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Chapter Twelve

The cultural group that has primary access to institutional and economic power is often
characterized as the Dominant Culture.

Muted group theory suggest, individuals who do not belong to the dominant group are often
silenced by a lack of opportunities to express their experiences, perceptions, and worldviews

** The naive view of intercultural contact-that all intercultural contact are likely to be

Explain the outcomes of intercultural contact--

The initial reactions of acceptance or rejection often shift as increased intercultural contacts produce
different kinds of outcomes. Such changes in in the way people react to intercultural contacts are called
Adaptations​-assimilation, adjustment, acculturation and coping

Adaptation includes
-physical-Eating different food, drink and living in different climates
biological -New viruses and bacteria, new reactions and allergies to the food and environment
social change- Outgroups may become bonded with the ingroups, social gatherings incorporates new
cultures *** pinatas at birthday parties****

Explain culture shock versus adaptation

Cultural Shock -occur when people must deal with a barrage of new perceptual stimuli that are difficult to
interpret because the cultural context has changed. -*the loss of predictability, coupled with the fatigue
that results from the need to stay consciously focused on what would normally be taken for granted
U-Curve Hypothesis-initial contact that is positive, almost euphoric, emotional response, as
fatigue mounts and culture shock sets in -responses are more and more negative, until finally a low point
is reached, then gradually the individual develops a more positive attitude and the new culture seems less
W-Curve Hypothesis-Second wave of culture shock when they re-enter their original culture

Example is driving on the left side to the right and then having to change back.

Explain types of adaptation

Psychological Adaptations-Refers to one’s personal well-being and good mental health
while in the intercultural setting
Sociocultural adaptation-one’s competence in managing the everyday social interactions
that occur in daily life.

Explain forms of acculturation

Incorporation​ refers to the free borrowing and modification of cultural elements and occurs
when people of different cultures maintain contact as well as political and social
directed change​ occurs when one group establishes dominance over another through military
conquest or political control; thus, ​imperialism​ is the most common ​precursor​ to directed change.
Like incorporation, directed change involves the selection and modification of cultural
characteristics. However, these processes are more varied and the results more complex because
they derive from the interference in one cultural system by members of another.

What are ethical considerations for intercultural competence?

Three Key ethical dilemmas:
1) “When in rome, do as the Romans do.”
2) Is it possible to judge a particular belief, value, norm, or social practice as morally
reprehensible if so when and under what circumstances?** Are cultural values Relative
or universal?
3) Are they necessarily positive for individuals and their societies? Should all intercultural
contacts be encouraged?**8 do the ends justify the means

Whose responsibility is it to attempt to take into account cultural differences in communication?

Is it the responsibility of the visitors, newcomers, or sojourners (a temp resident) to adjust their
behaviors to the cultural framework of the host culture
Should people engage in behaviors that they regard as personally wrong or difficult?
At what point do people lose their own sense of self, their cultural identities and their moral
At what point does the adoption of new cultural behaviors offend and insult others?

Are cultural values relative or universal?

Cultural values are both relative and universal depending on you perspective.
David Kale suggests there are two central values that transcend all cultures
1) All people desire to improve their world and maintain that their own sense of dignity, always
within the context of their own particular culture. Thus, a universal principle of intercultural
communication should be to protect everyone’s worth and dignity.
2) The second universal value is a world at peace. All ethical codes must recognize the importance
of working toward a world in which people can live at peace with themselves and with one