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## Design of Compression Members and Walls 177

5.7 EXAMPLES

As stated in 4.3, to be able to verify the ultimate and serviceability limit states, each
design effect has to be checked and for each effect the largest value caused by the
relevant combination of actions must be used.
However, to ensure that attention is primarily focussed on the EC5 design rules for
the timber or wood product being used, only the design load case producing the largest
design effect has generally been given or evaluated in the following examples.

Example 5.7.1 The column shown in Figure E5.7.1 has a cross-section 150 mm × 200 mm,
is of strength class C18 to BS EN 338:2003, and functions under service class 2 conditions. It
supports a characteristic permanent compressive axial action (including its self-weight) of 30 kN
and a characteristic variable medium-term compressive axial action of 50 kN. The column is
3.75 m high and at each end is effectively held in position but not in direction about the z–z and
the y–y axes.
Check that the column will meet the ultimate limit state (ULS) requirements of EC5.

z
200 mm

A A

L = 3.75 m
y y

z
150 mm

Fig. E5.7.1.

## 1. Column geometric properties

Column length, L L = 3.7 m
Effective length about the y–y axis, L e.y L e.y = 1.0 · L i.e. L e.y = 3.75 m
Table 5.2
Effective length about the z–z axis, L e.z L e.z = 1.0 · L i.e. L e.z = 3.75 m
Table 5.2
Width of the member, b b = 150 mm
Depth of the member, h h = 200 mm
Cross-sectional area of the column, A A =b·h A = 3 × 104 mm2
b · h3
Second moment of area about the y–y Iy = I y = 1 × 108 mm4
axes, I y 12

Iy
Radius of gyration about the y–y axis, i y iy = i y = 57.74 mm
A
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## 178 Structural Timber Design to Eurocode 5

L e.y
Slenderness ratio about the y–y λy = λ y = 64.95
axis, λ y iy
h · b3
Second moment of area about the Iz = Iz = 5.63 × 107 mm4
z–z axis, Iz 12

iz
Radius of gyration about the z–z iz = i z = 43.3 mm
axis, i z A
L e.z
Slenderness ratio about the z–z λz = λz = 86.6
axis, λz iz

2. Timber properties
Table 1.3, strength class C18 (BS EN 338:2003(E), Table 1)
Characteristic compression f c.0.k = 18 N/mm2
strength parallel to the grain, f c.0.k

## Fifth-percentile modulus of E 0.05 = 6.0 kN/mm2

elasticity parallel to the grain,
E 0.05
3. Partial safety factors
Table 2.8 (UKNA to BS EN 1990:2002, Table NA.A1.2(B)) for the ULS
Permanent actions, γG γG = 1.35
Variable actions, γ Q γ Q = 1.5
Table 2.6 (UKNA to EC5, Table NA.3)

## Material factor for solid timber, γM = 1.3

γM
4. Actions
Characteristic permanent G k = 30 kN
compressive action, G k
Characteristic medium-term Q k = 50 kN
compressive variable action, Q k
Design compressive action for the Nd = γG · G k + γ Q · Q k Nd = 1.16 × 105 N
(Table 2.8, equation (c) using the
unfavourable condition)

5. Modification factors
Factor for medium duration kmod.med = 0.8
kmod.med
(Table 2.4 (EC5, Table 3.1))
System strength factor, ksys not ksys = 1.0
relevant
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## 6. Compression strength of column

The critical design load case at the ULS will be due to the combination of permanent and
unfavourable medium-duration variable action:
Nd
Design compression stress, σc.0.d = σc.0.d = 3.85 N/mm2
σc.0.d A

## kmod.med · ksys · f c.0.k

Design compression strength, f c.0.d = f c.0.d = 11.08 N/mm2
f c.0.d γM

## Buckling resistance condition (5.3.1 (EC5, 6.3.2)):


λy f c.0.k
Relative slenderness about λrel.y = · λrel.y = 1.13
the y–y axis, λ (equation π E 0.05
rel.y
(5.3); EC5, equation (6.21))

λz f c.0.k
Relative slenderness about λrel.z = · λrel.z = 1.51
the z–z axis, λrel.z (equation π E 0.05
(5.3); EC5, equation (6.22))
As both relative slenderness ratios are greater than 0.3, the conditions in 5.3.1.(b)
apply. (EC5, 6.3.2(3)):
Maximum relative λrel.z = 1.51
slenderness ratio of the
column
Factor βc for solid timber βc = 0.2
(equation (5.6); (EC5,
equation (6.29))

Factor k z (equation (5.5b); k z = 0.5 · 1 + βc · (λrel.z − 0.3) + λ2rel.z
EC5, equation (6.28))
k z = 1.76

1
Instability factor, kc.z kc.z =  kc.z = 0.37
(equation (5.4b); (EC5, kz + k z2 − λ2rel.z
equation (6.26))
Design buckling strength, kc.z · f c.0.d = 4.15 N/mm2
kc.z f c.0.d (equation (5.7b))
σc.0.d
Design stress/design = 0.93
buckling strength ratio kc.z · f c.0.d
(equation (5.11b))
The design stress is less than the design buckling strength; therefore the 150 mm by 200 mm
timber section in strength class C18 meets the ULS requirements of EC5.
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## Example 5.7.2 A 47 mm ×125 mm sawn timber member of strength class C18 to BS EN

338:2003 functioning under service class 2 conditions in a timber truss is subjected to a char-
acteristic permanent tensile axial action of 2.5 kN and a characteristic variable medium-term
tensile axial action of 3.0 kN. The member is effectively pin jointed at each end to accommodate
end fixings, 8% of the cross-sectional area is removed at one end and 10% at the other end. The
effect of bending of the member due to its self-weight can be ignored.
Check that the member complies with the requirements of EC5 at the ULS.
1. Geometric properties
Thickness of the member, t1 t1 = 47 mm
Width of the member, h h = 125 mm
Cross-sectional area of the A = t1 · h A = 5.88 × 103 mm2
member, A
Net area of the member – based Anet = 0.9 · A Anet = 5.29 × 103 mm2
on the minimum area –
(100% − 10%), Anet
2. Timber properties
Table 1.3, strength class C18 (BS EN 338:2003(E), Table 1)
Characteristic tensile strength f t.0.k = 11 N/mm2
parallel to the grain, f t.0.k
3. Partial safety factors
Table 2.8 (UKNA to BS EN 1990:2002, Table NA.A1.2(B)) for the ULS
Permanent actions, γG γG = 1.35
Variable actions, γ Q γ Q = 1.5
Table 2.6 (UKNA to EC5, Table NA.3)
Material factor for solid timber, γM γM = 1.3
4. Actions
Characteristic permanent tensile G k = 2.5 kN
action, G k
Characteristic variable medium Q k = 3 kN
term action, Q k
Design tensile action for the critical Nd = γG · G k + γ Q · Q k
(Table 2.8, equation (c) using the Nd = 7.88 × 103 N
unfavourable condition)
5. Modification factors
Factor for medium-duration kmod.med = 0.8
(Table 4.1 (EC5, Table 3.1))
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## Design of Compression Members and Walls 181

Size factor, kh (Table 2.11; 1.0 if h ≥ 150 mm


EC5, equation (3.1)) (the 150 mm 0.2  
150 mm 0.2
equation incorporates a kh = if 1.3 >
dimensional correction h h
1.3 otherwise
kh = 1.04
System strength factor, ksys = 1.0
ksys – not relevant
6. Tensile strength of timber
The critical design load case at the ULS will be due to the combination of permanent and
unfavourable medium-duration actions:
Nd
Design tension stress σt.0.d = σt.0.d = 1.49 N/mm2
parallel to the grain, σ A net
t.0.d

## kmod.med · ksys · kh · f t.0.k

Design tension strength f t.0.d = f t.0.d = 7.02 N/mm−2
parallel to the grain, f t.0.d γM
(equation (5.18))
The design tension stress is less than the design tensile strength; therefore the 47 mm by
125 mm sawn section in strength class C18 meets the ULS requirements of EC5.

Example 5.7.3 The column shown in Figure E5.7.3 has a cross-section 100 mm × 200 mm,
is of strength class C24 to BS EN 338:2003, and functions under service class 2 conditions. It
supports a characteristic permanent compressive action of 10 kN and a characteristic variable
medium-term compressive action of 17.5 kN. The loading is applied 25 mm eccentric from the
y–y axis and 10 mm from the z–z axis as shown in the figure and the permanent action includes
an allowance to cover for the effect of the self-weight of the column. The column is 3.75 m high
and at each end is effectively held in position but not in direction about the z–z and about the
y–y axes.
Check that the column will meet the ULS requirements of EC5.
(Note: the relative slenderness ratio for bending about the y–y axis does not exceed 0.75.)

z
25 mm

10 mm
200 mm

A A
L = 3.75 m

y y

z
100 mm
A–A Lef = 1.0 × L
Fig. E5.7.3.
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## 182 Structural Timber Design to Eurocode 5

Note: Because the relative bending slenderness is less than 0.75, there is no need to investigate
lateral torsional instability effects and 5.4.1 will apply.
1. Geometric properties
Actual column length, L L = 3.75 m
Effective length for buckling about the L e.y = 1.0 · L i.e. L e.y = 3.75 m
y–y axis, L e.y
(Table 5.2)
Effective length for buckling about the L e.z = 1.0 · L i.e. L e.z = 3.75 m
z–z axis, L e.z
(Table 5.2)
Width of the member, b b = 100 mm
Depth of the member, h h = 200 mm
Cross-sectional area, A A =b·h A = 2 × 104 mm2
b · h3
Second moment of area about the y–y Iy = I y = 6.67 × 107 mm4
axes, I y 12

2I y
Section modulus about the y–y axes, Wy = W y = 6.67 × 105 mm3
Wy h

Iy
Radius of gyration about the y–y axis, iy = i y = 57.74 mm
iy A

L e.y
Slenderness ratio about the y–y axis, λy = λ y = 64.95
λy iy

h · b3
Second moment of area about the z–z Iz = Iz = 1.67 × 107 mm4
axis, Iz 12
2Iz
Section modulus about the z–z axis, Wz = Wz = 3.33 × 105 mm3
Wz b

Iz
Radius of gyration about the z–z axis, iz = i z = 28.87 mm
iz A
L e.z
Slenderness ratio about the z–z axis, λz λz = λz = 129.9
iz

2. Timber properties
Table 1.3, strength class C24 (BS EN 338:2003(E), Table 1)
Characteristic bending strength about f m.y.k = 24 N/mm2
the y–y axis, f m.y.k
Characteristic bending strength about f m.z.k = 24 N/mm2
the z–z axis, f m.z.k
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## Characteristic compression strength f c.0.k = 21 N/mm2

parallel to the grain, f c.0.k
Fifth-percentile modulus of elasticity E 0.05 = 7.4 kN/mm2
parallel to the grain, E 0.05
3. Partial safety factors
Table 2.8 (UKNA to BS EN 1990:2002, Table NA.A1.2(B)) for the ULS
Permanent actions, γG γG = 1.35
Variable actions, γ Q γ Q = 1.5
Table 2.6 (UKNA to EC5, Table NA.3)
Material factor for solid timber, γM γM = 1.3
4. Actions
Characteristic permanent compressive G k = 10 kN
action, G k
Characteristic short-term compressive Q k = 17.5 kN
variable action, Q k
Design compressive action for a Nd = γG · G k + γ Q · Q k
(Table 2.8, equation (c) using the Nd = 3.98 × 104 N
unfavourable condition variable
action)
Eccentricity, ez ez = 25 mm
Design moment about the y–y axis, M y.d = Nd · ez M y.d = 0.99 kN m
M y.d
Eccentricity, e y e y = 10 mm
Design moment about the z–z axis, Mz.d Nd · e y Mz.d = 0.4 kN m
Mz.d
5. Modification factors
and service class 2, kmod.med
(Table 2.4 (EC5, Table 3.1))
System strength factor, ksys – not ksys = 1.0
relevant
Depth factor for solid timber – bending k1h = 1.0
(Table 2.11 (EC5, 3.2))
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## Depth factor for solid

timber – bending about the 1.0 if b ≥ 150 mm

z–z axis, k2h (Table 2.11 150 mm 0.2  
150 mm 0.2
(EC5, 3.2)) (Mathcad k2h = if 1.3 >
b b
adjusted to make it 1.3 otherwise
dimensionally correct)
k2h = 1.08
6. Strength of column
The critical design load case at the ULS will be due to the combination of permanent and
unfavourable medium-duration variable actions:
Moment condition
Design bending moment M y.d = 0.99 kN m
about the y–y axis, M y.d
M y.d
Design bending stress about σm.y.d = σm.y.d = 1.49 N/mm2
the y–y axis, σm.y.d Wy

## Design bending moment Mz.d = 0.4 kN m

Mz.d
Design bending stress about σm.z.d = σm.z.d = 1.19 N/mm2
the z–z axis, σm.z.d Wz

## Design bending strength

about the y–y axis, f m.y.d
kmod.med · ksys · k1h · f m.y.k
f m.y.d = f m.y.d = 14.77 N/mm2
γM
Design bending strength
about the z–z axis, f m.z.d
kmod.med · ksys · k2h · f m.y.k
f m.z.d = f m.z.d = 16.02 N/mm2
γM
Axial compression condition
Nd
Design compression stress, σc.0.d = σc.0.d = 1.99 N/mm2
σc.0.d A

## kmod.med · ksys · f c.0.k

Design compression strength, f c.0.d = f c.0.d = 12.92 N/mm2
f c.0.d γM
(equation (5.10))

## Buckling resistance condition (5.3.1 (EC5, 6.3.2)):


λy f c.0.k
Relative slenderness about λrel.y = · λrel.y = 1.1
the y–y axis, λrel.y (equation π E 0.05
(5.3); EC5, equation (6.21))
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## Design of Compression Members and Walls 185


λz f c.0.k
Relative slenderness about the λrel.z = · λrel.z = 2.2
z–z axis, λrel.z (equation (5.3); π E 0.05
EC5, equation (6.22))
As both relative slenderness ratios are greater than 0.3, conditions in EC5, 6.3.2(3), apply:
Factor βc for solid timber βc = 0.2
(equation (5.6); EC5,
equation (6.29))
 
Factor k z (equation (5.5b); EC5, k z = 0.5 · 1 + βc · (λrel.z − 0.3) + λ2rel.z k z = 3.12
equation (6.28))
1
Instability factor about the z–z kc.z =  kc.z = 0.19
axis, kc.z (equation (5.4b); EC5, kz + k z2 − λ2rel.z
equation (6.26))
 
Factor k y (equation (5.5a); EC5, k y = 0.5 · 1 + βc · (λrel.y − 0.3) + λ2rel.y k y = 1.19
equation (6.27))
1
Instability factor about the y–y kc.y =  kc.y = 0.61
axis, kc.y (equation (5.4a); EC5, ky + k 2y − λ2rel.y
equation (6.25))
Redistribution factor for a km = 0.7
rectangular section, km
(equation (4.4c) (EC5, 6.1.6))

## Combined stress condition

Equations (5.21) and (5.22) (EC5, equations (6.23) and (6.24)):

## σc.0.d σm.y.d σm.z.d

+ + km = 0.4
kc.y · f c.0.d f m.y.d f m.z.d
σc.0.d σm.y.d σm.z.d
+ km + = 0.96
kc.z · f c.0.d f m.y.d f m.z.d

Relationships less than unity; therefore the 100 mm by 200 mm sawn section in strength class
C24 will meet the ULS requirements of EC5.

Example 5.7.4 The LVL (Kerto-S) column shown in Figure E5.7.4 has a cross-section
90 mm × 200 mm, and functions under service class 2 conditions. It supports a character-
istic permanent compressive action of 8 kN and a characteristic variable short-term compressive
action of 19.5 kN. The loading is applied 65 mm eccentric from the y–y axis as shown in the
figure and the permanent action includes an allowance to cover for the effect of the self-weight
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## 186 Structural Timber Design to Eurocode 5

of the column. The column is 4.15 m high and at each end is effectively held in position but not
in direction about the z–z axis and the y–y axis.
Check that the column will meet the ULS requirements of EC5.

65 mm
A A

L = 4.15 m
200 mm y y

z
90 mm
A–A Lef = 1.0 × L

Fig. E5.7.4.

## 1. Column geometric properties

Actual column length, L L = 4.15 m
Effective length for buckling about the y–y L e.y = 1.0 · L i.e. L e.y = 4.15 m
axis, L e.y
(Table 5.2)
Effective length for buckling about z–z axis, L e.z = 1.0 · L i.e. L e.z = 4.15 m
L e.z
(Table 5.2)
Effective length of member acting as a beam ef = L ef = 4.15 m
with a constant moment along the length, ef
(Table 4.2 (EC5, Table 6.1))
Width of member, b b = 90 mm
Depth of member, h h = 200 mm
Cross-sectional area, A A =b·h A = 1.8 × 104 mm2
b · h3
Second moment of area about the y–y axes, I y I y = I y = 6 × 107 mm4
12
2I y
Section modulus about the y–y axes, W y Wy = W y = 6 × 105 mm3
h

Iy
Radius of gyration about the y–y axis, i y iy = i y = 57.74 mm
A
L e.y
Slenderness ratio about the y–y axis, λ y λy = λ y = 71.88
iy
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## Design of Compression Members and Walls 187

h · b3
Second moment of area about the z–z axis, Iz Iz = Iz = 1.22 × 107 mm4
12

Iz
Radius of gyration about the z–z axis, i z iz = i z = 25.98 mm
A
L e.z
Slenderness ratio about the z–z axis, λz λz = λz = 159.73
iz
2. LVL properties
Table1.15 – Kerto S
Characteristic bending strength about the f m.y.k = 44 N/mm2
y–y axis, f m.y.k
Characteristic compression strength parallel f c.0.k = 35 N/mm2
to the grain, f c.0.k
Fifth-percentile modulus of elasticity E 0.05 = 11.6 kN/mm2
parallel to the grain, E 0.05
Fifth-percentile shear modulus, G 0.05 G 0.05 = 0.4 kN/mm2
3. Partial safety factors
Table 2.8 (UKNA to BS EN 1990:2002, Table NA.A1.2(B)) for the ULS
Permanent actions, γG γG = 1.35
Variable actions, γ Q γ Q = 1.5
Table 2.6 (UKNA to EC5, Table NA.3):
Material factor for LVL, γM γM = 1.2
4. Actions
Characteristic permanent compressive G k = 8 kN
action, G k
Characteristic short-term compressive Q k = 19.5 kN
variable action, Q k
Design compressive action for the critical Nd = γG · G k + γ Q · Q k
(Table 2.8, equation (c) using the Nd = 4 × 104 N
unfavourable condition variable action)
Eccentricity, ez ez = 65 mm
Design moment about the y–y axis, M y.d = Nd · ez M y.d = 2.6 kN m
M y.d
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## 188 Structural Timber Design to Eurocode 5

5. Modification factors
Factor for short-duration kmod.short = 0.9
class 2, kmod.short
(Table 2.4 (EC5, Table 3.1))
System strength factor, ksys = 1
ksys – not relevant
Size effect exponent, s s = 0.12
(Table 1.15)
1.0 if h ≥ 300 mm

 s  
300 mm s
Depth factor for LVL – kh = 300 mm i f 1.2 >
h h
for bending edgewise, kh
1.2 other wise
(Table 2.11 (EC5, 3.4;
BS EN 14374-2004))
kh = 1.05
6. Strength of the column
The design load case at the ULS will be due to the combination of permanent and
unfavourable short-duration variable action:
Moment condition
Design bending moment M y.d = 2.6 kN m
about the y–y axis, M y.d
M y.d
Design bending stress σm.y.d = σm.y.d = 4.34 N/mm2
about the y–y axis, σm.y.d Wy

## kmod.short · ksys · k1h · f m.y.k

Design bending strength f m.y.d = f m.y.d = 34.65 N/mm2
about the y–y , f m.y.d γM

## Redistribution factor for a km = 0.7

rectangular section, km
(Equation (4.4c) (EC5, 6.1.6))

Buckling resistance condition – lateral torsional buckling under major axis bending
(4.5.1.2 (EC5, 6.3.3)):

## Lateral stability factor,

kcrit (4.5.1.2 (EC5,
6.3.3)):
  
b 0.5
π ·b 2
E 0.05 · G 0.05 · 1 − 0.63 ·
h
Critical bending stress, σm.crit =
σm.crit (equation (4.7c); h · ef
EC5, equation (6.31))
σm.crit = 55.9 N/mm2
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## Design of Compression Members and Walls 189

f m.y.k
Relative slenderness for λrel.m = λrel.m = 0.89
bending, λrel.m σm.crit
(equation (4.10); EC5,
equation (6.30))

1 if λrel.m ≤ 0.75

1.56 − 0.75.λrel.m if 0.75 < λrel.m ≤ 1.4
Lateral stability factor, kcrit =
kcrit (Table 4.3 (EC5, 1
other wise
equation (6.34)) λ2
rel.m

kcrit = 0.89
Axial compression condition
Nd
Design compression stress, σc.0.d σc.0.d = σc.0.d = 2.23 N/mm2
A
kmod.short · ksys · f c.0.k
Design compression strength, f c.0.d f c.0.d = f c.0.d = 26.25 N/mm2
γM
Buckling resistance condition (5.4.1 (EC5, 6.3.2)):

λy f c.0.k
Relative slenderness about the y–y λrel.y = · λrel.y = 1.26
axis, λrel.y π E 0.05
(equation (5.3); EC5, equation
(6.21)) 
λz f c.0.k
Relative slenderness about the z–z λrel.z = · λrel.z = 2.79
axis, λrel.z π E 0.05
(equation (5.3); EC5, equation (6.22))
Factor βc for LVL (equation (5.6); βc = 0.1
EC5, equation (6.29))
Factor k y (equation (5.5a); EC5,
equation (6.27))
 
k y = 0.5 · 1 + βc · (λrel.y − 0.3) + λ2rel.y k y = 1.34
1
Instability factor about the y–y axis kc.y =  kc.y = 0.56
(equation (5.4a); EC5, equation k y + k 2y − λ2rel.y
(6.25))
Factor k z (equation (5.5b); EC5,
equation (6.28))

k z = 0.5 · 1 + βc · (λrel.z − 0.3) + λ2rel.z kz = 4.52
1
Instability factor about the kc.z =  kc.z = 0.12
z–z axis (equation (5.4b); EC5, kz + k z2 − λ2rel.z
equation (6.26))
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## Combined stress conditions

Including for equations (5.21) and (5.23) in addition to equation (5.24) in the strength
check:
σc.0.d σm.y.d
Compression stress condition about + = 0.28
the y–y axis k c.y · f c.0.d f m.y.d
(equation (5.21) (EC5, 6.3.2(3))
σc.0.d σm.y.d
Compression stress condition about + km = 0.77
the z–z axis kc.z · f c.0.d f m.y.d
(equation (5.23) (EC5, 6.3.2(3)))

 2
σm.y.d σc.0.d
Combined stress condition + = 0.7
(equation (5.24); EC5, kcrit · f m.y.d kc.z · f c.0.d
equation (6.35))
As all relationships are less than unity, the 90 mm by 200 mm LVL member will meet
the ULS requirements of EC5.

## Example 5.7.5 A 63 mm by 125 mm sawn timber section of strength class C24 to BS EN

338:2003 functioning under service class 2 conditions is shown in Figure E5.7.5 and is subjected
to a characteristic permanent tensile action of 1.0 kN and a characteristic variable tensile medium-
term action of 4 kN along the direction of the x–x axis of the member. The variable tensile action
also induces a variable medium-term moment of 1.0 kNm about the y–y axis and 0.10 kNm
about the z–z axis. There is no loss of area in the member at each end connection.
Check that the member will meet the ULS requirements of EC5.

125 mm
y

z z 63 mm

y
Fig. E5.7.5. Section of member.

1. Geometric properties
Thickness of the member, t t = 63 mm
Width of the member, h h = 125 mm
Cross-sectional area of the member, A A =t ·h A = 7.88 × 103 mm2
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## Design of Compression Members and Walls 191

t · h3
Second moment of area about the y–y Iy = I y = 1.03 × 107 mm4
axes, I y 12
2I y
Section modulus about the y–y axes, W y Wy = W y = 1.64 × 105 mm3
h
h · t3
Second moment of area about z–z axis, Iz Iz = Iz = 2.6 × 106 mm4
12
2Iz
Section modulus about the z–z axes, Wz Wz = Wz = 8.27 × 104 mm3
t
2. Timber properties
Table 1.3, strength class C24 (BS EN 338:2003(E), Table 1)
Characteristic tensile strength parallel to f t.0.k = 14 N/mm2
the grain, f t.0.k
Characteristic bending strength about the f m.y.k = 24 N/mm2
y–y axis, f m.y.k
Characteristic bending strength about the f m.z.k = 24 N/mm2
z–z axis, f m.z.k
3. Partial safety factors
Table 2.8 (UKNA to BS EN 1990:2002. Table NA.A1.2(B)) for the ULS
Permanent actions, γG γG = 1.35
Variable actions, γ Q γ Q = 1.5
Table 2.6 (UKNA to EC5, Table NA.3)
Material factor for solid timber, γ M γM = 1.3
4. Actions
Characteristic permanent compressive G k = 1.0 kN
action, G k
Characteristic medium-term compressive Q k = 4.0 kN
variable action, Q k
Design tensile action for the critical load Nd = γG · G k + γ Q · Q k
combination, Nd
(Table 2.8, equation (c) using the Nd = 6.75 × 103 N
unfavourable condition variable action)
Characteristic moment due to the variable M Q.y.k = 1.0 kN m
action about the y–y axis, M Q.y.k
Design moment about the y–y axis due to M y.d = γ Q · M Q.y.k M y.d = 1.5 kN m
the variable actions, M y.d
Characteristic moment due to the variable M Q.z.k = 0.1 kN m
action about the z–z axis, M Q.z.k
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## Design moment about the z–z Mz.d = γ Q · M Q.z.k Mz.d = 0.15 kN m

axis due to the variable actions,
Mz.d
5. Modification factors
Factor for medium-duration kmod.med = 0.8
kmod.med
(Table 2.4 (EC5, Table 3.1))
System strength factor, ksys – not ksys = 1
relevant
Size factor for bending:

1.0 if h ≥ 150 mm

 0.2  
150 mm 0.2
Depth factor for solid timber – kh = 150 mm if 1.3 >

bending about y–y axis, kh h h
1.3 otherwise
(Table 2.11 (EC5, 3.2))
kh = 1.04

1.0 if t ≥ 150 mm

 0.2  
150 mm 0.2
Depth factor for solid timber – kt = 150 mm if 1.3 >

bending about z–z axis, kt t t
1.3 otherwise
(Table 2.11 (EC5, 3.2))
kt = 1.19
Size factor for tension:
Depth factor for solid timber in k1h = kh k1h = 1.04
tension, k1h
(Table 2.11 (EC5, 3.2))
6. Strength of member
The critical design load case at the ULS will be due to the combination of permanent and
unfavourable medium-duration variable actions:
Moment condition
Design bending moment about M y.d = 1.5 kN m
the y–y axis, M y.d
M y.d
Design bending stress about the σm.y.d = σm.y.d = 9.14 N/mm2
y–y axis, σm.y.d Wy

## Design bending moment about Mz.d = 0.15 kN m

the z–z axis, Mz.d
Mz.d
Design bending stress about the σm.z.d = σm.z.d = 1.81 N/mm2
z–z axis, σm.z.d Wz
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## kmod.med · ksys · K h · f m.y.k

Design bending strength f m.y.d = f m.y.d = 15.32 N/mm2
about the y–y axis, f m.y.d γM

## kmod.med · ksys · K t · f m.z.k

Design bending strength f m.z.d = f m.z.d = 17.57 N/mm2
about the z–z axis, f m.z.d γM

## Axial tensile condition

Nd
Design tension stress σt.o.d = σt.0.d = 0.86 N/mm2
parallel to the grain, σt.o.d A

## kmod.med · ksys · k1h · f t.0.k

Design tension strength f t.0.d = f t.0.d = 8.94 N/mm2
parallel to the grain, f t.0.d γM

## Redistribution factor for a km = 0.7

rectangular section, km
(equation (4.4c) (EC5, 6.1.6))
Combined stress condition
Equations (5.25) and (5.26); EC5, equations (6.17) and (6.18):
σt.0.d σm.y.d σm.z.d
+ + km · = 0.77
f t.0.d f m.y.d f m.z.d
σt.0.d σm.y.d σm.z.d
+ km + = 0.62
f t.0.d f m.y.d f m.z.d

Relationships less than unity; therefore the 63 mm by 125 mm sawn section in strength class
C24 will meet the ULS requirements of EC5.

Example 5.7.6 The stud wall shown in Figure E5.7.6 has an overall height of 3.75 m and
the studs are spaced at 600 mm centre to centre with braced battens at mid-height. Sawn
timber of 44 mm by 100 mm is used for the studs and the header and sole plates are 50
mm by 100 mm sawn timber, all class C16 to BS EN 338:2003. The wall functions in service
class 2 conditions and supports a characteristic permanent action of 0.6 kN (inclusive of the
panel self-weight) and a characteristic variable long-term action of 2.4 kN per stud. There
is wall sheathing on both faces and the fixings provide lateral support to the studs about the
z–z axis.
Check that the wall will meet the ULS requirements of EC5.

1. Geometric properties
Stud length, L L = 3.75 m
Effective length of a stud buckling about L e.y = 1.0 · L i.e. L e.y = 3.75 m
the y–y axis, L e.y (Table 5.2)
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## 194 Structural Timber Design to Eurocode 5

z studs

1.875 m
y y

600 mm 600 mm
z z

3.75 m
100 mm
batten

1.875 m
y y

z
44 mm
Section through a stud Section through stud wall

Fig. E5.7.6.

## Width of each stud, b b = 44 mm

Depth of each stud, h h = 100 mm
Bearing area of each stud on the sole Ab = b · h
plate, Ab
Cross-sectional area of each stud, A A=b·h A = 4.4 × 103 mm2
b · h3
Second moment of area of a stud about Iy = I y = 3.67 × 106 mm4
the y–y axes, I y 12

Iy
Radius of gyration of a stud about the iy = i y = 28.87 mm
y–y axis, i y A
L e.y
Slenderness ratio of a stud about the λy = λ y = 129.9
y–y axis, λ y iy

## 2. Timber strength properties

Table 1.3, strength class C16 (BS EN 338:2003(E), Table 1)
Characteristic compression strength f c.0.k = 17/mm2
parallel to the grain, f c.0.k
Characteristic compressive strength f c.90.k = 2.2 N/mm2
perpendicular to the grain, f c.90.k
Fifth-percentile modulus of elasticity E 0.05 = 5.4 kN/mm2
parallel to the grain, E 0.05
3. Partial safety factors
Table 2.8(UKNA to BS EN 1990:2002, Table NA.A1.2(B)) for the ULS
Permanent actions, γG γG = 1.35
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## Variable actions, γ Q γ Q = 1.5

Table 2.6 (UKNA to EC5, Table NA.3)
Material factor for solid timber, γM γM = 1.3
4. Actions per stud
Characteristic permanent compressive G k = 0.6 kN
action, G k
Characteristic long-term compressive Q k = 2.4 kN
variable action, Q k
Design compressive action for the Nd = γG · G k + γ Q · Q k
(Table 2.8, equation (c) using the Nd = 4.41 × 103 N
unfavourable condition variable
action)
5. Modification factors
service class 2, kmod.long
Table 2.4 (EC5, Table 3.1))
System strength factor, ksys (2.3.7 ksys = 1.1
(EC5, 6.6))
Adopt bearing factor, kc.90 = 1 kc.90 = 1
(equation (4.22) (EC5, 6.1.5 (2)))
6. Compression strength of a stud
The critical design load case at the ULS will be due to the combination of permanent and
unfavourable long-duration variable action:
Nd
Design compression stress in a stud, σc.0.d = σc.0.d = 1 N/mm2
σ A
c.0.d
kmod.med · ksys · f c.0.k
Design compression strength of a stud, f c.0.d =
f c.0.d γM
f c.0.d = 10.07 N/mm2

## Buckling resistance condition (5.3.1

(EC5, 6.3.2)): 
λy f c.0.k
Relative slenderness about the y–y λrel.y = · λrel.y = 2.32
axis, λrel.y (Equation (5.3); EC5, π E 0.05
equation (6.21))
As the relative slenderness ratio is greater than 0.3, conditions in 5.3.1 apply
(EC5, Clause 6.3.2(3)):
Factor βc for solid timber (equation βc = 0.2
(5.6); EC5, equation (6.29))
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## 196 Structural Timber Design to Eurocode 5

 
Factor k y k y = 0.5 · 1 + βc · (λrel.y − 0.3) + λ2rel.y
(equation (5.5a); EC5, k y = 3.39
equation (6.27))
1
Instability factor about the kc.y =  kc.y = 0.17
y–y axis (equation (5.4a); EC5, ky + ky2 − λ2rel.y
equation (6.25))

σc.0.d
Strength condition (equation 5.12) = 0.58
kc.y · f c.0.d

The relationship is less than unity; therefore the 44 mm by 100 mm studs, strength class
C16, will meet the ULS compression strength requirement of EC5.
7. Bearing strength of sole plates
Design bearing load at the base of Nd = 4.41 × 103 N
a stud, Nd
Nd
Design bearing stress on the sole σc.90.d = σc.90.d = 1 N/mm2
plate, σc,90,d – assume no spread of A b

## load – to give a safe result

kmod.long · kc.90 · f c.90.k
Design bearing strength, f c.90.d , f v.d = f v.d = 1.18 N/mm2
(ignoring enhancement of k γ M
c.90
allowed in EC5)
The bearing stress is less than the bearing strength; therefore the 44 mm by 100 mm
plates, strength class C16, will meet the ULS bearing compression strength requirement of
EC5.

Example 5.7.7 A stud wall in a domestic property, of the same layout as shown in
Figure E5.7.6, has an overall height of 3.75 m. The studs are spaced at 600 mm centre to
centre and braced battens are at mid-height. The studs, header and sole plates are 38 mm by 125
mm section, all strength class C18 to BS EN 338:2003. The wall functions in service class 2
conditions and each stud supports a characteristic vertical permanent action of 0.5 kN, a charac-
teristic vertical variable medium-term action of 2.0 kN and a characteristic lateral wind action
of 0.75 kN/m2 . Sheathing material is fixed on both faces but does not provide full buckling
restraint about the z–z axis of the studs.
Check that the member will meet the ULS requirements of EC5.
1. Geometric properties
Stud length, L L = 3.75 m
Effective length of a stud buckling L e.y = 1.0 · L L e.y = 3.75 m
about the y–y axis, L e.y (Table 5.2)
Effective length of a stud buckling L e.z = 0.5 · L L e.z = 1.88 m
about the z–z axis, L e.z (Table 5.2)
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## Width of each stud, b b = 38 mm

Depth of each stud, h h = 125 mm
Lateral spacing of each stud, sstud sstud = 600 mm
Bearing area of each stud on the sole plate, Ab Ab = b · h
Cross-sectional area of each stud, A A =b·h A = 4.75 × 103 mm2
b · h3
Second moment of area of a stud about Iy = I y = 6.18 × 106 mm4
the y–y axes, I y 12

Iy
Radius of gyration of a stud about iy = i y = 36.08 mm
the y–y axis, i y A
L e.y
Slenderness ratio of a stud about the y–y axis, λy = λ y = 103.92
λy iy
2I y
Section modulus of a stud about the y–y axes, Wy = W y = 9.9 × 104 mm3
Wy h
h · b3
Second moment of area of a stud about Iz = Iz = 5.72 × 105 mm4
the z–z axis, Iz 12

Iz
Radius of gyration of a stud about iz = i z = 10.97 mm
the z–z axis, i z A
L e.z
Slenderness ratio of a stud about the z–z axis, λz λz = λz = 170.93
iz
2. Timber strength properties
Table 1.3, strength class C18 (BS EN 338:2003(E), Table 1)
Characteristic compression strength parallel to f c.0.k = 18 N/mm2
the grain, f c.0.k
Characteristic bending strength, f m.y.k f m.y.k = 18 N/mm2
Characteristic compressive strength f c.90.k = 2.2 N/mm2
perpendicular to the grain, f c.90.k
Fifth-percentile modulus of elasticity parallel to E 0.05 = 6.0 kN/mm2
the grain, E 0.05
3. Partial safety factors
Table 2.8 (UKNA to BS EN 1990:2002, Table NA.A1.2(B)) for the ULS
Permanent actions, γG γG = 1.35
Variable actions, γ Q γ Q = 1.5
Table 2.2 (UKNA to EN 1990:2002(E), TableNA.A1.1)
Combination factor for a variable action, ψ0 ψ0 = 0.7
Combination factor for a wind action, ψ0.w ψ0.w = 0.5
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## Table 2.6 (UKNA to EC5, Table NA.3)

Material factor for solid γM = 1.3
timber, γM
4. Actions
Characteristic permanent G k = 0.5 kN
compressive action, G k
Characteristic medium- Q k = 2.0 kN
term compressive
variable action, Q k
Characteristic variable Wk = 0.75 kN/m2
lateral (wind) action, Wk
Combined load cases to obtain the design condition for the stud design
Design axial loading N1d = γG · G k N1d = 0.68 kN
with permanent action
only on the wall, N1d
Design axial loading N2d = γG · G k + ψ0 · γ Q · Q k N2d = 2.77 kN
with permanent action;
unfavourable medium-
term variable and wind
(dominant) actions, N2d
with permanent action
only on the wall, W1d
Design lateral loading W2d = γ Q · Wk W2d = 1.13 × 10−3 N/mm2
with permanent action;
unfavourable medium-
term variable and wind
(dominant) actions, W2d
L2
Design moment per stud M2 y.d = W2d · sstud · M2 y.d = 1.19 × 103 N m
8
(iii) Combined load cases for plate design
Design axial loading due N3d = γG · G k + γ Q · Q k N3d = 3.67 kN
to permanent and
medium-term variable
action, N3d
5. Modification factors
Factor for permanent- kmod.perm = 0.6
service class 2, kmod.perm
(Table 2.4 (EC5, Table 3.1))
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## Factor for medium-duration kmod.med = 0.8

kmod.med
(Table 2.4 (EC5, Table 3.1))
Factor for kmod.inst = 1.1
and service class 2, kmod.inst
(Table 2.4 (EC5, Table 3.1))
System strength factor, ksys = 1.1
ksys – 2.3.7 (EC5, 6.7)
Adopt bearing factor, kc.90 = 1 kc.90 = 1
(equation (4.22) (EC5, 6.1.5
(2)))  
0.2
150
Depth factor for solid timber – kh = min , 1.3
bending about y–y axis, kh h · mm−1
(Table 2.11 (EC5, 3.2))
kh = 1.04
6. Strength of the studs
The critical design load case at the ULS will be due to the combination of permanent,
unfavourable wind (dominant) and unfavourable medium-term variable action:
Axial compression condition
N 2d
Design compression stress due σ 2c.0.d = σ 2c.0.d = 0.58 N/mm2
to permanent and combined A
medium-term and wind
(dominant) actions, σ 2c.0.d
kmod.perm · ksys · f c.0.k
Design compression strength f1c.0.d = f1c.0.d = 9.14 N/mm2
of a stud under permanent γM
action only, f1c.0.d
kmod.inst · ksys · f c.0.k
Design compression strength f3c.0.d = f3c.0.d = 16.75 N/mm2
of a stud under permanent γM
action, medium-term variable
and wind (dominant) action,
f3c.0.d

## Buckling resistance condition

(5.3.1 (EC5, 6.3.2)):

λy f c.0.k
Relative slenderness about the λrel.y = · λrel.y = 1.81
y–y axis, λrel.y π E 0.05
(equation (5.3); EC5, equation
(6.21))
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## 200 Structural Timber Design to Eurocode 5


λz f c.0.k
Relative slenderness about the z–z λrel.z = · λrel.z = 2.98
axis, λrel.z π E 0.05
(equation (5.3); EC5, equation
(6.22))
As both relative slenderness ratios are greater than 0.3, conditions in 5.3.1 b) apply (EC5,
6.3.2(3)):
Redistribution factor for a km = 0.7
rectangular section, km
(see equation (4.4) (EC5, 6.1.6))
Factor βc for solid timber βc = 0.2
(equation (5.6); EC5, equation
(6.29))
Factor kz (equation (5.5b); EC5,
equation (6.28))

k z = 0.5 · 1 + βc · (λrel.z − 0.3) + λ2rel.z kz = 5.21
1
Instability factor about kc.z =  kc.z = 0.1
the z–z axis, kc.z kz + kz2 − λ2rel.z
(equation 5.4b (EC5, equation
6.26))
Factor, k y
(equation (5.5a); EC5, equation
(6.27))
k y = 0.5 · 1 + βc · (λrel.y − 0.3) + λ2rel.y k y = 2.29
1
Instability factor about the y–y kc.y =  kc.y = 0.2
axis, kc.y ky + k 2y − λ2rel.y
(equation (5.4a); EC5, equation
(6.25))
Moment condition
M2 y.d
Design bending stress about the σ 2m.y.d = σ 2m.y.d = 11.99 M/mm2
y–y axis due to permanent and Wy
combined medium-term vertical
and wind (dominant) action, σ 2y.d

## Design bending strength about the

y–y axis, f m.y.d
kmod.inst · ksys · kh · f m.y.k
f m.y.d = f m.y.d = 17.38 N/mm2
γM

## Lateral torsional stability of stud

functioning as a beam, kcrit (5.3.1
(EC5, 6.3.3))
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## Design of Compression Members and Walls 201

 
L
Effective length of a stud, L ef.b : L ef.b = 0.9 · + 2 · h L ef.b = 1.94 m
With braced battens, the 2
distance between lateral
restraint = L/2. Due to udl
used (approximate solution)
at the compression edge, 2h has
(Table 4.2 (EC5, Table 6.1))
0.78 · b2
Critical bending stress, σm.crit σm.crit = · E 0.05 σm.cirt = 27.9 N/mm2
(equation (4.8); EC5, h · L ef.b
equation (6.32))
Lateral torsional buckling
condition (4.5.1.2 (EC5, 6.3.3)):

f m.y.k
Relative slenderness for λrel.m = λrel.m = 0.8
bending, λrel.m σm.crit
(equation (4.10); EC5,
equation (6.30))

1 if λrel.m ≤ 0.75

1.56 − 0.75 · λrel.m if 0.75 < λrel.m ≤ 1.4
Lateral stability factor, kcirt =
kcrit (Table 4.3 (EC5, 1
otherwise
equation (6.34)) λrel.m2

kcirt = 0.96

## Combined stress conditions

Including for equations (5.35) and (5.36) in addition to equation (5.38) in the strength check:
Combined axial and bending
σ 2c.0.d σ 2m.y.d
stress condition about the y–y + = 0.82
axis – functioning as a column kc.y · f 3c.0.d f m.y.d
(equation (5.35) (EC5, 6.3.2(3)))
σ 2c.0.d σ 2m.y.d
Compression stress condition + km · = 0.81
about the z–z axis kc.z · f3c.0.d f m.y.d
(equation (5.36) (EC5 6.3.2(3)))
Combined bending and axial  2
stress condition functioning as a σ 2m.y.d σ 2c.0.d
+ = 0.85
beam (equation (5.38); EC5, kcrit · f m.y.d kc.z · f3c.0.d
equation (6.35)):
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## 202 Structural Timber Design to Eurocode 5

The critical condition is due to combined axial stress and bending about the y–y axis,
functioning as a beam and with wind as the dominant variable action. The studs are OK
as the combined compression and bending ratio is less than unity.
7. Bearing strength of the sole plates
For this condition, the greatest vertical load arises with the vertical variable load as the
Design bearing load per stud, N3d = 3.67 × 103 N
N3d
N3d
Design bearing stress on the σc.90.d = σc.90.d = 0.77 N/mm2
plate, σc.0.d Ab

## kmod.med · kc.90 · f c.90.k

Design bearing strength, f c.90.d = f c.90.d = 1.35 N/mm2
f c.90.d (ignoring enhancement γM
of kc.90 allowed in EC5)
The bearing stress is less than the bearing strength; therefore the 38 mm by 125 mm plates,
strength class C18, will meet the ULS bearing compression strength requirement of EC5.

Example 5.7.8 A stud wall in a domestic property with the same layout as shown in
Figure E5.7.6 has an overall height of 2.4 m. The studs are spaced at 600 mm centre to
centre and battens are fitted at mid-height. Studs are 44 mm by 100 mm section, class C18
to BS EN 338:2003, and the wall functions in service class 2 conditions. Each wall stud
supports a characteristic permanent action of 0.4 kN, a characteristic medium-duration vari-
able action of 1.8 kN and a characteristic lateral wind action of 0.85 kN/m2 . Sheathing ma-
terial is fixed on both faces and provides full buckling restraint about the z–z axis of the
studs.
Determine the increase in the instantaneous lateral deflection of the wall at the
serviceability limit states (SLS) under the characteristic combination of actions, taking wind

1. Geometric properties
Stud length, L L = 2.4 m
Effective length of a stud for L e.y = 1.0 · L i.e. L e.y = 2.4 m
L e.y (Table 5.2)
Width of a stud, b b = 44 mm
Depth of a stud, h h = 100 mm
Lateral spacing of each stud, sstud = 600 mm
sstud
2. Timber strength properties
Table 1.3, strength class C18 (BS EN 338:2003(E), Table 1)
Fifth-percentile modulus of E 0.05 = 6.0 kN/mm2
elasticity parallel to the grain,
E 0.05
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## Mean modulus of elasticity parallel E 0,mean = 9.0 kN/mm2

to the grain, E 0,mean
Mean shear modulus, G 0,mean G 0,mean = 0.56 kN/mm2
3. Partial safety factors
Table 2.2 (UKNA to EN 1990:2002(E), TableNA.A1.1) – Category A
Combination factor for a variable ψ0 = 0.7
action ψ0
Combination factor for a wind ψ0,w = 0.5
action, ψ0,w
4. Actions
Characteristic permanent G k = 0.4 kN
compressive action, G k
Characteristic medium-term Q k = 1.8 kN
compressive variable action, Q k
Characteristic variable (wind) Wk = 0.85 kN/m2
action, Wk
Variable lateral action, Fser Fser = Wk Fser = 0.85 kN/mm2
Permanent vertical action, Nserdl Nserdl = G k Nserdl = 0.4 kN
Variable vertical action, Nserll Nserll = Q k Nserll = 1.8 kN
Characteristic combination for G VLw = Nserdl + ψ0 · Nserll G VLw = 1.66 kN
vertical load with wind as the
dominant action, G VLw
with wind as the dominant action,
G HLW

## 5. Deflection of the stud wall at the SLS

The critical design load case at the SLS will be due to the combination of permanent,
unfavourable wind (dominant) and unfavourable medium-term variable action:
L
Maximum permitted out of δ0 = δ0 = 8 mm
straightness of a stud, δ0 300
(EC5, Section 10)
E 0.05 b · h 3
Euler load of a strut about the y–y PE = π 2 · · PE = 37.7 kN
axis, PE (equation (5.42)) L 2e.y 12

(Table 4.7)
    2 
5 G HLw E 0,mean h
δinst.Gw = · · (L ) · 1 + 0.96 ·
4
· · (sstud )
32 E 0,mean · b · h 3 G 0,mean L
δinst.Gw = 6.86 mm
P1: PAB/RPW P2: PAB
BLUK117-Porteous October 6, 2007 19:24

## 204 Structural Timber Design to Eurocode 5

Increase in the instantaneous value of the lateral deflection of the wall under the critical