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# Solutions I.N.

## Herstein- Second Edition

25, July 2016

Problem 0.1. In the following determine whether the systems described are
groups. If they are not, point out which of the group axioms fail to hold.
(a). G = set of integers, a.b ≡ a − b.
(b). G = set of all positive integers, a.b = ab, the usual product of integers.
(c). G = a0 , a1 , ..., a6 where,

## ai .aj = ai+j if i + j < 7,

ai .aj = ai+j−7 if i + j ≥ 7

## (for instance, a5 .a4 = a5+4−7 = a2 , since 5 + 4 = 9 > 7).

(d). G = set of all rational numbers with odd denominators, a.b ≡ a + b, the
Proof. (a). G = set of integers, a.b ≡ a − b.
We note G is not a group as there exists no identity in G.
(b). G = set of all positive integers, a.b = ab, the usual product of integers.
We note G is not a group as the inverses do not belong in G for all elements
1
of G. For example, inverse of 2 is ∈ Z+ .
2
(c). G = a0 , a1 , ..., a6 where,

## ai .aj = ai+j if i + j < 7,

ai .aj = ai+j−7 if i+j ≥7

## (for instance, a5 .a4 = a5+4−7 = a2 , since 5 + 4 = 9 > 7).

We note G has closure by definition.
We claim a0 is the identity of G. This is because a0 ai = ai a0 = a0+i =
ai ∀ i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
Next we claim the associative law holds in G.
– i + j < 7, j + k < 7, i + j + k < 7
Then (ai aj )ak = ai+j ak = ai+j+k and ai (aj ak ) = ai aj+k = ai+j+k .
– i + j < 7, j + k < 7, i + j + k > 7
Then (ai aj )ak = ai+j ak = ai+j+k−7 and ai (aj ak ) = ai aj+k =
ai+j+k−7 .

1

## – i + j > 7, j + k < 7, ⇒ i + j + k > 7, i + j + k − 7 < 7

Then (ai aj )ak = ai+j−7 ak = ai+j+k−7 and ai (aj ak ) = ai aj+k =
ai+j+k−7 .
– i + j > 7, j + k < 7, ⇒ i + j + k > 7, i + j + k − 7 < 7
because i + j + k > 14 ⇒ i + 7 > 14 ⇒ i > 7 which is a contradiction.
Then (ai aj )ak = ai+j−7 ak = ai+j+k−7 and ai (aj ak ) = ai aj+k =
ai+j+k−7 .
– i + j < 7, j + k > 7, ⇒ i + j + k > 7, i + j + k − 7 < 7
because i+j +k > 14 ⇒ 7+j > 14 ⇒ j > 7 which is a contradiction.
Then (ai aj )ak = ai+j ak = ai+j+k−7 and ai (aj ak ) = ai aj+k−7 =
ai+j+k−7 .
– i + j > 7, j + k > 7, ⇒ i + j + k > 7, i + j + k − 7 < 7
because i + j + k > 14 ⇒ i + 7 > 14 ⇒ i > 7 which is a contradiction.
Then (ai aj )ak = ai+j−7 ak = ai+j+k−7 and ai (aj ak ) = ai aj+k−7 =
ai+j+k−7 .
Finally we see existence of inverses.

– a0 .a0 = a0 .a0 = a0
– a1 .a6 = a6 .a1 = a7−7 = a0
– a2 .a5 = a5 .a2 = a7−7 = a0
– a3 .a4 = a4 .a3 = a7−7 = a0
Thus, all group axioms hold and G is a group.

(d). G = set of all rational numbers with odd denominators, a.b ≡ a + b, the
We see that G has the identity as 0 ∈ G can have any denominator in-
cluding odd denominator.
a p a p ap + bq
Next we see closure , ∈ G, we have + =
b q b q bp
where bp is odd as b, p are both odd. Now if bp|ap + bq, then we have an
integer with denominator 1 and thus belongs to G or if bp 6 |ap + bq, then
we have an odd denominator. In the latter case, observe that ap+bq < bp,
then obviously the denominator is bp. But if ap + bq > bp, then any can-
cellation would yield an odd denominator because we can’t have an even
number that divides an odd number bp.
Next, associativity is inherited from the group of rational numbers under
a
Lastly, we see existence of inverses. For each ∈ Q with b odd, we have
b
−a a −a −a a
with b odd such that + ( )=( ) + = 0.
b b b b b
Thus, all group axioms hold and G is a group.

Problem 0.2. Prove that if G is an abelian group, then for all a, b ∈ G and all
integers n, (a.b)n = an .bn .

## Proof. Let a, b ∈ G. Then (a.b)1 = (a.b). Also (a.b)2 = (a.b).(a.b).

Then by associativity in G, we have (a.b)2 = a.(b.a).b and by commutativity in
G, we have (a.b)2 = a.(a.b).b.
Using associativity again, we get (a.b)2 = (a.a).(b.b) = a2 .b2 .
Let us assume (a.b)k = ak .bk for any k < n.
Then (a.b)k+1 = (a.b)k .(a.b)
By our assumption, we have (a.b)k+1 = (ak .bk ).(a.b).
Following the same argument as in the case n = 2 ,
(ak .bk ).(a.b) = ak .(a.bk ).b = (ak .a).(bk .b) = ak+1 .bk+1 because ak , bk ∈ G.
Thus by mathematical induction, (a.b)n = an .bn for all n ∈ Z+ .
Now let n = −m for m ∈ Z+
We intend to show that (a.b)−m = a−m .b−m ∀m ∈ Z+ .
For m = 1, by using commutativity, we get (a.b)−1 = b−1 .a−1 = a−1 .b−1 .
Also, m = 2, by using associativity and commutativity, we get
(a.b)−2 = (a.b)−1+(−1) = (a.b)−1 .(a.b)−1 = (b−1 .a−1 ).(b−1 .a−1 ) = b−1 .(b−1 .a−1 ).a−1 =
(b−1 .b−1 ).(a−1 .a−1 ) = b−2 .a−2 = a−2 .b−2 .
Let us assume (a.b)−k = ak .b−k for any k < m.
Then (a.b)−(k+1) = (a.b)−k+(−1) = (a.b)−k .(a.b)−1
By our assumption, we have (a.b)−k+(−1) = (a−k .b−k ).(b−1 .a−1 ).
Following the same argument as in the case n = 2 ,
(a−k .b−k ).(b−1 .a−1 ) = a−k .(b−k ).b−1 ).a−1 = a−k .(b−(k+1) ).a−1 = a−k .a−1 .b−(k+1) =
a−(k+1) .b−(k+1) because a−k , b−k ∈ G.
Thus by mathematical induction, (a.b)−m = a−m .b−m for all m ∈ Z+ .
This further implies (a.b)n = an .bn for all n ∈ Z−
For n = 0, (a.b)0 = e = e.e = a0 .b0 . Thus (a.b)n = an .bn for all n ∈ Z.

Problem 0.3. If G is a group such that (a.b)2 = a2 .b2 for all a, b ∈ G, show
that G must be abelian.
Proof. Let a, b ∈ G.
By associativity in G, we get (a.b)2 = (a.b).(a.b) = a.(b.a).b
By associativity in G, we also get a2 .b2 = (a.a).(b.b) = a.(a.b).b
From the given condition

## (a.b)2 = a2 .b2 ⇒ a.(b.a).b = a.(a.b).b

By using the left hand cancellation and right hand cancellation law in a group,
we get
b.a = a.b
Since a, b were arbitrary, we get a.b = b.a ∀a.b ∈ G.
Thus by definition, G is abelian.

## Problem 0.4. If G is a group in which (a.b)i = ai .bi for three consecutive

integers i for all a, b ∈ G, show that G is abelian.
Proof. Let a, b ∈ G. Let i, i + 1, i + 2 be three consecutive integers.
From the given condition and associativity in G, we get,

## (a.b)i+1 = ai+1 .bi+1 ⇒ (a.b)i .(a.b) = ai .a.b.bi ⇒ ai .bi .a.b = ai .a.b.bi

By the left hand cancellation law in a group and operating by b−i from the left,
we get,
a.b = b−i (a.b)bi
Again, from the given condition and associativity in G, we get,

(a.b)i+2 = ai+2 .bi+2 ⇒ (a.b)i .(a.b)2 = ai .a2 .b2 .bi ⇒ ai .bi .(a.b)2 = ai .a2 .b2 .bi

By the left hand cancellation law in a group and operating by b−i from the left,
we get,
(a.b)2 = b−i (a2 .b2 )bi ⇒ (a.b).(a.b) = b−i (a2 .b2 )bi
From the evaluated value of (a.b), we get,

(b−i (a.b)bi ).(b−i (a.b)bi ) = b−i (a2 .b2 )bi ⇒ b−i (a.b)2 bi = b−i (a2 .b2 )bi

(a.b)2 = a2 .b2

## Since a, b were arbitrary, from the proof of previous problem, we conclude G is

abelian.
Problem 0.5. Show that the conclusion of Problem 4 does not follow if we
assume the relation (a.b)i = ai .bi for just two consecutive integers.
Proof.
Problem 0.6. In S3 , give an example of two elements x, y such that (x.y)2 6=
x2 .y 2 .
Proof. We recall S3 is the set of all permutations of the set {1, 2, 3} which forms
a group under function composition. Let
1 → 2
φ: 2 → 1
3 → 3

1 → 2
ψ: 2 → 3
3 → 1
Clearly, φ and ψ belong to S3 and φ 6= ψ. It is also clear that φ2 = e and
ψ 3 = e.
1 → 2 → 1
φ2 : 2 → 1 → 2
3 → 3 → 3
1 → 2 → 3 → 1
ψ3 : 2 → 3 → 1 → 2
3 → 1 → 2 → 3
We also note that ψ 2 ∈ S3 and ψ 2 6= ψ and ψ 2 6= φ is given by:
1 → 3
ψ2 : 2 → 1
3 → 2

1 → 2 → 1
φ.ψ : 2 → 3 → 3
3 → 1 → 2
1 → 2 → 3
ψ.φ : 2 → 1 → 2
3 → 3 → 1
This implies φ.ψ and ψ.φ are other two elements of S3 distinct from φ, ψ, ψ 2
and e. Thus, we have found our six elements of S3 .

## For simplification we also observe, ψ 3 = e ⇒ ψ 2 = ψ −1 , we observe

1 → 2 → 3 1 → 3 → 3
ψ.φ : 2 → 1 → 2 = φ.ψ −1 : 2 → 1 → 2
3 → 3 → 1 3 → 2 → 1
Now let us take φ, ψ ∈ S3 and consider

## (φ.ψ)2 = (φ.ψ).(φ.ψ) = φ.(ψ.φ).ψ = φ.(φ.ψ −1 ).ψ = φ2 .e = e.e = e

φ2 .ψ 2 = e.ψ 2 = ψ 2
Thus, φ, ψ are two elements of S3 such that (φ.ψ)2 6= φ2 .ψ 2 .
Problem 0.7. In S3 , show that there are four elements satisfying x2 = e and
three elements satisfying y 3 = e.
Proof. As seen in the previous problem,

## S3 = {e, φ, ψ, ψ 2 , φ.ψ, ψ.φ}

We have e2 = e, φ2 = e,
(φ.ψ)2 = e from the previous problem,
(ψ.φ)2 = (ψ.φ).(ψ.φ) = (φ.ψ −1 ).(ψ.φ) = φ.(ψ −1 .ψ).φ = φ.e.φ = φ2 = e.
Thus we have four elements whose square is identity in S3 .
Also, e3 = e, ψ 3 = e, and (ψ 2 )3 = ψ 6 = (ψ 3 )2 .
Hence, we have found three elements whose cube is identity in S3 .
Problem 0.8. If G is a finite group, show that there exists a positive integer
N such that aN = e for all a ∈ G.
Proof. Let G be a finite group with |G| = n. Now consider a ∈ G, a 6= e.
Consider the set generated by a, given by, {a, a2 , a3 , ..., an , ...}.
Suppose, if possible aN 6= e for every positive integer N .
Then by the cancellation law in the group G, we get ai = aj , i < j ⇒ aj−i = e
which is a contradiction to our assumption. Thus every element in < a > is
distinct from others. This implies there are infinitely many distinct elements in
< a >.
Also, < a >⊆ G. Thus we get a contradiction to the fact that G is finite. Hence,
our assumption is wrong. This means ∃ N ∈ Z+ such that aN = e.
Since a was arbitrary, we get for each ai : i ∈ {1, 2, ..., n} ∈ G, ∃ Ni ∈ Z+ such
that aN N
i = e. Take N = lcm{Ni : i ∈ {1, 2, ..., n}}, then for this N , ai = e for
i

## all i ∈ {1, 2, ..., n}.

Problem 0.9. (a). If the group G has three elements, show it must be abelian.
(b). Do part (a) if G has four elements.
(c). Do part (a) if G has five elements.
Proof. Multiplication Table: Let G = {a1 , a2 , ..., an } be a finite group with
a1 = e. The multiplication table or group table of G is the n × n matrix whose
i, j entry is the group element ai aj . The multiplication table can also easily
show whether the given finite group is abelian iff it is symmetric along the
diagonal joining left upper corner and right lower corner. This is precisely the
definition of being abelian, ab = ba ∀ ab ∈ G.
(a). Let G = e, a, b. Then either ab = ba = e or a2 = b2 = e.
In the former case,
e a b
e e a b
a a b e
b b e a
Clearly, we see the multiplication table is symmetric along diagonal, we
conclude by that G is abelian by definition.
In the latter case, ab = a or ab = b, which implies a = e or b = e which
reduces the group to the trivial group. So we have just one case which is
given above and is abelian.
(b). Let G = {e, a, b, c}.
In the first case, we have a2 = e, b2 = e, c2 = e, that is, all elements
are inverses of themselves. Since a, b, c, e are all distinct and each is the
inverse of itself, we have
ba = ab = c
ac = ca = b
bc = cb = a
e a b c
e e a b c
a a e c b
b b c e a
c c b a e
From the multiplication table, it’s clear that G is abelian.
In the second case, let just a and c have each other as inverses and b be
the inverse of itself. Let ac = ca = e and b = b−1 . Then b2 = ac = ca = e.
Also, because e, a, b, c are distinct, we have
ba = ab = c
bc = cb = a
a2 = cb.bc = c2
a2 = cb.cb = cab = e.b = b
e a b c
e e a b c
a a b c e
b b c e a
c c e a b

From the multiplication table, symmetry along the diagonal implies that
the group is abelian.
In the third case, each of the three elements has a different inverse,which
is not possible cause we have three odd number of non-identity elements.
(c). Let G = {e, a, b, c, d}.
In the first case, each of the three elements is the inverse of itself.
a2 = b2 = c2 = d2 = e. Let ab = c Then ab = c ⇒ a2 b = ac ⇒ b = ac.
Now ad = a ⇒ d = e which is a contradiction.
and ad = b ⇒ a2 d = ab ⇒ d = c which is a contradiction.
and ad = c ⇒ a2 d = ac ⇒ d = b which is a contradiction.
and ad = d ⇒ a = e which is a contradiction.
and ad = e ⇒ a = d which is a contradiction.
Thus, this case is not possible.
In the second case, let two elements be inverses of each other and the other
two be inverses of themselves.
ab = ba = c2 = d2 = e.
Then let cd = a, we have
cd = a ⇒ c2 d = ca ⇒ d = ca
ca = d ⇒ cab = db ⇒ c = db
c = db ⇒ dc = d2 b ⇒ dc = b
dc = b ⇒ dc2 = bc ⇒ d = bc
d = ca ⇒ bd = bca ⇒ bd = da = c because otherwise we get a contradic-
tion.
Then da = c ⇒ d2 a = dc ⇒ a = b which is a contradiction.
Hence this case also doesn’t work out.
In the last case, let every element in the group have an inverse other than
itself. Suppose
ab = ba = cd = dc = e. Let ac = b. Then we have
ac = b ⇒ a2 c = ab = e ⇒ a2 cd = d ⇒ a2 = d
ac = b ⇒ bac = b2 ⇒ c = b2
ac = b ⇒ acd = bd ⇒ a = bd
a2 = d ⇒ a2 b = db ⇒ a = db
b2 = c ⇒ b2 a = ca ⇒ b = ca
If ad = b, then ac = ab ⇒ a = c which is a contradiction.
Thus ad = da = c.
bc = d ⇒ bcd = d2 ⇒ b = d2
ad = c ⇒ adb = cb ⇒ a2 = cb ⇒ d = cb
e a b c d
e e a b c d
a a d e b c
b b e c d a
c c b d a e
d d c a e b

## Since the multiplication table is symmetrical along the diagonal, we get

that G is abelian.
Conclusion: Every group of order 3, 4, 5 is always abelian.
Problem 0.10. Show that if every element of the group G is it’s own inverse,
then G is abelian.
Proof. Let a, b ∈ G. Then a.b ∈ G. From the given condition, we have a =
a−1 , b = b−1 , (a.b) = (a.b)−1 . Thus, we have

## Since a, b were arbitrary, we have G is abelian.

Problem 0.11. If G is a group of even order, prove that it has an element
a 6= e such that a2 = e.
Proof. Let G be a group of even order, say, 2m for some m ∈ N. Then o(G) > 1.
Thus, ∃ a ∈ G such that a 6= e. Now we consider the case |G| = 2. Then
G = {e, a} where a 6= e. We know every element has a unique inverse. Now
e = e−1 . Thus, a−1 is either e or a. If a−1 = e, then a = e which is a
contradiction, thus a−1 = a ⇒ a2 = e.
Now let |G| = 2m for m ∈ N, m > 1. Then G = {e, a1 , a2 , ..., a2m−1 } where
ai 6= e and ai 6= aj for i, j ∈ {1, 2, .., 2m − 1}. Now every element in G has a
unique inverse by definition of a group. Now let us assume ai 6= a−1 i for all i ∈
{1, 2, .., 2m−1} because if ai = a−1 2
i for some i ∈ {1, 2, .., 2m−1}, then ai = e for
−1
that particular i and we are done. So ai = aj for i 6= j; i, j ∈ {1, 2, .., 2m − 1}.
Also by the uniqueness of inverses, we can’t have the same aj as the inverse of
two elements because then a−1 j = ai = ak , i 6= k will have two different inverses
in G. Thus, we group each pair of an element and it’s inverse (different from
itself and unique) and conclude that the set S = {ai ∈ G : ai 6= a−1 i } has even
number of elements due to existence of pairs. Clearly e ∈ / S. Thus |S| 6= 2m
and can at most be 2m − 2. This implies existence of a non-identity element
in G − S = {ai ∈ G : ai = a−1 i }. Let this element be a2m−1 = a ∈ G. Then
∃ a ∈ G; a 6= e such that a = a−1 ⇒ a2 = e.
Problem 0.12. Let G be a non-empty set closed under an associative product,
• There exists an e ∈ G such that a.e = a for all a ∈ G.
• Give a ∈ G, there exists an element y(a) ∈ G such that a.y(a) = e.
Prove that G must be a group under this product.
Proof. We are already given that the non-empty set G is closed under the given
product and is also associative. We are given the existence of right identity and
right inverse and we need to show that the existence of left identity and left
inverse.
By the existence of right inverse, given a ∈ G, ∃ y(a) ∈ G such that a.y(a) = e.
Again by the existence of right inverse, given y(a) ∈ G, ∃ z(y(a)) ∈ G such that
y(a).z(y(a)) = e.
By the existence of right identity for and associativity in G, we get
y(a).a = (y(a).a).e

⇒ y(a).a = (y(a).a).(y(a).z(y(a)))
⇒ y(a).a = y(a).(a.y(a)).z(y(a))
⇒ y(a).a = (y(a).e).z(y(a))
⇒ y(a).a = y(a).z(y(a))
⇒ y(a).a = e
Since a ∈ G was arbitrary, we have given a ∈ G, there exists y(a) ∈ G such that
a.y(a) = y(a).a = e.
Now e.a = (a.y(a)).a = a.(y(a).a) = a.e = a. Since a was arbitrary, we have
shown a.e = e.a = a∀ a ∈ G. Thus all the group axioms hold for G under the
given product.
Problem 0.13. Prove, by an example, that the conclusion of Problem 12 is
• There exists an e ∈ G such that a.e = a for all a ∈ G.

## • Give a ∈ G, there exists an element y(a) ∈ G such that y(a).a = e.

Proof. Consider a product ∗ on the given non-empty set G such that a ∗ b =
a∀ a, b ∈ G. This product is closed by definition and we can check for a, b, c ∈ G,
this product is associative,

a ∗ (b ∗ c) = a = a ∗ b = (a ∗ b) ∗ c

## The following properties hold for G:

• There exists an e ∈ G, such that a ∗ e = a for all a ∈ G. Infact by our
definition all elements satisfy the property of e.

## • Give a ∈ G, there exists an element y(a) ∈ G such that y(a) ∗ a = e.

But G is not a group. This is because e∗a = e∀ a ∈ G. Thus, a∗e 6= e∗a∀a ∈ G
unless a = e. So we assume that the given group is non-trivial. Then a 6= e and
we fail to have an identity for G and G is not a group necessarily.

## Problem 0.14. Suppose a finite set G is closed under an associative product

and that both cancellation laws hold in G. Prove that G must be a group.
Proof. Let G = {a1 , a2 , ..., an } be a finite group which is closed under an asso-
ciative product ∗ in which both cancellation laws hold. We intend to show that
G is a group. We are given that G is closed and associative under ∗. Let a ∈ G,
then consider the set a ∗ G = {a ∗ a1 , a ∗ a2 , ..., a ∗ an }. Now if a ∗ ai = a ∗ aj
for i 6= j ∈ {1, 2, ..., n} in a ∗ G, then by the left cancellation law in G, we have
ai = aj which is not true. Thus a ∗ G has n distinct elements each of which
lies in G. This means a ∗ G = G. We get a ∗ ai = b has a unique solution
ai ∈ G; i ∈ {1, 2, ..., n} for each b ∈ G. In particular for b = a, we have a unique
solution, say e ∈ G to a ∗ e = a.
Now consider the set G ∗ a = {a1 ∗ a, a2 ∗ a, ..., an ∗ a}. Now if ai ∗ a = aj ∗ a
for i 6= j ∈ {1, 2, ..., n} in G ∗ a, then by the right cancellation law in G,
we have ai = aj which is not true. Thus G ∗ a has n distinct elements
each of which lies in G. This means G ∗ a = G. We get ai ∗ a = b has
a unique solution ai ∈ G; i ∈ {1, 2, ..., n} for each b ∈ G. Now consider
b ∗ e = (ai ∗ a) ∗ e = ai ∗ (a ∗ e) = ai ∗ a = b for every b ∈ G. Thus e ∈ G is a

right identity.
Also, a ∗ ai = e has a unique solution. Since a was arbitrary, we have a unique
solution a ∗ ai = e for each a ∈ G. This implies the existence of right inverse
for each a ∈ G.
By Problem 12, we get G is a group under ∗.
Problem 0.15. (a). Using the result of Problem 14, prove that the non-zero
integers modulo p, p a prime number, forms a group under multiplication
modulo p.

(b). Do part (a) for the non-zero integers relatively prime to n under multipli-
cation mod n.
Proof. (a). Here G = {1, 2, ..., p − 1} because we are not considering integers
which give remainder 0 on division by p. Clearly, G is finite. By the divi-
sion algorithm, any non-zero integer which doesn’t give a zero remainder
modulo p, say, n = qp + r gives a remainder 0 < r < p on division by
p. Thus (G, p ) is closed. Next we show p is associative. Let a, b, c be
non-zero integers such that a = q1 p + r1 ; b = q2 p + r2 ; c = q3 p + r3 where
r1 , r2 , r3 ∈ G. Now we have

## ⇒ (a p b) p c = r1 r2 c mod p ≡ r1 r2 (q3 p + r3 ) mod p ≡ r1 r2 r3 mod p

Similarly, we have

## ⇒ a p (b p c) = ar2 r3 mod p ≡ (q1 p + r1 )r2 r3 mod p ≡ r1 r2 r3 mod p

Now ab ≡ ac mod p ⇒ p|a(b − c) ⇒ p|a or p|b − c. If p|a, then a is a
multiple of p. Then a ≡ 0 mod p ⇒ a ∈ / G which is a contradiction. Thus
p 6 |a, then p|b − c ⇒ b ≡ c mod p. This implies that the left cancellation
law holds in G. Similarly the right cancellation law holds too. Thus, by
Problem 14, we have (G, p ) is a group.
(b). Here G = {1, 2, ..., n − 1} because we are not considering integers which
give remainder 0 on division by n. Clearly, G is finite. By the division
algorithm, any non-zero integer which doesn’t give a zero remainder mod-
ulo n, say, m = qp + r gives a remainder 0 < r < n on division by n.
Thus (G, n ) is closed. Next we show n is associative. Let a, b, c be
non-zero integers such that a = q1 n + r1 ; b = q2 n + r2 ; c = q3 n + r3 where
r1 , r2 , r3 ∈ G. Now we have

## ⇒ (a n b) n c = r1 r2 c mod n ≡ r1 r2 (q3 n + r3 ) mod n ≡ r1 r2 r3 mod n

Similarly, we have

## Now ab ≡ ac mod n ⇒ n|a(b − c). Since a is not congruent to 0 mod p, a

and n are relatively prime. Then n|(b − c) ⇒ b ≡ c mod n. This implies
that the left cancellation law holds in G. Similarly the right cancellation
law holds too. Thus, by Problem 14, we have (G, p ) is a group.

## Problem 0.16. In Problem 14 show by an example that if one of just assumed

one of the cancellation laws, then the conclusion need not follow.

Proof. We consider the same example as before (G, ∗) where G is a finite semi-
group under ∗ defined as a ∗ b = a ∀ a, b ∈ G. Here we have by the definition of
our product that a ∗ c = b ∗ c ⇒ a = b ∀ a, b, c ∈ G. But c ∗ a = c ∗ b does not
imply a = b. Thus only one cancellation law holds in this semi-group. We have
shown earlier that G is not a group.
Problem 0.17. Prove that in Problem 14 infinite examples exist, satisfying the
conditions, which are not groups.
Proof. Let G = Z − {0}, and ∗ be usual multiplication in Z − {0}. Now we
know (Z − {0}, ∗) is an infinite set closed and associative under ∗. Also, a ∗ c =
b ∗ c ⇒ a = b ∀ a, b, c ∈ Z − {0} and a ∗ b = a ∗ c ⇒ b = a ∀ a, b, c ∈ Z − {0}.
This means both cancellation laws hold in (Z − {0}, ∗). But (Z − {0}, ∗) is not
a group because the inverses do not exist in Z − {0} for elements other than
1, −1.
Problem 0.18. For any n > 2 construct a non-abelian group of order 2n.
(Hint: imitate the relation in S3 .)
Proof. A symmetry is any rigid body motion (isometry) of the n−gon which
can be effected by taking a copy of the n−gon, moving this copy in any fashion
in 3−space and then placing the copy back on the original n−gon so it exactly
covers it.
If we look at the symmetries of the n−gon with labelled vertices 1, 2, ..., n, we
can notice that we can rotate the n−gon in the same plane in a clockwise direc-
tion such that n rotations returns us to the original position. This rotation just
replaces a vertex i by the vertex i + 1 for i = 1, 2, ..., n − 1 and the vertex n by
vertex 1. But since we are talking about symmetries on an n−gon in 3−space,
we can also flip the copy of the n−gon and then again continue with similar n
rotations as before. The flipping of the n−gon rotates the n−gon by π radians
along the line joining two vertices which remain fixed while doing so. We can
flip it using any vertex but for convenience and uniformity, we shall take it to
be the rotation along the line joining the vertex 1 to the center of the n−gon.
So including the flip, we have a total 2n distinct symmetries of the n−gon from
observation. We prove it below.
Let n−gon have labelled n vertices as 1, 2, ..., n. Now, we can send vertex 1
to any of the remaining n vertices by a permutation including the permutation
which keeps vertices of n−gon unaltered. This gives us n choices for the vertex
1. Suppose 1 is sent to vertex i where i ∈ {1, 2, ..., n}. Now the vertex 2 has to
be adjacent to vertex 1. Thus 2 has two choices. It can either take the place of
i − 1 vertex or the i + 1 vertex. Now after we choose the vertex for 2, the vertex
3 has just 1 choice to lie adjacent to 2 from the side other than 1. Similarly,
all other vertices have just 1 choice. Thus the total number of choices is 2n.

## Hence, there are 2n distinct symmetries of a regular n−gon.

We next construct a group of symmetries of a regular n−gon and show it’s non-
abelian.
Label the vertices of the square 1, 2, ..., n clockwise.
We know that there are 2n distinct symmetries of an n−gon from the earlier
proposition.
Let e be the identity permutation of the vertices which keeps all vertices unal-
tered.
e : i → i ; i = 1, 2, ..., n

Let r be the rotation clockwise through the origin by radians in the same
n
plane. So basically r is just a permutation given by:

i→i+1 ; i = 1, 2, ..., n − 1
r:
n→1

Let s be the rotation by π radians along the line joining the vertex 1 to the
origin. Then s is again just a permutation given by:

1→1
n = odd ⇒ s : n+1
i ↔ n − (i − 2) ; i = 2, 3, ...,
2
1→1
n
n = even ⇒ s : i ↔ n − (i − 2) ; i = 2, 3, ...,
n n 2
+1→ +1
2 2
n 2
We can see that r = e and s = e. The other n − 3 elements of the set are
r2 , ...rn−1 , sr, sr2 , ..., srn−1 .
Now we make this set S = {e, r, r2 , ..., rn−1 , s, sr, sr2 , ..., srn−1 } into a group
by defining the product to be function composition of f ◦ g ∀ f, g ∈ S which
is obtained by applying the symmetry g first and then f . This again gives a
symmetry of a n−gon, because the first permutation returns us a symmetry
which is again an n−gon and then applying another permutation is just like
taking permuted n−gon as the original object and working with it. Thus, we
have closure in our set.
Associativity follows from the associativity of function composition.
We already have defined our identity for the set as the permutation which leaves
all vertices unaltered which by definition gives f ◦ e = e ◦ f = e ∀ f ∈ S.
Lastly, we define the inverse of each symmetry as the symmetry which reverses
it and returns the identity.
Thus, all group axioms hold and S is a group.
Now we try to show rs 6= sr and thus the group is not abelian.
rs(1) = r(1) = 2 and sr(1) = s(2) = n. Thus rs 6= sr.
The symmetries of an n−gon form a group under function composition called
the Dihedral group of order 2n, denoted by, D2n . Moreover, it’s non-abelian.
Problem 0.19. If S is a set closed under the associative operation, prove that
no matter how you bracket a1 a2 ...an , retaining the order of the elements, you
get the same element in S (e.g., (a1 .a2 ).(a3 , a4 ) = a1 .(a2 .(a3 .a4 )); use induction
on n).

## Proof. For n = 1, 2, there is nothing to prove.

For n = 3, we have by the definition of being associative that
a1 .a2 .a3 = a1 .(a2 .a3 ) = (a1 .a2 ).a3 .
For n = 4, we have by using the case for n = 3
(a1 .a2 ).(a3 .a4 ) = a1 .(a2 .(a3 .a4 ))
a1 .((a2 .a3 ).a4 ) = a1 .(a2 .(a3 .a4 ))
(a1 .(a2 .a3 )).a4 = a1 .(a2 .(a3 .a4 ))
((a1 .a2 ).a3 ).a4 ) = a1 .(a2 .(a3 .a4 ))
Thus any product of four elements a1 .a2 .a3 .a4 can be eventually written as
a1 .(a2 .(a3 .a4 )).
Now let us assume for k < n that the product a1 .a2 ...ak can be written eventu-
ally as
a1 .(a2 .(...(ak−1 .ak ))...).
irrespective of the way the brackets are placed. This means associative law will
hold for k < n elements.
Now let us look at the product a1 .a2 ...ak+1 . Then the product can be broken
down into two products followed by the use of induction hypothesis. No matter
how we take the product, we have to break it into two parts and we can use the
induction hypothesis on any of the parts being less than or equal to k elements.
Then we use the associative law for three grouped elements repeatedly since it
is given to be closed under the associative operation.
For example,
a1 .a2 ...ak+1 = (a1 .a2 .a3 )(a4 ...ak .ak+1 )
⇒ a1 .a2 ...ak+1 = (a1 .(a2 .a3 )).(a4 (...(ak .ak+1 ))...)
⇒ a1 .a2 ...ak+1 = a1 .((a2 .a3 ).(a4 (...(ak .ak+1 ))...))
⇒ a1 .a2 ...ak+1 = a1 .(a2 .(a3 (a4 (...(ak .ak+1 ))...)
Thus, by induction a1 .a2 ...an can be eventually written as
a1 .(a2 .(a3 (...(an−1 .an ))...) irrespective of how the brackets are placed.
 
a b
Problem 0.20. Let G be the set of all real 2 × 2 matrices , where
c d
ad − bc 6= 0 is a rational number. Prove that G forms a group under matrix
multiplication.
 
1 0
Proof. We first note ∈ G as ad − bc = 1 6= 0 is a rational number.
0 1
Thus G 6= ∅ and identity belongs  to 
G. 
a b p q
Next we show closure. Let , ∈ G.
c d r s
Then ad − bc, ps − rq ∈ Q − {0}.
    
a b p q ap + br aq + bs
And . = such that
c d r s cp + dr cq + ds
apcq+apds+brcq+brds−cpaq−cpbs−draq−drbs = apds+brcq−cpbs−draq =
Associativity is inherited from the group of real 2 × 2 matrices with non-zero
determinant.
Next we show the existence of inverses.

   
a b 1 d −b
For each ∈ G with ad − bc ∈ Q − {0}, ∃ ∈G
c d ad − bc −c a
with − = ∈ Q − {0} such that
        
a b 1 d −b 1 d −b a b 1 0
. = = .
c d ad − bc −c a ad − bc −c a c d 0 1
Thus, all group axioms hold and G is a group under matrix multiplication.
 
a b
Problem 0.21. Let G be the set of all real 2×2 matrices , where ad 6=
0 d
0 is a rational number. Prove that G forms a group under matrix multiplication.
Is G abelian?
 
1 0
Proof. We first note ∈ G as ad = 1 6= 0. Thus G 6= ∅ and identity
0 1
belongs to G.    
a b p q
Next we show closure. Let , ∈ G.
0 d 0 s
    
a b p q ap aq + bs
And . = such that
0 d 0 s 0 ds
apds 6= 0 because of properties of real numbers.
Associativity is inherited from the group of real 2 × 2 matrices with non-zero
determinant.
Next we show the existence of inverses.
   
a b 1 d −b
For each ∈ G with ad 6= 0, ∃ ∈G
with − = 6= 0 such that
        
a b 1 d −b 1 d −b a b 1 0
. = = .
0 d ad 0 a ad 0 a 0 d 0 1
Thus, all group axioms hold and G is a group under matrix multiplication.
No, G is not abelian because
    
1 2 2 3 2 11
. = ,
0 1 0 4 0 4
    
2 3 1 2 2 7
while . = .
0 4 0 1 0 4
   
2 3 1 2
Thus there exists A = , B= ∈ G such that AB 6= BA.
0 4 0 1
 
a 0
Problem 0.22. Let G be the set of all real 2 × 2 matrices , where
0 a−1
a 6= 0. Prove that G is an abelian group under matrix multiplication.
 
1 0
Proof. We first note ∈ G as a = 1 6= 0. Thus G 6= ∅ and identity
0 1

belongs to G.    
a 0 p 0
Next we show closure. Let , ∈ G.
0 a−1 0 p−1
Then a, p 6= 0.
      
a 0 p 0 ap 0 ap 0
And . = = such
0 a−1 0 p−1 0 p−1 a−1 0 (ap)−1
that

## ap 6= 0 because of properties of real numbers.

Associativity is inherited from the group of real 2 × 2 matrices with non-zero
determinant.
Next we show the existence of inverses.
   −1 
a 0 a 0
For each ∈ G with a 6= 0, ∃ ∈G
0 a−1 0 a
with a−1 6= 0 as a 6= 0 such that
   −1   −1    
a 0 a 0 a 0 a 0 1 0
. = = .
0 a−1 0 a 0 a 0 a−1 0 1
Thus, all group axioms hold and G is a group under matrix multiplication.
We show G is abelian.
   
a 0 p 0
Let , ∈ G, such that
0 a−1 0 p−1
      
a 0 p 0 ap 0 ap 0
. = =
0 a−1 0 p−1 0 p−1 .a−1 0 (ap)−1
      
p 0 a 0 pa 0 pa 0
and . = = .
0 p−1 0 a−1 0 a−1 p−1 0 (pa)−1
But ap = pa because R is abelian. Thus, G is abelian.
Problem 0.23. Construct in the G of Problem 21 a subgroup of order 4.
       
1 0 −1 0 1 0 −1 0
Proof. Let H = , , , .
0 1 0 −1 0 −1 0 1
Clearly every element of H is in G as determinant is non-zero. In fact de-
terminant is 1. Firstly we note that identity belongs to H. Next we show
closure.
   
a 0 p 0
Let , ∈ H such that ab = 1, pq = 1
0 b 0 q
    
a 0 p 0 ap 0
Then . =
0 b 0 q 0 bq
where apbq = abpq = 1.1 = 1 and thus we have closure.
The associativity is inherited from G.
The existence of inverse is clear from the fact that for each

 
a 0
A= ∈ H with ab = 1,
0 b
 
1 b 0 ba
∃B= ∈ H with =1
ab 0 a ab
such that AB = BA = I where I is the identity. Thus all group axioms hold
and H is a subgroup of G of order 4.
 
a b
Problem 0.24. Let G be the set of all real 2 × 2 matrices , where
c d
a, b, c, d are integers modulo 2, such that ad−bc 6= 0. Using matrix multiplication
as the operation in G, prove that G is a group of order 6.

## Proof. Z2 = {0, 1}.  

a b
Number of possible real 2 × 2 matrices , where a, b, c, d are integers
c d
4
modulo 2 are 2 = 16.
Now we need only those elements whose determinant is non-zero.
We note that since G is a group, each element in G occurs once in every row and
once in every column in the group table, thus, we can express it in |G| distinct
products. Let us count the elements with determinant 0.
Case 1: ad − bc = 0 − 0 = 0,
This implies ad = 0 and bc = 0.
For ad = 0, we have 3 choices for the product and for bc = 0, we have 3
choices for the product. Therefore we have 9 choices.

Case 2: ad − bc = 1 − 1 = 1,
This implies that ad = 1 and bc = 1. For ad = 1, we have 1 choices for
the product and for bc = 1, we have 1 choices for the product. Therefore
we have 1 choices.

## Thus we have 10 choices with determinant 0.

Thus the elements which have non-zero determinant are 16 − 10 = 6 in number
and o(G) = 6.
In fact we can write the elements explicitly and prove it is a group.
           
1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1
G= , , , , , .
0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1
 
1 0
We first observe the identity ∈ G.
0 1
   
a b p q
Next we show closure. Let , ∈ G with ad − bc 6= 0 and
c d r s
pq − rs 6= 0.

## Since we are working in Z2 , then ad − bc = pq − rs = 1.

    
a b p q ap + br aq + bs
. =
c d r s cp + dr cq + ds
such that
apcq+apds+brcq+brds−cpaq−cpbs−draq−drbs = apds+brcq−cpbs−draq =

## ad(ps − rq) + bc(rq − ps) = (ps − rq)(ad − bc) = 

1.1 = 1   
a b p q
Thus, the determinant is not zero. And we have . ∈ G and
c d r s
G is closed.

## The associativity is inherited from the associativity of group of real 2 × 2 ma-

trices with non-zero determinant.
Finally we need to show existence of inverses in G.
   
a b d −b
For each ∈ G with ad − bc = 1, ∃ ∈ G with ad − bc = 1
c d −c a
       
a b d −b d −b a b 1 0
such that . = = .
c d −c a −c a c d 0 1
Thus, all group axioms hold and G is a group of order 6 under multiplication
modulo 2.
 
a b
Problem 0.25. (a). Let G be the group of all 2 × 2 matrices where
c d
ad − bc 6= 0 and a, b, c, d are integers modulo 3, relative to matrix multi-
plication. Show that o(G) = 48.
(b). If we modify the example of G in part (a) by insisting that ad − bc = 1,
then what is o(G)?
Proof. (a). Z3 = {0, 1, 2}.  
a b
Number of possible real 2 × 2 matrices , where a, b, c, d are in-
c d
tegers modulo 3 are 34 = 81.
Now we need only those elements whose determinant is non-zero.
We note that since G is a group, each element in G occurs once in every
row and once in every column in the group table, thus, we can express it
in |G| distinct products. Let us count the elements with determinant 0.

Case 1: ad − bc = 0 − 0 = 0,
This implies ad = 0 and bc = 0.
For ad = 0, we have 5 choices for the product and for bc = 0, we have
5 choices for the product. Therefore we have 25 choices.
Case 2: ad − bc = 1 − 1 = 0,
This implies that ad = 1 and bc = 1. For ad = 1, we have 2 choices
for the product and for bc = 1, we have 2 choices for the product.
Therefore we have 4 choices.
Case 3: ad − bc = 2 − 2 = 0,
This implies ad = 2 and bc = 2. For ad = 2, we have 2 choices for the
product and for bc = 2, we have 2 choices for the product. Therefore
we have 4 choices.
Thus we have 33 choices with determinant 0.
Thus the elements which have non-zero determinant are 81 − 33 = 48 in
number and o(G) = 48.

## (b). If ad − bc = 1 ⇒ ad − bc 6= 2. Since we are working in Z3 , we can have

the following possibilities for ad − bc:
– ad − bc = 2 − 2 = 0, ad − bc = 1 − 1 = 0, ad − bc = 0 − 0 = 0 which
has 33 possibilities as shown in previous part.
– ad − bc = 2 − 0 = 2, ad − bc = 0 − 1 = 2, ad − bc = 1 − 2 = −1 = 2
which are the cases we want to exclude.
– ad − bc = 1 − 0 = 1, ad − bc = 2 − 1 = 1, ad − bc = 0 − 2 = −2 = 1
which are the cases we want to include.
We note that since G is a group, each element in G occurs once in every
row and once in every column in the group table, thus, we can express it
in |G| distinct products. Let us count the elements with determinant 1.
Case 1: ad − bc = 1 − 0 = 1,
This implies ad = 1 and bc = 0.
For ad = 1, we have 2 choices for the product and for bc = 0, we have
5 choices for the product. Therefore we have 10 choices.
Case 2: ad − bc = 2 − 1 = 1,
This implies that ad = 2 and bc = 1. For ad = 2, we have 2 choices
for the product and for bc = 1, we have 2 choices for the product.
Therefore we have 10 choices.
Case 3: ad − bc = 0 − 2 = −2 = 1,
This implies ad = 1 and bc = 2. For ad = 0, we have 5 choices for the
product and for bc = 2, we have 2 choices for the product. Therefore
we have 4 choices.
Thus we have 24 choices with determinant 1. So o(G) = 24.

 
a b
Problem 0.26. (a). Let G be the group of all 2 × 2 matrices where
c d
a, b, c, d are integers modulo p, p a prime number, such that ad − bc 6= 0.
G forms a group relative to matrix multiplication. What is o(G)?
(b). Let H be the subgroup of the G of part (a) defined by
  
a b
H= ∈ G|ad − bc = 1 .
c d

What is o(H)?
Proof. (a). Zp = {0, 1, ..., p − 1}.  
a b
Number of possible real 2 × 2 matrices , where a, b, c, d are in-
c d
tegers modulo p are p4 .
Now we need only those elements whose determinant is non-zero.
We note that since G is a group, each element in G occurs once in every
row and once in every column in the group table, thus, we can express it
in |G| distinct products. Thus ∀ x|x ∈ Z∗p , we can write x as |G| = p − 1
distinct products.
Let us count the elements with determinant 0.

Case 1: ad − bc = 0 − 0 = 0,
This implies ad = 0 and bc = 0.
For ad = 0, when a = 0, we have p choices for d and when d = 0,
we have p choices for a, counting a = 0 and d = 0 twice, we have
p + p − 1 = 2p − 1 choices for the product and for bc = 0, we have
2p − 1 choices for the product. Therefore we have (2p − 1)2 choices.
Case 2: ad − bc = x − x = 0; x ∈ Z∗p ,
This implies that ad = x and bc = x. For ad = x, we have p − 1
choices for the product and for bc = x, we have p − 1 choices for the
product. Therefore we have (p − 1)2 choices for each x and p − 1
choices for value of x. Thus we have (p − 1)3 choices.
Thus we have (2p−1)2 +(p−1)3 = 4p2 +1−4p+p3 −3p2 +3p−1 = p3 +p2 −p
choices with determinant 0.
Thus the elements which have non-zero determinant are o(G) = p4 − p3 −
p2 + p in number.
• Zp = {0, 1, ..., p − 1}.  
a b
Number of possible real 2 × 2 matrices , where a, b, c, d are in-
c d
tegers modulo p are p4 .
Now we need only those elements whose determinant is 1.
We note that since G is a group, each element in G occurs once in every
row and once in every column in the group table, thus, we can express it
in |G| distinct products. Thus ∀ x|x ∈ Z∗p , we can write x as |G| = p − 1
distinct products.
Let us count the elements with determinant 1.
Case 1: ad − bc = 1 − 0 = 0,
This implies ad = 1 and bc = 0.
For ad = 1, we have p − 1 choices for writing the product and for
bc = 0, when b = 0, we have p choices for c and when c = 0, we have p
choices for b, counting b = 0 and c = 0 twice, we have p+p−1 = 2p−1
choices for the product. Therefore we have (p − 1)(2p − 1) = 2p2 −
3p + 1 choices.
Case 2: ad − bc = (x + 1) − x = 1; x ∈ Z∗p − {p − 1},
This implies that ad = x + 1 and bc = x. For ad = x + 1, we have
p − 1 choices for the product and for bc = x, we have p − 1 choices for
the product. Therefore we have (p − 1)2 choices for each x and p − 2
choices for value of x. Thus we have (p−1)2 (p−2) = p3 −4p2 +5p−2
choices.
Case 3: ad − bc = 0 − (p − 1) = 1,
This implies ad = 0 and bc = p − 1.
For ad = 0, when a = 0, we have p choices for d and when d = 0,
we have p choices for a, counting a = 0 and d = 0 twice, we have
p+p−1 = 2p−1 choices for the product and for bc = (p−1), we have
(p − 1) choices for the product. Therefore we have (p − 1)(2p − 1) =
2p2 − 3p + 1 choices.
Thus we have 2(2p2 − 3p + 1) + p3 − 4p2 + 5p − 2 = 4p2 − 6p + 2 + p3 −