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Quarter 2

LESSON: Produce Vegetables

Module 3: Growing seedlings

1. Classifications of vegetable crops


2. Select quality seeds
3. Prepare growing media and sow seeds
4. Care and management of seedlings

Pictures - courtesyof Jones Rural School, Jones, Isabela

Content Standard Performance Standards

The learner demonstrates The learner independently grows


understanding in growing seedlings. seedlings in accordance with the
standard procedures specified in the
Vegetable Production Manual (VPM).

Courtesy to
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Introduction

This module shall develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes in


growing of vegetable seedlings. It specifically discusses the
classifications/families of vegetable crops, select quality seeds prepare
growing media and sow seeds, and care and management of seedlings.

Classifications of Vegetable
Lesson 1 Crops

Learning Competencies/Objectives

This lesson has the following learning competencies/objectives:

1. Botanical classification
2. Classification based on edible parts
3. Classification of vegetable crops according to their methods
of culture
4. Classification of vegetable crops according to their
temperature or seasonal requirements

DIAGNOSTIC/PRE-ASSESSMENT

Let us know how much you already know. By doing so, you will know
what are your weaknesses and strengths. You will determine what lesson to
give more time to study.

Directions: Read and understand very well the questions. Select the best
answer by writing only the letter in your quiz note book.

1. Which among the family of vegetable crops is commonly used as


condiments and for medicinal purposes?
a. Allium family
b. Cucurbitaceae family

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c. Cruciferaceae family
d. Solanaceae family
2. Which among the following crops do not belong to Solanaceae
family?
a. Tomato
b. Eggplant
c. Ladies finger
d. Sweet pepper
3. Most of the vegetables under Cucurbitaceae family possess
tendrils and vines for crawling or climbing on a trellis. Which
among the following crops is not a cucurbit?
a. Squash
b. Snap beans
c. Bottle gourd
d. Bitter gourd
4. This family of vegetable crops is rich in protein and commonly
regarded as the “poor man’s meat”.
a. Leguminosae family
b. Cucurbitaceae family
c. Crucifereae family
d. Solanaceae family
5. This method of classification was developed by botanists for the
purpose of identifying plants and usually it is based on
relationships among different plants.
a. Botanical classification
b. Classification Based on Edible Parts
c. Classification of Vegetable Crops According to Their Methods
of Culture
d. Classification of Vegetable Crops According to Their
Temperature or Seasonal Requirements

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What to know

Activity 1. Let me get to know you


Look at the pictures of vegetables that will be flashed on screen.
Identify them by writing their names. You are given 5 mandatory counts to
identify each picture being flashed. Write your answers in your activity
notebook.
Determine the classifications of vegetables that you know. Classify the
vegetables you identified previously. Present your output to the class in three
minutes.

Reading Resources and Instructional Activities

Classifications of vegetables
According to Asuncion (1983), there are several ways of classifying
vegetables such as:

1. Botanical Classification of Vegetables


This method of classification was developed by botanists for the
purpose of identifying plants and usually it is based on relationships among
different plants.

1. Monocotyledonous (Examples)
Family Name Scientific Name English Name
Grass Family – Zea mays L. Corn
Gramineae Allium sativum L. Garlic
Allium cepa L. Onion
Lily Family – Asparagus officinalis L. Asparagus
Liliaceae Allium fistulosum Green onions

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2. Dicotyledonous (Examples)
Mustard Family - Brassica oleracea L. Cabbage
Cruciferae Var. Capitata L.
Brassica oleracea L. Cauliflower
Var. Botrytis L.
Brassica juncea Leaf mustrad
Brassica pekinensis Pechay
Raphanus sativus Raddish
Pea Family – Dolichos lablab Egyptian bean
Leguminoseae Phaseolus vulgaris “batao"
Vigna sinensis Snap beans
Sesbania grandiflora “habichuelas”
Phaseolus lunatus Cowpea “paayap”
Pachyrrhizus erosus Sesban “katuray”
Lima bean “patani”
Yam bean “sincamas”
Nightshade Family Solanum melongena L. Eggplant
– Lycopersicon esculentum Tomato
Solanaceae Capsicum frutescene Sweet pepper
Capsicum annum Pepper
Solanum tuberosum Potato
Gourd Family – Cucumis melo Common muskmelon
Cucurbitaceae Cucumis sativus Cucumber
Cucurbita maxima Squash
Momordica charantia Bitter gourd
“ampalaya”
Leganaria siceraria Spaghetti sqauash
“Upo”
Vegetable gourd

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Luffa acutangula “patolang tagalog”
Luffa cylindrica Sponge gourd
“patola”
Benincasa hispida Wax gourd “condol
Morning glory Ipomea batatas Sweet potato
Family “camote”
Convolvulaceae Ipomea aquatica Swamp cabbage
“kangkong”
Parsley Family – Daucus carota L Carrot
umbelliferae Apium graveolens L. Celery
Pastinaca saiva L. parsnip

According to INGO (2005), the classifications of vegetableare:

 FamilyAlliaceae
 Family Brassicaceae
 Family Cucurbitaceae
 Family Leguminosae
 Family Solanaceae

The Allium Family

INGO (2005) states that Family


Alliaceae or alliums are noxious bulbous
perennials with grass-like leaves. Bulbs
consist of a short, thick stem axis (basal
plate) with a growing point surrounded by fleshy scale leaves. Short,
fibrous roots develop from the bottom of the basal plate. Soft and hard-
coated bulblets are produced in the axils of the scale leaves. Examples of
the alliums are garlic and onions.

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Anonymous (2011) reported that onion (Allium cepa L.) is arguably the
most important cooking ingredient in the
world. It is grown throughout the world for
its pungent bulbs and flavorful leaves.
Because of its sharp taste and pungent
aroma, onions are much sought after a
seasoning for meat, fish and vegetable
Picture courtesy of Jones Rural School, Jones, Isabela
dishes. On the other hand, onions have
also medicinal properties and used as cure
for cough, insomnia, hemorrhoid, and Picture- courtesy of Jones Rural School, Jones, Isabela

constipation.
Garlic (Allium sativumL.) is referred to as the king of all spices. It is a
pungent bulb that is one of the most important cooking ingredients in the
world.
In the Philippines, garlic is considered as a key commercial crop with
great potential for export. Garlic is used extensively as food, condiment,
and for medicinal purposes. It is a good source of calcium, phosphorous,
and potassium. Its leaves are rich sources of vitamins A and C. It also
contains allicin, an antibacterial compound that slows down the growth of
certain bacteria and fungi. It is often used in folk medicine to treat wounds,
toothache, sore throat, and fungal skin diseases like athlete’s foot and
ringworm.
The Brassicaceae Family
The Brassicaceae or Mustard Family is a large natural or major
economic importance containing a diverse variety of crop plants grown for
salads, vegetables, condiments, and ornamentals. INGO (2005), discusses
the two classifications of vegetable crops belonging to this family: the Cole
crops where the cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, kale, collard, mustard,
Chinese cabbage, kohlrabi, and brussel sprouts belong, and the root crops
where turnip and radish belong.

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This family of plants has a wide variety of economic uses, most
importantly as a vegetable crop. Many cruciferous crops are used as
condiments and garnishes such as mustard and lettuce. Important crops are
propagated by seeds while the minor crops such as watercress, horseradish
and sea kale are vegetative propagated.

Cabbage Brocolli Pechay Lettuce


Pictures - courtesy of Jones Rural School, Jones, Isabela

The Family Cucurbitaceae

The Cucurbitaceae, commonly known as the gourd or melon family, includes a number
of popular and important vegetables. The most commonly known cucurbitaceous are
watermelon, summer squash, and pumpkin. Among minor crops are citron, gherkin,
and chayote.
Ampalaya (Momordicacharantia) also known
as amargoso orbitter gourd is a tropical and
sub-tropicalvine of the cucurbitaceaefamily.
This is one of the most popular and versatile
vegetable plants which caught the attention of
health scientists worldwide due to its
medicinal properties
Picture - Courtesy Jones Rural School, Jones,
Isabela
In the Philippines, ampalaya fruits, shoots, and leaves are eaten
boiled, sautéed, or pickled. This vegetable is rich in vitamin A (shoots and
leaves) and vitamin c, iron, and calcium from the fruits.
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Cucurbitaceous crops are mostly prostrate or climbing herbaceous
annuals
comprising about 90 genera and 700 species according to INGO. Other
commonly grown cucurbitaceous crops are bottle gourd (upo) and dishrag
gourd (patola).

Bottle gourd Sponge gourd Chayote

Pictures - courtesy of Jones Rural School, Jones, Isabela


The Family Leguminosae
The Family Leguminoseae is one of the largest and most useful plant
families with 17,000 species distributed almost throughout the world, as
reported by INGO (2005). It includes many well-known vegetables
particularly of temperate regions ( beans and peas), ornamental trees in
tropical regions (Bauhinia, Flamboyant, Cassia), fodder crops (Clover,
Lucerne) and weeds (Vetches and Trefolis), and their growth habits vary from
ground cover and aquatic to shrubs, climbers and trees.

Pole sitaoMongo
Courtesy of Jones Rural School, Jones, Isabela

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The Solanaceae Family

Tomato Eggplant

Pictures - courtesy of Jones Rural School, Jones, Isabela

The term solanaceous crops generally refers to plants in the nightshade


family, Solanaceae, within theGenera Capsicum (peppers), Lycopersicon
(tomato), and Solanum (eggplant and potato). When referring to fruiting
vegetables, all of the above except potato, a root/tuber crop, are included.
http://www.ent.uga.edu/veg/solanaceous.htm

Members of the family are characterized by solitary or clustered flowers


with sepals and petals, five in number and fused; five stamens; and a
superior ovary (i.e., one situated above the attachment point of the
other flower parts), composed of two fused carpels (ovule-bearing segments)
and obliquely placed in the flower upon a basal disk of tissue. The style
(upper end of the ovary) is simple and bears a Figure 1lobed stigma, the
pollen-receptive surface. The flowers are usually conspicuous and are visited
by insects.http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/552838/Solanaceae

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The tomatoes, on the other hand,
contain very good levels of vitamin A,
and flavonoid anti-oxidants such as α
and ß-carotenes, xanthins, and lutein.
Altogether, these pigment compounds
are found to have antioxidant
properties and take part in vision,
maintain healthy mucus membranes
and skin, and bone health. Consumption of natural vegetables and fruits rich
in flavonoids is known to help protect from lung and oral cavity cancers.
Additionally, they are also good sources of antioxidant vitamin-C and (provide
21% of recommended daily levels per 100 g). Consumption of foods rich in
vitamin C helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and
scavenge harmful free radicals.

Fresh tomato is very rich in potassium. 100 g contains 237 mg of


potassium and just 5 mg of sodium. Potassium is an important component of
cell and body fluids that helps control heart rate and blood pressure caused
by sodium.

Furthermore, they contain moderate levels of vital B-complex vitamins


such as folates, thiamin, niacin, and riboflavin as well some essential minerals
like iron, calcium, manganese, and other trace elements. http://www.nutrition-
and-you.com/tomato.html

2. Classification of Vegetable Crops According to Their Methods of


Culture

Plants may be classified according to their methods of culture. Plants


belonging to this type may be classified according to their basic cultural
requirements:

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1. Root vegetables – The underground parts of these vegetables are
eaten. Examples are sweet potato, Irish potato, radish, carrots, onions,
garlic, and turnips.
2. Fruit Vegetables – The fruits and/or seeds of these vegetables are
eaten. Examples: corn, beans, eggplant, pepper, tomato, mongo,
soybeans, cowpea, okra, cucumber, chayote, wax gourd, and squash.
3. Salad Crops – The leaves of these vegetables are eaten fresh.
Included in this group are lettuce, celery, parsley, watercress, and
endive.
4. Cole Crops – Vegetables belonging to this group are closely related.
Examples: Chinese cabbage, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and
Brussels.
5. Spinach and other Greens (Potherbs) – These vegetables are among
the oldest of the vegetable garden plants grown for their leaves.
Examples: spinach, mustard, kale, collard, and chard.

3. Classification of Vegetable Crops According to Their Temperature


or Seasonal Requirements.

1. Cool Season Crops

a. Leaf – lettuce, spinach, cabbage, pechay, mustard, celery,


onions, and kale.
b. Stem – sweet potato, kangkong, and asparagus
c. Root – radish, beet, carrot, turnip, and parsnip

2. Warm Season crops

a. Fruit – tomatoes, watermelon, cantaloupe, squash, bitter


gourd, chayote, snake gourd, okra, and pepper
b. Root – taro, sweet potato, yam bean, tugi, and ubi
c. Fruits and seeds – bush beans, cowpea, mongo, soybeans,

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lima bean, and string beans.

4. Classification Based on Edible Parts

1. Leaf and Stem – Vegetables belonging to this type of


classification are usually grown for their leaves and stems.
Examples are bamboo shoots, spinach, Chinese cabbage,
amargoso, sprouted mongo, swamp cabbage, kangkong, tender
fern, saluyot, malunggay, green onions, lettuce, and squash.
2. Leaves and Fruits – hot pepper, bitter gourd, cowpea, and
chayote
3. Leaves, Flowers, and Fruits – squash and malunggay,
4. Fruits, Pods, and Seeds – bread fruit, rimas, bitter gourd,
chayote, eggplant, jackfruit, batao, okra, garden, and pea

What to process?

Activity 2

Go to your original grouping.

1. Write as many vegetables that you know and agree


among yourselves the classification of these vegetables.
2. Classify the vegetables you identified previously in Activity
1. Present your output to class in three minutes.
3. Write the classification of vegetables in the left boxes and
examples of plants beside the boxes. Present your ideas
following the chart below in 3 minutes.

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What to reflect and understand

Activity 3. Think – Pair – Share strategy

1. Get your partner. Visit your vegetable garden. See how the
vegetables are arranged. Make a vegetable garden plan where
all the classifications of vegetable plants will be presented.

What to transfer

Activity 4

To show a mastery of the lesson on the classifications of vegetable crops,


prepare one piece of flat galvanized iron or wood measuring 7cm X 26cm
for you to write the scientific name of the vegetables present in your
school vegetable garden. Your material must be painted with white and
the letters in black. Follow the sample below.

CN – Eggplant
SN – Solanum melongena

This will be erected beside the eggplants

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Quarter 3

LESSON: Produce Vegetables

Module 3: Growing seedlings

Content Standard Performance Standards

The learner demonstrates The learner independently selects


understanding in selecting quality seeds in accordance with the
quality seeds. standard procedures specified in the
Vegetable Production Manual (VPM).

Selecting quality seeds


Lesson 2

Introduction

This lesson deals with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes in selecting
quality vegetable seeds to plant.

Learning Competencies/Objectives

This lesson has the following learning competencies/objectives:

1. Characteristics of good seeds


2. Seed testing
3. Percentage germination of seeds

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DIAGNOSTIC/PRE-ASSESSMENT

A. Multiple Choice. Direction: Read and understand very well the questions.
Select the best answer by writing only the letter in your test note book.

1. Almost all parts of the plant can be used as planting materials. What is that
part of the plant that develops into a young plant through the process of
germination whose primary function is for reproduction?

a. Leaf
b. Seed
c. Stem
d. Root
2. Seeds for planting purposes must be of good quality to obtain quality
seedlings and quality and quantity produce. Which is not a characteristic
of quality seeds?
a. Viable
b. Immature
c. True-to-type
d. Free from seed-borne diseases and impurities
3. It is important to test the viability of the seeds before planting them in the
field. Which is not true about seed testing?
a. Find out the percentage of germination of the seeds.
b. Determine whether or not the seeds are viable, clean, and true-
to-type.
c. Seed testing does not economize labor and expenses in
replanting.
d. Determine the amount of seeds/seedlings needed to plant a
certain area.
4. Growing seedlings requires patience and extra care. Vegetable seeds for
transplanting purposes could be grown using different materials. Which
are recycled materials for growing seedlings?
a. Seed beds
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b. Seed trays
c. Seed boxes
d. Used plastic cups/tin cans
5. You need to test the seeds for planting to attain good results. Which is
not a method of seed testing?
a. Winnowing
b. Floating in water
c. Breaking the seed coat
d. Using better storage facilities
B. Compute for the percentage germination of the seed. ( 5 points)
Problem: Mr. Cruz received free seeds of tomato from a
friend who is a vegetable grower in his community. To determine if the
seeds are viable, he sowed 50 seeds using a 50-hole-seed tray. After
a week he found out that only 40 seeds germinated. What is the
percentage germination of the tomato seeds he tested?

Reading Resources and Instructional Activities

Select quality seeds

A seed is a fertilized and ripened ovule which may develop into a plant
by germination. Its primary function is for reproduction. Because of this, the
vegetable grower must be knowledgeable about seeds specially for planting
purposes. He must be familiar with the characteristics of good quality seeds
such as being:

 Viable which is the ability of the seed to germinate and continue its
growth and development until the reserved food has been consumed
by the young plant.
 Clean when there are no impurities or mixtures of any kind.
 Free from seed-borne diseases

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 Free from damages
 Matured and plum
 True–to-type which means it carries the characteristics of the mother
plant.

Securing Seeds

Usually local vegetable growers plant vegetable seeds that come their
way without realizing where they come from. This is also true of schools and
parents at home who have interests in planting.

According to Calacala (1977), there are two ways of securing the


seeds to be planted:

1. Seeds can be bought from seed stores in the locality or ordered from
reliable seed producers.
2. Seeds can also be produced by farmers themselves for open
pollinated crops.
In securing seeds to plant one must consider the quality of the product
and make sure that the seeds are adapted to the locality. It would be a waste
of time if one would plant seeds that are of low quality, not viable, or not
adapted to the place.

In the early years local vegetable growers used to produce their own
seed stocks to plant because of reasons such as:

 A supply of seeds is always made available.


 A higher percentage of germination is assured.
 Knowledge of the performance of the plant is present.
 An improvement of quality and quantity of the produce is possible

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However, there are also disadvantages of producing your own seeds.
Ordinary farmers may not possess the qualities needed to produce good
seeds. Some of the disadvantages are:

 Seed growing is an exacting work.


 It competes with the normal work in the nursery.
 It calls for knowledge of the principles of plant breeding.
 It calls for keen observation.
Before seeds are sown or planted in the field they must be tested to
determine if these are viable, clean, true-to-type, disease free, and others. By
doing such, the grower will not entail losses in agricultural inputs, time, and
energy.
Seed testing is the operation involved to determine whether or not the
seeds are viable, clean, true-to-type, and to find out the percentage of
germination of seeds. This is performed to find out the amount of
seeds/seedlings to plant in a given area. In that case, sowing the right amount
of seeds will economize labor and expenses in re-planting.

Methods of Seed Testing

There are several ways to test seeds. These methods have been
practiced by local farmers and other crop growers according to Calacala
(1977).

 Breaking the seed coat. This method is practiced with seeds that
have a hard seed coat which impermeable to water and oxygen.

 Winnowing. Seeds are placed in a shallow woven basket or “bilao” to


winnow the seeds. All seeds being blown away are empty and are not
viable. Those that remain in the “bilao” are good seeds.

 Germination test. This may be done in seedbeds, seed boxes, seed


trays, petri dishes, recycled materials, polyethylene bags or in a piece
of cloth (ragdoll method).

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Ragdoll
Seed box Petri dish

Polyethylene bags Recycled plastic cups Seed trays

Pictures – courtesy of Jones Rural School, Jones, Isabela

 Floating in water. According to INGO (2005), seeds usually contain


an embryo inside and some food reserves to provide the energy for
germination. When seeds are placed in water, it could be observed of
that some of the seeds sink and some float. Seeds that sink have a
higher germination rate. It can be expected that the floating seed is not
filled well and may not germinate as readily as the sinking seed. Seeds
that sank are expected to have higher germination rate than those that
float in water because they physiologically matured and with a
complete endosperm. Seeds that float are normally immature, infertile,
or no complete endosperm or embryo

Seed Germination

Germination in its simplest definition is the development of the seed


into a young plant or seedling. Prior to any visual signs of growth, the seeds
must absorb water through the seed coat and micropyle. In addition, the
seeds must be in their proper environmental conditions and is exposed to

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oxygen, favorable temperature, proper amount of moisture, and correct
amount of light. The suitability of the soil should also be considered.
When the seed germinates, the radicle is the first part to emerge. It will
develop into the primary root from which root hairs and lateral roots will
develop. It will establish itself well in the ground before the other parts of the
embryo emerge above the surface of the soil so that the seedlings may not be
easily dislodged from its position and the parts which are soon to be exposed
to the drying influence of the sun and wind and may continually be supplied
with water from the soil.

The portion of the seedling between the radicle and the first leaf-like part
(plumule), are attached to a structure called the hypocotyl which becomes the
stem. The seed leaves and cotyledons encase the embryo and are usually
different in shape from the leaves that the mature plant will produce.

In some cases, when seeds sown fail to germinate, the following maybe
the reasons according to Calacala (1977):

 The seeds are in their dormant stage.


 The seed coat is thick and hard.
 The seeds are immature.
 The seeds have dead embryo.
 The ground is too dry
 The weather is too cold

In order for the seeds to germinate apply special treatment to hasten their
germination. The methods maybe traditional but somehow effective. Treat the
seeds using the following techniques:

 Break, crack, or scarify the seed coat especially seeds having hard
and thick seed coat to allow the entrance of water and oxygen.
 Apply a little heat to activate the dormant seed (hot water treatment).

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This is done by dipping seeds in boiling water for an instant. Avoid over
heating so as not to kill the embryo.
 Employ better storage facilities. The death of the seed embryo due to
faulty storage facilities may be prevented by improving the facilities
where seeds are kept until planting time.
Determining the Percentage Germination of Seeds

Based on the Lecture Notes in Agronomy 11 (NVSIT), there are rules


in computing for the percentage of germinating seeds.

Rule 1: If you test 100 seeds, the number of seeds germinated equals the
percentage germination of the seeds.

Example: You tested 100 seeds of eggplant using the rag doll method, 85
seeds germinated. The percentage germination of the seeds then is 85%.

Rule 2. If you test less than or more than 100 seeds use the formula below in
computing the percentage germination of the seeds.

Example: Mr. X tested 125 seeds of hybrid tomato and 105 germinated. What
is the percentage germination of the tomato seeds?

No. of seeds ger min ated


% Germination = X 100
no. of seeds tested
105
= X 100
125
%G = 84

Rule 3. If you found out that the percentage germination of your seeds is
below 80, you need to adjust your seed bulk. Use the formula below in
adjusting the seed bulk.

amount of seeds needed


Adjusted amount of seed = X 100
% ger min ation
Example:

You needed 200 seedlings to plant your garden. You found out that
your seeds have only 75 % germination. How many seeds will you sow?

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Let: X = the number of seeds to sow or your adjusted seeds

amount of seeds needed


Adjusted amount of seed = x 100
% ger min ation
200
X= x 100
75
X = 266.6 or 267 seeds

What to process

Activity 2

Interview a vegetable grower or an agriculturist in your community


about the following:

1. What are the characteristics of good seeds?


2. What are the sources of seeds for planting purposes?
3. Are the seeds being sold in the market viable?
4. Why is it necessary to test the viability of seeds before planting?
5. What is the importance of knowing the percentage germination of the
seeds?

What to reflect and understand

Activity 3

A. With the use of the fish bone diagram, input ideas as follows:
1. Upper fins – write the characteristics of quality seeds
2. Lower fins – write the methods of seed testing
3. Head – effect of planting quality seeds

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Place your illustration in one whole cartolina to make your work readable.

B. Mr. Cruz tested 75 seeds of tomato which he took from the school
seed bank. He found out that only 53 seeds germinated. What is
the percentage germination of the tomato seeds? Is there a need
for Mr. Cruz to adjust his seed bulk? Why? Why not? If there is a
need to adjust, then compute for the adjusted seed bulk.
C. What happens if you planted a wide area with seeds that are not
viable because you failed to test their viability?

What to transfer

Activity 4

Have you ever tried any of the methods of seed testing? If not, then let us try
some of the methods. Go to your own groups and draw your task to perform.

Task 1 – seed testing with the use of petri dish

Task 2 - ragdoll method of seed testing

Task 3 - use a seed box in germinating the seeds.

After the seeds have germinated, determine the percentage


germination of the seeds you sown or tested.

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Quarter 3

LESSON: Produce Vegetables

Module 3: Growing seedlings

Content Standard Performance Standards

The learner demonstrates The learner independently prepares


understanding in preparing the growing media and sows seeds in
growing media. accordance with the standard
procedures specified in the
Vegetable Production Manual (VPM).

Preparing Growing Media and


Lesson 3
Sowing of Seeds

Introduction

This lesson deals with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes in preparing
growing media and sowing of seeds.

Learning Competencies/Objectives

This lesson has the following learning competencies/objectives:

1. Components of the growing media


2. Soil sterilization
3. Sowing seeds

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DIAGNOSTIC/PRE-ASSESSMENT

Direction:

A. Read and understand very well the questions. Select the best
answer by writing only the letter in your test note book.
1. Which is not a part of the process for preparing the growing media?

a. Thoroughly mix the components.


b. Gather the components of equal amount.
c. Collect any available materials as your growing media.
d. Sterilize the media to suppress soil-borne diseases.
2. We sterilize the soil to ensure that the production of seedlings is free
from any soil-borne diseases. Which of the following methods of soil
sterilization is not environment friendly?
a. Solarization
b. Biofumigation
c. Chemical treatment
d. Pouring boiling water on to the soil
3. Which of the following is not true about raising seedlings in trays?
a. It produces less seeds and promotes uniform growth of superior
seedlings.
b. It minimizes transplanting shock and lowers seedlings mortality.
c. It saves on labor for thinning, weeding, and watering.
d. It allows frequent cultivation and pest management.
4. Which one is not a benefit of growing media?
a. It achieves high porosity.
b. Water retention is improved.
c. It provides adequate aeration.
d. It influences the growth of microorganisms.
5. Which of the following are the most common methods of sterilizing the
soil?
a. Biofumigation and solarization
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b. Chemical and biofumigation
c. Solarization and pouring boiling water
d. Chemical method and pouring boiling water

B. What are the steps in sowing of seeds?

What to know

Activity 1
1. Have you ever heard about the growing media?
2. If you grow your vegetable seedlings what preparations
should you do?
3. Below is a chart. Copy it in your notebooks. In boxes 1, 2,
3, and 4 give the components of the growing media that
you know and describe each.

1. 2.

components of the
growing media

3. 4.

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Reading Resources and Instructional Activities

Teachers and students observing the production Mixing of the growing media
of carbonized rice hull (CRH)
Courtesy of the Jones Rural School, Jones, Isabela

There are numerous factors affecting the growth of vegetable


seedlings and transplants. These are the types of growing media, water
management, and nutrient management used in the greenhouse.
“Growing media for vegetable seedlings or field transplants in
greenhouses contain a variety of soilless ingredients such as peat moss,
vermiculite, perlite, shredded coconut husks (coir dust), or composted
materials plus starter nutrients and a wetting agent. Field soils are
generally unsatisfactory for the production of plants in containers because
soils do not provide the aeration, drainage and water holding capacity
required. They also need to be sterilized to prevent the development of
diseases and germination of weed seeds”.
“Growing media are designed to achieve high porosity and water
retention while providing adequate aeration. Premixed media is common in
the greenhouse industry. Suppliers offer a diversity of mixes that are
available repacked (in bags, bales, super sacks) or in bulk. Different soil
mixes are especially formulated for propagation of specific crops or
general greenhouse crops. Soilless media purchased in bags does not
have to be sterilized before use since they are normally sterilized before
packing in specific container for sale. Compost-based mixes are also

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available commercially as a substitute for traditional soilless media,
especially for organic production”. http://extension.umass.edu/floriculture/fact-
sheets/growing-vegetable-transplants-and-bedding-plants-media-nutrition-planting-culture-pest#nutrient

The best soil medium for general nursery purposes is a friable loam,
rich in humus, with a proper percentage of clay. In cases that these are not
available, the growing media can be prepared by thoroughly mixing the
following components:

For loam soil

 1 part loam soil


 1 part manure or decomposed manure
 1 part decomposed rice hull
For clay soil

 1 part clay soil


 2 parts compost or manure
 1 part decomposed rice hull/sieved sand
The Training Regulations in Horticulture states that the growing
media for vegetable production consists of:
 1 part compost
 1 part sieved sand
 1 part garden soil

 1 part rice hull/sawdust

These soil components are thoroughly mixed together and will be


placed in seed boxes, plastic bags, seed trays or germinating trays, or to the
seed beds for the production of vegetable seedlings.

To ensure the safety of seedlings from soil borne diseases, the


growing media should be sterilized to protect the seedlings from the attack of
damping-off which commonly destroy young seedlings in seed boxes or in
seed beds.
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Soil Sterilization

Soil sterilization should be done prior to use. According to Bautista and


Mabesa (1977), the soil mix should be sterilized before use to kill weed
seeds, insects, and numerous soil pathogens. Soil sterilization can be
accomplished by using heat or chemicals. Heat will kill any pathogen in the
soil while chemicals may be specific or non-specific. Non-specific chemicals
will kill all organisms in the soil; while specific chemicals will kill only certain
pathogens.

Based on the Resource Manual on Integrated Production and Pest


Management(IPPM) in Vegetables (2005), there are several ways of
sterilizing the soil, both as a preventive measure against soil-borne diseases
and as a method to control existing diseases in the soil. There are traditional
and new practices in soil sterilization such as:

1. Burning organic materials on the soil

This is a traditional way of soil sterilization where local farmers follow.


This is done by burning organic materials above the soil.

A common method of soil sterilization is heating up the soil. The high


temperature will cause the death of many micro-organisms, including
pathogens on the top of the soil and insect pests with soil-dwelling stages
such as cut worms.

2. Pouring boiling water on to the soil

This method of soil sterilization is commonly done by pouring boiling


water (100oC) on the soil to kill whatever pathogens are present in the soil
then allowing the soil to cool prior to use.

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3. Solarization

Solarization as a method of soil sterilization uses the sun to heat the


soil. Solarization can control soil borne diseases, weed seeds, and some
nematodes including root-knot nematodes.

To solarize soil, the soil is covered with clear polyethylene or plastic


sheets. The best time is during the hot season, where there is plenty of sun.
The sun heats up the soil through the plastic and the plastic sheet keeps the
heat inside the soil. The sheets should be left in the field for four weeks.

4. Bio-fumigation

Soil borne pests and pathogens can be suppressed by chemical


compounds that are released during decomposition of certain crops. This is
called bio-fumigation. The chemical compounds that kill or suppress
pathogens are principally isothiocyanates. Those crops with bio-fumigation
potentials are used as rotation crop, a companion or a green manure crop.

5. Chemical treatment

Treat the soil with chemicals like Formaldehyde, 1 tablespoon per 1


gallon of water. However, the use of chemicals is not environment-friendly
because chemicals may kill not only destructive micro-organisms, but also the
beneficial ones and can be hazardous to one’s health when inhaled.

Sowing seeds
INGO (2005), states that sowing is the most important operation in
crop production. The seed must be placed at a required depth in moist soil so
as to get the optimum condition for their germination.
Too shallow sowing results in thin germination due to inadequate soil
moisture at topsoil layer. Similarly, if the seeds are sown very deep in the soil,
the young seedlings may not be able to push their shoots above through thick

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soil layer. Seeds must be sown at proper depth and should be properly
covered with soil so as to get adequate moisture for its germination.
INGO (2005), further explains that if the intention is to produce
seedlings for backyard garden, it is convenient to sow the seeds in seed
boxes, plastic cups, fruit juice containers, small polyethylene bags, or
germinating trays. However, if you intend to plant in a commercial scale, it is
logical to sow the seeds in seed beds because one hectare of solanaceous
crops requires 52,000 to 68,000 seedlings which need 10 plots each
measuring 1 X 10 square meters.

How to Grow Seedlings

To grow seedlings requires patience and extra care. Vegetable seeds


vary in sizes. Generally speaking, small size vegetable seeds are the seeds
to be sown because they are delicate ones.

Agricultural Ventures Series 1(2011), claims that because some


vegetable seeds are so small the seeds can be easily carried away by water
and even insects like ants. Thus, it is advisable to raise seedlings in beds
before transplanting them to the field. Raising seedlings in trays requires less
seeds, promotes uniform growth of superior seedlings, minimizes
transplanting shock, and lowers seedlings’ mortality. It also saves on labor for
thinning, weeding, watering, and managing pests.

Seeds could be sown using the following materials:

 Seed trays
 Seed boxes
 Seed beds
 Individual plastic bags
 Used plastic cups/tin cans

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Vegetable seedlings
Lettuce seedlings in Pechay seedlings in Pechay seedlings grown in used plastic
seed trays seed boxes raised in seed beds cups
Pictures – Courtesy of Jones Rural School, Jones, Isabela

Fill the containers with sterilized growing media and moisten a little
before seeds are sown.

Steps in Sowing Seeds in Seed Boxes and Seed Beds

INGO (2005), enumerated the different steps in sowing of seeds as


follows:

1. Moisten the soil media.


2. Sow the seeds in rows or broadcast evenly and thinly.
Broadcasting is spreading seeds evenly on to the ground and
covering the seeds subsequently with thin layer of soil. This
method of sowing is less satisfactory than sowing the seeds in
rows a few centimeters apart unless pricking is to be done.
Broadcasting of seeds, however, is not advisable because of
the following reasons:
 The air circulation between the plants is not sufficient.
 Seedlings dry less quickly, and such a condition is
favorable for the growth of fungi.
 Weeds are harder to control.
 It is hard to produce stocky seedlings because the
seeds are not properly covered with soil.
3. Cover the seeds with thin layer of fine soil sufficient enough to

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cover the seeds.
4. Press down firmly the whole surface of the seed box or seed
bed with a flat board to ensure a compact surface.
5. Water the seed beds/seed boxes using a sprinkler with fine
holes or water hose with fine spray.
6. Protect the seeds sown in seed beds from ants by spraying
insecticides which drive away ants. In the case of seed boxes,
let the legs of the seed boxes stand in cans filled with water
and a little petroleum to prevent the ants from reaching the
seed boxes.
7. Seed boxes should be placed under the shade and should be
provided with temporary shelter.
8. Regulate watering. Too much or too little of it may prevent
germination.

What to process

Activity 2.

The first activity was an exercise of the mind. Activity 2 is a skill test.

Go to your original grouping. Secure one seed tray with 50 holes. Fill
the seed tray with sterilized growing media. Go to the nursery. Locate seed
beds with vegetable seedlings then perform the following:

1. Thinning of seedlings by uprooting those which are too close with


each other and those stunted in growth.
2. Pricking of seedlings. Each member of the group must be able to
prick 10 seedlings following the steps and the principles of Tender
Loving Care (TLC).
3. Acclimatize the seedlings you pricked after one week to prepare
them for transplanting.

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What to reflect and understand

Activity 3.

You have already learned the composition of the growing media. In


your community, there are several ornamental nurseries that normally buy
growing media from commercial nurseries. In your place you have a lot of the
materials that can be used as components of the growing media. You can
even acquire these materials for free. Why not try to produce growing media
or soil mixtures for sale to nursery owners for possible source of income? By
doing this, you could help your parents who can hardly send you to school
due to financial constraints.

What to transfer

Activity 4. Let’s Get Physical

This time let us test your skills in producing seedlings. Again, with the
same grouping, you are going to produce your own seedlings. Take note that
you have to perform the task following the steps so that the seedlings you
grow will be of good quality. The seeds you are to sow are certified bought
from reliable seed stores to assure a high percentage of germination. These
seedlings you raise will be used in your prepared garden plots. Each group
has to gather its own growing media, mix thoroughly, and sterilize the soil
ready for sowing.

Group 1 - Prepare a 1m x 1m seed plot to grow your eggplant seedlings.

Group 2 – Prepare a seed box measuring 1.0m x 0.5m x 0.2m for use in
sowing seeds of selected leafy vegetables such as pechay,
mustard, lettuce, and the like.

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Group 3 – Prepare 2 seed trays with 100 holes for your tomato seeds.

Group 4 – Collect 100 pieces of used plastic cups from the canteen for you to
grow pepper seedlings.

Your performance will be rated according to the rubric below.

Rubrics in sowing of seeds


CRITERIA LEVEL 4 ( 5 LEVEL 3 ( 4 LEVEL 2 (3 LEVEL 1(1
points) points) points) point)
1. Collaborative Willingly Needs Requires No
Effort participates encouragement prompting involveme
in group to participate to work nt is
work. with group with the shown.
mates. group.
2. Skills/Processes a. Properly a. Good use of a. Needs a. There is
a. Handling of uses materials. assistan no
materials materials. b. Misses some ce in attempt
b. Follow steps b. Follows steps. handling to
all steps of tools. handle
correctly. b. Does not tools.
follow b. There is
the steps no
correctly attempt
. to do the
work.
3. Safety Uses of PPE UsesPersonal Requires No PPE is
Measures all the time. Protective prompting used.
Equipment to use
(PPE) PPE.
sometimes.
4. Use of Uses Fails to use 2 Fails to No
materials complete specific use more materials
and specific materials. than two are used.
materials. specific
materials.

5. Timeliness Finishes Finishes 75% Finishes Finishes


work before of the work. 50% of the 25% of the
the work. work.
deadline.

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Quarter 3

LESSON: Produce Vegetables

Module 3: Growing seedlings

Content Standard Performance Standards

The learner demonstrates The learner independently takes care


understanding in care and and manages seedlings in
management of seedlings. accordance with the standard
procedures specified in the Vegetable
Production Manual (VPM).

Lesson 4 Demonstrating care and


management of seedlings

Introduction

This lesson deals with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes in


demonstrating care and management of seedlings.

Learning Competencies/Objectives

This lesson has the following learning competencies/objectives:

1. Pricking
2. Thinning
3. Hardening

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PRE-/DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT

Lesson 4 - Demonstrating care and management of seedlings

Direction: Read and understand very well the questions. Select the best
answer by writing only the letter in your test note book.

1. Pricking is a practice in seedling production to produce uniform size


of seedlings. Which is not a practice in pricking?

a. Pricking is the transfer of seedlings to another seed box,


seed bed, or individual plastic bags.
b. Seedlings to be pricked are taken from a thinly populated
seed box or seed bed.
c. A dibble is used to separate individual seedlings in order
not to damage delicate roots.
d. Pricking is practiced when the seedlings have already
two developed true leaves.
2. Before seedlings are transplanted to their permanent places to
continue their growth and development they must be prepared to
avoid stress in the open field. What is the practice of exposing
gradually the seedlings to sunlight to acclimatize them?

a. Thinning
b. Roguing
c. Pricking
d. Hardening
3. Which of the following is the factor which least affects the growth of
vegetable seedlings and transplants?
a. Soil requirements
b. Water requirements
c. Nutrient requirements
d. Climatic requirements

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4. Which is not a practice of thinning?
a. Moisten the seed box or seed bed a few hours before
thinning.
b. Throw the seedlings being pulled out or bury them into the
soil.
c. Incorporate into the soil uprooted unhealthy and disease-
infected seedlings.
d. Remove the weak, unhealthy and poor-looking seedlings
and press back firmly the disturbed soil with hands
immediately.
5. Which of the following should not be done in pricking?
a. Hold the seedling on their true leaves and place the root
system in the hole previously prepared in the new
planting medium.
b. Set the seedlings even if the roots are curled.
c. Press the soil firmly around the roots after setting them.
d. Water the new transplants gently and thoroughly.

What to know

Activity 1- Round Robin

1. Pass three pieces of bond paper where the 3 activities are written.
Each group must provide one idea each. The number of students
per group equals the number of solicited ideas.
Group 1 -How do animals take care of their young? How about
human beings?
Group 2 - How do we take good care of seedlings?
Group 3 - Have you raised some seedlings? How did they grow?

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Care and management of seedlings

When seedlings are already growing, water them in the morning and not
very late in the afternoon. If two watering are necessary each day, they
should done in the early morning and mid-afternoon. Watering late in the
afternoon causes the soil surface to remain moist overnight, a condition
favoring development of fungi causing root diseases particularly damping-off.
 If the soil is not fertilized, a soluble fertilizer (ammonium sulfate) at the
rate of one tablespoon per gallon of water is gently drenched on the
seedlings as a starter solution. It is important that after applying the
starter solution, fresh water must be applied immediately to wash-off
fertilizer residues adhered to the foliage which may cause burning of
the foliage (Bautista and Mabesa (1977).
 Expose the seedlings to the morning sun not later than eight o’clock
everyday. The length of exposure depends upon the resistance of the
seedlings to heat. First exposure of seedlings to morning sun is one
hour then extended every day until whole day exposure. Exposure or
hardening of seedlings is done a week before transplanting to
acclimatize them and to reduce stress during transplanting.
 Protect the seedlings from excessive heat or strong rain by placing
them under a temporary shed, in the nursery, or in the greenhouse.
 If dumping-off develops, remove immediately the infected seedlings
with the soil surrounding them. Burn the disease infected seedlings
and soil to avoid further spread of the disease. To control dumping-off,
apply fungicide on the affected areas.
Pricking of seedlings
In cases where seedlings in seed boxes or seed beds are thickly
populated, pricking must be done when the seedlings have at least two
developed true leaves. This is done by transferring individual seedling to
another seed box, seed bed, seed tray, or individual plastic bag. In
pricking, use a dibbler or dibble in taking out the healthiest looking

133
seedlings underneath their roots while taking care not to damage the
delicate roots. Hold the seedling on their true leaves and place the root
system in the hole previously prepared in the new planting medium
without curling their roots. Then press the soil firmly around the roots.
Water the new transplants gently and thoroughly.

Students of the Jones Rural School pricking


A teacher of the Jones Rural School vegetable seedlings in polyethylyne plastic bags
pricking seedlings in seedtrays

Hardening of Seedlings

INGO (2005), explains that it is important to harden the seedlings before


transplanting them to the field. This is done by gradually exposing the
seedlings one week before transplanting. Seedlings raised under shaded
areas should be exposed to full morning sunlight for the first day. Then
gradually increase the time of exposure in full sunlight each day for a week
until the seedlings could withstand full sunlight the whole day without wilting
or burning the leaves. Likewise, seedlings should also be protected from stray
animals and strong winds to prevent damage of the leaves and stems.

Bautista and Mabesa (1977) explained that hardening can be done in


several ways and should be started 7-10 days before transplanting. One way
is to expose gradually the seedlings to full sunlight and to withhold water to
make the plant wilt temporarily but not allowing it to lapse into a state of
permanent wilting. Withholding of water slows plant growth and causes

134
physiological and morphological changes resulting to thicker, less succulent,
and harder plant tissues, hence less water is transpired. Another method of
hardening recently employed is pre-sowing hardening. In this method, the
seeds are soaked in water and removed 6 hours before the radicle emerged.
Then they are air-dried for 48 hours before sowing.

Thinning and Rogueing

Some crops possess small seeds that are difficult to broadcast in the
field. They can be sown along a shallow drill and later on excess seedlings
can be pulled out leaving the healthy seedlings about 5 cm apart. This is
called thinning. Meanwhile, the process of pulling out disease infected or
damaged seedlings is called rogueing.

Thinning is the process of reducing the number of seedlings in the


seed bed or seed box. This should be done as follows:

 Moisten the seed box or seed bed a few hours before thinning.
 Remove the weak, unhealthy and poor-looking seedlings.
Immediately press back firmly the disturbed soil with hands.
 Throw the seedlings being pulled out or bury them into the soil.
Thinning accelerates the free circulation of air which makes the
seedlings sturdier and healthier. If the right amount or quality of seeds is
sown evenly, there is no need for thinning.

What to process

Activity 2.

This time you are going to do something different from your previous
activities. For the mean time you will be working alone. Compose a short
poem with two (2) stanzas about the seedlings. Select your own title.

135
Write your poem on one whole sheet of white bond paper and submit it to
your teacher.

What to reflect and understand

Activity 3.

Copy in your notebook the chart below. What other activities must you
do to maintain the growth of the seedlings? Write your ideas in the big box
and the reasons in the lines opposite each box.

1.

2.

3.

4.

What totransfer

Activity 4. Let’s Get Physical

1. In the previous activities you sowed seedlings in different ways.


Observe your seedlings. Perform care and management of
seedlings like thinning, pricking, and hardening.
2. Practice Tender Loving Care (TLC) as you perform the activities.

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Summative assessment

This time let us find out how much you have learned.

Direction: Read and understand very well the questions. Select the best
answer by writing only the letter in your test note book.

1. Pricking is a practice in seedling production to produce uniform size


of seedlings. Which is not a practice in pricking?

a. Pricking is the transfer of seedlings to another seed box,


seed bed or individual plastic bags.
b. Seedlings to be pricked are taken from a thinly populated
seed box or seed bed.
c. A dibble is used to separate individual seedlings in order
not to damage delicate roots.
d. Pricking is practiced when the seedlings have already
two developed true leaves.
2. Before seedlings are transplanted to their permanent places to
continue their growth and development they must be prepared to
avoid stress in the open field. What is the practice of exposing
gradually the seedlings to sunlight to acclimatize them?
a. Thinning
b. Rogueing
c. Pricking
d. Hardening
3. Which of the following is the factor which least affects the growth of
vegetable seedlings and transplants?
a. Soil requirement
b. Water requirement
c. Nutrient requirement

137
d. climatic requirements
4. Which is not a practice of thinning?
a. Moisten the seed box or seed bed a few hours before
thinning.
b. Throw the seedlings being pulled out or bury them into the
soil.
c. Incorporate into the soil uprooted unhealthy and disease
infected seedlings.
d. Remove the weak, unhealthy, and poor-looking seedlings
and press back firmly the disturbed soil with hands
immediately.
5. Which of the following should not be done in pricking?
a. Hold the seedling on their true leaves and place the root
system in the hole previously prepared in the new planting
medium.
b. Set the seedlings even if the roots are curled.
c. Press the soil firmly around the roots after setting them.
d. Water the new transplants gently and thoroughly.

Congratulations! You have successfully passed the assessment.


You will be facing more exciting and challenging activities in the next
module. So get ready.

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Summary/Feedback

Vegetables play a very important role in the dietary requirements of


human beings and in the environment as well.

To produce quality seedlings, a lot of things are to be considered such


as the growing media, seed selection, seed testing, seedling management,
the tools, materials, and other facilities needed to produce them.

References

Anon. 2011. Agricultural Ventures Series 1. Volume 1: M.L. Antonio


Enterprise, Manila, Philippines.

Bautista, O. K. and R.C.Mabesa. 1977. Planting Vegetable Crops. In:


Vegetable Production. University of the Philippines at Los Banos,
College of Agriculture, College, Laguna, Philippines.

Calacala, C. 1977. Lectures Notes in Agronomy 11. Nueva Vizcaya State


Institute
Of Technology, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines.

INGO. 2005. Resource Manual on Integrated Production and Pest


Management (IPPM) in Vegetables. World Education (INGO)
Philippines, Inc., 2999 National Road, Anos, Los Banos, Laguna,
Philippines.

http://extension.umass.edu/floriculture/fact-sheets/growing-vegetable-
transplants-and-bedding-plants-media-nutrition-planting-culture-
pest#nutrient. Retrieved March 2, 2014.

http://www.nutrition-and-you.com/tomato.html. Retrieved March 3, 2014.


http://www.nutrition-and-you.com/potato.html. Retrieved March 3, 2014.

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