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- Distillation Column Control Design
- Lab 2 - Introduction to Control System
- Dan Zhang, Bin Wei eds. Mechatronics and Robotics Engineering for Advanced and Intelligent Manufacturing.pdf
- Review Che
- Control Systems--The Last Basic Course, Pt II
- International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (IJITCA)
- International Journal of Information Technology, Control and Automation (IJITCA)
- Lab rubrics
- Introduction
- FCS Predictive Control
- SC_07th
- New Microsoft PowerPoint Presentation
- A New Coordinated Control Strategy for Boiler-Turbine System of Coal-Fired Power Plant
- An Advanced LFC Design Considering
- PID Presentaion
- Control System
- 157339644 Automation Process Control Ppt
- AC+2003Paper298
- Experimental Procedure and Observations
- Lecture 1

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Pablo Borbon Main II, Alangilan Batangas City

College of Engineering, Architecture & Fine Arts

www.batstate-u.edu.ph Tel. No. (043) 425-0139 loc. 118

ChE-529

Prelims Report

Arellano, Oliver E.

Dimaunahan, Arvin V.

Martirez, Andrade M.

Saballero, Jessica D.

Sarmiento, Rolando G. III

ChE- 5201

Instructor, ChE-529

Control Terminologies:

detail the action to be taken once an out-of-control situation is detected. A specific flowchart, that

leads the process engineer through the corrective procedure, may be provided for each unique

process.

are automated changes to the process that are programmed to correct for the size of the out-of-

control measurement.

Controlled Variables - These are the variables which quantify the performance or quality of the

final product, which are also called output variables.

Manipulated Variables - These input variables are adjusted dynamically to keep the controlled

variables at their set-points.

Disturbances - These are also called the “load” variables and represent inputs that can cause

the controlled variables to deviate from their respective set points.

Servo control - The set-point signal is changed and the manipulated variable is adjusted

appropriately to achieve the new operating conditions.

Regulatory control – The set-point is fixed at a constant value. When any disturbance enters

the system, the manipulated variable is adjusted to drive the controlled variable back to its fixed

set-point.

• Increased product throughput

• Increased yield of higher valued products

• Decreased energy consumption

• Decreased pollution

• Decreased off-spec product

• Increased Safety

• Extended life of equipment

• Improved Operability

• Decreased production labor

1. Safety

2. Protect Environment

3. Protect Equipment

4. Smooth operation

5. Product quality

6. Profit

7. Monitoring and diagnosis

Control is possible only if the engineer provides the required equipment during process design.

Piping and instrumentation (P&I) drawings provide documentation.

• The system is too complex to describe in text; hence, we must use standard symbols.

Control System

desired response.

When a number of elements are combined together to form a system to produce desired

output then the system is referred as control system. As this system controls the output, it

is so referred. Each element connected to the system has its own effect on the output.

A control system is a system of devices or set of devices, that manages, commands, directs

or regulates the behavior of other device(s) or system(s) to achieve desire results. In other

words the definition of control system can be rewritten as A control system is a system,

which controls other system. As the human civilization is being modernized day by day

the demand of automation is increasing accordingly. Automation highly requires control of

devices.

The main feature of control system is, there should be a clear mathematical relation

between input and output of the system. When the relation between input and output of the system

can be represented by a linear proportionality, the system is called linear control system. Again

when the relation between input and output cannot be represented by single linear proportionality,

rather the input and output are related by some non-linear relation, the system is referred as non-

linear control system.

Accuracy: Accuracy is the measurement tolerance of the instrument and defines the

limits of the errors made when the instrument is used in normal operating conditions.

Accuracy can be improved by using feedback elements. To increase accuracy of any

control system error detector should be present in control system.

Sensitivity: The parameters of control system are always changing with change in

surrounding conditions, internal disturbance or any other parameters. This change can be

expressed in terms of sensitivity. Any control system should be insensitive to such

parameters but sensitive to input signals only.

Noise: An undesired input signal is known as noise. A good control system should be able

to reduce the noise effect for better performance.

Stability: It is an important characteristic of control system. For the bounded input signal,

the output must be bounded and if input is zero then output must be zero then such a

control system is said to be stable system.

Bandwidth: An operating frequency range decides the bandwidth of control system.

Bandwidth should be large as possible for frequency response of good control system.

Speed: It is the time taken by control system to achieve its stable output. A good control

system possesses high speed. The transient period for such system is very small.

Oscillation: A small number of oscillation or constant oscillation of output tend to system

to be stable.

To understand the purpose of a control system, it is useful to examine examples of control

systems through the course of history.

To maintain a process at the desired operating conditions, safely and efficiently, while

satisfying environmental and product quality requirements.

Variables associated

with a Chemical

Process

(Denote the effect of (Denote the effect of

the surrounding on the process on the

the chemical process) surrounding)

Adjustable Variable Disturbances

Variables Variables

Measured Unmeasured

A. Input Variable

This variable shows the effect of the surroundings on the process. It normally refers to

those factors that influence the process.

An example of this would be the flow rate of the steam through a heat exchanger that

would change the amount of energy put into the process. There are effects of the

surrounding that are controllable and some that are not.

These are the variable in the surroundings can be control by an operator or the

control system in place.

The values of manipulated inputs can be adjusted freely by the human operator or

a control mechanism.

2. Disturbances

These are the input variable that can not be controlled by an operator or control

system.

There exist both measurable and immeasurable disturbances.

The values disturbances are not the result of adjustment by an operator or a control

system.

B. Output variable

Output variable also known as the control variable. These are the variables that are

process outputs that effect the surroundings.

The values of measured output variables are known by directly measuring them.

The values of unmeasured output variables are not or cannot be measured

directly.

The central element in any control configuration is the process that we want to control.

Question 1:

"What are the operational objectives that a control system is called to achieve?"

Examples:

Ensuring the stability of the process, or

Suppressing the influence of external disturbances, or

Optimizing the economic performance of a plant, or ' - combination of the above.

At the beginning the control objectives are 'defined qualitatively and subsequently they are

quantified, usually in terms of the output variables.

B. Select Measurements

Whatever are our control objectives, we need some means to monitor the

performance of the chemical process. This is done by measuring the values of certain

processing variables (temperatures, pressures, concentrations, flowrates, etc.).

Question 2:

"What variables should we measure in order to monitor the operational performance

of a plant?"

Once the control objectives have been specified and the various measurements identified,

the next question is how do we effect a change on the process, i.e.

Question 3:

"What are the manipulated variables to be used in order to control a chemical

process?"

D. Select the Control Configuration

After the control objectives, the possible measurements, and the available manipulated

variables have been identified, the final problem to be solved is that of defining the control

configuration.

A control configuration is the information structure which is used to connect the available

measurements to the available manipulated variables.

Question 4:

"What is the best control configuration for a given chemical process control situation?"

The answer to this question is very critical for the quality of the control system we are

asked to design.

Depending on how many controlled outputs and manipulated inputs we have in a chemical

process we can distinguish the control configurations into:

single-input, single-output (SISO) or

multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) control systems.

In every control configuration, the controller is the active element that receives the

information from the measurements and takes appropriate control actions to adjust the

values of the manipulated variables. For the design of the controller we must answer the

following question:

Question 5:

"How is the information taken from the measurements - used to adjust the values of the

manipulated variables?"

The primary requirement of a control system is that it be reasonably stable. In other words,

its speed of response must be fairly fast, and this response must show reasonable damping. A

control system must also be able to reduce the system error to zero or to a value near zero.

1. Safety. Industrial plants must operate safely so as to promote the well-being of people and

equipment. Thus, plant safety is always the most important control objective.

concerning the discharge of gases, liquids, and solids beyond the plant boundaries.

3. Product Specifications and Production Rate. In order to be profitable, a plant must make

products that meet specifications concerning product quality and production rate.

4. Economic Plant Operation. It is an economic reality that the plant operation over long periods

of time must be profitable.

5. Stable Plant Operation. The control system should facilitate smooth, stable plant operation

without excessive oscillation in key process variables. Thus, it is desirable to have smooth, rapid

set-point changes and rapid recovery from plant disturbances.

System error

The system error is the difference between the value of the controlled variable set point

and the value of the process variable maintained by the system.

System Response

The main purpose of a control loop is to maintain some dynamic process variable

(pressure, flow, temperature, level, etc.) at a prescribed operating point or set point.

System response is the ability of a control loop to recover from a disturbance that causes

a change in the controlled process variable.

There are two general types of good response: underdamped (cyclic response) and

damped. (Figure 1) shows an underdamped or cyclic response of a system in which the process

variable oscillates around the set point after a process disturbance. The wavy response line

shown in the figure represents an acceptable response if the process disturbance or change in

set point was large, but it would not be an acceptable response if the change from the set point

was small.

(Figure 2) shows a damped response where the control system is able to bring the process

variable back to the operating point with no oscillations.

TRANSFORMS OF ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS

Laplace Transform

If f(t) is a function defined for all t ≥ 0, its Laplace transform is the integral of f(t) time

e-st from = 0 to ∞. It is a function of s, say, F(s), and is denoted by L(f): thus

∞

𝐹(𝑠) = 𝐿(𝑓) = ∫ 𝑒 −𝑠𝑡 𝑓(𝑡)𝑑𝑡

0

The Laplace transform is a liner operation: that is, for any function f(t) and g(t) whose

transforms exist and any constants a and b the transform of af(t) + bg(t) exists, and

Examples:

1. t2 – 2t

2. cos 2t

3. e-t sinh 5t

4. e2t cosh t

5. 3.8t e2.4t

The transforms of the first and second derivatives of f(t) satisfy:

Equation (1) can be proven under the additional assumption that f‘ is continuous, the by

the definition ad integration by parts.

The proof of equation (2) follows by applying (1) to f’’ and the substituting (1), that is

Examples:

1. sin bt

2. t cos 5t

3. cos2πt

1

4. cosh2 2 𝑡

For a function F(s), the inverse Laplace transform ℒ-1{F(s)}, if it exists, is unique in the

sense that we allow a difference of function values on a set that is negligible in integrals.

For example, since we have ℒ-1{1} = s−1 , by the theorem, we know that ℒ-1{s −1} = 1 and

that the 1 on the right hand side of this equality is a representative of all the functions that has the

Laplace transform being s −1 , which are equal to f(t) = 1 except on negligible sets.

Also, if we are given a function F(s) that is defined on (a, ∞) for some a, and we want to

find a function f(t) on [0, ∞) such that ℒ {f (t)} = F(s).

Even if it is possible, there may be many such functions f (t).

But only one of them will be “differentiable”. We call it the inverse Laplace transform of

F(s), denoted by f (t) = ℒ-1{F(s)}.

1. ℒ -1 {c f(s)}= c ℒ -1 {f(s)}

2. [{c1f1 (s) +c2f2 (s)}= c1 ℒ -1 {f1(s)}+ c2 ℒ -1 {f2(s)}

3. ℒ -1{1/s} =1 or ℒ -1{c/s}= c

𝑛!

4. ℒ -1 {𝑠𝑛+1}= tn

1

5. ℒ -1{𝑠+𝑎}= e-at

𝑠

6. ℒ -1{𝑠2 +𝑘 2 }= cos kt

𝑘

7. ℒ -1{𝑠2 +𝑘 2 }= sinkt

𝑠

8. ℒ -1{𝑠2 −𝑘 2 }= coshkt

𝑘

9. ℒ -1{ }= sinhkt

𝑠2 −𝑘 2

𝑠−𝑘

10. ℒ -1{ (𝑠−𝑘)2 +𝑤 2} = ekt cos wt

𝑤

11. ℒ -1{ (𝑠−𝑘)2 +𝑤 2} = ekt sin wt

Sample Problems

1

1. ℒ -1{ 2 }

𝑠 −2𝑠+10

Solution:

1 1 1

ℒ -1{𝑠2 −2𝑠+10} = ℒ -1{(𝑠2 +2𝑠+1)+(10−1)} = ℒ -1{(𝑠+1)2+9}

1

f{s} = {(𝑠+1)2 +9}

1 3 1 3

ℒ -1 f{s} = 3 ℒ -1(𝑠+1)2 +32 = = 3 e−t ℒ -1𝑠2 +32

1

ℒ -1 f{s} = = 3 e−t sin 3t

3𝑠

2. ℒ -1{𝑠2 +4𝑠+13}

Solution:

3𝑠 3𝑠 3𝑠

ℒ -1{𝑠2 +4𝑠+13} = ℒ -1{(𝑠2 +4𝑠+4)+(13−4)} = ℒ -1{(𝑠+2)2 +9}

3𝑠

f{s} = { }

(𝑠+2)2 +9

(𝑠+2)−2

ℒ -1 f{s} = 3ℒ -1 {(𝑠+2)2 +9}

(𝑠+2) 2

ℒ -1 f{s} = 3ℒ -1 { } - ℒ -1 {(𝑠+2)2 +9}

(𝑠+2)2 +9

(𝑠+2) 2 3

ℒ -1 f{s} = -1

3ℒ {(𝑠+2)2 +9} - 3ℒ -1 {(𝑠+2)2 +9}

2

ℒ -1 f{s} = = 3e−2t cos 3t - 3 e−2t sin 3t

18𝑠−12

3. ℒ -1{ 9𝑠2 −1 }

Solution:

1 4

18𝑠−12 {18𝑠−12}{ ) 2𝑠−

9 3

ℒ -1{ 9𝑠2 −1 } = ℒ -1 1 = ℒ -1 { 1 }

{9𝑠2 −1}{ ) 𝑠2 −

9 9

4

2𝑠−

3

f{s} ={ 1 }

𝑠2 −

9

4 1

2𝑠 3 𝑠 3

ℒ -1 1 - ℒ

-1

1 = 2 ℒ -1 1 - 4 ℒ -1 1

𝑠2 − 𝑠2 − 𝑠2 −( )2 𝑠2 −( )2

9 9 3 3

1 1

ℒ -1 f{s} = 2 cosh t - 4 sinh t

3 3

𝑠+3

4. ℒ -1{𝑠2 −𝑠−2}

Solution:

𝑠+3 𝑠+3

ℒ -1{𝑠2 −𝑠−2}= ℒ -1 {(𝑠−2)(𝑠+1)}

𝑠+3

f{s} ={(𝑠−2)(𝑠+1)}

𝑠+3 𝐴 𝐵

(𝑠−2)(𝑠+1)

= (𝑠−2) + (𝑠+1)

@ s = -1 @s=2

s+3=B(s-2) s+3=A(s+1)

−2 5

B= A=

3 3

5 -1 1 2 1

3

ℒ {𝑠−2} - 3 ℒ -1{𝑠+1}

5 2

ℒ -1 f{s} = 3 e2t - 3 e−t

The first step is to take the Laplace transform of both sides of the original differential equation:

Hence, we have

fractions:

Recall the inverse transforms:

Examples

1. y’ + 4y = 0; y(0) = 2.8

Solution:

y’ + 4y = 0

Ly’ + 4Ly = L0

sY + 4Y = y(0)

Y (s + 4) =2.8

𝐿−1 2.8

𝐿−1 Y =

s+4

y (t) = 2.8 e-4t

Solution:

s2Y – sy(0) – y’(0) – sY + y(0) – 6Y = 0

s2Y – 6s– 13 – sY + 6 – 6Y = 0

s2Y – sY– 6Y – 6s – 7 = 0

Y(s2 – s – 6) – 6s – 7 = 0

Y(s2 – s – 6) = 6s + 7

6𝑠 + 7

𝑌= 2

s – s– 6

−1

𝐿−1 6𝑠 + 7

𝐿 𝑌=

(s − 3)(s + 2)

6𝑠 + 7 𝐴 𝐵

𝐿−1 𝑌 = = +

(s − 3)(s + 2) (s − 3) (s + 2)

@ s = -2

-5 = A(0) + B(-5)

B=1

@s=3

25 = A(5) + B(0)

A=5

5 1

𝑌= +

(s − 3) (s + 2)

1 1

𝐿−1 𝑌 = 5 𝐿−1 + 𝐿−1

(s − 3) (s + 2)

DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS

Components of a system are represented by idealized elements that have the essential

characteristics of the real components and whose behavior can be described by the

mathematical equations.

Variables: quantities which may take on different values at any time, either in the design

analysis or in actual operation of the design.

Parameters: assume different values only during the design analysis.

Models describe our beliefs about how the world functions. In mathematical

modelling, we translate those beliefs into the language of mathematics. This has many

advantages

identify underlying assumptions.

2. Mathematics is a concise language, with well-defined rules for manipulations.

3. All the results that mathematicians have proved over hundreds of years are at our

disposal.

4. Computers can be used to perform numerical calculations.

All models are abstractions of real systems and processes. Nevertheless, they serve

as tools for engineers and scientists to develop an understanding of important systems and

processes using mathematical equations. In a chemical engineering context, mathematical

modeling is a prerequisite for:

b. process control; optimization;

c. mechanistic understanding;

d. evaluation/planning of experiments;

e. trouble shooting and diagnostics;

f. determining quantities that cannot be measured directly;

g. simulation instead of costly experiments in the development lab;

h. feasibility studies to determine potential before building prototype equipment or

devices.

1. Devise a conceptual model, represents the real system to be analyzed.

2. Assumption, determine the degree of realism of the model and on the other hand the

practicality of the model for achieving a numerical solution.

3. Choice of system, breaking the system into simpler components and modeling each

of them.

Systems engineering: techniques for treating large and complex systems by

isolating the critical components and modeling.

1. Simplification, minimize the number of physical quantities that must be considered,

when the distributed properties of physical quantities are replaced by their lumped

equivalents, chief components have been identified.

Lumped parameters: systems that can be analyzed in terms of the behavior

of the endpoints of a finite number of discrete elements, mathematical

equation expressed by differential equations.

Distributed parameters: have many values spread over a field in space,

mathematical equation expressed by partial differential equations.

2. List the important physical and chemical quantities that describe and determine the

behavior of the system; Grouped as input and output parameters.

3. Various physical quantities are related to one another by the appropriate physical laws,

modified in ways appropriate to the model to transform the input quantities into the

desired output.

Transfer function: relation that transforms the input quantities into output ones;

take the form of algebraic, differential, or integral equations;

4. Solutions either analytically, numerically, or graphically of the equation.

5. Validation; comparing the results of the model against experimental results.

Models used for control purposes fall into categories of system modelling,

identification, parameter estimation and simulation.

system behaviour. This includes linear models, continuous models and non-linear

models.

Linear and non-linear systems are generally presented on a state-space form.

Linear systems can also be represented as a difference equation in a state-space

form. Another possibility is the linear difference equation. There is also a nonlinear

difference equation.

2. In identification models that are fit to measurement data. This includes time series

analysis and process identification.

System identification calls for good experimental data. There is also a choice of

model structure; it can be either tailor-made, which is, based on first principles

modelling, or ready made, for example, MATLAB Identification Toolbox.

experiment. Tailor made models are based on first principles and estimation of

parameters proceeds with physical interpretation. Ready-made models are general,

that is, problem independent (black-box models) and are often stochastic difference

equations. Physical experiment based estimation is problem, technology and

application dependent. Parameter estimation is usually done with either linear

regression methods or iterative methods.

solution. Methods of model approximation are, for example, space discretization of

PDEs to ODEs, linearization of non-linear models to linear models, time discretization

of continuous models to discrete models and model reduction. Simulation covers the

areas of linear and non-linear equations, sparse matrices and continuous and discrete

simulation.

5. In intelligent control (Årzén & Åström 1995) two paradigms are used, namely, fuzzy

control and expert control.

a. Fuzzy control has its roots in manual control. A strong motivation for the

approach is the desire to mimic the control actions of an experienced process

operator, that is, to model the control actions of the operator. This approach is

possible when it is not technically or economically justified to develop a

physical or mathematical model. Fuzzy sets, the foundation of fuzzy control,

were introduced by Zadeh (1965) as a way of expressing non-probabilistic

uncertainties. Also, fuzzy control is no longer only used to directly express a

priori process knowledge. For example, a fuzzy controller can be derived from

fuzzy model obtained through system identification.

b. Expert control attempts to represent generic knowledge about feedback control

as well as specific knowledge about the particular process, i.e. the knowledge

of experienced control and process engineers. This knowledge includes

theoretical control knowledge, heuristics and knowledge acquired during the

operation of the process.

LINEARIZATION

Chemical engineering processes often operate in nonlinear and unsteady manners

(i.e. not always at steady state), and are generally governed by nonlinear ordinary differential

equations (ODEs). The ODE is a relation that contains functions of only one independent

variable and derivatives with respect to that variable. Many studies have been devoted to

developing solutions to these equations, and in cases where the ODE is linear it can be solved

easily using an analytical method. However, if the ODE is nonlinear and not all of the operating

parameters are available, it is frequently difficult or impossible to solve equations directly.

Even when all the parameters are known, powerful computational and mathematical tools are

needed to completely solve the ODEs in order to model the process. In order to simplify this

modeling procedure and obtain approximate functions to describe the process, engineers

often linearize the ODEs and employ matrix math to solve the linearized equations.

A linear equation is an equation in which each term is either a constant or the product

of a constant times the first power of a variable. These equations are called "linear" because

they represent straight lines in Cartesian coordinates. A common form of a linear equation in

the two variables x and y is y = mx + b. This is opposed to a nonlinear equation, such as m =

ex + x2 + 2x + 5. Even though 2x + 5 is a linear portion of the equation, ex and x2 are not.

Any nonlinear terms in an equation makes the whole system nonlinear.

of their system at a given point. This is very important because many ODEs are impossible to

solve analytically. It will also lead to determining the local stability of that point. Most of the

time a system will be linearized around steady state, but this is not always the case. You may

be interested in understanding the behavior of your system at its operating point or equilibrium

state (not necessarily steady state). The linearization approach can be used for any type of

nonlinear system; however, as a chemical engineer, linearizing will usually involve ODEs.

Chemical engineers use ODEs in applications such as CSTRs, heat exchangers, or biological

cell growth.

system of ODEs:

Advantages

Provides
a
simpler, more
convenient
way
to
solve
the
ODEs

The
behavior
of
a
process
can
be
observed

Any
type
or
order
of
ODE
can
be
used

Disadvantages

The
solution
is
only
an
exact
solution
at
the
chosen
point;
otherwise
it
is
an

approximation
and
becomes
less
accurate
away
from
the
point

Although
linearizing
is
a
quicker
alternative,
it
takes
time
to
initially
learn
the

process
(ex:
using
Mathematica)

no product terms where variables are multiplied (constants are ok)

no square roots, exponentials, products, etc. involving variables

constant square root.

and m(t) is linear.

because of the

cross-product

when m(t) is x1x2 term,

linear. while is linear

2. If x1 and x2 are solutions to the equation, then x1+x2 is also a solution.

The latter means that for a linear process, the result of two input changes is the sum of the results

of the individual changes.

REFERENCES

Chemical Process Dynamics And Controls Book II. University of Michigan, 2017. Web.

17 June 2017.

Jaako, Juha. Aspects Of Process Modeling. Oulu, Finland: N.p., 1998. Web. 17 June

2017.

Mathematical Model In Chemical Engineering. Cambridge, 2017. Web. 17 June 2017.

Polderman, Jan Willem, and Jan Willems. Introduction To The Mathematical Theory

Of Systems And Control. 2017. Web. 17 June 2017.

"RMP Lecture Notes". Facstaff.cbu.edu. N.p., 2017. Web. 17 June 2017.

Kreyszig, Erwin, “ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS,” (2011), Ohio State

University, 10th Edition,

Control System | Closed Loop Open Loop Control System | Electrical4u. 2017. Control

System | Closed Loop Open Loop Control System | Electrical4u. [ONLINE] Available

at: https://www.electrical4u.com/control-system-closed-loop-open-loop-control-

system/. [Accessed 18 June 2017]

Design Aspect of Process Control System. 2008. [ONLINE] Available at:

https://www.scribd.com/.../Lec-02-PDC-Design-Aspects-of-a-Process-Control-

System. [Accessed 18 June 2017]

Process Control in Plant Design | SciTech Connect. 2017. Process Control in Plant

Design | SciTech Connect. [ONLINE] Available at:

http://scitechconnect.elsevier.com/process-control-plant-design/. [Accessed 19 June

2017].

Marlin. 2002. Introduction to Process Control. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.pc-

education.mcmaster.ca/Lecture_Slides/Chap_01_Marlin_2002.pdf. [Accessed 18

June 2017].

- Distillation Column Control DesignHochgeladen vonAnand Dudheliya
- Lab 2 - Introduction to Control SystemHochgeladen vonChan Chun Yuan
- Dan Zhang, Bin Wei eds. Mechatronics and Robotics Engineering for Advanced and Intelligent Manufacturing.pdfHochgeladen vonHanna Mar
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