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aad Dissetttd

A Carcharodon-Head
Dissected 95
A C(rcharolon'11

The controversy to be dccided in regard to the larger tongucstonesis whether

bus necdunrdecisalis cst, sintne Canis Carchariaedentcs.
they are the teeth of Canis Carchirriaeor stonesproduced by the earth.6!To be sure,
les. Scilicct rnimalium partibus similia corpora, qvae ex
some would have it thai bodies dug from thc earth bearing a rescmblanceto parts
n istis in locis oliln dcgentiumspolia essc,voluerunt'onon- of animals arc the remains o[ animals that were formerly in those places and are
L concursu ibidem producta crcdunt Nondum ea mihi re- now decayed:othcrs believe thcm to have becn produced in the same placeswith-
nr hic judiciunr itltctponeretr; et licct nrca rlte peregrioatio out aDiDlls being involved. I do not yct have the knowiedgc of this Dratterto pass
.r deduxerit. non ausim tanlen spondetc, qvae in reljqvo judgment on it hcre; and though nry travelstl blve taken me through various pla-
p r u c c i p u cc u t n ces of this kind, nevertheless, I do not dare to guaranteethat what I shall observe
, h a c t c n u .o b s e r \ u t i ss i r r r i l i l f u l u r a e s s e :
in the rest of my journey will be similar to what I have observedup to now: chiefly,
: CcleberrirrrusPraeceptorlncus Bartholinus in suo itinerc
sincc I have not yet seen what my very fanlous tcncher Banholin observcd in his
itaqvc in ioro qvidam rr'i. alius actoris partessuscipit.uter' journey to Malta.TtThus just as in legal affairs,one takesthe patt of the plaintitf and
lbmittcns; sic ego, cx hactcnus observatis,iJla argunenta thc othcr submits hinrselfto the dccisionof the Judge,so I produce, from what has
pora animalibusadscribuntur.forsitan alio tempore contra- been observedin the past, the proofs of thosewho reckon those bodies to be of ani-
semperverunt judicium a ntcliora doctisexspec-
r1rcrsiturus. rnal orisin. settingdown perhapsat another time tlte reasonsfor contrary opinions.
and looking a)waysfor a true judgenrentfrom more learnednren.
Therefore,I begin to set down, methodically,the presentdigressionon thc origin
rnr.qvae animalium partibus similia e terris eruuntur. dcqve
of bodies.resemblingparts of animals, that are dug from the earth. and regarding
rscntem digressioncminstituo, ut de re incerta. qvac pro-
the earth itself, with the desirc that things I pronounce as unccrtain will be held to
et ipsa habendavclim. Nc vcro nlulta sibi ntrva prontittcns bc indeed uncertain. But lest lhe rerder be led to cxpect nany ncw ideas and
e sua frustratum se conqvc'ratur!praemonitunrillunt volo, becauseof this expectiltion complain that he been deceivcd, I wish to warn
ab aliis propositafuissc; multa Praeceptorummeorum ob- him beforehand that some of the propositions have been made already by others;
rcissimaibi futura. qvorum ipsc oculatus testisnon fuerinr. that many are owcd to the observationof my teachers:there will be vcry few to
rvhichI havc not been an cvewitness.

Historia. Historia.
lium animantiunlpartibus similia corpora cruuntur. qvibus- l. The soil from wbich bodies resemblingparts of aquatic animals are dug is in
certain placesrather hard, like tufa and other kinds of stone; in other places it is
t tophus,et alteriusgenerislapides;in aliis mollior. ut rrgil-
rather soft like clay or slnd.
2. Thc said soil, *'hether rather soft or rather hard, is almost everyrvherecom-
l l i c ' r .c t d u r i r r rf c r e u b i q r c e o l l ) p l c t l e s l . e 1p r c \ s i o l ) li n i n u s
pacted,and is resistant10 not too violent pressure.
3. In various places.I have seen that the said soil is composedof layers supcr-
i, eandem terram compositam cssc ex stratis sibi lllutuo
inposed on cach othcr at an angle to the horizon.
nr obliqvis.
4. I have observedjD clayey soil, that theselaycrs, which differ in colour fronr
'idi eadem strata colore intcr sc discrePantiavariis in locis
each other, are split apart in several places, and tbat all the fissures which are fillcd
nes unius coloris materia plenas ad iPSastrata qvasi per- with material of one colour are almost perpcndicular to the layers themselves.
5. In those soils that I have been able to observeup to now. bodiesof ditterent
: mihi videre hactenus contigit, rarii gcncris corpora in kinds have been concealedin the same soil, sontetinresin the harder, and some-
tum molliori delituere. times the sDfter sort,
A C arc har od on-H.ut! D i.\5ec I cd A Carcharc.lo'HeadDissected 97

)rporum illorum numerunl in terrae superficie admodunr 6. I have observedthat the number of these bodies in clay is quite large in the
surface but quitc small in the soil itself.
terram satrsrarum csse.
7. In the same clay, I have observedthat the deeper one goes into thc soil. the
vidi, qvo profundius in terram descenditur,co magis tenera more fragile are the said bodics; indccd, solnc of them crumble into powder at the
mo qvaedamillorum ad levissimumqvemlibet contactumin slightcsttouch; almost all of thosc that were in tlre surfacccould be reducedto rvhit-
n superticie crant, et ipsa iere omnia sine magno negotio ish powder rvithoutmuch effort.
redigebantur. 8. ln rocky ground, I obscrvcdboth that lhesebodies are much rnore abundant
and that they havc the same consistencyali through the rock. and also that thcy
Itia nlagiscorpora illa deprchcndi,et per totum saxum ejus-
wcre attachcdto the rock as if they rvcreembcddcdin limc or gypsum.
coqvc modo ipsi saxo infixa. ac si calce vel gypso fuissent 9. Whether thcy are dug out of harder or softer soil, bodies resemblingdilferent
parts of aquatic animals are not only very like each other but are also very like
qvatilium animantiuur partibus similia, sive duriori, sive the animal parts to which they correspond; there is no difference of any kind in
the coursc of the ridges, in the texture of the lamellae, in the curvaturc and wind-
rn modo sibi invicem, sed etiam animalium partibus, qvibus
ings of the cavities, and in the joints and hinues of bivalves.
lnt; ncc ulla est in slriarum ductu, in lanellarum textura,
10. The said bodies may be eithcr rather hard like stonc or less hard so that
et cardinibusdifferentia.
ctibusqye,in bivalviunr conrnrissuris they may be reducedto powder without difficulty.
vel solidiorasunt, saxi instar, vel minus solida, qvae non dif- I l. Very ntany oyster shcllsarc found in sonteregions.deformed and hardened
icuntur. into one lun:pl sometimesalso, broken scallops and musselsare dug up; some
people have seen,in the same place, many ton,questonesclinging as it were to tlte
rcis ostreorun testnc plurimae difformes reperiuntur, et in
siurc nratrix; thcse wcrc not all of the same size nor wcre thcy all complete-
e; cruuntur interdum etiam pectineset conchac diftractae;
The following conjectures, based on the observations presented offer some
ossopetraeplurcs eidernqvasimatrici adhaerentes,
qvac nec slimDse of the truth.
rdinis erant, nec omncs intcgrae.?3
ri qvandam speciem sibi pollicentur seqventesconjecturae.

1. Conjecture1.
nt partibus similia corpora eruuntur, corpora illa hodie non Soil from rvhich bodies resemblingparts of aninralsare dug docs not seem ro pro-
duce thesebodiesto da)'.
l spectat,cum (a) co nrolliora sint corpora illa. minusqve In the case of soft soil, there is little likelihood that the soit produces thesc
rofundiuslatent; tantum abest,producat ea terla, ui potiusT4 bodies, but rather that it destroys them. since the deeper they are buried, the softer
these boclies are (a) and the less they can withstand a touch. Nor should anyone
:, qvod qvis credat, ideo molliora ea esse,qvia necdum per-
believe that their geater softness arise from the fact that they are not yet fully de-
mollia sunt, dum generantur, qvodam qvasi glutine unitas
veloped; things that are soft while they are being formed keep their parts together
t, ut videre est in recentibus pinearum et amygdalorum cor- with some glue-like material (as may be observed in the fresh bark of young pine
omni glutine privata in pulverem dilabuntur, adeoqve mol- or almonds). but these bodies are lacking in every kind of gluelike material and
non productionis argunentum videtur,Ts Nec obstat, qvod disintegrate into dust, so that their softness seems to proof of decay, not gf,owth.
numerus€orum augeri videatur; id enim pluviis debetur in- It is no argumcnt against this that their nunrbers seem to increase on the surface of (b)
ntibus: qvin ipsa eorum in superficie existentium substantia. the soil, (b) for this is due to the rain that washes away the soil between them,
.4 Carcharodon'H ratl Dissectcd ,1 C drcharcdon-H ead D issected 99

I pulverem tcritur, demonstrat,'; coeptam illorunl in tcrra On the contrary. when the substanceof thosc (c) that are on thc surface is rubbed
Itcrventuf uisseinterruptam. to dust without much cffort, this rather provcs that their decay'.begun in the soil,
has been interrupted by the intervention of rain.
rodie non producantur, inde conjicitur,?sqvod (d) toto saxi
One may conclude that they are not produccd in our timc in hard ground from
ntiae omnia reperiantur, et qvod undiqvc dura illa nratcria
the fact (d) that they arc found all through rock with the same consistcncy, and
im hodie qvaedanrde novo in ista duriori terra produceren- that thcy arc surroundedon all sjdesby tbe hard materjal. for if any such bodies
Itia crescentibuscedereposse,et ipsa corpora hodie produc- were producedanew today in theserather hard soils,the surroundingsought to give
in qvo a productisolim corporibusdifferrent. way to them during their growth, and the bodies themselvcs would no doubt show
i tcrra nulla de novo produci videanturso corpora; cum ter- differences lrom those produced long ago.
Thus, sincc no bodies seem to be produced anew in harder soil, and since in
)ra nlultis in locis verosimilitersldestruat: non sine ratione
nany regions softer soil probably destroys these bodies, we may suspect not without
rn. undc animalium partibus sjmilia corpora eruuntur. cor-
reason,tbat soil lronr which bodies resemblingparts of animals are dug does not
lucere. Droducethesebodiestodav.

Conjectura2. Conjecture2.
r fuissecompacta.cum praedictacorpora ibi producta sunt. The said soil does not seem to have been firm when the bodies referred to were
e crescendolente se expandunt, imposita dura elevare.imo producedin it.
Bodies that expand by slow growth can certainly raise heavy objectsrestingupon
; qvod arborum radices in terra dura, in muris, in rupibus
them and may widen fissures in rocks; this is proved by tree roots in hard ground.
dum eadem corpora congruenssibi spatium efformant. non
in walls, and in cliffs. Ncvertheless, while these bodies make a suitable space for
)bstaculirenitentiasaepiusimpediri; qvod eisdemplantarum themselvcs, frequently they cannot avoid being hampered by the resistance of the
I terra duriori mille modis intortaeet compressaea figura re- harder obstaclc, which is exactly what happens to young tree roots that become
rolliori alias conservaresolcnt. At vero corpora illa. de qvi- twisted and compressed in countless ways in harder glound, so that they assume
sjmilia omnia sunt, sive e tefia n)olliori eruta. sivc e saxo shapcs differenl from roots found in softer ground. But the bodies that we are
lus evulsa intueamur: cum itaqvc illis in locis, ubi reperi- dealingrvith here are in fact always of the same shape (a), whether they are dug up
fron softer ground, hewn from rocks, or taken out of animals;63it would seem then
hodie non videantur produci; cunr qvae in locis compactis
that sincethese bodies do not appear to be produced today (b) in the placcswhere tb)
r reperiantur,hacc vero corpora ubiqve sibi similia sint, non
they are found, and since things that grow in from soil are found to be strangely de-
terra, cum praedicta corpora ibi producta sunt. formed. but drese arc everyrvhere alike, the soil rvould not have been firm when the
bodicsreferredto were producedin it.

Conjectura3. Conjecture3.
r minus eandem terram aqvis olim tectam fuisse credamus. Nor can there be strong opposition to the belief that the said soil was once covered
rtjgisse poterit, pro ut eandem terram statuamus, vel eodem with watcr.
n. vel situm aliqvandomutasse. This may have occurcd in t\yo ways. accordingto whether we assumethat this
piece of ground alu,ayshad the sanresituation. or that it has changed its situation
rt, ex sacra pagina discimus, et creationis initio. et diluvii
some time.
obsita fuisse; qvod eleganter hisce exprimit Tertullianus:
Regarding the first assumption, we learn from Holy Scripture that all things, both
aliqvando aqvis omnibus obsitus: adhuc maris conchae et at the beginning of creation, and at the time of the Flood, were covered with water.
in montibus, clpienles Platoni probare, etiam ardua fluitas- Tertullian writes3s elegantly about tlis: "A change occured in tie whole world
A Carcharotlon Head Disscct?d A Carcharcdon-Heall
Dissccted l0l

contrariac scntcntiaepatronis affcruntur argumenta,dum when it was covered with all thc waters; even now, sea shells of nussel and whelk
:is corpora in omnibus locis reperiri. si aqvis loca omnia te- range over the mountainsseekingto prove to PlatoNrtthatthe very pcaks have been
entur; aut salten, ubi reperiuntur ca corpora, non in solis under water". No weight should be attachedto the argumentsset out by people of
.rda.Facile cnin utriqve objectioni rcspondctur: cunl non thc oppositeopinion when they say that bodiesof this kind ought to be found evcry-
where if they owe their cxistcnccto thc wirtcrs covering all places,or at least. that
;et si videnlus pluviarum vi abrasisqvasi strignlentismon-
such bodies when found. should not be found only in high places.For an easy an-
Dontibussubjecta.qvid rnirum, in editis nuda apparereilla
swer nrry be given to both objections: since not all kinds of water carry every-
s latent novis terris obruta? thin-q.and what is strangc about thc fact that thesebodies which are conccalcd in
it, in locis, undc dicta corpora eruuntur, mutassealiqvando lowlands,covcred by fresh soil. appear uncoveredin high places,when we observe
s. ncc ille vel rationi, vel expcrientiaecontrarium qvid ad- flat zones at the foot of nrountainsbeing filled with, as it were, the scouringsot
nlountainsscrapedaway by the violenceof rainfall?
;tratorunrfissuras(a) unius coloris materia plenasintuemur
'ata diversi coloris sunt; vero adnrodum similc videtur, in- And if anyonc should believethat portions of soil in placesfrom which the said
bodieshave beendug have changcdtheir situationat sometime, he cannot be held to
ndenl terram. cum rclaberetur,diffractanl fuisse. adeoqvc think anything that is contrary to re.rsonor experience.Indeed. when we consider
Qvantas in terra mutationesterrae motus sacpiusprodu- the fissurcsin the layers that are filled with material of onc colour (a), whcrcasthe
ronstrtrc facile esset,nisi unius Taciti authoritassutficeret: hyers themselvesarc of varicd hucs. it seentsindeed quite likely that this piece of
ground. shaken violently by a gigantic [loven]ent, brokc on falling back, and so
celebrcsAsiac urbcs collapsaenocturno motu terrae, qvo
rcached its new situation. lt rvould bc casy. to show how great are the changesin
,cstjsfuit. Neqve solitum in tali casu effugium subveniebat,
soil causedfrequcntly by earth movement, from various examples,if the evidence
lvia diductis terris hauriebantur.Sedisseimmcnsosmontes, of TacitusHTalone were not sufficient: "During thc samc ycar. twclvc towns in
ra fuerint, effulsisseinter ruinam ignes, memorant". Cum Asia Minor were laid wastc by an earthquake in the night, whereby the catas-
rqies.ct aliorum locorunr exempla svadeant,fuissc tcrram trophe becamc cvcn more unforeseenand calanitous. And thc usual rcsource on
;un (b) vidcatur cadcnr terra olim minus fuisse conpacta, such occasions- to take refugc in thc opcn places- was of no use, since people
nollitiem illam ab aqvis dcducanus, adeoqve, antcqvam were swallowedup jn the yawning carth. Hugc mountains arc said to havc been
Ievellcdto the ground; the flat ground is said to haye risen into steep mountains,
is illam tcctam fuissecredamus;sive aqvae illae libero a€ri
'rae crusta fuerint obductac? and fire broke out anrongthe ruins".
Thus. since both the configuration of thc ground itself and exanples from other
placcs indicate that this soil once had another situation, sincc it seems(b) that the
said soil was once less firm. what is to prevcnt us from ascribing this softnessto
the watcn, and what is more, to believethat the soil, before it changedits site, was
covcred with waters, whether the watcrs wcre exposed to the open alr or were
coveredby the earth'scrust?

qvo rninus credamus,eandem terram aqvae olim
Thcre seenrsalso to be no objection to the belicf that the said soil was at some time
in the past mixed with water.
rne insinuavimus,30potuisse eam terram aqvis olim fuisse
We suggestedin the preceding proposition that this soil might at one time have
,ergemus0oad probandum, potuisse eandem terram aqvis
been covered with waters; now, we go a stage further, to prove that the said soil
mav have been mixed with waters.
.4 C archa tod o tt-H ead D issect ed A Carcharodon-HeadDissected 103

uln aqvae vchementiusagitataeinlnlisceantur,praecepstor- That clay and sand are mixed with strongly agitated water is so obvious from the
headlong course of torrents through such soils, and lrom the agitation of waters by
terrasprolapsus,et aqvarum a vcntis agitatio notius reddi-
the wind, that no further explanation is needed. Nor is it difficult to prove that
us cxponi mereatut. Nec probatu difficile est. in aqvis stag-
sand, clay, tufa, and all sorts of solid bodies may be concealed in stagnant water,
ssimisaqvis,sabulum,argillam. et tophos."' olnnisqvegene- even the most linpid water.
tere. Solid bodies may be concealed in water in two ways: they may be concealed as
/a delitescuntsolida. durn vel pulveres eorunl.e:vcl corun't powder, or their elements may be concealed in it. Solid powder may mix with
watcr by itself, as all kinds of salts and vitriols illustrate, or it may unite with the
water through the intervention of a third substance:thus minerals are dissolvedin
aqvae miscctur,qvod omnis generissalia et vitriola docent,
waters under the action of acids, oily substancesby thc aid of alkaline salts, where-
re jungitur: sic mineralia ope acidorum, lixiviosorum salium
by the salt gives to the oil and the acid to water the heaviness by which the oil is
as resolvuntur,ubi oleo sal, acidum aqvac gravitatem dat, pressed down jnto the water and the minerals are lifted upwards into the same wa-
leum, ct mincrale in candem aqvanl possit elevari. ter.
renta duobus nrodis in aqva latere; vel enim ipsa solidi ele- The elements of a solid body may also be concealed in water in two ways: for
x parte ibi rcperiuntur,vel sui generiscorpora ibi sunt, qvae either the solid elements themselves,in total or in part, are found therein, or partic-
renlia in solidum transformantur.Hac ratione credunt ple- ular substancesare present in the water that assume a different form from it and
:lenrentaminerarum in se ex hoc fuldamento are transformed into solid. For tlis reason, most people believe that mineral waters
illa metallorumsolutio, qva mercurium et sulphur ex singu- contain the elements of the minerals, and from this principle is derived the source
of that radical solvent of metals, with which people work anxiously to cxtract mer-
r laborant.
cury and sulphur from single metals.03
Lnt.qvibus aqvarum speciesolida possuntapparerc,nec so-
These then are the ways in which solids can appear under the appearance of wa-
d invenienda loca. undesrhaec solida aqvis terras nostras
ter, and no great effort is required to find the places from which these solids joined
nmunlcata. the waters covering our lands.
da et fluida terrae gremium recondit. nec poterint per oc- The bosom of the earth conceals solids and fluids of all kinds: neither the juices
abentessucci, vel oberrantesin iisdem locis halitus intacta that flow through the secret courses of the earth nor the exhalations that meander
solida offenderint, qvibus dissolvendisa Natura destinati through these places can leave intact solids that Nature destined them to dissolve,
iet adri expositas,et terrae crusta obtectasomni momento if they come into contact somewhere else. Moreover, juices flowing all the time
from the veins of the earth into the waters, both those exposed to the atmosphere
succi intra terram dissolutasolida per aqvae substantiam
and those covered by the crust of the earth, spread the solids dissolved below ground
rcm ab aqva, terra, plantis et animalibuscxpulsa onrnis ge- through the substance of the water. But again, all kinds of bodies that are given off
rter ibi se conrbinatapluyiarum specie,vel alio sensusnos- into the atmospherc from water, earth, plants and animals, and there combined in
m aqvis communicari poterint. Qvid qvod varii generisani- a wonderful way, will be able to reach the said waters in the form of rain or in some
re, dullr vivunt, corporis sui etfluvia ibi a mor- other way that eludes our senses.So, for example, animals of various kinds, indige-
:lvantur. nous to water, during their lives deposit the excretions of their bodies into water,
and, when they die, are, as it were, totally dissolved in the waters.
:neris solida aqvis immisceri poterint; cum manifesta loca
Thus, since solids of all kinds may be mixed with the waters; since the places
aqvis potuerint cssc communicata:qvid miramur, argillae,
from which these solids could have joined the waters are obvious, why should we
Lmqve lapidum vel pulvisculos, vel elementa aqvis iisdem be astonished that either powders or the elements of clay, sand, tufa, and other
est, qvod qvisqvam credat, nostro sensu acidos essedebuis- stones should be mixed. unseen, with the same water? Nor need anyone believe that
)ra dissolventes,adeoqve aninalibus nutriendis fuisse inep- the juices which dissolve these hard bodies ought to be acid to the taste, and tlere-
A (: u tc ha rod on- H ead D k st( | e.l ,4 C arc I Mrodon- II ead D ilsec I cd 105

Praeccptorcm Borrichium, durissimum calculum insipida fore unablc to sustain animals'life. I have seen my most amiablc teacher Borcho5
:m: ct qvidni id darcmus Naturae, qvod arti dcne-carenon dissolve a vcry hard pebble in ordinary water; wby then should we not grant to
Nature what we cannot dcny t0 art?

Conjectura5. Conjecture5.
video."6qvo minus candem terram pro aqvac sedimcnto I cannot see anything to prevent us from regarding the said soil as a sedinent
us. g r a d u a l J al c c u m u l r t c df r o n r w a t e r .

nihil obstare.qvo minus terranr illanr aqvac fuisse inlmis- We have just seen (a) that there js no obstaclc 1() the belief that rhis soil was
mixed with water; moreovcr, it is clearly obvious (b) that in various places it is
em patet. (b) esseeanr variis in locis cx diversorunrccrlo-
composcdof layersof different colours supcriniposedon eaclr othcri in addition, jn
ncumbentibuscompositam: imo illis in locis, ubi ejusdcm
thosc places where all the soil is o[ the samc colour, it is nevcrthelcsspossibleto
rtorunr diversitatcnrnihilominus dignosci.Ipsa itlqve strata distinguish the difference between layers. Thus, the laycrs themselveslcad us to
Lum, esse eam tcrram aqvae sedimentum; stratorum vero believe that the soil is a sediment from water, and indeed, the difference between
tam candem terram minimum, si non in toturr laycrs at least indicates that the said soil was depositedgradually, if it does not
prove it conlpletely.
I shall now make clcar lbc ways in which sedimentscould have been deposited,
rriora hac'c svldant."Eostendanl.qvibus nrodis idr'nr sc'di-
so that thesenatters nlay in fact be more readily understood.
If rve believe that the watcr under discussioncould receivemuddy rvater, either
e qva aginrus,potuisseturbidas aqvas vel a mari. vel a tor- from the occan or fronr torrcnts. it is certain that the bodies which make the water
r est, dcbuiss(]corpora aqvanrturbidanr rcddentia,cessante muddy ought to sink to the botton whcn the violent motion ceases.Nor do we need
petere.Nec opus est in eam rem excmpla studioseconqvi- to scek diligently for examplesof this type, since both the beds of rivers and their
.lvei, ct ostia cjus rei fidem certam faciant. Unicunt hic no- estuariesgive sure proof of il. One thing should be noted here. - the bodies that
make the water muddy are not all of the sameweigbt; thus it follows that. as thc wa-
lvanr turbidanr rcddentia, non esseomnia cjusdenrgravila-
ter gradually calnis down, first thc heavier particl€s then the lcss hear'1'ones ssttle
d qvietcm rcdcunte aqva. traviora primo, inde minus gra-
out; the lightestparticles,however. float longer in thc vicinity of the bottonr before
autem in fundi vicinia diutius fluitent, anteqvanrfundo se becoming attachedto it. lt is clear, in consequence,that frequently ditferent layers
rm in sedimcntosaepiusdiversastratafieri. will be found in the samesediment.
ndem aqYam limpidam solida corpora continuisscab aere, But if we believe that limpid water has united with solid bodies translerred to it
lommunicata,nec in hoc casu difficile est modos varios in- from the atmosphere,from soil, and fron animals. it is not difficult in this case
either to find different ways by which solid bodies contained in the limpid waters
s aqviscontentaibi solida potuerint essesecreta;praecipuos
might have been secretedthere. I shall explain briefly here thc most inrportant of
itans subtilior materia non semper eodem impetu fluidum 1. If "subtile matter" agitating the particles of a fluid0, does not pcnetratethe
puscula majori ipsius motu cum fluidi particulis aeqvaliter fluid with the same forcc at all timcs, the solid particlesthat were moved uniformly
dem vi, a fluidi amplexibus excidunt. Sic sangvis non, nisi with the fluid particles by its greater lorce will become detached from rhe grasp of
Iuit, totus rubet; supervenientefrigore in partes colore ct the fluid when the said forcc ccases. Thus, blood. except when it is warm, is not
completely fluid or uniiormly red;100on being cooled, it separatesinto parts that
:dit, Sic urina clara saepiustransparentianrcum calore antit-
differ in colour and consistency.So, frequentlv, a clear urine losesits transparency
cum igni imponitur. Pari ratione poterint ex lerra affluentes with its warmth, recovering it when placed on a fire.l0r By the sane reckoning,
em t€rra spiriintes calidi halitus aqvae immixti adductos warm juices coming out of thg earth, or warm exhalations from the same earth,
lt Carcharodo-IIeddDi.rsected A C a rc harcdon- Il ead D issec I cd 107

os ccssantecalorc deponere.Nec opus, semperrnagnusfuc- mixed with the watcrs, could deposit the more solid of the finely divided materials
malium in istis aqvis degentium adversus:suffecerit,sub- brought with them, when their warmth ceases.Nor does this warmth need always
to have been considcrableand unfavourable to anin]al life dwelling in these wa-
advenientiafluida agitantcmsolito velociusfujssenlotam.
ters; it will have bcen sufficient ii the "subtile mattcr" agitatingfluids conring from
.rtesscnsirl exhalarepoterirtt,mutata dissolvcntisad disso-
some otlrcr region should move with more than its customaryspeed.
isoluto solido tantundem subsideredcbet, qvantum ex dis- 2. If the more volatile parls of a lluid have been able to evaporateslowly. the
I evolavit.Freqventi cxperi!'ntiaid dcnronstraturtunl in il- ratio of dissolved nratter to solvent being changed, a quantity of dissolved solid
lvisculun continent. tunr in illis, in qvibus solidi elemcn- ought to settleout in proportion to the quaotity of solventgiven off.
do saljum crystalli cx aqvis salsis.sccundo modo tartarus This is illustrated irequently from experience of fluids, both of those that contain
powered particlesof solid and those that concealthe elementsof solids.In the first
ralione in omnibus aqvis sedimentacongeri, freqventibus
case,cr)'stalsof salt separatefronr salt water; in the second,tartar separatesfrom
ier\.utur, u! ea hic congererctotsupervacuumjudicem.
wine.r03So many examples nray be obscrved daily that sedimentsaccumulate in
ersis locis. tcnrpore vel eoden, vel diverso, diversa fluida an identicalway in all waters.that I judge it superfluousto gatherthem togetherhere.
e rdDrittcmus.potuisseex uno loco allata fluidi specieso- 3. If we believe that different fluids could flow together, either simultaneously
s praecipitari.Sic acidis dissolutasalium adventu, sic sal- or at different times. from different places,we should admit readjly that solids may
lorunr praecipitantur;cunr acida et snlsafacilius sibi qvam have bcen precipitated from fluids brought from one place by some kind of fluid
brought lrom elsewherc.Thus substancesdissolvedin acids may be precipitatedby
tsunt ct aliis rnodis acido resolutasolida praecipitari,ut ln
addition of salts,and substancesdissolvedby the action of saltsnray be precipitated
:tum acido metallum unum alteriusmetalli injectioncprae-
by tire addition of acids,sinceacids and saltsunite more easilywith each other than
onem spiritu volatilil0sextractaetincturae affusaaqva sepa-
with other solids. It is possiblealso for solids dissolvedin acids to be precipitated
. sibi affusa in solidum sirnul concrescunt:sic vidi Parisiis in other rvays,as we sce with metals,wherc one metal dissolvedin acid may be pre-
Hospjtis Thevenotii Chynricis multun versatum Borellum cipitatcd b!'the addition of another netal. Similarly, tincturesextractedwith alco-
Losconfundere.qui illico concrescebantadeo, ut eversovi- holr06 nlay separatc out wh€n water is poured into them. But again. it two
leret.Qvidni liceret itaqve suspicari,diverso temporediver- fluids arc poured together, I solid may congcal imnediatly. Thus, in Paris, in the
.drc, ex tcrra diversaenaturae succoshalitusvc aqvae im- Acadenry at the house of my great friend Thdvenot,:o7I have seen Borel,r03great-
lv skilled in chemistry.pour togethertwo quite clear liquids which immediatelybe-
l ea corpora praecipitare,modo praecipitata in ca corpora
came so solid that not even a drop left the glasscontainerwhen it was inverted.Why
temqvehominis urina diverso tempore collecta, id evidens
then. mav we not suspect that rain falling from the atmosphere at various times, and
) tenacissimeadhaercnssedimentumsolidum, qvod primis of varying composition. or perhaps juices and vapours of different kinds from the
le seqventibusdiebus a nova ejusdemhominis urina resol- €arth. u'hcn mixed with thc waters, may sometinlesprecipitatetodies dissolvedin
urina de novo cumulandum. Qvod Diaetae diversitaslooin them and at other times dissolvebodies that have been precipitated from them?
fficit, idem Solis et Lunae vicissitudincs,variaeqvemuta- This is evident in urine collected trom one and the same person at different times,
sincc a solid deposit iaid down during rhr: first days. and adhering most firmly to
noribus porerint producere.N{anifestissiuro
cxeurplo idem
the base qf the container, is very often dissolved,during subsequentdays by fresh
(iassendus, dum lapidum productionem in philosophia sua
urine from the same person, only to collect afresh,soon after, from the second urine.
What varietiesof diet accomplishin the humours of the microcosm,so alterationin
vodlibet fieri contendunt, aut saltem, yariis mutationibus the sun and moon and various other changescould produce in tie humours of the
a esse, admittunt, alio modo rem explicare poterint, satis earth. Gnssendi, th€ "glory of France", supports this assertion with the clearest ot
examplesin his learnedwork, in which he explains the origin o[ stones.,ro
;te imaginari nobis possumus, subtilem materiam, dum
4. Those who contend that anything whatsoever may corne from anything
:it, varias fluidorum partes nova figura s€nsim indutas in whatsoever.or. at any rate, adDit that the snlallestitems in nature are subject to a
rre. Vidi apud'Borrichium nostrum ex aqva purissima albi- varietv of changes, could explain this matter in an other way; it is possible, how-
A Carcha)odo H?al Dissctl?d
A Cat charodon-Head Dissected 109

ever, for us to imagine clearly and plainly enough that "subtile natter", as it
u ex salc lixivioso.11lex adrc salent igni rcsistcntent:id
moves through water and air, changes the various fluid parts, which gadually take
lrietate varie poterit explicari.
on a new form. into solid bodies. I have secn, at the home of our friend Borch. a
qvibus ex fluido solida, imo ex fluido fluida (ut de iis. qvae white earth come from the purcst watcr, a tastelesscarth from alkaline salt,"' and,
rtu facile cst) separantur:qvibus ontnibus modis si terrac from the atmosphere,a salt that is unaffected by fire:lle these may be explained
on sunt, eisdenrmodis congeri potuisse,ccrtum cst. in differentways accordingto variousfirst principles.
m nrodo ex fluido secernantursolida. vel pulveris specie Such are the various rvaysin which solids may be precipitatedfrom a fluid, nay
more. fluid from fluid (as nray casily be shown of thosefluids which form thc atmos-
aecipitatanetalla. vel substantiamcohirercntcmrcpraesen-
phere); if the layers in our soil have not been forncd in all these ways, it is ccr-
n sangvine.qvod fibrosum cst, in lacte. qvod caseosumcst,
tain that thcy could have becn formed in such ways.
luvia scdimentumviscosum;sivc duriorem, ut in vino tar- But whatcvcr thc cxact way in which solidsare separatedfrom fluids, they appear
stalli. in variis fontibus lapidea crusta. Hinc patet. cx lint- cither in the form of powder. as in the caseof metalsprecipitatedfrom acids,or as
concresccrccrustasinter se consistentiadivcrsas.imo varii coagulatedmatcrial, whether it be softer, as in blood where it is fibrous, in milk
ta'r.t r; where it is cheesy,in May dew"3 and rain watcr where it is a viscoussedimentor
whethcr it bc harder, like tartar in wine, crystalsin salt watcr, and stony crusts in
veniunt omnia!Qvam unanimi consensuintcr se conspirant!
various springs.rlaIt is clear from this that crusts could have hardened out of the
situnr. aqvis continendisaptum cssc potuisse.sciurusejus- most transparentwaters, crusts of varying consistency,crammed full indeed with
. ct clcmcntaaqvaepotuisseinrmisceri;non ignoramusmo- mineralsof variouskinds.
las devchi,ct ex iisdenl aqvis potuerint scparari.irro in ipsa How well then cverythingfits together!How unanimouslythcy come togetherin
tenr intuenlur: qvidni poterit itaqve eaden tcrra pro aqvae agreement. We find the position of the soil suited to its having been able to hold
waters; wc know that both powdered soil and the elements of the said soil could
have been mixed with the watcrs; we do not ignore the ways in which thcy could
ciunt. subtcrraneascryptas ingrediantur.undc olim cducta
have both entered and separated from those waters, nay rather we pay close atten-
e x h a u s tsi l r i l o c u n tn r r v u n st i l \ u n l c ( ) n c r u i c c r ci n: r o l g n o s - tion to thc variety of laycrs in thc soil itself. Why then is it impossible for this soil to
)ta corpora stirias lapideasconformare a fornicibus depen- have been a sediment from water?
i cavac.ct ex nultis lamellis tanqvanrcylindris compositac, Let those for whom it is not enough go into underground grottoes from which
a fornicibus accipiunt. id qvod lamellarum structura non stones were once quarried, and they will observe new rock forming in place of the
rock that was removed, nay more, they will perceive stone icicles, lormed from
bodies sccreted by atmospheric ftuid, hanging from the vaults: these icicles, hollow
inside and made of many cylindrical lamellae, receive ncither water nor rock from
the vaults, this is not only indicated but also proved by the structure of the lamel-

Conjectura6. Conjecture6.
qvo minus animalium partibus sinrilia corpora, qvae e ter- There seems to be no objection to the opinion that bodies dug from the ground
which resemble parts of animals should be considered to have been parts of ani-
Jm partibushabeantur.
ralium partibus similia corpora eruuntur, (a) hodic id ge- Since the soil from which bodies resembling parts of animals arc dug does not
rcat; cum eandem terram (b) mollem olim, imo (c) aqvis produce this kind of body to day (a), since it is likely that the said soil was once soft
ile sit. qvidni liceret suspicariid generiscorpora pro anima- (b), nay more looks as if it was in truth mixed with waters (c), why not allow us to
rtium spoliis edse habenda? Sane si illorum in terra situm surmise that bodies of this kind are the remains ol animals that lived in those waters?
J1 C arc hatud o,r H ead D i sscc le d A C 0 rc harodon- H eod D i ss?ct. d 1ll

3ntur eo modo congeri potuisse.nisi cum aqvae scdimento Indecd, if it is agecd to examinetheir position in thc soil, it does not seemthat thcy
could have collected in this way, unless they may be said to have gathered together
r.LrrNec adversaturnobis. qvod tanto numero jn tcrra du-
gradually with scdinent from the water. Nor is it against our ideas that they are
im attcnte examinavcrit, qvo modo in terrae cryptis, unde
found in such numLrersin harder soil. There is no difficulty to be found in that for
lovum saxunl concrescit,difficultatcm ibi nullanr inveniet. anyone who has examined in detail the way in which new rock is formed in the
rficie cremoris instar concrescenssaxea cuticula, ubi gra- subterranean galleries of the earth, where stones were quarried formerly. For onnp position
rm petat, sjve cx tota aqva aeqvalitersecretasaxeacorpus- whether a creamlike crust of stone hardens on the surfacc of the water, sinking to i:':,:;,:i,:t;'
on nisi lcntc id sedimentumconcrescit;unde non nisi qvac the bottom when it has become heayier.or particlcsof stonesare produced evenly
throughout the water, settling out gradually, the sediment grows only at a slow rate,
nt. sive mortua animalia, mortuorum spolia. sive viva, sed
thus, onl)' those things which are already adhering to thc botton, whether they be
rDento obruuntur; reliqva vero aninralia viva,rre et supra
dcad aninrals,skins of dead creaturesjor live animals unsuitcd for locomotion, will
0ntia, nunlerosaprole aqvas replcnt, aflteqvnm novum ibi be covercd over by new sediment;the rest of the living animals, striving ?rbovethe
.0 Accedit: 1. Ovod stagnansin istis cryptis aqva semcl said sediment, fill the waters with numerous progeny before a new sediment is laid
:r conservet.sccusac in fluentibuscontingit. 2. Qvod testa- down there. In addition, is may be stated that (1) the stagnant water in these subter-
a in propria yisceranon sacviunt.qvan ob causan aqvati- ranean gallericsalways preservesthc animals that were once produced there, con-
trary to what happenswith running water, (2) shellfishand similar kinds of animals
muflt.r!13. Ovod corundem tegminar!! raro consumantur,
do not prey on their own kind, other aquatic animals do and so consume each
:ota in irqvam lesolvantur. Hacc omnia argumentalgspon-
other, (3) the shells of shellfish are rarely consumed while other aquatic animals
nrihi videntur ad conjecturamnream stabiliendam,praeser- almost completely clissolvedin water- All this evidence seemsto me to carry no
;orunr figura et substantianihil facile in contr2rriun possit little weight in establishing nly theory, especially since nothing can be readily
brought against it from the shape and substanceof those bodies.
)m spectat,de qvibus agimus.cum animalium p rtibus, (d) With regard to the shape of the bodies of which we speak, since this corresponds on th?shape
cxactly to parts of animals. the similarity of forms seems to suggest a sinrilarity :l,";ri:::::
ondeat,conformationissimilitudo originis similitudinem in-
of origin; indeed it is dilficult to believe that such great conformity should be riaa,7.
reditu est,a qvocunqvedemum principio alio facta illa dicas.
observcd in any other basis, whatsoever you might propose for their manufacture.
uisse observandam.Et ecce ejus rei evidentjssirrumargu- And herewith is the clearcst proof ol this. Who docs not acknowledge that hexago-
ci1,hexaedramcrystalli'ri figuran. marcasitarumcubos,sa- nally shaped rock crystals, cubcs of pyrites, crystals of salt from experiments in
tionibus crystallos et infinita alia in fluido concrescentia Chcmistry, and countlessother bodies precipitatedfrom lluid, have shapesthat are
nulto magis ordinatas.qvam sunt fiuurae pectinum, bival- far more regular than the shapesof scallops, bivalves, rvhelks, and the rest. Neverthe-
Iess,we observein these simple bodies sonetimes the apex of a corner truncated,
qve? Nihilominus videmus in simplicibus hisce corporibus
sometimesseveral bodies adhering to each other without order, sometimesplanes
m truncatum. modo plura sibi sine ordine adhaerentiacor-
that differ from each other in size and position, and a variety of other ways in which
et situ inter se differentiaplana, aliosqvevarios modos, qvi- they diverge from the customary shape, How much greater and more numerous
lunt. Qvanto majores pluresqvenotaDdi essentdcfectus in should be the defectsobservedin bodies possessinga much more compositeshape,
:o magis compositamhabentibus,qvalia sunt illa, qvae ani- and in those that are copies of animal parts. But if in certain places many oyster
'? shells are found hardened into one mass, this is not different from what happens te)ohse^u-
Qvod si qvibusdam in locis ostreorum testae plurimae in
in the sea, since fro[t the sca too may be drawn huge massesof oysters of different "o" rr'
r (e) deteguntur.nihil hic diversi cst ab illo, qvod in ma-
size, that adhere togelher in a wonderful {'ay. If certain mussel slrells arc found
rhantur ingentes massae ostreorun diversae nagnitudinis.
broken across the middle, th€ cdge of the fragment itself provides evidence that
in modum haerent agglutinata. Si qvaedam conchae media another part was once attached to it; indced this is often found close to the first,
riuntur, ipse fragmenti limbus testatur, alteram partem illi But if several tongue stones of various size, not all of them complete, are observed
iam ioterdum in prioris vicinia r€peritur. Qvod si glossope- sometimes to stick logether. as if in the sarne matrix, the same is noted in tho jaw of
A C arc h arod o n- I I eud D i ssect ad A C drc harodonJ I ead D issec tc d I 13

ritudinis, nec onrncs intcgrael simul eidem quasi matrici a living animal where neither are all the teeth of the same size nor are the teeth ar-
1tur, in vivi aninralisnandibula idem conspicitur,ubi nec ranged in the inner rows complctely hardcned. Thus, since dcfccts that occur vcry
frcqucntly in the simplestbodies arc rarcly found in most of the compositebodies,
It omnes dentes, nec in ordinibus interioribus constituti
since no defects are observed in those composite bodies which are not found in
. indurati. Cum itaqve in corporibusplurimunr compositis
exactly the same way in animal parts, since the said bodies, no matter where they
nt, qvi in sinlplicissimiscorporibus freqventissinlisunt; arc dug out. arc both very likc cach othcr and vcry like the parts of animals, it is
ntur in istis compositiscorporibus.qvi non codemomnino easy to show that the shape of those bodies is no obstaclc to our considering
us conspicjuntur;cum cadem corpora, undecunqvecruta, them to be parts of animals.
bus simillima sint:1:6facile patct, figuram illorum corpo- When we passon to the substanceof thesebodies,it is not contrary to our opinions
either. For whethcr, like stone, it is hard and hcavy, or, like calcined bodies, it is
:s pro animalium partibus habeantur,
light and easill' reduced to powder, nothing is shown by this that could not have
ndem corporum pcrgamJncc illa nostrac opinioni advcr-
happcned with anirnal parts of this kind. We observe that the more solid parts
star dura sit et gravis, sive corporum calcinatorum more taken fronr animals are made up of two different materials: one, which is conver-
:ducatur,nihil hic effcctum est, qvod id generispartibus ted to a fluid by the action of a more "subtile" fluid, beconresvisible as an exhala-
rntigisse.Videmus solidiora corpora, qvac ab animantibus tion or a liquid; the other, being resistant to the motion of the more subtile fluid,
keeps its complete shape for a reasonably long time, until at length, aftcr a very long
s mirtcrias in se continere: unam, qvae, fluidi subtilioris
dclay, it is broken down into powder. Thus, all sorts ol bones and horns exposed
a, exhalationisvcl liqvoris specicapparet; alteram, qvae,
to an open fire, stags'antlers and the rest, calcined scientifically,as they say, lose
stcns,ad tempus sit satislongum, integraepartis figuram
nlost of their fluid materials,neverthelesskeepingtheir pristine shapeand, as far as
mia nrorr in pulvcrenr dilabatur. Sic ossa qvaequnqveet can be seen, their size. For I dare not affirm that their size is not diminished.
ta. sic ccrvi cornua aliaqvc philosophice,ut dicunt, cal- Indeed after thc animal juices have been expelled, the pores in those bodies could
plurimum depcrdunt, retcnta nihilonrinus pristina sua be filled with an other fluid of the same volume, but it could also bt: that these same
am. magnitudine.Ncc enim affirmarc ausim, magnitudi- poresdecreasein sizewhen the more solid parts collapsetogether.Thus. I have seen
t qvidem in illis corporibus pori post expulsum animalem solid mctals change their size under variations in heat and cold, without changing
shape;as a favour to nre! my vcry dcar friend Lorenzo Magalotti demonstratedthis
m qvantitatis replcri; sed et poterint iidcm pori imminui
with a copper bracelet,',7 and this can be shown any day to all interested in the
ibus partibus.Sic solida metalla pro vario caloris frigoris- thingsof nature.
anr mutare vidi, non mutata figura, id qvod mihi favore We owe these expcriments to Chemistry, but I do not doubt that Nature operates
i Magalotti in armilla aenea videre contigit, licebitqve in a similar way in the bosom of the earth. While the collectedsedimenthardened
rlium rerurn curiosis. together with the said bodies over a long period of years, the subtile fluid could
tymiae dcbcmus, nec dubito, qvin simili modo in terrae not have left the same bodies intact, but must have, accordingto the nature of the
surrounding soil, either extracted animal juice from them, or addcd a mineral juice
)um longa annorun serie sensirn indurescit una cum dic-
to them, or introduced a mineral juice after the animal juice was removed, or, un-
scdimentum,non poterit subtilius fluidum intacta relin- less we are unwilling to find change in the smallest things in nature, transformed the
oportet, pro ambientis terrae natura. vel animalem suc- animal juice into mineral. And thus, I reckon that I have shown sufficiently clearly
ineralem succum illis superaddat, vel cxhausto animali indeed tiat neither in the soil from which bodies resembling parts of animals are
ltroducat, vel, si mutationisexpertianolumus minima na- dug nor in those bodies themsclves is it easy to find anything which is an obstacle to
the belief that those same bodies rnay be regarded as the parts of animals.
lm succum animalemtransformet.Atqve ita qvidem satis
While I show that my opinion has the semblanceof truth, I do not maintain that
puto, nec in terra, unde animalium partibus similia corpo-
holdcrs of contrary views are wrong. The same phenomcnon can be explained in
is illis corporibus qvicqvam facile reperiri qvod obstet, many ways; indeed Nature in her operations achievcs the same end in various
pro animalium.partibushabcantur, ways. Thus it would be imprudent to recognize only one method out of thcm all
.1 Carcltarol on-ll add D issecI cd A Cor(harodon-Ilead Dis:ed I |l5

m vero similcm ostcndo,contrariaesententiaePatronosfalsi as true and condemn all the rest as erroneous. Many and great are the men who
dis idem phaenomenonexplicari poterit; imo cundem finem belicve that the said bodies have becn produced without the action of animals.For,
operationibus asscqviturNatura. Inrprudentis itaqye esset omitting thosewho are wcll known, Mercati of San Miniato. whom I have mention-
ed abovc.holds this opinion,tslas also Antonio Nardir3rin his "Scenesof Tuscany",
Jnr solum pro vero agnosccrc,reliqvos onncs ut erroneos
thc manuscriptof which book, containingmany problems in physicsand mathenrtt-
ni Viri sunt. qvi cadem corpora sinc animalium concursu
ics, is orvned by my most renowned friend. Francesco Redi,133in the service of
qvc, ut publico notos taceam, Mcrcatus Miniatensis,cujus His Grace the Grand Duke of Tuscanl'. These men havc their reasonstoo, which
eandenl sententiantluctur, qvod etiam agit in suis Scenis are so much the less to be reiectedthe nlore numerous are the adtDirableworks of
'di. qvcrn librun manuscriptum. problemata plurirna phy- Naturc that cxcite our astonishmentafresheachdar'.
ontinelltcn], possidet Amicus Clarisimus Franciscus Redi,
uriae Ducis Archiater. Habent et hi suasrationes,qvae tan-
nt. qranto major nurnerusest adDrirandarumNaturae ope-
rs dics novunrnobis iucutiunt stuporenr.
ad plopositum redeam, glossopetrismajoribus ex dictis Rcturning to the proposition. having completed this digression.I shall fit sonre
lsse eas Canis Carchariacdentes,figura jllarum svadet,cum of what I have statcdto thc larger tongue stones.That they are teeth of the shark is
ribus. basis basi quam simillima sint. Si credimus historiis, shown by their shape,since they are closely matched. plancs againstplanes, sides
silucre insulae;et qvis Melitae prjnra incunabulano!it? For- againstsidcs.basc againstbase.If wc believethe accounts,new islandshave sprung
up front the depths of the sca,'ri and who knows Malta's c)rigins?13; Perhaps at
ta ea tcrra canunr rnarinorum latibulum fuit, qvorum dentes
onc tirnc when this land lay under the sea,a place rvhcre sharks lurked. their teeth
rpulti, nlutato fundi situ per subterraneorumhalituum prae- u'ere buricd frcquently in thc muddy sca-bed.but now they are found in the middlc
in nrcdia insula repcriuntur. Nec freqvens glossopetrarum of the island owing to a changein the position of the sea-bedcausedbv a rapid con-
lsDli! irffcruntur, difficultatem parit. In eodem piscc ducenti flagration of under_qround !'xhalations.Nor does any difficulty arise from the great
rantur,qvibus indics novi alii succrescunt.r16 nunrber of tongue stonesproduced from this islands.Morc than trvo hundred teeth
m partibus similia corpora, qvae e terris cruuntur, pro ani- nav bc cauntcd in the said fish, to which other new reeth are ldded day by day.
Thus since the bodies resemblingparts of animals tltat are dug fronl the ground
possint; cum glossopetrarumligura Canis Carchariaedcn-
can be consideredto be parts of anintals,since the shape of tongue stonesrcscm-
isr'r;sill cum nec earum terrae situs contrar!
bles thc tccth of a shark as one egg rcserrblcsanothcr, since neither their number
n multuln recedereurihi videntur, qvi glossopetrasmajores nor their position in the earth arguesagainstit, it seemsto me that thosewho asscrt
I pronuntiant. that lalge tongue stones are the tecth of a shark are not far from the truth.
) jamjam praelo submittenda, cum ob singularem rerum This discourse was ready lor printing when Manlredo Senala,trs Canon ol Mi-
ndcfatigatumin Museo suo locupletandostudiunr nulli non lan, whon everyoneknows for his unique knowledgeof the things of naturc and his
indefatigablezeal for enriching his Museunr, told mc on a visit ro this place, rbat
ala, CanonicusMediolanensis.hasceoras transiensnrihi di-
thcre were many things among the rarcr piecesof his collection which quite clearly
nter ratrora sua, qvae meis conjecturis haud obscure favent,
favour my conjcctures,which is gratilying to my ears, in as much ns I am aware of
,ratum fuit, utpote non ignaro, qvantum ponderis iis accedat how ntuch weight they gain from this nlan's assent.r30