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Depreciation Depreciation

equipment or machine with time

Depreciation Depreciation

• Tax allowance

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Depreciation Depreciation

• Cost of operation • Cost of operation

• Money source for plant replacement

Depreciation Depreciation

• Tax allowance

• Cost of operation

• Money source for plant replacement

• Decreasing value of asset

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Depreciation Depreciation

• Functional Depreciation

Depreciation Depreciation

life

• Functional Depreciation

• Accidental Depreciation

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Depreciation Depreciation

Market Value

Depreciation Depreciation

Market Value Market Value

Present Value / Current Value: Present Value / Current Value:

Book Value :

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Depreciation Depreciation

Salvage value / Scrap Value

• Physical Plant Life

Market Value

Present Value / Current Value:

Book Value :

Replacement Value :

Depreciation Depreciation

• Technological Plant Life • Technological Plant Life

• Product Market Plant life

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1. Straight line 1. Straight line

Let P : Initial cost of equipment

S : Salvage value of equipment

n : Estimated service life of equipment

q p

Dt : Depreciation in any one year

Bt : Book value of equipment after time t years

1. Straight line 1. Straight line

Let P : Initial cost of equipment

Value of equipment decrease at

S : Salvage value of equipment

constant rate

n : Estimated service life of equipment

q p

Dt : Depreciation in any one year

Bt : Book value of equipment after time t years

Dt =

(P − S )

n

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3/11/2014

Methods to calculate Depreciation Q : Consider process equipment of initial cost 80000 Rs,

estimated salvage value of the equipment is 8000 Rs at

1. Straight line the end of total service life of 10 years, calculate the

book value of equipment at end of every year using

Let P : Initial cost of equipment

straight line method for depreciation

S : Salvage value of equipment

n : Estimated service life of equipment

q p

Dt : Depreciation in any one year

Bt : Book value of equipment after time t years

Dt =

(P − S ) ⎛P−S ⎞

Bt = P − tDt = P − t ⎜ ⎟

n ⎝ n ⎠

Q : Consider process equipment of initial cost 80000 Rs, Q : Consider process equipment of initial cost 80000 Rs,

estimated salvage value of the equipment is 8000 Rs at estimated salvage value of the equipment is 8000 Rs at

the end of total service life of 10 years, calculate the the end of total service life of 10 years, calculate the

book value of equipment at end of every year using book value of equipment at end of every year using

straight line method for depreciation straight line method for depreciation

No of years Depreciation Value (Rs) Book Value (Rs)

P = 80000 Rs 0 0 80000

S = 8000 Rs 1 7200 72800

2 7200 65600

n = 10 years 3 7200 58400

4 7200 51200

Dt = 7200 Rs 5 7200 44000

6 7200 36800

Dt =

(P − S ) ⎛P−S ⎞

Bt = P − tDt = P − t ⎜ ⎟

7

8

7200

7200

29600

22400

n ⎝ n ⎠ 9

10

7200

7200

15200

8000

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1. Straight line 1. Straight line

2. Declining balance 2. Declining balance

Depreciation is calculated by using

fixed percentage on book value

1. Straight line 1. Straight line

2. Declining balance 2. Declining balance

Depreciation is calculated by using Depreciation is calculated by using

fixed percentage on book value fixed percentage on book value

Higher depreciation at start Higher depreciation at start

Does not allow zero value at end

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2. Declining balance 2. Declining balance

Let P : Initial cost of equipment D1 = RP

R : Fixed percentage charge as depreciation

S : Salvage value of equipment

n : Estimated service life of equipment

Dt : Depreciation in any one year

Bt : Book value of equipment after time t years

2. Declining balance 2. Declining balance

D1 = RP D1 = RP

B1 = P − D1 = P − RP = P(1 − R ) B1 = P − D1 = P − RP = P(1 − R )

D2 = RB1 = RP(1 − R )

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2. Declining balance 2. Declining balance

D1 = RP D1 = RP

B1 = P − D1 = P − RP = P(1 − R ) B1 = P − D1 = P − RP = P(1 − R )

D2 = RB1 = RP(1 − R ) D2 = RB1 = RP(1 − R )

B2 = B1 − D2 = P(1 − R ) − RP(1 − R ) = P(1 − R ) B2 = B1 − D2 = P(1 − R ) − RP(1 − R ) = P(1 − R )

2 2

D3 = RB2 = RP(1 − R )

2

2. Declining balance 2. Declining balance

D1 = RP D1 = RP

B1 = P − D1 = P − RP = P(1 − R ) B1 = P − D1 = P − RP = P(1 − R )

D2 = RB1 = RP(1 − R ) D2 = RB1 = RP(1 − R )

B2 = B1 − D2 = P(1 − R ) − RP(1 − R ) = P(1 − R ) B2 = B1 − D2 = P(1 − R ) − RP(1 − R ) = P(1 − R )

2 2

2 2

2 2 3 2 2 3

Dt = RP(1 − R )

t −1

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2. Declining balance 2. Declining balance

D1 = RP D1 = RP

B1 = P − D1 = P − RP = P(1 − R ) B1 = P − D1 = P − RP = P(1 − R )

D2 = RB1 = RP(1 − R ) D2 = RB1 = RP(1 − R )

B2 = B1 − D2 = P(1 − R ) − RP(1 − R ) = P(1 − R ) B2 = B1 − D2 = P(1 − R ) − RP(1 − R ) = P(1 − R )

2 2

2 2

2 2 3 2 2 3

Dt = RP(1 − R ) Dt = RP(1 − R )

t −1 t −1

⎡ ⎛ S ⎞1 n ⎤

Bt = P(1 − R ) Bt = P(1 − R ) R = ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

t t

⎣⎢ ⎝ P ⎠ ⎦⎥

Q : Consider process equipment of initial cost 80000 Rs, Q : Consider process equipment of initial cost 80000 Rs,

estimated salvage value of the equipment is 8000 Rs at estimated salvage value of the equipment is 8000 Rs at

the end of total service life of 10 years, calculate the the end of total service life of 10 years, calculate the

book value of equipment at end of every year using book value of equipment at end of every year using

Declining balance method for depreciation Declining balance method for depreciation

P = 80000 Rs

S = 8000 Rs

n = 10 years

⎡ ⎛ S ⎞1 n ⎤

R = ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

⎢⎣ ⎝ P ⎠ ⎥⎦

Dt = RP(1 − R )

t −1

Bt = P(1 − R )

t

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3/11/2014

Q : Consider process equipment of initial cost 80000 Rs, Q : Consider process equipment of initial cost 80000 Rs,

estimated salvage value of the equipment is 8000 Rs at estimated salvage value of the equipment is 8000 Rs at

the end of total service life of 10 years, calculate the the end of total service life of 10 years, calculate the

book value of equipment at end of every year using book value of equipment at end of every year using

Declining balance method for depreciation Declining balance method for depreciation

No of years Depreciation Value (Rs) Book Value (Rs)

0 0.00 80000.00

P = 80000 Rs 1 164 3 4

16453.74 63 46 26

63546.26

2 13069.67 50476.59

S = 8000 Rs 3 10381.61 40094.98

n = 10 years 4 8246.41 31848.57

5 6550.35 25298.22

R = 0.2057 6 5203.13 20095.09

⎡ ⎛ S ⎞1 n ⎤

R = ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

7 4132.99 15962.10

⎣⎢ ⎝ P ⎠ ⎦⎥

8 3282.95 12679.15

Dt = RP(1 − R )

t −1

Bt = P(1 − R )

t 9 2607.74 10071.40

10 2071.40 8000.00

1. Straight line 1. Straight line

2. Declining balance 2. Declining balance

3. Double Declining balance 3. Double Declining balance

Rate of depreciation is exactly double

the rate in straight line method

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Methods to calculate Depreciation

3. Double Declining balance

1. Straight line

2. Declining balance

3. Double Declining balance

Rate of depreciation is exactly double

the rate in straight line method

Other characteristic is similar to

declining balance method

3. Double Declining balance 3. Double Declining balance

Dt =

(P − S ) Dt =

(P − S )

n n 1

Rate R =

n

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3. Double Declining balance 3. Double Declining balance

Dt =

(P − S ) Dt =

(P − S )

⎡ ⎛ S ⎞1 n ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ S ⎞1 n ⎤

n R = ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ n R = ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

1 1

Rate R = ⎣⎢ ⎝ P ⎠ ⎦⎥ Rate R = ⎣⎢ ⎝ P ⎠ ⎦⎥

n n

P = 80000 Rs

S = 8000 Rs

n = 10 years

3. Double Declining balance 3. Double Declining balance

Dt =

(P − S ) Dt =

(P − S )

⎡ ⎛ S ⎞1 n ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ S ⎞1 n ⎤

n R = ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ n R = ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

1 1

Rate R = ⎣⎢ ⎝ P ⎠ ⎦⎥ Rate R = ⎣⎢ ⎝ P ⎠ ⎦⎥

n n

P = 80000 Rs P = 80000 Rs

S = 8000 Rs S = 8000 Rs

n = 10 years n = 10 years

R = 0.1 R = 0.2057 R = 0.1 R = 0.2057

R~ 2*(1/n)

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3. Double Declining balance 3. Double Declining balance

Dt =

(P − S ) R = 2*(1/n)

⎡ ⎛ S ⎞1 n ⎤

n R = ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

1

⎣⎢ ⎝ P ⎠ ⎦⎥ Dt = RP(1 − R ) Bt = P(1 − R )

t −1

Rate R = t

n

P = 80000 Rs

S = 8000 Rs

n = 10 years

R = 0.1 R = 0.2057

R~ 2*(1/n)

R = 2*(1/n)

Q : Consider process equipment of initial cost 80000 Rs, Q : Consider process equipment of initial cost 80000 Rs,

with total service life of 10 years, calculate the book with total service life of 10 years, calculate the book

value of equipment at end of every year using Double value of equipment at end of every year using Double

Declining balance method for depreciation Declining balance method for depreciation

P = 80000 Rs

n = 10 years

⎛1⎞

R = 2*⎜ ⎟

⎝n⎠

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Q : Consider process equipment of initial cost 80000 Rs, Q : Consider process equipment of initial cost 80000 Rs,

with total service life of 10 years, calculate the book with total service life of 10 years, calculate the book

value of equipment at end of every year using Double value of equipment at end of every year using Double

Declining balance method for depreciation Declining balance method for depreciation

0 0.00 80000.00

P = 80000 Rs 1 16000.00 64000.00

n = 10 years 2 12800 00

12800.00 51200 00

51200.00

3 10240.00 40960.00

R = 0.2 4 8192.00 32768.00

5 6553.60 26214.40

6 5242.88 20971.52

⎛1⎞ 7 4194.30 16777.22

R = 2*⎜ ⎟ 8 3355.44 13421.77

⎝n⎠ 9 2684.35 10737.42

Dt = RP(1 − R ) Bt = P(1 − R )

t −1 t 10 2147.48 8589.93

1. Straight line 4. Sum of years digits

2. Declining balance Depreciation is proportional to years

3. Double Declining balance of life left for the equipment

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4. Sum of years digits 4. Sum of

n

years digits

Let P : Initial cost of equipment ∑n

i =1

n

S : Salvage value of equipment

n : Estimated service life of equipment

∑ n = 1 + 2 + 3..... + (n − 1) + n

i=1

Bt : Book value of equipment after time t years n

∑D

i =1

i

4. Sum of

n

years digits 4. Sum of

n

years digits

∑n

i =1

∑n

i =1

n n

∑ n = 1 + 2 + 3..... + (n − 1) + n

i=1

∑ n = 1 + 2 + 3..... + (n − 1) + n

i=1

n

n(n + 1) n

n(n + 1)

∑ n = 1 + 2 + 3..... + (n − 1) + n = ∑ n = 1 + 2 + 3..... + (n − 1) + n =

i =1 2 i =1 2

n

∑D i Dt =

(n − t + 1) (P − S )

i =1 ⎡ n(n + 1) ⎤

⎢⎣ 2 ⎥⎦

n

∑ D = (P − S )

i =1

i

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Methods to calculate Depreciation Q : Consider process equipment of initial cost 80000 Rs,

estimated salvage value of the equipment is 8000 Rs at

4. Sum of

n

years digits the end of total service life of 10 years, calculate the

book value of equipment at end of every year using sum

∑n

i =1

of the year method for depreciation

n

∑ n = 1 + 2 + 3..... + (n − 1) + n

i=1

n

n(n + 1)

∑ n = 1 + 2 + 3..... + (n − 1) + n =

i =1 2

(n − t + 1) (P − S ) ⎛ n − t ⎞⎛ n − t + 1 ⎞

Dt = Bt = (P − S )⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+S

⎡ n(n + 1) ⎤ ⎝ n ⎠⎝ n + 1 ⎠

⎢⎣ 2 ⎥⎦

Q : Consider process equipment of initial cost 80000 Rs, Q : Consider process equipment of initial cost 80000 Rs,

estimated salvage value of the equipment is 8000 Rs at estimated salvage value of the equipment is 8000 Rs at

the end of total service life of 10 years, calculate the the end of total service life of 10 years, calculate the

book value of equipment at end of every year using sum book value of equipment at end of every year using sum

of the year method for depreciation of the year method for depreciation

No of years Depreciation Value (Rs) Book Value (Rs)

P = 80000 Rs 0 0.00 80000.00

S = 8000 Rs 1 13090 91

13090.91 66909 09

66909.09

2 11781.82 55127.27

n = 10 years 3 10472.73 44654.55

4 9163.64 35490.91

P-S = 72000 Rs 5 7854.55 27636.36

6 6545.45 21090.91

7 5236.36 15854.55

8 3927.27 11927.27

9 2618.18 9309.09

10 1309.09 8000.00

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1. Straight line 5. Shrinking fund

2. Declining balance Equal installment is deposited into

3. Double Declining balance shrinking fund as a depreciation

charges during

d ring service

ser ice life of

4. Sum of years digits equipment, which is compounded

5. Shrinking fund annually at given rate. The

accumulated amount is total

depreciation for the year

Methods to calculate Depreciation Q : Consider process equipment of initial cost 80000 Rs,

estimated salvage value of the equipment is 8000 Rs at

5. Shrinking fund the end of total service life of 10 years, calculate the

book value of equipment at end of every year using

shrinking fund method for depreciation

⎡ (1 + i )n − 1 ⎤

(P − S ) = A⎢ ⎥

⎣ i ⎦

⎡ ⎤

A = (P − S )⎢

i

⎥

⎣ (1 + i ) − 1 ⎦

n

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Q : Consider process equipment of initial cost 80000 Rs, Q : Consider process equipment of initial cost 80000 Rs,

estimated salvage value of the equipment is 8000 Rs at estimated salvage value of the equipment is 8000 Rs at

the end of total service life of 10 years, calculate the the end of total service life of 10 years, calculate the

book value of equipment at end of every year using book value of equipment at end of every year using

shrinking fund method for depreciation with interest shrinking fund method for depreciation with interest

rate 10 % compounded yearly rate 10 % No of years Depreciation Value (Rs) Book Value (Rs)

0 0.00 80000.00

P = 80000 Rs 1 4517.67 75482.33

2 4969.44 70512.90

S = 8000 Rs

3 5466.38 65046.52

n = 10 years 4 6013.02 59033.50

5 6614.32 52419.18

P-S = 72000 Rs 6 7275.75 45143.43

7 8003.33 37140.11

8 8803.66 28336.45

9 9684.02 18652.43

10 10652.43 8000.00

18000 90000

16000 80000

14000 70000

12000 60000

M1D M1B

10000 50000

M2D M2B

M3D M3B

8000 40000

M4D M4B

M5D M5B

6000 30000

4000 20000

2000 10000

0 0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

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Depreciation Depreciation

No of years Depreciation Value (Rs) Book Value (Rs) Consider process equipment of initial cost 80000 Rs,

0 0.00 80000.00 estimated salvage value of the equipment is 8000 Rs

1 4517.67 75482.33 at the end of total service life of 10 years, calculate the

2 4969.44 70512.90

3 5466.38 65046.52

book value of equipment at end of every year using

4 6013.02 59033.50

5 6614.32 52419.18 Calculate the present value of tax saving for all

6 7275.75 45143.43 methods as solved with rate of tax interest 35%

7 8003.33 37140.11

8 8803.66 28336.45

9 9684.02 18652.43

10 10652.43 8000.00

operation is Rs 280000000. The cash flow of two plants are as

shown below. Compare the two plants is the money worth is 8%

and 18 % per year which plant should be selected for operation

1 67500000 115000000

2 117800000 122500000

3 125000000 127500000

4 149000000 122500000

5 142500000 126500000

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2. Pay back period

3. Net return

• Net present worth

Np :Annual net profit

Return of the investment T : Total capital investment

Np :Annual net profit

T : Total capital investment

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Np :Annual net profit Np :Annual net profit

T : Total capital investment T : Total capital investment

(1) (1)

(2) (2)

(3)

Np :Annual net profit Np :Annual net profit

T : Total capital investment T : Total capital investment

(1) (1)

(2) (2)

(3) (3)

mar is maximum acceptable return

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Ax : Nonmanufacturing fixed capital

Pay back period investment

Aj : Annual cash flow

Np :Annual net profit (4)

Ax : Nonmanufacturing fixed capital investment

Aj : Annual cash flow

Ax : Nonmanufacturing fixed capital Ax : Nonmanufacturing fixed capital

investment investment

Aj : Annual cash flow Aj : Annual cash flow

Np :Annual net profit (4) Np :Annual net profit (4)

(5) (5)

(A )

j avg = N p ,avg + d j ,avg (6)

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Ax : Nonmanufacturing fixed capital Ax : Nonmanufacturing fixed capital

investment investment

Aj : Annual cash flow Aj : Annual cash flow

Np :Annual net profit (4) Np :Annual net profit (4)

(5) (5)

(A )

j avg = N p ,avg + d j ,avg = (6) (A )

j avg = N p ,avg + d j ,avg = (6)

(7)

dj : Depreciation per year Sj : Total sales per year

recj : Amount recovered Coj : Cost of operation per year

NPW

(7)

(8)

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manufacturing fixed capital investment 1500000 Rs,

non manufacturing fixed capital investment 150000 Rs,

land cost 225000 Rs same land cost can be recovered at

the end of the service life. The scrap value of the plant is

around 165000 Rs, annual income is 850000 Rs with

annual operating cost 212500 Rs. If income tax rate is

35% and calculate the pay back period total cash flow of

the plant considering compound interest rate of 10 %

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Codes available

Process design involves

•Type of heat exchanger •IS-4503

•Shell, Diameter and passes •BS-3274

Tube, size, number and passes

•Tube, •Standers of tubular exchanger

g

•Terminal temperature manufactures association (TMEA)

•Modes of flow

•Location of fluid stream

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•Co-current •Fixed tube sheet

•Counter current •Outside packed floating head

•Single cross flow •Internal floating head

•Multiple cross flow •U tube type

•Reboiler

Design temperature

temperature

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Diameter

tubes

tube sheet

Length to diameter

4:1 to 8:1 for liquids

even less then 4:1 for gases

Calculating tube sheet and shell diameter Calculating tube sheet and shell diameter

a1 = ST2 a1 = ST2

ST = pitch length an = nST2

n = number

b off ttubes

b

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Calculating tube sheet and shell diameter Calculating tube sheet and shell diameter

a1 = ST2 a1 = ST2

an = nST2 an = nST2

nST2

an =

β

Factor β is used to provide for the pass partitions, Factor β is used to provide for the pass partitions,

tie rods, and for other area compensation tie rods, and for other area compensation

β = 0.8 – 1 Single tube side pass β = 0.8 – 1 Single tube side pass

β = 0.7 – 0.85 Double tube side pass β = 0.7 – 0.85 Double tube side pass

β = 0.6 – 0.8 multiple tube side pass β = 0.6 – 0.8 multiple tube side pass

Calculating tube sheet and shell diameter Calculating tube sheet and shell diameter

3 2

a1 = ST

2

ST = pitch length

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Calculating tube sheet and shell diameter Calculating tube sheet and shell diameter

3 2 3 2

a1 = ST a1 = ST

2 2

3 2 3 2

an = n ST an = n ST

2 2

n = number

b off ttubes

b

tie rods, and for other area compensation

β = 0.8 – 1 Single tube side pass

β = 0.7 – 0.85 Double tube side pass

β = 0.6 – 0.8 Single tube side pass

Calculating tube sheet and shell diameter Calculating tube sheet and shell diameter

3 2 3 2

a1 = ST a1 = ST

2 2

3 2 3 2

an = n ST an = n ST

2 2

n 3ST2 n 3ST2 n0.866 ST2

an = an = =

2β 2β β

Factor β is used to provide for the pass partitions, Factor β is used to provide for the pass partitions,

tie rods, and for other area compensation tie rods, and for other area compensation

β = 0.8 – 1 Single tube side pass β = 0.8 – 1 Single tube side pass

β = 0.7 – 0.85 Double tube side pass β = 0.7 – 0.85 Double tube side pass

β = 0.6 – 0.8 Single tube side pass β = 0.6 – 0.8 Single tube side pass

5

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∏ 2

D = an Calculating thickness

4

All design equation of pressure vessels

4an

D=

∏

Minimum Shell Thickness

Optimum Baffle cuts : 20 - 25 %

Baffle spacing : 0.2 to 1.0 shell diameters,

Optimum spacing : 0.3 to 0.5 shell diameter.

Baffle thickness : in order of magnitude of shell thickness

Minimum no of tie rods : 4 Or any higher even numbers

Diameter of tie rod in order of magnitude of shell thickness

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Shell Shell

•Head •Head

•Nozzle •Nozzle

•Flange •Flange

G k t

•Gasket G k t

•Gasket

Tubes Tubes

With fins : 1.5 mm, 7-8 per cm Thickness : 1 mm – 3 mm

Duplex tube Length : 0.5, 1,1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6 m , so on

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Thickness of tube

Tube sheet

Shouldered, blazed

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Shell side and tube side passes

Shell side

•Single pass

•Single split

D bl

•Double

•Double split

Tube side

Single, two, four, six, eight, ten, twelve

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following give data discuss its total design

Design following parameter for given

shell and tube heat exchanger

•Shell diameter

•Shell thickness

•Nozzles thickness

•Head or channel thickness

•Flange, nuts gasket sizing

•Tube thickness

•Tube sheet thickness

Calculating tube sheet and shell diameter Calculating tube sheet and shell diameter

a1 = ST2

an = nST2

nST2

an =

β

tie rods, and for other area compensation

β = 0.8 – 1 Single tube side pass

β = 0.7 – 0.85 Double tube side pass

β = 0.6 – 0.8 multiple tube side pass

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Calculating tube sheet and shell diameter Calculating tube sheet and shell diameter

2

∏ 2

nS ∏ 2

nST2

D = an an = T

D = an an =

4 β 4 β

4an β = 0.7 4an β = 0.7

D= D=

∏ ∏

ST 25 mm

n 54

passes 2

β 0.7

D : tube sheet and shell diameter D : tube sheet and shell diameter

2

∏ 2

nS

D = an an = T

β Calculating thickness

4

All design equation of pressure vessels

4an β = 0.7

D=

∏

D = 350.58 mm

D = 400 mm

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Shell Shell

All design equation of pressure vessels All design equation of pressure vessels

p 0.5 N/mm2

Dsi 400 mm

f 95 N/mm2 t = 4.24 mm

j 0.85

c 3 mm

Shell Shell

Minimum Shell Thickness

Calculating thickness

All design equation of pressure vessels

t = 6.3+3 mm

t = 9.3 mm = 10 mm

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Thickness of nozzle

p 0.5 N/mm2

Dni 75 mm

F 95 N/mm2

j 0.85 t = 3.23 mm

c 3 mm

t = 4 mm

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Torispherical Head

Nozzle (inlet and outlet)

Diameter of nozzle

Thickness of nozzle

Nozzle reinforcement

p 0.5 N/mm2

Rc 400 mm

f 95 N/mm2

j 0.85

c 3 mm

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R1= 24 mm R1= 50 mm

R1= 50 mm W= 1.45

R1= 50 mm R1= 50 mm

W= 1.45 W= 1.45

th = 4.8 mm = 5 mm th = 4.8 mm = 5 mm

th = 10 mm = ts

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Optimum Baffle cuts : 20 - 25 % Baffle spacing : 0.2 shell diameters,

Baffle spacing : 0.2 to 1.0 shell diameters, Baffle thickness : in order of magnitude of shell thickness

Optimum spacing : 0.3 to 0.5 shell diameter. Minimum no of tie rods : 4 Or any higher even numbers

Baffle thickness : in order of magnitude of shell thickness Diameter of tie rod in order of magnitude of shell thickness

Minimum no of tie rods : 4 Or any higher even numbers

Diameter of tie rod in order of magnitude of shell thickness

Baffle cuts or flow space = 25 % Baffle cuts or flow space = 25 %

Baffle length = 0.75 X shell diameter (400 mm) Baffle length = 0.75 X shell diameter (400 mm)

Baffle length = 300 mm

Baffle spacing = 0.2 shell diameters (400 mm) Baffle spacing = 0.2 shell diameters (400 mm)

Baffle spacing = 80 mm

Baffle thickness : in order of magnitude of shell thickness Baffle thickness : in order of magnitude of shell thickness

Baffle thickness = 10 mm

Minimum no of tie rods : 4 Or any higher even numbers Minimum no of tie rods : 4 Or any higher even numbers

No of tie rods = 6

Diameter of tie rod in order of magnitude of shell thickness Diameter of tie rod in order of magnitude of shell thickness

Diameter of tie rod = 10 mm

19

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Thickness of tube

Do 18 mm Do 18 mm

j 1 j 1

tf = 2 mm

20

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F 1.25

p 21.5 N/mm2

f 100.6 N/mm2

21

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F 1.25 F 1.25

G 428 mm G 428 mm

p 21.5 N/mm2 p 21.5 N/mm2

f 100.6 N/mm2 f 100.6 N/mm2

t = 123.66 mm = 125 mm

22

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23

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Flange, nuts and gasket

•Residence time required for given HT

Assignment with following data

Shell side :

MOC – carbon steel (c = 3mm)

Design and solve two numerical discussing Design pressure – 2 N/mm2

detail design of tube side:

MOC – Stainless steel

Gasket Design pressure – 35 N/mm2

Flange N Of tube

No. t b : 146

Outside diameter – 25 mm

Nuts and bolts Pitch – 35 mm

All types of head for given shell and tube Permissible stress for carbon steel – 95 N/mm2

Permissible stress for stainless steel – 100.6 N/mm2

heat exchanger Discus the detail design of Shell, tubes, tube sheet, baffles and

Support for shell and tube heat exchanger tie rods for both square and triangular pitch.

24

3/11/2014

with following data

Shell side :

MOC – carbon steel (c = 3mm)

Design pressure – 2 N/mm2

tube side:

MOC – Stainless steel

Design pressure – 35 N/mm2

N Of tube

No. t b : 146

Outside diameter – 25 mm

Pitch – 35 mm

Permissible stress for carbon steel – 95 N/mm2

Permissible stress for stainless steel – 100.6 N/mm2

Discus the detail design of Shell, tubes, tube sheet, baffles and

tie rods for both square and triangular pitch.

For calculation take rough guess for mean gasket diameter =

1.07 outside shell diameter

Shell Shell

Diameter =533.66 mm = 600 mm Diameter =496.62 mm = 500 mm

Thickness = 13.52 mm = 14 mm Thickness = 12.27 mm = 13 mm

Baffle Baffle

Spacing = 120 mm, Length = 450 mm, Thickness = 14 mm Spacing = 100 mm, Length = 375 mm, Thickness = 13 mm

Tie rods

Ti d Tie rods

Ti d

No : 8, Diameter 14 mm No : 8, Diameter 13 mm

Tube Tube

Thickness = 3.7 mm = 4 mm Thickness = 3.7 mm = 4 mm

Thickness = 165.98 mm =166 mm Thickness = 198.17 mm =199 mm

25

3/11/2014

Evaporator Evaporator

Heating medium

Heating surface

Circ lation method

Circulation

26

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vertical Evaporator vertical Evaporator

¾25-75 mm tube D

vertical Evaporator vertical Evaporator

27

3/11/2014

¾25-75 mm tube D ¾25-75 mm tube D

¾750 – 2000 mm tube L ¾750 – 2000 mm tube L

¾Inside outside tubes

vertical Evaporator vertical Evaporator

¾25-75 mm tube D ¾25-75 mm tube D

¾750 – 2000 mm tube L ¾750 – 2000 mm tube L

¾Inside outside tubes ¾Inside outside tubes

¾Tube sheet ¾Tube sheet

¾Down take 40-100 %

tube A

vertical Evaporator vertical Evaporator

28

3/11/2014

¾1-6 m drum L

¾25-75 mm tube D

¾750 – 2000 mm tube L

¾Inside outside tubes

¾Tube sheet

¾Down take 40-100 %

tube A

¾B ffl

¾Baffles

vertical Evaporator

¾25-75 mm tube D ¾25-75 mm tube D

¾750 – 2000 mm tube L ¾750 – 2000 mm tube L

¾Inside outside tubes ¾Inside outside tubes

¾Tube sheet ¾Tube sheet

¾Down take 40-100 % ¾Down take 40-100 %

tube A tube A

¾B ffl

¾Baffles ¾B ffl

¾Baffles

¾Propeller at bottom ¾Propeller at bottom

¾Head dished conical

vertical Evaporator vertical Evaporator

29

3/11/2014

¾25-75 mm tube D ¾25-75 mm tube D

¾750 – 2000 mm tube L ¾750 – 2000 mm tube L

¾Inside outside tubes ¾Inside outside tubes

¾Tube sheet ¾Tube sheet

¾Down take 40-100 % ¾Down take 40-100 %

tube A tube A

¾B ffl

¾Baffles ¾B ffl

¾Baffles

¾Propeller at bottom ¾Propeller at bottom

¾Head dished conical ¾Head dished conical

¾Nozzles ¾Nozzles

¾support ¾support

Stander short tube Stander short tube ¾Drain, vent, manholes,

vertical Evaporator vertical Evaporator sight glass, level gauge

Condensate outlet

30

3/11/2014

Inlet, Control chamber Inlet, Control chamber

On start-up, incoming pressure raises the disc and Hot condensate flowing through the trap releases

cooled condensate, plus air, is immediately flash steam. High velocity creates a low pressure area

discharged . under the disc and draws it towards the seat.

31

3/11/2014

At the same time there is a

pressure build-up of flash

steam in the chamber above

the disc which forces it down

against the pressure of the

incoming condensate until it

seats on the inner ring and

closes the inlet. The disc also

seats on the outer ring and

traps pressure in the chamber.

Due to this alone the disc will never seat. However, steam can Pressure in the chamber is decreased by condensation of

flow round the edge of the disc resulting in a pressure build up

the flash steam and the disc is raised. The cycle is then

in the control chamber D

repeated .

Tube are suspended

on basket

32

3/11/2014

Easy to clean

External Calendria

Vertical Tube

Evaporators Long Tube Vertical Evaporators

33

3/11/2014

Multiple effect evaporator

34

3/11/2014

Drum size factor Drum size factor

Drum size factor

Rd = 0.3-0.5 for drum without entertainer

Rd = 0.9-1.3 for drum with entertainer (wire mesh)

35

3/11/2014

pressure or Internal Vacuum pressure or Internal Vacuum

Elastic bucking

Open End

pressure or Internal Vacuum

Elastic bucking

36

3/11/2014

Open End

Close End

37

3/11/2014

P ≤ Pc/4 P ≤ Pc/4

4 : ffactor

t off safety

f t 4 : ffactor

t off safety

f t

Cross check

PD

fc =

2t

Evaporator drum : operating under vacuum

maximum 500 mm Hg

Amount of water evaporated : 1750 kg/hr

Heat transfer area :140 m2

Steam pressure : 0.25 N/mm2

Density of Liquid : 1000 kg/m3

Drum Size factor : 0.4

Density of Vapor : 0.083 kg/m3

P ≤ Pc/4 Material of construction

4 : ffactor

t off safety

f t E

Evaporator

t :carbon

b steel

t l IS-2062

IS 2062

Corrosion allowance 1.5 mm

Tubes : brass (Square Pitch)

Cross check Permissible stress for carbon steel :98 N/mm2

PD Modulus of Elasticity

fc = Carbon steel : 19.0 X 104 N/mm2

2t Brass : 9.5 X 104 N/mm2

Poisson’s Ratio for both materials :0.3

Conical head at bottom and Top : cone angle 120°

fc = permissible stress value

38

3/11/2014

Calculate

Diameter of evaporator drum

Height of vapor space

Number and diameter of tube

Diameter and thickness of calendria

Thickness of evaporator tube and drum

Thickness of tube sheet

Home work

Detail designing of heads, flanges, gasket

Nuts and bolts

Stander short tube

vertical Evaporator

Drum size factor

Rd = 0.3-0.5 for drum without entertainer

Rd = 0.9-1.3 for drum with entertainer (wire mesh)

39

3/11/2014

P ≤ Pc/4

4 : ffactor

t off safety

f t

Cross check

PD

fc =

2t

Evaporator drum : operating under vacuum Calculate

Amount of water evaporated : 2500 kg/hr Diameter of evaporator drum

Heat transfer area :220 m2

Steam pressure : 0.15 N/mm2 Height of vapor space

Density of Liquid : 1000 kg/m3 Number and diameter of tube

Density of Vapor : 0.083 kg/m3 Diameter and thickness of calendria

Drum Size factor : 0.4

Material of construction

Thickness of evaporator tube and drum

E

Evaporator

t :carbon

b steel

t l IS-2062

IS 2062 Thickness of tube sheet

Corrosion allowance 1.5 mm

Tubes : brass (Triangular Pitch) Home work

Permissible stress for carbon steel :98 N/mm2

Modulus of Elasticity

Detail designing of heads, flanges, gasket

Carbon steel : 19.0 X 104 N/mm2 Nuts and bolts

Brass : 9.5 X 104 N/mm2

Poisson’s Ratio for both materials :0.3

Conical head at bottom and Top : cone angle 120°

40

3/11/2014

Drum size factor

Stander short tube Rd = 0.3-0.5 for drum without entertainer

vertical Evaporator Rd = 0.9-1.3 for drum with entertainer (wire mesh)

P ≤ Pc/4

4 : ffactor

t off safety

f t

Cross check

PD

fc =

2t

41

3/11/2014

42

3/11/2014

43

3/11/2014

following give data discuss its total design

44

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