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Human Cube Final Project - First Nations Life

By: J*** L*** and Fahlon Smith

Vancouver Island University

December 15, 2017

EDPB 503:

Dr. Amina Turton


Background Information

The School District 68 classroom consists of 21 grade 3 and 4 students. 14 of the

students are male, 7 of the students are female, and 12 of the students are in grade 3. 6 of the

students have designations, however none of the students have an IEP or an Education

Assistant. The classroom is in a moderately wealthy area of Nanaimo and most families in the

class have a comfortable living. The school has an eco-school designation, which manifests in

their focus on environmentalism during classes, and a standing field trip consent for all students.

This entails students being permitted to be led off school grounds to designated locations,

namely a local beach, a local park containing a stream, and a small mountainous bluff behind

the school. The class will leave school grounds once every week on average, most often to the

beach or wooded park.

Three students in the class have dyslexia of some form, and one of them has other

learning designations that no one is quite clear on. There are several students in the class that

have sensitivities ranging from discomfort around other students of the opposite gender, to

requiring to be in a group with a specific student. One student has tore his achilles and only

recently removed his cast, and has issues walking for long distances uphill.

Selected Student

The student of focus is a nine-year-old grade 4 male. He does not have any

designations, but struggles with anxiety. He is very energetic and and socially outgoing. His

enthusiasm for learning and life frequently inhibits his learning as he struggles to stay focused

and quiet while the teacher is talking. The teacher is working on having a Growth Mindset with

him to help his anxiety. He often becomes afraid that he will not get a good enough mark with

math or writing, so gives up in fear rather than continue to develop his academic skills. He does
not believe he is good at any subjects at school, despite his academic abilities being higher than

the grade 4 expectation.

Socially, similar to his academic tendencies, he is very sensitive. If he is being treated

with care and kindness, he takes a liking to people quite quickly. However, he often gets hurt

emotionally by things people say or do around him, as he feels targeted personally. He has one

good friend at school who is in the same class as him but is one year younger. His friend is also

very energetic and academically capable.

Due to his anxiety, he is quite timid when new things are introduced to him. In Physical

Education for example, he prefers to watch the new game or activity for 10-15 minutes before

joining in with the rest of the class. If he does not get picked as a volunteer, does not do well in

a game, or things do not go his way, he often shuts down and is unable to have a growth

mindset. When this happens, he will cry and retreat from people and the situation. These

episodes do not last long, but often obstruct his learning.

He is an only child from a middle-upper class family (He refers to his home as a

“mansion”). His parents are married and both work. His father works full time in technology and

his mother works as his father’s secretary part time from home.

Subject

This lesson is about Aboriginal peoples’ way of life and beliefs. The lessons focus on

First Peoples in British Columbia.


Concept

This unit aims to give students an understanding of how First Peoples would have lived

in British Columbia before colonization, and what their beliefs and ways of knowing are. Specific

topics that are explored in the lessons are: salmon (how they were hunted and respected), the

life cycle, traditional aboriginal societal roles, natural resources (used for hunting and shelters),

and how music can be used for telling stories and legends.

Grade Level

These lessons were designed for eight and nine-year-old students in grade 3 and 4.

Objectives

We have created learning objectives for the unit plan. To begin with, students will

understand basic information on local aboriginal peoples of Canada, ranging from methods of

tradition, attitudes towards the environment, and hunting/gathering/building practices. Students

will also learn expressing/understanding skills through discussions with peers, and skills

necessary to work together cooperatively in a group. Lastly, students will learn more about their

local fauna, especially Salmon and the impacts of humans and others on the ecosystem.

Summary of Context

The unit First Nations Life is broken up into 6 activities to maximize student learning.

Each activity contains a pre-assessment, an activity, and a post-assessment. The first lesson is

an introduction to First Peoples beliefs around respecting the land and animals, and teaches the
students about the life cycle using a puzzle activity. The second lesson is a physical game that

teaches students about the salmon run. The third lesson in the unit is place based learning

which involves students taking on the role of a hunter/gatherer/builder at a beach. The fourth

lesson teaches students about the First Nation people’s way of passing knowledge down

through generations orally using music and storytelling. The Societal Roles lesson is the fifth

activity in the unit, which teaches students about the various roles and responsibilities (children,

warriors, elders) in a First Nations community/village. The last activity in the unit is a hands on

activity where students will build shelters out of local natural resources.

Learning Context

This unit plan was designed for grade three and four students (age 8 and 9). The

classroom consists of 21 students (8 girls and 13 boys). One British Columbia certified female

teacher teaches this class, as well as the principle of the school (another British Columbia

certified female teacher) who teaches one morning per week. The main classroom teacher is

also the Teacher In Charge for the school. When she is away or attending to TIC duties, there is

a Teacher On Call who teaches in her place every time who is another British Columbia certified

female teacher. There are no educational assistants.

The classroom has flexible seating, which allows ample student collaboration and

choice. The classroom has large windows, calming decor, and has a fish tank and a chameleon.

The classroom teacher encourages the room to be a safe place promoting the school

successful traits (creative, risk-taker, industrious, thoughtful).

Social studies is incorporated into many other cross curricular subjects, and focused on

when the teacher has a gap in their schedule or feels it is necessary. The social studies lesson

most often occur in the last block of the day, after music or library.
The focus student enjoys the flexible seating, often choosing a chair that hangs of the

ceiling. He is usually able to choose an appropriate seat for his learning, but sometimes

struggles if his friend is sitting somewhere else or if there is not enough room for him to sit at his

prefered spot. During the soft start or freetime, he likes to play with magnetic Lego.

Procedures and Differentiations

The first activity in the unit is a group puzzle activity that involves critical thinking,

discussion, and questioning.

The pre-learning assessment is a discussion of placards from a field trip the class has

gone on, talking about various aspects of the salmon life cycle.

The Salmon Life Cycle Puzzle activity aims to teach students about Salmon life cycles in

preparation for the Salmon Run activity and learning about First Nations behaviors with Salmon

as representative of their relationship with the environment as a whole. Students will receive a

piece of a picture of a salmon species, and be instructed to find other members of their salmon

species by the fitting of puzzle cuts on the pages. Once in a group, students will brainstorm

three things they know about Salmon life cycles, and three questions they have about Salmon.

Once this is done, each group will have an opportunity to share what they know about salmon,

and what they would like to learn/know. The class will engage in a group discussion about

salmon in an attempt to answer or reason through some of the questions. Following these

discussions, the teacher will read Salmon Boy: A Legend of the Sechelt People, by Donna Joe,

illustrated by Charlie Craigan OR Scot Ritchie, P’esk’a and the First Salmon Ceremony. These

books tie salmon to traditions of some first nations tribes, and further expand on the concept of

local ecosystems and traditions.

The post-assessment for this activity is the third column, the ‘learned’, as each student

will write or draw three things they learned about salmon during this activity. This will
demonstrate their understanding of asking questions and gathering information about first

nations traditions and salmon facts.

In the lesson, the students are not meant to know everything about salmon at the start,

but rather share in the learning and use critical thinking to answer questions. These methods

echo Vygotsky’s (1962) desires for students to working through social learning, by having them

come up with questions in groups and help to answer other groups’ questions.

In terms of differentiation, students with social difficulties can work with the teacher or by

themselves on their own worksheet, and still participate in as much as they wish to without

losing content. Students have the option to draw or write depending on literacy levels.

The second lesson in the unit is a physical gym game that involves moving, discussing,

and visualizing.

The Salmon Run Game lesson aims to teach students about the plight of Salmon in their

journeys to their spawning grounds, and how First Nations peoples have affected and currently

affect the journey while touching on topics of sustainability and biodiversity. Students will

participate in a gym activity involving running up a river with their eggs while avoiding predators.

Predators will try to get as many eggs as possible, while dealing with a wider or thinner river.

Finally, students will participate in a discussion about what First Nations peoples do, and how

this would look in their game, before reenacting one final time with someone taking only one

salmon to perform the ceremony with.

The post-assessment for this activity is a simple exit ticket out the door, with the teacher

asking the students one thing they can say about first nations people and their interactions with

salmon and the river.

In this lesson, students visualize and relate the concept of the river from previous field

trips or lessons and experience what it is like to be a salmon going to spawn in a basic sense.

This activity works on Piaget’s key elements to enable learning, creating Emotion and

excitement during the running, the Experience of actually performing the activity as a salmon or
predator, and Social Interaction with other children through discussing strategies for running up

the river successfully.

If students are unable to move easily or dodge, they can take turns as predators instead,

standing on the side of the river. Likewise any children with social anxiety can work through the

game on their own without taking part in discussion.

The third activity in the unit is a lesson which ideally takes place outdoors, where

students will embody the roles of Hunter/Gatherer/Builder for an aboriginal tribe, gathering

information through creative processes on a worksheet. They will work in groups and present,

ask questions, and brainstorm creative solutions to their problems. The pre-learning

assessment works through adult roles in a traditional first nations village, and discusses what

the obligations of each role are.

The Hunting/Gathering/Building lesson aims to teach students how the various roles of

aboriginal first nations tribes interacted when out gathering necessities for the village, and to

learn about what can be gathered in their local environment. Students will pick their roles and

be given a worksheet on a clipboard, then explore while writing or drawing what they’ve

“gathered”. The rule is that if you need something provided by another role, you have to get

them to draw what is needed on their own sheets first (A hunter wishing to fish will need a

fishing rod from a builder, who will in turn need wood for the rod from a gatherer). Students will

gather in their groups to discuss findings, then present to the class what they have found.

Students will finish by listening to the story of the Lost Salmon, a Yakima legend, and

performing group actions when they are called upon.

The post-assessment is designed to assess formatively how well the student can

imagine and be creative with their worksheets, work as a group, and perform during the story.

The worksheet can be collected and used for learners snapshots and stories for the students.

In this lesson students are encouraged to be creative and industrious with their sheets,

filling them with as many things as they can think of. Both Vygotsky and Locke have ideas that
permeate this lesson, with social learning and interaction coming from Vygotsky’s efforts, and

Locke’s belief that knowledge is determined by experience, allowing them to be out in the

environment learning from their own senses.

In terms of differentiation, students with physical limitations should be considered in the

length of walk to the outdoor area. Socially anxious students can be spoken with individually by

a teacher, who can communicate on behalf of all roles to them.

The fourth activity in the unit is a music class that involves listening, visualizing, and

creating. The pre-learning assessment asks students to brainstorm and discuss various ways

that music is used in their culture and other cultures.

The Introduction to Aboriginal Music lesson aims to teach students how First Nations

music was used to orally pass down knowledge through generations. Students will listen to a

First Nations song while visualizing a possible story. Then, the teacher will read them the story

that the song tells. The final part of the activity involves the students watching and listening to a

live performance of a different First Nations song which they will then create a possible story for.

The post-assessment for this activity is designed to assess students’ understanding of

the purpose of First Nations music and how it can be used for telling stories. The students will

demonstrate their understanding by drawing or writing a possible story on their worksheet that

the final song is telling.

In the lesson, students are meant to be creative. There is no right answer, and the

students can create any story for the song that they like. Therefore, the lesson relates to Kamii’s

Constructivism theory in that students will feel free to use their imagination to create something

without the fear of being “wrong” (Crain 2011).

This lesson can be adapted for multiple differentiated needs. For the creation of a story,

students have the option to draw or write, allowing students to participate no matter what level

their literacy skills are at. Also, the story is read to the students, not requiring them to be able to
read. If students have hearing issues, they can look at the visuals of the video, or look at

pictures in First Nations art books from local nations.

The fifth activity in the unit is a literacy based lesson on First Nations community and

societal roles and responsibilities. The pre-learning assessment asks students to brainstorm

and discuss what they already know about First Nations culture, what community is, and what

aspects of life First Nations people might value in their community.

The Aboriginal Societal Roles lesson aims to teach students about the various roles and

responsibilities in a First Nations community. First, the vocabulary needs to be introduced to

students (children, warriors, elders, village, tribe, nation, community). Then, the teacher will read

the book Dipnetting With Dad as students look for the previously discussed societal roles. A

Think Pair Share activity will follow the book.

The post-assessment for this activity is designed to assess students’ understanding of

Aboriginal societal roles by asking them to apply their knowledge to their personal lives. On their

worksheet, they are asked to write one thing that they have learned from someone older than

them (an elder) and one thing that they could teach to someone younger than them (a child).

This lesson is suitable for grade 3 and 4 students because, as they are likely in Piaget’s

Concrete Operational stage, they are learning about a concept that is related to their own lives

(Crain, 2011). The egocentrism adaptability makes this lesson accessible to all students.

Although the concept may be abstract at times (learning about communities, cultures, and

people), students in all developmental stages can benefit from this lesson.

If students struggle with literacy, they can still successfully participate by having the story

read to them and choosing to draw a picture instead of write on the worksheet. If students have

ADHD or are hyperactive, the teacher can assign interactive motions to be added to the story.

The sixth activity in the unit is an experiential learning lesson on building shelters. The

pre-learning assessment for the activity requires students to discuss, during a Think Pair Share

activity, how First Nations people may have stayed warm and built their longhouses.
The Shelter lesson is meant to further students’ understanding of how First Nations

people lived hundreds of years ago. During the Shelter lesson, students are required to small

model shelters using local natural resources such as cedar bark, twine, and cedar branches.

Students will work in groups of two, will have unlimited resources, and will be given

approximately 30 minutes to make their shelter. Afterwards, the students will do a gallery walk

to view the variety of shelters.

The post-assessment is designed to assess students’ understanding of First Nations

peoples’ resources, ways of knowing, and ways of life. Also, it is designed to assess students’

ability to collaborate. The rubric has been designed for this lesson and articulates the criteria

that each student should be striving for.

The lesson, as it is allows the students a hands on way to experiment with materials and

structures, will be very beneficial for children based on John Dewey’s theory of child

development (Crain, 2011). Students are given the materials and idea, but it is up to the student

to decide how they build the structure, what tools and resources they will use, and how they will

collaborate effectively with their learning partner. Also, the activity is based in nature which will

emotionally benefit the students according to Montessori (Crain, 2011).

Students will need to dress appropriately for the outdoor lesson. Ideally, the shelters can

be built outside on the school grounds. If students have accessibility/mobility challenges, the

lesson could be taught in a classroom. The natural resources used should be checked for safety

before used (nails, pesticides, dirt, insects, etc).

Collaboration

This unit has great potential for collaboration as it requires little resources and is

accessible to experienced or new teachers. Also, many of the activities can be done with many

students, meaning that there are opportunities for lessons to be conducted with “buddy classes.”
As we learn more about First Nations principles and beliefs, we will adapt and update this unit

as needed.

Time Allotment

Each lesson is designed to take 45 minutes. However, lessons can be adapted to take

more or less time as needed. A teacher may decide to extend or shorten the amount of time

given for each lesson depending on the classroom context and student needs. Specifically, the

shelter building activity and hunter/gatherer/builder lessons could be extended to allow students

to delve more deeply into their characters and learning.

Authors Comments and Reflections

We had a great deal of excitement heading into this unit plan, focusing on as much

experiential learning as we could fit into a series of lessons taking place over two weeks. We

were fortunate to be at an eco-school, where students can go to the beach or outside and be

comfortable and capable there. We were proud of the differentiation in terms of writing, as with

such a broad range of ability simply forcing all students to write wasn’t an option. Students that

we observed previously disengaging from standardized materials were some of the most

productive, creating beautiful drawings or impressive structures. We feel the lessons let some

students realize what strengths they can bring to standard curriculum content, taught through a

lens of differentiated instruction.


Instructional Materials

This unit requires few materials. Most activities require the basic materials such as

pencils and paper. The first activity requires the salmon puzzle sheets found in this document.

The second activity requires approximately 6-8 skipping ropes, one small ball or bean bag per

student, and a bucket. The third activity requires clipboards for each student and the worksheet

found in this document, and optionally pinnies for each student in three colours. The fourth

activity requires a computer, projector, and audio to present videos from YouTube. The fourth

and fifth activities require the worksheets to be photocopied. The sixth activity requires natural

resources such as tree bark, rope, and tree branches for building shelters. The fourth, fifth, and

sixth lessons all require books that could be changed for similar books that are more accessible.

Resources

Resources for this unit included personal advisement from peers, supervising teachers,

professors, as well as books, articles, and various other online resources. Theories of

Development by William Crain was used as a resource for developmental theories to maximize

the unit’s beneficiality for children. Aboriginal content was researched using www.fnesc.ca and

supported by community members to ensure the appropriateness of the unit. When looking for

appropriate literature and books for the lessons, www.fnesc.ca was referenced, as well as

www.strongnations.ca. For curriculum content, https://curriculum.gov.bc.ca was often

referenced. The assessment plans for the unit were developed with literature research such as

Creating Cultures of Thinking by Ron Ritchart and Outstanding Formative Assessment by

Shirley Clarke.
Standards

Salmon Life Cycle Puzzle

Big Ideas:

Science 3
● Living Things are diverse, can be grouped, and interact in their ecosystems.
Social Studies 3
● Indigenous societies throughout the world value the wellbeing of the self, the land, spirits
and ancestors.

Curricular Competencies:

Science 3
● Demonstrate curiosity about the natural world.
● Make observations about living and nonliving things in the local environment.
● Identify some simple environmental implications of theirs and others’ actions.
Social Studies 3
● Explain why people, events, and places are significant to various individuals and groups,
Explain why people’s beliefs, values, worldviews, experiences, and roles give them
different perspectives on people, places, issues, and events.

Content:

Science 3
● Biodiversity in the local environment.
● The knowledge of the local First Peoples of ecosystems.
Social Studies 3
● Cultural characteristics and ways of life of local First Peoples and global indigenous
peoples, relationship between humans and their environment.

Salmon Run Game

Big Ideas:

Science 3
● Living Things are diverse, can be grouped, and interact in their ecosystems.

Curricular Competencies:

Science 3
● Demonstrate curiosity about the natural world.
● Make observations about living and nonliving things in the local environment, Identify
some simple environmental implications of theirs and others’ actions.
Social Studies 3
● Explain why people, events, and places are significant to various individuals and groups
● Explain why people’s beliefs, values, worldviews, experiences, and roles give them
different perspectives on people, places, issues, and events.

Hunting/Gathering/Building

Big Ideas:

Social Studies 3
● People from diverse cultures and societies share some common experiences and
aspects of life.
Applied Design, Skills, and Technologies 3
● Technologies are tools that extend human capabilities.
English Language Arts 3
● Stories and other texts help us learn about ourselves, our families and our communities.

Curricular Competencies:

Social Studies 3
● Use imagining and predicting in relation to the selected issue, hunting and gathering.
● Generate a variety of responses to said specific issue.
● Consider advantages and disadvantages of a variety of solutions.
● Engage in meaningful conversation through a discussion.

Content:

Social Studies 3
● Interconnections of cultural and technological innovations of global and local indigenous
peoples related to hunting and fishing techniques, food cultivation and preparation.

Introduction to Aboriginal Music

Big Ideas:

Social Studies 3
● Indigenous knowledge is passed down through oral history, traditions, and collective
memory.
● People from diverse cultures and societies share some common experiences and
aspects of life.

Curricular Competencies:

Fine Arts 3,4


● Dance, drama, music, and visual arts are each unique languages for creating and
communicating.

● Exploring works of art exposes us to diverse values, knowledge, and perspectives.


● Observe, listen, describe, inquire, and predict how artists use processes, materials,
movements, technologies, tools, and techniques.
Social Studies 3
● Explain why people, events, or places are significant to various individuals and groups.
● Explain why people’s beliefs, values, worldviews, experiences, and roles gives them
different perspectives on people, places, issues, or events.
English Language Arts 3
● Develop awareness of how story in First Peoples’ cultures connects people to land.
● Explore and appreciate aspects of First Peoples’ oral traditions.

Content:

Social Studies 3
● Cultural characteristics and ways of life of local First Peoples and global indigenous
peoples.
● Oral history, traditional stories, and artifacts as evidence about past First Peoples
cultures.
Fine Arts 3,4
● Traditional and contemporary Aboriginal arts and arts-making processes.
● A variety of local works of art and artistic traditions from diverse cultures, communities,
times, and places.
English Language Arts 3
● Oral language strategies.
● Functions and genres of stories and other texts.

Aboriginal Societal Roles

Social Studies 3
● Indigenous societies throughout the world value the wellbeing of the self, land, spirits,
and ancestors.
● Learning about indigenous peoples nurtures multicultural awareness and respect for
diversity.
● Indigenous knowledge is passed down through oral history, traditions, and collective
memory.
English Language Arts 3
● Stories and other texts help us learn about ourselves, our families, and our communities.

Curricular Competencies:

Social Studies 3
● Explain why people, events, or places are significant to various individuals and groups.
● Explain why people’s beliefs, values, and world views, experiences, and roles give them
different perspectives on people, places, issues, or events.
English Language Arts 3
● Show awareness of how story in First Peoples’ cultures connects people to family and
community

Content:

Social Studies 3
● Cultural characteristics and ways of life of local First Peoples.
● Governance and social organization in local societies.
● Relationship between humans and their environment.
English Language Arts 3
● Functions and genres of stories and other texts.
● Oral language strategies.

Shelters

Big Ideas:

Social Studies 3
● People from diverse cultures and societies share some common experiences and
aspects of life.
● Indigenous knowledge is passed down through oral history, traditions and collective
memory.
English Language Arts 3
● Stories and other texts help us learn about ourselves, our families and our communities.
● Curiosity and wonder lead us to new discoveries about ourselves and the world around
us.
● Exploring stories and other texts helps us understand ourselves and make connections
to others and to the world.

Curricular Competencies:

Social Studies 3
● Use Social Studies inquiry processes and skills to ask questions; gather, interpret, and
analyze ideas; and communicate findings and decisions
○ Use imagining and predicting in relation to selected issues.
○ Consider advantages and disadvantages of a variety of solutions.
○ Engage in meaningful conversation through a discussion.
● Recognize the causes and consequences of events, decisions, and developments
● Explain why people’s beliefs, values, worldviews, experiences, and roles give them
different perspectives on people, places, issues, and events
English Language Arts 3
● Use age-appropriate reading, listening, and viewing behaviours and strategies to make
meaning from texts
● Engage actively as listeners, viewers and readers, as appropriate, to develop
understanding of self, identity and community
● Show awareness of how story in First Peoples’ cultures connects people to family and
community
● Develop awareness of how story in First Peoples’ cultures connects people to land

Content:

Social studies 3
● cultural characteristics and ways of life of local First Peoples and global indigenous
peoples
● aspects of life shared by and common to peoples and cultures
● oral history, traditional stories, and artifacts as evidence about past First Peoples
cultures
● relationship between humans and their environment
English Language Arts 3
● Functions and genres of stories and other texts
● Oral language strategies

Appendix 1/Activity 1:

Salmon Life Cycle Puzzle

Pre-assessment: Going through slides from the park field trip, asking for information about

where salmon come back to to lay their eggs.

Activity: Print and cut the placards of each salmon into puzzle pieces to equal the number of

students. Then give each student a piece and instruct them to find the other members of their

salmon species, and to begin work on their Know Wonder Learn charts as a group. Ask them to

come up with 3 things they know about Salmon, and 3 questions they have to be discussed

during the discussion part of the activity. Tell the class you’ll be going around to groups asking

them to say what they know and wonder, and ask other students if they’re able to answer the

questions. Do your best to help them answer all questions that cannot be answered in this way.
Puzzles:
Pink Salmon
Sockeye Salmon
Ocean-phase adult
Spawning-phase adult

Source: Alaska Department of Fish and Game website


http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=wildlifenews.view_article&articl
es_id=714

KWL Chart:
Post-Assessment: Ask the class to write 3 things they learned about Salmon during this lesson

in their Learned column as an exit ticket, and collect their worksheets.

Appendix 2/Activity 2:
Salmon Run Game

Pre-Assessment: Ask the class for the information about where salmon go to spawn their

eggs, and what predators may be along the river banks.

Activity Instructions: In a gymnasium or outside, create two long skipping ropes and place

them parallel on the ground, with about 5-6 feet between them. Place a bucket at one end of

the ‘river’. Ask for volunteers to be 3 or 4 Bears or Wolves, and instruct them that the rest of the

class will be salmon carrying a single egg to represent if they made it to the spawning grounds

or not, represented by the bucket.. Predators cannot step into the river, and must reach out to

tag a salmon in order to have their egg given to the predator. After the first run, talk about

having a dry season, then decrease the width of the river and repeat. Ask the class their

thoughts on how many eggs made it up the river. Feel free to improvise and add boulders or

other obstacles to your river to lengthen the lesson. At the end, have a talk about first nations

salmon fishing and how they take only one salmon from the start to perform a ceremony, and

notice how the first nations fishermen help to preserve the eggs.

Post-Assessment: Ask each student for one thing they learned about salmon spawning as an

exit ticket out the door.

Appendix 3/Activity 3:

Hunting/Gathering/Building
Pre-Assessment: Draw a 3-ring concentric circle on the board and write “children” in the

middle, “Elder” in the second, and “Adult” in the outer ring. Discuss with the students what the

roles of each were, and in particular what the roles of Adults were in traditional first nations

societies. Students should recall past discussions about how children are protected and learn,

elders teach, and adults hunt/gather/build for the village.

Activity Instructions: Give a quick run-down of what the groups will be expected to do:

Hunters will find creatures but will need tools from Builders, Builders will build tools and other

items with materials from Gatherers, and Gatherers will be responsible for both natural material

gathering and basic scavenging. Ask for volunteers for Builders, then Hunters, and Gatherers,

making sure that one group isn’t too dominant. Give them each a pinnie to signify which group

they’re in. Once at the beach, reiterate the goals, and be sure to specify that nobody is doing

anything physically, but drawing or writing them on their worksheet instead. Let them know that

in 20 minutes they’ll be called in to their groups so they can discuss what they’d like to present

quickly to the class. Lastly, read the story of The Lost Salmon with interactive elements, letting

them make a physical action when you call out their groups.

The Legend of the Lost Salmon, A Yakima Legend


In the beginning, the Creator taught the people how to care for this food which was created especially
for them. He said, "Do not neglect this food. Be careful that you do not break the rules in taking care
of this salmon. Do not take more than you need". He told them if they observed these rules, the
salmon would multiply several times over as long as they lived.

At first the people diligently obeyed the rules, and they lived happily without problems. The Hunters
hunted well, the Gatherers always came back with full baskets, and the Builders created tools that
helped everyone. All along the river there were different bands of people living in their fishing villages,
busy catching and drying their supply of salmon. But one day something strange happened. The
people became careless and they neglected to follow the instructions made by the Creator. They
became greedy. They did not take care of the salmon. The hunters caught more than they needed,
the gatherers stomped through the forest, and the builders started to build tools just to sell for
jewelry. They would not listen to the advice from those who were trying to follow the rules. Suddenly
the salmon disappeared. When the salmon were no longer coming up the stream for the people to
catch everybody frantically searched the rivers, but all in vain. There was not one salmon left to be
found. Soon they became hungry, their little children were crying and the old people were forced to
beg for food.

One day, while they were searching the river, they found a dead salmon lying on the bank of the river.
They stared down at it in disbelief when they realized what had happened. They began to cry out in
shame and lament their mistakes, "If we are given one more chance, we will do better. If only we
could awaken this salmon, the other salmon might come up the stream." Our Hunters won’t hunt
more than we need, our Gatherers will be respectful to nature, and our Builders will build for
necessity, not for greed.

The people called a council and they talked about how they could give life back to the salmon. In
legendary times those with supernatural powers could revive a lifeless creature by stepping over it five
times. The people tried to use their own spiritual powers to revive the salmon. One by one they each
stepped over the salmon five times, but to no avail. (Have the children step over the salmon, five
times hopping)

There was a recluse named Old Man Rattlesnake. He never went anywhere always staying off by
himself. He was very ancient and all the people called him "Grandfather". Somebody said, "let's ask
Grandfather to help us! He is a powerful man. Let him revive the salmon!." A messenger was sent.
"Oh Grandfather, would you come and help us revive the salmon. Everybody has failed." Old Man
Rattlesnake listened and said, "What makes you think I am capable of reviving this lone salmon after
everyone else has failed? I am an old man, how do you expect an old man like me to possess powers
to do the impossible!". The messenger was sad. "You are our last hope. Please help us, Grandfather".
Finally Old Man Rattlesnake agreed, "I will do my best". He was so old it was very painful for him to
move fast. He moved ever so slowly and it seemed like such a long way for one so old. (Ask the
children to move like Old Man Rattlesnake).

Finally, Old Man Rattlesnake arrived. Painfully he crawled over the salmon four times. The fifth time
something magical happened! Grandfather disappeared into the salmon and the salmon woke up and
came back to life and the salmon came back to the rivers. The Hunters were able to catch food to
feed the people, along with the gatherers. The builders helped to better the village, and they
prospered, taking care to protect their salmon and the nature around them from then on.

I AM A

HUNTER / GATHERER / BUILDER


Post-assessment: Have each group present several things they brought back to their village,

and what they needed from other members of the village. Collect worksheets and use those as

summative assessment.
Appendix 4/Activity 4:

Introduction to Aboriginal Music


Pre-Learning Assessment
Lead a class discussion with students about what they know so far about First Nations people,
music, and the purpose of music in various cultures.
Which people are necessary for community? Do you have a community? What societal roles
are in your family/community? Does community include animals and nature? Why? What
traditions do we have and how do we learn/teach each other?

Activity
Instructions: have students listen to a song
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sgh26LwbgEg&list=PL_ASPK8LphfCa4YYW6kK5k8zUhjN
4sgGw) and visualize what story the song is telling. Then, read Mayuk The Grizzly Bear to the
students which is the story that the song is telling.

Post-Assessment
Have students demonstrate their understanding of how music can be used for storytelling by
having them watch a musical performance (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZkXUpY9tXSo)
and draw or write a possible story on the worksheet that the song is telling.

Worksheet:
Date: Name:
Draw or write a possible story
Appendix 5/Activity 5:

Aboriginal Societal Roles


Pre-Assessment
Discussion: review what we know about First Nations culture, traditions, and beliefs. Which
people are necessary for community? Do you have a community? What societal roles are in
your family/community? Does community include animals and nature? Why? What traditions do
we have and how do we learn/teach each other?

Activity
Read Dipnetting With Dad. Talk about Aboriginal societal roles (children, warriors, elders).

Post-Assessment
Instructions: Have students write something they have learned from someone older than them
(an elder) and something that they could teach to someone younger than them (a child).

Worksheet:
Write or draw an example for each question:
What is something you have learned from someone older than you?

What is something you could teach to someone younger than you?


Appendix 6/Activity 6:

Shelters
Pre-Assessment
Discussion: Look at pictures of longhouses in books Nations of the Northwest Coast by Bobbie
Kalman and Houses of Wood by Bonnie Shemie. Then, discuss how First Nations people would
have stayed warm in the winter. Talk about how they may have built houses and what resources
they could have used.
Activity
Build a shelter: Using natural resources (bark, string, sticks, leaves), allow students 45 minutes
to build a shelter with their learning partner. After, have a gallery walk to see how each student
decided to build their shelter.
Post-Assessment
Rubric: Assess the students by observing and using a rubric. Students’ knowledge of First
Nations resources and how their knowledge is passed down orally, as well as students’ ability to
collaborate with each other will be assessed.
Rubric
Summative Assessment for Building the Village - Shelter Lesson
Learning Partners:
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Preparing for take off Learning to fly Soaring

Big Idea:
● Indigenous knowledge is I can explain one thing about I can explain two things I can explain three things
passed down through oral oral history, tradition or about oral history, tradition about oral history, tradition or
history, traditions and collective memory that I or collective memory that I collective memory that I
learned from the book Orca learned from the book Orca learned from the book Orca
collective memory
Chief Chief Chief

Curricular Competency: I can explain two things I I can explain three things I I can explain four things I
● Use Social Studies inquiry learned about the way local learned about the way local learned about the way local
processes and skills to: ask First Nations built their First Nations built their First Nations built their
houses houses houses
questions; gather, interpret,
and analyze ideas; and
communicate findings and
decisions

Content: Our shelter included 3 or 4 1. Our shelter has a Our shelter included all
● Cultural characteristics of shelter necessities (see way to keep out shelter necessities (see
and ways of life of local “Learning to fly” column) water “Learning to fly” column)
2. Our shelter has a Our shelter incorporated
First Peoples and global
way to keep warm artwork as part of its design
indigenous peoples in winter / cool in
summer
3. Our shelter is
comfortable for
sleeping, relaxing
& working
4. Our shelter has a
way to cook inside
5. Our shelter is
strong and doesn’t
fall apart

Core Competency: (self-assessed) Our group needed to plan Our group worked well Our group went above and
Communication: our time better to complete together and completed this beyond the expectations for
● Collaborate to plan, carry our project in the time project in the time that we building a model shelter
available had available
out and review
constructions and activities
References

Crain, W. C. (2011). Theories of development: Concepts and applications. Upper Saddle River,

N.J: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

First Nations Education Steering Committee. www.fnesc.ca

Joe, D (1998). Salmon Boy: A Legend of the Sechelt People. Nightwood Editions.

Ministry of Education. www.curriculum.gov.bc.ca

Ritchie, S (2015). P’esk’a and the First Salmon Ceremony. Groundwood Books.

Sechelt Nation (1993). Mayuk the Grizzly Bear. Nightwood Editions.

Sellars, W. (2014). Dipnetting with Dad. Caitlin Press, Incorporated.

Strong Nations. www.strongnations.ca

Yakima Peoples Legend of the Lost Salmon. Retrieved and adapted from:

http://www.firstpeople.us/FP-Html-Legends/Legend-Of-The-Lost-Salmon-Yakima.html (Nov

2017)