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HAZARD AND OPERABILITY ANALYSIS (HAZOP) OF BOILER

SECTION OF EGBIN POWER PLANT LAGOS


MADU C. and SODEINDE O. A.
Chemical Engineering Department
Lagos State Polytechnic
cmadu2004 @yahoo.com, segunsodeinde @yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
This paper presented Hazard and Operability Analysis studies carried out on the boiler section
of Egbin Power Plant.
The methodology used in carrying out the Hazard and Operability Studies was by using the
combination of relevant keywords and parameters/variables such as, flow, temperature,
maintenance, pressure. which resulted into deviations,.These deviations were caused by
equipment malfunctions, operational problems and other factors . These resulted into
consequences leading to low power output. To overcome these problems, action required was
provided which would help to solve problems encontered from the equipment; some of these
actions include: provide make up water, install water spray, install relief valve and they are given
at appropriate places

INTRODUCTION
Egbin thermal station is a steam turbine plant comprising of six 220MW independent boiler
turbine units. The first unit of the plant was commissioned in July 1985; while the last was
commissioned in September 1986.The station is of reheat type with high intermediate low
pressure impulse reaction turbine and a hydrogen cooled generator. Egbin thermal station is the
single largest installed electricity generation plant in Nigeria. It has an installed capacity of 1320
MW and generating capacity of 6.8 TWh.
Egbin power station commenced operations in 1985 with two 220 MW steam turbines each
having its own dual fuel gas/oil fired boiler. Two additional and similar 220 MW units were
commissioned in 1986 and a further 2 in 1987 bringing the total installed capacity of the facility
to 1320 MW. Egbin Power PLC was incorporated on November 8th 2005 to own all of the
assets of the power station.
Egbin Power PLC is the largest generating station owned by the Federal Government, under the
Power Holding Company of Nigeria - PHCN) PHCN is responsible for generation, transmission
and distribution of electricity across Nigeria. [Adelaja et al 2007]

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HAZARD & OPERABILITY STUDIES
Definitions:
Hazard - any operation that could possibly cause a catastrophic release of toxic, flammable or
explosive chemicals or any action that could result in injury to persons
Operability - any operation inside the design envelope that would cause a shutdown that could
possibly lead to a violation of environmental, health or safety regulations or negatively impact
on the profitability.
The technique of Hazard and Operability Studies, or in more common terms HAZOPS, has been
used and developed over approximately four decades for 'identifying potential hazards and
operability problems' caused by 'deviations from the design intent' of both new and existing
process plants. .[Lawley 1997]
A Hazop study identifies hazards and operability problems. The concept involves investigating
how the plant might deviate from the design intent. If, in the process of identifying problems
during a Hazop study, a solution becomes apparent, it is recorded as part of the Hazop result;;
However, care must be taken to avoid trying to find solutions which are not so apparent, because
the prime objective for the Hazop is problem identification.[Crawley 2003] Although the Hazop
study was developed to supplement experience-based practices when a new design or technology
is involved. Its use has expanded to almost all phases of a plant's life. Hazop is based on the
principle that several experts with different backgrounds can interact and identify more problems
when working together than when working separately and combining their results.

The objective of this research is to identify operational problems of the Egbin power station by
carrying out HAZOP study specifically on the boiler section which is the life wire of the power
station and to see how this affects the capacity for optimum generation of power , so as to serve
as a guide or reference for the new power plants being established now.
Operational Problems of Egbin Power Station
Operational problems identified in Egbin power plant during the course of this work can be
classified into the following:
(1) MATERIALS: Lack of required spare parts, non constant gas supply. The gas supply
problems can be classified as follows:
(a). External low gas supply pressure problem.
(b). Pigging operation.
* Problems during pigging operation in1992, lead to a rush of gas condensate from the NGC
metering station which resulted in furnace explosion of unit 4 of the plant and a total cut off of
gas supply to the plant for 14 days.
(c). Labour –related problems of the workers of the Nigerian Gas Company- Strike actions.
and the instability of the national grid among other factors, are responsible for the poor
performance of the power station.
(d) The total amount of gas that suppose to go to the power station is shared by another
independent power station recently established in Lagos, ( Applied Energy Services (AES)). a
gas turbine with capacity of 290MW, the first NIPP project in Lagos State

(2) HUMAN: Shortage of required number of personnel (staff) is another contributing factor to
operational problems.. Lack of qualified maintenance engineers, lack of training, in form of
seminars and workshops for the personnel in the operation of the plant are all human problems.
(3) ORGANIZAT IONAL: They include poor record keeping of data, high corruption in the
system , non payment of debt owed to Nigeria Gas Company (NGC), a subsidiary of Nigeria
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National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC). lack of maintenance culture i.e., lack of inspection of
the unit in every 30 days (repair and cleaning of parts), and lack of over-hauling maintenance in
every 3 years (changing of auxilliary parts of the system).as required were identified as part of
organisational problems.[Adelaja et al 2007]

MAJOR PLANT COMPONENTS [Egbin Power Plant Operational manual]


(1) Steam Generator is the radiant type, natural circulation with single reheat and duct firing.
(2) Steam Turbine is the impulse type, two (Egbin Power Plant Operational Manual) casings,
and tandem compound double flow reheat condensing tube. Maximum continuous rating is
200MW, speed 3000rpm. Initial steam pressure = 12500 Kpa, initial steam temperature 538 oC.
Exhaust steam pressure 8.5 Kpa, number of stages is 3: high pressure, intermediate pressure, and
low pressure and has 3 low pressure and 2 high pressure heaters with 1 Dearator.
(3) Condenser; surface type, cooling water is from lagoon water, No of passes – 2,
condensing surface- 10630m2, No of tubes- 12142.

OPERATIONS OF THE PLANT [Adelaja et al 2007, Power Plant Manual]


The plant consists of three main parts, which are the steam generator, turbine and generator
section, for electricity.
OPERATION OF STEAM GENERATOR (BOILER SECTION)
The steam generator which is used to produce steam consists of the following:
(1) Boiler, consisting of a furnace with all pressure parts (drum, downcomers, water walls,
headers, etc). valves mountings, refractory, insulation and outer casing, hangers, supports and
steel work.
(2) Super heaters., reheaters economiser, burners, vents, drains, flash tanks, and blow down
tank.
The turbine consists of the stator and the rotor, which convert chemical energy to mechanical energy and
it is in three stages namely, high pressure, intermediate pressure and low pressure turbine.
The generator converts mechanical energy to electrical energy

The steam is generated in the boiler by filling up the drum to half its level with demineralized
water which was treated from well water and stored in demineralized water tank. The boiler
filling pump is used to pump the water from the demineralized water tank to the drum in the
boiler. The drum pressure is about 13490kPa and temperature of 3340C at full load (220MW).
Before heat can be generated, three things must be present in the burner, the fuel (natural gas),
the air and the igniter. Forced Draft Fan (FDF) is used to extract air from the surrounding with a
discharge temperature of 107.190C and passes through the gas air heater which increases the
temperature of the air, in the presence of this three parameters, the burner is started from a panel
which causes combustion of fuel to take place, and the heat generated from the combustion heats
up the water in the drum , the steam generated then passes through the primary and secondary
super heater to increase the temperature of the steam to about 5380C and a pressure of 12910kPa.
This steam is then piped to the high pressure turbine to turn the rotor, at this point the
temperature and pressure of the steam leaving this point is reduced to about 3510Cand 690kPa
respectively.
This steam is then channelled back to the reheater which increases the temperature and the
pressure of the steam to about 5410C and 3130kPa respectively, before being channelled to the
intermediate pressure turbine to turn the rotor. The steam leaving this point then goes to the low
pressure turbine to turn the rotor. Since the low pressure turbine is placed on a condenser unit,

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the used steam leaving this junction is then condensed back to water by allowing this steam to
get in contact with circulating water in a shell and tube heat exchanger. The condensed and
cooled steam which is now water, is stored in a hot well for recirculation,.and is used as a make
up in the drum.
For continous action of the process, condensate extraction pump (CEP) pumps the water from
the hot well with a discharge pressure of 920kPa and temperature of 44.30C. It is then passed
through the steam jet air ejector to remove any air from the water. It also passes through the
gland condenser for further condensation. To increase the pressure and temperature of the steam,
a condensate booster pumps (CBP) are used to accomplished this action. The CBP pumps the
water to the low pressure heater (LP) which are three in numbers to increase the temperature of
the water, before it goes to the dearator which also removes air from the water, and also serves as
heat exchanger and storage tank. At Egbin Power Plant the dearator is at the sixth floor while the
boiler feed that increases the temperature from 170.50C to 173.00C and pressure from 1030kPa to
14800kPa. This great increase in the pressure is caused by gravity of the water from the sixth
floor to the 1st floor.
After gaining heat from the heater, it is then moved to the economizer which also serves as heat
exchanger, to increase temperature from 2370C to 2640C and reduced pressure from 13760kPa to
13490kPa.
All these actions are to make sure that the pressure and temperature of recycled water is nearly
approximate to that of the drum, in order to avoid thermal expansion which could lead to boiler
drum explosion.

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FIG 1: GENERAL OVERVIEW OF THE PLANT: source [Egbin Power Plant Operational
Manual]

Methodology

In this work, the HAZOP study process involves the use of relevant keyword combinations to the
equipment in question in an effort to uncover potential problems. The results are recorded in
columnar format under the following headings:
KEYWORD DEVIATION POSSIBE CAUSES CONSEQUENCE ACTION REQUIRED

.
DEFINITION OF TERMS.
KEYWORDS
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These are simple words which are used to qualify or quantify the intention in order to guide and
stimulate the brainstorming process and so discover deviations The keywords are used to ensure
that the design is explored in every conceivable way.
DEVIATION
The keyword combination being applied (e.g. Flow/No).
POSSIBLE CAUSES
Potential causes which would result in the deviation occurring. (e.g. Boiler Feed pump failure,
discharge valve fails to open).
CONSEQUENCE
The consequences which would arise, both from the effect of the deviation (e.g. "overspeeding of
the turbine rotor which could lead to turbine tripping.").
ACTION REQUIRED
Where a credible cause results in a negative consequence, it must be decided whether some
action should be taken. It is at this stage that consequences are considered. If it is deemed that
the protective measures are adequate, then no action need be taken, and words to that effect are
recorded in the action column.
Actions fall into two groups:
Actions that remove the cause.
Actions that mitigate or eliminate the consequences.

Whereas the former is to be preferred, it is not always possible, especially when dealing with
equipment malfunction. However, removing the cause first is always taken into cnsideration,
and only where necessary, mitigate the consequences. [lawley,1974]

HAZOP RESULT
HAZOP Study: BOILER DRUM OUTLET -- SUPERHEAT ER INLET (NODE 1)
Keyword Deviation Possible Causes Consequences Action Required

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NONE No flow (i) Boiler Feed pump (i) Low generation at that (i) provision of make-up water to
(BFP) failure. particular time. assist the flow of water from the hot
(ii) Discharge valve fails to (ii) Reverse rotation of well.
open. BFP. (ii) Stop the pump manually,
(iii) valve overheat. thereby checking for leakages and
carrying out maintenance on the
pump.
MORE More (i) If CEP, CBP and BFP (i) Banging sound along (i) Stop CBP and reducing BFP
OF Flow are running at low load the line of flow which flow.
less than 55MW. could lead to high
(ii) If BFP discharge is vibration.
more than 647,504 kg/h.
More (i) Excess burning at a (i) Destroys the drum (i) Install water spray on the
Temperat particular Load (MW). water wall tubes due to primary and secondary
ure (ii) If inlet temperature of overheating of the tubes superheaters.
the steam is more than (downcomers and tube
486 0C. risers), and could lead to
drum explosion.
More (i) Allowing more (i) carry over of wet steam (i) Installation of safety relief valve
Pressure discharge at the BFP. to the High Pressure to vent off the excess pressure.
(ii) If the inlet pressure of turbine, and can lead to
the steam is more than turbine blade corrosion.
14,320 kPa.
LESS OF Less Flow (i) Low BFP discharge. (i) High temperature at the (i) Start up the CBP to assist the
(ii) Tripping of BFP and drum to the turbine. flow of water.
CEP. (ii) Increasing BFP flow.
(ii) If BFP discharge is less
than 647,504 kg/h.
Less (i) Less number of burners (i) Reduce generation (i) Starting more burners to add
Temperat- working. capacity less than 55MW. more heat thereby raising the
(ii) Tripping off of temperature.

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burners.
(iii) If the inlet steam
temperature is less than
486 0C.
Less (i) Allowing more (i) Leads to low (i) Start up the CBP to assist the
Pressure discharge at the BFP. generation. flow of water.
(ii) If the inlet pressure of (ii) Increasing BFP flow.
the steam is less than
14,320 kPa.
OTHER Maintena (i) Equipment failure. (i) Main unit stop. (i) Ensure all equipment are
working at high capacity, and they
should be made of right materials.
e.g, pipes, e.t.c

HAZOP Study: SUPERHEATER OUTLET—HIGH PRESSUR E TURBINE INLET


(NODE 2)
Keyword Deviation Possible Causes Consequences Action Required
NONE No flow (i) Operator error (i) Loss of unit / (i) The main stop valve should be
(ii) Malfunctioning of generation. opened manually before 15 seconds.
main stop valve .
MORE More Flow (i) If CEP, CBP and (i) Overspeeding of the (i) Stop CBP and reducing BFP
OF BFP are running at turbine rotor which could flow.
low load less than lead to turbine tripping.
55MW.
(ii) If BFP discharge
is more than 647,504
kg/h.
More (i) Excess burning at a (i) Damage to the (i) Install water spray on the primary
Temperatur particular Load superheaters because they and Secondary superheaters.
e (MW). are made of tubes.
(ii) If inlet

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temperature of the
steam is more than
541 0C.

More (i) Allowing more (i) carry over of wet steam (i) Installation of safety relief valve
Pressure discharge at the BFP. to the high pressure turbine, to vent off the excess pressure.
(ii) If the inlet and can lead to turbine
pressure of the steam blade corrosion.
is more than 12,500
kPa.
LESS OF Less Flow (i) Low BFP (i) High temperature at the (i) Start up the CBP to assist the
discharge. drum to the turbine. flow of water.
(ii) Tripping of BFP (ii) Increase BFP flow.
and CEP.
(iii) If BFP discharge
is less than 647,504
kg/h.
Less (i) Less number of (i) Reduce generation (i) Starting more burners to add
Temperatur burners working. capacity less than 55MW. more heat thereby raising the
(ii) Tripping of temperature.
burners.
(ii) If inlet
temperature of the
steam is less than 541
0
C.
Less (ii) If the inlet (i) Leads to low generation. (i) As stated for less flow.
Pressure pressure of the steam
is more than 12,500
kPa.
OTHER Maintenanc (i) Equipment failure. (i) Main unit stops. (i) Ensure all equipment are working
at high capacity, and they should be

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made of right materials. e.g, pipes,
e.t.c

HAZOP Study: HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE OUTLET – REHEATER INLET


(NODE 3)
Keyword Deviation Possible Causes Consequences Action Required
NONE No flow (i) Boiler Feed pump (i) Boiler tube metal (i) Add external steam to the
failure. temperature goes high. reheater to reduce temperature and
(ii) Discharge valve increase flow.
fails to open.
MORE More Flow (i) If the discharge (i) Low temperature of the (i) Taking out the one that is
OF valve opening does steam. malfunctioning by replacing it with
not correspond to the (ii) In-balance in flow the standby.
what is on the gauge. process resulting into
(ii) If BFP discharge is power surge.
more than 630,572 (iii) wear of reheater
kg/h. tubes.
More (i) Running of more (i) Causes thermal stress (i) Opening the heater spray to
Temperature temperature burner on the tubes which cause reduce the temperature of the steam.
than pressure burner. the material of
(ii) Malfunctioning of construction to be
the reheat master. weakened or temperature
(ii) If inlet rising above 580 0C.
temperature of the
steam is more than
374 0C.
More (i) If the inlet pressure (i) Rupture the reheater (i) Regular calibration of pumps and
Pressure of the steam is more tubes. discharge valves.
than 3,780 kPa. (ii) Frequent checks on safety relief
valves relative to the pressure they
hold.

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LESS OF Less Flow (i) Boiler feed pump (i) Boiler tube metal (i) Check for pump availability
failure. temperature high. relative to their maximum rating.
(ii) Discharge valve (ii) Loss of unit. (ii) Carrying out preventive
fails to open. maintenance of pump and valves.
Less (i) Loss of lagging (i) The reheater will not (i) Re-lagging of the pipes.
Temperature material along the be able to increase the
pipeline. temperature to desirable
(ii) If inlet limit required by the
temperature of the intermediate pressure
steam is less than 374 turbine.
0
C.
Less (i) If the inlet pressure (i) Cavitation, by sucking (i) Increasing the pressure by
Pressure of the steam is more in external material when increasing the firing rate of the
than 3,780 kPa. there is no steam to pump. burners at the lower level.
OTHER Maintenanc (i) Equipment failure. (i) Main unit stop. (i) Ensure all equipment are working
at high capacity, and they should be
made of right materials. e.g, pipes,
e.t.c

HAZOP Study: REHEATER OUTLET – INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE TURBINE


INLET (NODE 4)
Keyword Deviation Possible Causes Consequences Action Required
NONE No flow (i) Boiler Feed pump (i) Low generation at that (i) provision of make-up water to
failure. particular time. assist the flow of water from the hot
(ii) Discharge valve (ii) Reverse rotation of well.
fails to open. BFP. (ii) Stop the pump manually, thereby
(iii) Valve overheat. checking for leakages and carrying
out maintenance on the pump.

MORE More Flow (i) If CEP, CBP and (i) Banging sound along (i) Stop CBP and reducing BFP

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OF BFP are running at the line of flow which flow.
low load less than could lead to high
55MW. vibration.
(ii) If BFP discharge is
more than 579,724
kg/h.
More (i) Excess burning at a (i) Weakening of pipe (i) Reduce firing at the upper level
Temperature particular load (MW). carrying the steam thereby burners.
(ii) If inlet weakening the materials (ii) Regular checks on thermo probe.
temperature of the of construction.
steam is more than (ii) Cause expansion in the
541 0C. turbine blades and shell
which causes both of them
to come in contact with
each other and could lead
to wear and tear.
More (i) If the inlet pressure (i) Breaking of turbine (i) Reducing the pressure by
Pressure of the steam is more blades, buckets. reducing the firing rate of the
than 3,780 kPa. burners at the lower level.
LESS OF Less Flow (i) If CEP, CBP and (i) Boiler tube metal (i) Check for pump availability
BFP are running at temperature high. relative to their maximum rating.
low load less than (ii) Loss of unit. (ii) Carrying out preventive
55MW. maintenance of pump and valves.
(ii) If BFP discharge is
less than 579,724
kg/h.

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Less (i) If inlet temperature (i) The reheater will not (i) The reheater will not be able to
Temperature of the steam is less be able to increase the increase the temperature to desirable
than 541 0C. temperature to desirable limit required by the intermediate
(ii) Loss of lagging limit required by the pressure turbine.
material along the intermediate pressure
pipeline. turbine.

Less (i) If the inlet pressure (i) Cavitation, by sucking (i) Increasing the pressure by
Pressure of the steam is less in external material when increasing the firing rate of the
than 3,780 kPa. there is no steam to pump. burners at the lower level.
OTHER Maintenanc (i) Equipment failure. (i) Main unit stop. (i) Ensure all equipment are working
at high capacity, and they should be
made of right materials. e.g, pipes,
e.t.c

HAZOP Study: NATURAL GAS TO THE BURNER (NODE 5)


Keyword Deviation Possible Causes Consequences Action Required
NONE No Flow (i) None availability of (i) No firing. (i) Making natural gas available
natural gas from (ii) No generation. from time to time.
Nigerian Gas (ii) Carrying out maintenance on
Company (NGC). slam shut valve.
(ii) Malfunctioning of (iii) Carrying out maintenance on
natural gas slam shut burners and accessories.
valve.
(iii) Malfunctioning of
burners and
accessories.
MORE More Flow (i) High pipeline flow (i) Causes incomplete (i) Add excess air to neutralize the
OF rate above 548,310 combustion in the furnace. excess gas.
m3/h from NGC. (ii) Unit loss due to excess (ii) Recalibration of the gas flow
(ii) Malfunctioning of gas flow at fire (by the control valve.

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natural gas slam shut master fuel trip)
valve.
More The temperature of the
Temperature natural gas is being
controlled by NGC.
More (i) High pipeline (i) Carry over of (i) Shut down the plant manually.
Pressure pressure above 2590 condensate to the boiler
kPa from NGC. furnace which could lead
(ii) Malfunctioning of to boiler explosion.
natural gas slam shut
valve.
LESS Less Flow (i) Low pipeline flow (i) Causes incomplete (i) Increase pressure from NGC.
OF rate below 548,310 combustion in the furnace. (ii) Carrying out maintenance on
m3/h from NGC. slam shut valve
(ii) Malfunctioning of
natural gas slam shut
valve.
Less The temperature of the
Temperature natural gas is being
controlled by NGC.
Less (i) Low pipeline (i) Low pressure at any (i) Reduction of load / generation.
Pressure pressure below 2,590 level of the burner will
kPa from NGC. trip the three burners at
that level thereby tripping
the unit / plant.
OTHER Maintenanc (i) Equipment failure. (i) Main unit stop. (i) Ensure all equipment are working
at high capacity, and they should be
made of right materials. e.g, pipes,
e.t.c

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HAZOP Study: FORCED DRAFT FAN INLET TO THE BURNER (NODE 6)
Keyword Deviation Possible Causes Consequences Action Required
NONE No Flow (i) Fan failure. (i) No primary air for (i) Carrying out maintenance on the
initial light-off. forced draft fan.
MORE More Flow (i) Fan failure. (i) Incomplete combustion (i) Using excess air correction by
OF (i) If the air flow to the (ii) Can lead to pipe reducing the volume of air.
burner is more than wearing and also to
837,800 kg/h. explosion.
(iii) Can extinguish fire
and cause unit trip.
More
Temperature
More (i) Malfunctioning of (i) Incomplete (i) Using excess air correction by
Pressure the windbox combustion. reducing the volume of air.
(i) If the inlet pressure (ii) Can lead to pipe
of the air is more than rupture and also lead to
108.31 kPa. explosion.
LESS Less Flow (i) Loss of Forced (i) Incomplete combustion (i) Using excess air correction by
OF draft fan. increasing the volume of air.
(ii) If the air flow to
the burner is less than
837,800 kg/h.
Less
Temperature

Less (i) Malfunctioning of (i) Incomplete combustion (i) Using excess air correction by
Pressure the windbox. increasing the volume of air.
(i) If the inlet pressure
of the air is more than

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105.91 kPa.
OTHER Maintenance. (i) Equipment failure. (i) Main unit stop. (i) Ensure all equipment are working
at high capacity, and they should be
made of right materials. e.g, pipes,
e.t.c

HAZOP Study: ECONOM IZER INLET (NODE 7)


Keyword Deviation Possible Causes Consequences Action Required
NONE No Flow (i) High Pressure (i) No supply of feed (ii) Maintenance of High Pressure
Heater failure. water to the economizer Heater.
(ii) Loss of Boiler (iii) Starting Boiler Feed Pump.
Feed Pump.
MORE More Flow (i) Two Boiler Feed (i) High quantity of (i) Stopping one Boiler Feed Pump.
OF Pumps working at 50% dissolved-oxygen going to
maximum continuous the economizer.
rating (MCR).
(ii) If BFP discharge is
more than 627,504
kg/h.
More (i) Malfunctioning of (i) High temperature at the (i) By by-passing the high pressure
Temperature high pressure heater. economizer which if allow heater to another one.
(ii) If inlet to go the boiler drum
temperature of the feed would cause thermal
water is more than expansion at the drum and
236.6 0C. this will result to boiler
drum explosion.
More (i) If the inlet pressure (i) Can break the baffles (i) Decreasing the BFP flow
Pressure of the feed water is in the economizer. (ii) Stop the pump manually, and
more than 13,740 kPa. check for leakages and carrying out
(ii) Boiler feed pump maintenance on the pump.

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(BFP) failure.

LESS Less Flow (i) If BFP discharge is (i)Tripping of the unit at (i) Increasing the BFP flow
OF less than 627,504 kg/h. maximum higher load. (ii) Stop the pump manually, thereby
(ii) Boiler Feed pump (ii) Lead to load run back. checking for leakages and carrying
(BFP) failure out maintenance on the pump.
Less (i) Malfunctioning of (i) Wasting of energy to (i) Increase the temperature of the
Temperature High Pressure Heater. increase the temperature. auxilliary steam.
(ii) If inlet (ii) Low generation.
temperature of the feed
water is less than 236.6
0
C.
Less (i) If the inlet pressure (i) Low generation. (i) Increasing the BFP flow
Pressure of feed water is less (ii) Load run back. (ii) Stop the pump manually, and
than 13,740 kPa. check for leakages and carrying out
(ii) Boiler Feed pump maintenance on the pump.
(BFP) failure.
(iii) leakage along the
pipelines.
OTHER Maintenance (i) Equipment failure. (i) Main unit stop. (i) Ensure all equipment are working
at high capacity, and they should be
made of right materials. E.g, pipes,
e.t.c

HAZOP Study: ECONOMIZER OUTLET – BOILER DRUM INLET (NODE 8)


Keyword Deviation Possible Causes Consequences Action Required
NONE No Flow (i) Malfunctioning of (i) Boiler drum (i) Shut down the unit/plant by
Economizer outlet temperature will rise and closing the main stop valve, so that
valve which is can cause boiler drum the remaining steam on the line will
manually operated. explosion. not flow to the turbine.

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(ii) Tripping of Boiler
Feed pump.

MORE More Flow (i) Malfunctioning of (i) Carry over of wet (i) Control the Boiler Feed Pump
OF Boiler Feed Pump steam to the turbine. manually.
discharge because it
run automatically.
(ii) If BFP discharge is
more than 676,592
kg/h.
More (i) Malfunctioning of (i) It damage (i) Shutting down one of the high
Temperature High Pressure Heater. pressure heater.
(ii) If inlet (ii) Carrying out maintenance on
temperature of the high pressure heater.
feed water is more
than 283 0C.

More (i) If the inlet pressure (i) Over pressurisation of (i) Decreasing the BFP flow.
Pressure of the feed water is the boiler drum giving rise (ii) Stop the pump manually, thereby
more than 13,680 kPa. to breakage of baffles, and checking for leakages and carrying
(ii) Boiler Feed pump also the frequent out maintenance on the pump.
(BFP) failure. occurence of this will lead
to safety valve spring
damage.
LESS Less Flow (i) Malfunctioning of (i) cause improper (i) Control the Boiler Feed Pump
OF Boiler Feed Pump distribution of heat in the manually.
discharge because it boiler tube which cause
run automatically. pigging.
Less (i) Malfunctioning of (i) Carry over of wet (i) Increase firing by turning on
Temperature Economizer due to the steam to the turbine. more burners.
fact that there is no

Proceedings of The First LASPOTECH Engineering, Innovations and Technology Development.


proper utilization of
dissolved-oxygen
which also takes out
heat from the steam.
Less (i) If the inlet pressure (i) Low generation. (i) Increasing the BFP flow.
Pressure of the feed water is (ii) Loss of unit. (ii) Stop the pump manually, thereby
less than 13,680 kPa checking for leakages and carrying
out maintenance on the pump.
OTHER Maintenance (i) Equipment failure. (i) Main unit stop. (i) Ensure all equipment are working
at high capacity, and they should be
made of right materials. E.g, pipes,
e.t.c

CONCLUSION

In the Hazop study carried out, it can be concluded that the major equipment in the boiler section

is the Boiler Feed Pump which determines the pressure and flowrate entering each equipment,

therefore maitenance should be carried out on this equipment frequently, and also there should

be provision for replacement of any of the equipment that is damaged.

Proceedings of The First LASPOTECH Engineering, Innovations and Technology Development.


From the study carried, it was identified that, the most frequent problem encountered in the plant

is the non-availability or less quantity of natural gas from Nigeria Gas Company (NGC).This

calls for more action from the NGC in order to ensure that adequate quantity of gas is supplied to

the power plant/

The plant is designed to operate for 30 years and it has used up to 27 years, therefore, their

should be plan to change most of the units in the coming years.

Finally, if the action required in the hazop result can be employed in this plant, it will go a long

way to improve the maintenance of the equipments which also would improve the generation

capacity of the plant. This result can also be employed by other power plants in existence and

also new ones.

Further work is being done on the remaining sections of the plant.

REFERENCES

Proceedings of The First LASPOTECH Engineering, Innovations and Technology Development.


(1) . Adelaja, A.O, O.Y. Ogunmola and E.O. Williams, (2007). ‘Performance Evaluation of

Egbin Power Plant’. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Lagos,

Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria. E-mail: ao_adelaja@yahoo.com

(2) Egbin power Plant Operation Manuals, vol. 1, Section 2-3.

(3) Crawley, F & B Tyler (2003). “Hazard Identification Methods”, The Institution of

Chemical Engineers,.London

(4) Health and Safety Executive’s website: www.hse.gov.uk

(5) Lawley, H. G., (1974) "Operability studies and hazard analysis".

‘Chemical Engineering Progress’, vol. 70, no 4 Page 45 "

(6) http://books.google.com/books?id=IbLrmejZ2UMC&lpg=PA10&ots=yg21Hs3XK&dq=

hazard%20mode%20active%20dormant&pg=PA8#v=onepage&q=haza-

rd%20mode%20active%20dormant&f=false.

Proceedings of The First LASPOTECH Engineering, Innovations and Technology Development.