study Design of Experiment?
The Basic Principles
The Basic Principles of Experimental Design
Factorial Designs
Guidelines for Designing Experiments

A four-factor fractional factorial experiment

A four-factor factorial experiment

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What is Design of Experiment? Guidelines
Why study Design of Experiment? An example
The Basic Principles of Experimental Design Cause-and-effect diagram
Guidelines for Designing Experiments Planning, Conducting & Analyzing an Experiment

Guidelines for Designing Experiments


Recognition of and statement of the problem
– Factor screening, optimization, confirmation, discovery,
robustness Pre-experimental
planning
Selection of the response variable
Choice of factors, levels, and range
– design factors, held-constant factor, allowed-to-vary factors
Choice of experimental design
– Empirical model: a quantitative equation between the
response and the important design factors

y = β0 + β1 x1 + β2 x2 + 
y = β0 + β1 x1 + β2 x2 + β12 x1 x2 + 
2 2
y = β0 + β1 x1 + β2 x2 + β12 x1 x2 + β11 x11 + β22 x22 +

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What is Design of Experiment? Guidelines
Why study Design of Experiment? An example
The Basic Principles of Experimental Design Cause-and-effect diagram
Guidelines for Designing Experiments Planning, Conducting & Analyzing an Experiment

Guidelines for Designing Experiments

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Performing the experiment


Statistical analysis of the data
Conclusions and recommendations

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What is Design of Experiment? Guidelines
Why study Design of Experiment? An example
The Basic Principles of Experimental Design Cause-and-effect diagram
Guidelines for Designing Experiments Planning, Conducting & Analyzing an Experiment

An example of manufacturing impellers on a CNC-machine

Response variables
Control variables
“Held constant” factors
Nuisance factors
Interactions

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What is Design of Experiment? Guidelines
Why study Design of Experiment? An example
The Basic Principles of Experimental Design Cause-and-effect diagram
Guidelines for Designing Experiments Planning, Conducting & Analyzing an Experiment

Cause-and-effect diagram

A Cause-and-Effect Diagram for an Experiment in a Videodisk Manufac-


turing Process
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What is Design of Experiment? Guidelines
Why study Design of Experiment? An example
The Basic Principles of Experimental Design Cause-and-effect diagram
Guidelines for Designing Experiments Planning, Conducting & Analyzing an Experiment

Planning, Conducting & Analyzing an Experiment

Get statistical thinking involved early


Your non-statistical knowledge is crucial to success
Pre-experimental planning (steps 1-3) vital
Think and experiment sequentially (use the KISS principle)

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