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Republic of the Philippines

BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY


Pablo Borbon Main II, Alangilan Batangas City
College of Engineering, Architecture & Fine Arts
www.batstate-u.edu.ph Tel. No. (043) 425-0139 loc. 118

Chemical and Food Engineering Department

ChE-529

Process Dynamics and Control

Prelims Report

Arellano, Oliver E.
Dimaunahan, Arvin V.
Martirez, Andrade M.
Saballero, Jessica D.
Sarmiento, Rolando G. III

ChE- 5201

Engr. Naneth Jacinto


Instructor, ChE-529

February 07, 2018


Control Terminologies:

Out-of-control Action Plans (OCAPS)

detail the action to be taken once an out-of-control situation is detected. A specific flowchart, that
leads the process engineer through the corrective procedure, may be provided for each unique
process.

Advanced Process Control Loops

are automated changes to the process that are programmed to correct for the size of the out-of-
control measurement.

Controlled Variables - These are the variables which quantify the performance or quality of the
final product, which are also called output variables.

Manipulated Variables - These input variables are adjusted dynamically to keep the controlled
variables at their set-points.

Disturbances - These are also called the “load” variables and represent inputs that can cause
the controlled variables to deviate from their respective set points.

Servo control - The set-point signal is changed and the manipulated variable is adjusted
appropriately to achieve the new operating conditions.

Regulatory control – The set-point is fixed at a constant value. When any disturbance enters
the system, the manipulated variable is adjusted to drive the controlled variable back to its fixed
set-point.

Justification of Process Control


• Increased product throughput
• Increased yield of higher valued products
• Decreased energy consumption
• Decreased pollution
• Decreased off-spec product
• Increased Safety
• Extended life of equipment
• Improved Operability
• Decreased production labor

WHY IS CONTROL NECESSARY?

We want to achieve the following:

1. Safety
2. Protect Environment
3. Protect Equipment
4. Smooth operation
5. Product quality
6. Profit
7. Monitoring and diagnosis

Why is control possible?

Control is possible only if the engineer provides the required equipment during process design.

How is control design documented?


Piping and instrumentation (P&I) drawings provide documentation.
• The system is too complex to describe in text; hence, we must use standard symbols.

WHAT IS A CONTROL SYSTEM?

System – An interconnection of elements and devices for a desired purpose.

Control System

 An interconnection of components forming a system configuration that will provide a


desired response.
 When a number of elements are combined together to form a system to produce desired
output then the system is referred as control system. As this system controls the output, it
is so referred. Each element connected to the system has its own effect on the output.
 A control system is a system of devices or set of devices, that manages, commands, directs
or regulates the behavior of other device(s) or system(s) to achieve desire results. In other
words the definition of control system can be rewritten as A control system is a system,
which controls other system. As the human civilization is being modernized day by day
the demand of automation is increasing accordingly. Automation highly requires control of
devices.

Feature of Control System


The main feature of control system is, there should be a clear mathematical relation
between input and output of the system. When the relation between input and output of the system
can be represented by a linear proportionality, the system is called linear control system. Again
when the relation between input and output cannot be represented by single linear proportionality,
rather the input and output are related by some non-linear relation, the system is referred as non-
linear control system.

Requirement of Good Control System


 Accuracy: Accuracy is the measurement tolerance of the instrument and defines the
limits of the errors made when the instrument is used in normal operating conditions.
Accuracy can be improved by using feedback elements. To increase accuracy of any
control system error detector should be present in control system.
 Sensitivity: The parameters of control system are always changing with change in
surrounding conditions, internal disturbance or any other parameters. This change can be
expressed in terms of sensitivity. Any control system should be insensitive to such
parameters but sensitive to input signals only.
 Noise: An undesired input signal is known as noise. A good control system should be able
to reduce the noise effect for better performance.
 Stability: It is an important characteristic of control system. For the bounded input signal,
the output must be bounded and if input is zero then output must be zero then such a
control system is said to be stable system.
 Bandwidth: An operating frequency range decides the bandwidth of control system.
Bandwidth should be large as possible for frequency response of good control system.
 Speed: It is the time taken by control system to achieve its stable output. A good control
system possesses high speed. The transient period for such system is very small.
 Oscillation: A small number of oscillation or constant oscillation of output tend to system
to be stable.

OBJECTIVES OF PROCESS CONTROL

A control system consisting of interconnected components is designed

 To achieve a desired purpose


 To understand the purpose of a control system, it is useful to examine examples of control
systems through the course of history.
 To maintain a process at the desired operating conditions, safely and efficiently, while
satisfying environmental and product quality requirements.

DESIGN ASPECTS OF PROCESS CONTROL

CLASSIFICATION OF VARIABLES IN CHEMICAL PROCESS CONTROL

Variables associated
with a Chemical
Process

Input Variables Output Variable


(Denote the effect of (Denote the effect of
the surrounding on the process on the
the chemical process) surrounding)

Manipulated or Measured Output Unmeasured Output


Adjustable Variable Disturbances
Variables Variables

Measured Unmeasured

In controlling a process there exist two types of classes of variables.

A. Input Variable
This variable shows the effect of the surroundings on the process. It normally refers to
those factors that influence the process.

An example of this would be the flow rate of the steam through a heat exchanger that
would change the amount of energy put into the process. There are effects of the
surrounding that are controllable and some that are not.

These are broken down into two types of inputs:

1. Manipulated (or adjustable) inputs


 These are the variable in the surroundings can be control by an operator or the
control system in place.
 The values of manipulated inputs can be adjusted freely by the human operator or
a control mechanism.

2. Disturbances
 These are the input variable that can not be controlled by an operator or control
system.
 There exist both measurable and immeasurable disturbances.
 The values disturbances are not the result of adjustment by an operator or a control
system.

B. Output variable
Output variable also known as the control variable. These are the variables that are
process outputs that effect the surroundings.

1. Measured output variables


 The values of measured output variables are known by directly measuring them.

2. Unmeasured output variables


 The values of unmeasured output variables are not or cannot be measured
directly.

DESIGN ELEMENTS OF A CONTROL SYSTEM

A. Define Control Objectives


The central element in any control configuration is the process that we want to control.

The first question that is raised by the control designer is:

Question 1:
"What are the operational objectives that a control system is called to achieve?"

Examples:
 Ensuring the stability of the process, or
 Suppressing the influence of external disturbances, or
 Optimizing the economic performance of a plant, or ' - combination of the above.

At the beginning the control objectives are 'defined qualitatively and subsequently they are
quantified, usually in terms of the output variables.

B. Select Measurements
Whatever are our control objectives, we need some means to monitor the
performance of the chemical process. This is done by measuring the values of certain
processing variables (temperatures, pressures, concentrations, flowrates, etc.).

The second question that arises is:

Question 2:
"What variables should we measure in order to monitor the operational performance
of a plant?"

C. Select Manipulated Variables


Once the control objectives have been specified and the various measurements identified,
the next question is how do we effect a change on the process, i.e.

Question 3:
"What are the manipulated variables to be used in order to control a chemical
process?"
D. Select the Control Configuration
After the control objectives, the possible measurements, and the available manipulated
variables have been identified, the final problem to be solved is that of defining the control
configuration.

A control configuration is the information structure which is used to connect the available
measurements to the available manipulated variables.

Question 4:
"What is the best control configuration for a given chemical process control situation?"

The answer to this question is very critical for the quality of the control system we are
asked to design.

Depending on how many controlled outputs and manipulated inputs we have in a chemical
process we can distinguish the control configurations into:
 single-input, single-output (SISO) or
 multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) control systems.

E. Design the Controller


In every control configuration, the controller is the active element that receives the
information from the measurements and takes appropriate control actions to adjust the
values of the manipulated variables. For the design of the controller we must answer the
following question:

Question 5:
"How is the information taken from the measurements - used to adjust the values of the
manipulated variables?"

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF A CONTROL SYSTEM

The primary requirement of a control system is that it be reasonably stable. In other words,
its speed of response must be fairly fast, and this response must show reasonable damping. A
control system must also be able to reduce the system error to zero or to a value near zero.

Here are the other requirements of a control system:

1. Safety. Industrial plants must operate safely so as to promote the well-being of people and
equipment. Thus, plant safety is always the most important control objective.

2. Environmental Regulations. Industrial plants must comply with environmental regulations


concerning the discharge of gases, liquids, and solids beyond the plant boundaries.

3. Product Specifications and Production Rate. In order to be profitable, a plant must make
products that meet specifications concerning product quality and production rate.

4. Economic Plant Operation. It is an economic reality that the plant operation over long periods
of time must be profitable.
5. Stable Plant Operation. The control system should facilitate smooth, stable plant operation
without excessive oscillation in key process variables. Thus, it is desirable to have smooth, rapid
set-point changes and rapid recovery from plant disturbances.

System error

The system error is the difference between the value of the controlled variable set point
and the value of the process variable maintained by the system.

System Response

The main purpose of a control loop is to maintain some dynamic process variable
(pressure, flow, temperature, level, etc.) at a prescribed operating point or set point.

System response is the ability of a control loop to recover from a disturbance that causes
a change in the controlled process variable.

There are two general types of good response: underdamped (cyclic response) and
damped. (Figure 1) shows an underdamped or cyclic response of a system in which the process
variable oscillates around the set point after a process disturbance. The wavy response line
shown in the figure represents an acceptable response if the process disturbance or change in
set point was large, but it would not be an acceptable response if the change from the set point
was small.

(Figure 2) shows a damped response where the control system is able to bring the process
variable back to the operating point with no oscillations.
TRANSFORMS OF ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS

Laplace Transform

If f(t) is a function defined for all t ≥ 0, its Laplace transform is the integral of f(t) time
e-st from = 0 to ∞. It is a function of s, say, F(s), and is denoted by L(f): thus

𝐹(𝑠) = 𝐿(𝑓) = ∫ 𝑒 −𝑠𝑡 𝑓(𝑡)𝑑𝑡
0

Linearity of Laplace Transform

The Laplace transform is a liner operation: that is, for any function f(t) and g(t) whose
transforms exist and any constants a and b the transform of af(t) + bg(t) exists, and

𝐿{𝑎𝑓(𝑡) + 𝑏𝑔(𝑡)} = 𝑎𝐿{𝑓(𝑡) + 𝑏𝐿{𝑔(𝑡)}

Laplace Transform Table

Examples:

1. t2 – 2t
2. cos 2t
3. e-t sinh 5t
4. e2t cosh t
5. 3.8t e2.4t

Laplace Transform of Derivatives


The transforms of the first and second derivatives of f(t) satisfy:

Equation (1) can be proven under the additional assumption that f‘ is continuous, the by
the definition ad integration by parts.

The proof of equation (2) follows by applying (1) to f’’ and the substituting (1), that is

Examples:

1. sin bt

2. t cos 5t

3. cos2πt
1
4. cosh2 2 𝑡

INVERSE LAPLACE TRANSFORMS

For a function F(s), the inverse Laplace transform ℒ-1{F(s)}, if it exists, is unique in the
sense that we allow a difference of function values on a set that is negligible in integrals.

For example, since we have ℒ-1{1} = s−1 , by the theorem, we know that ℒ-1{s −1} = 1 and
that the 1 on the right hand side of this equality is a representative of all the functions that has the
Laplace transform being s −1 , which are equal to f(t) = 1 except on negligible sets.

Also, if we are given a function F(s) that is defined on (a, ∞) for some a, and we want to
find a function f(t) on [0, ∞) such that ℒ {f (t)} = F(s).

 This is not always possible.


 Even if it is possible, there may be many such functions f (t).

But only one of them will be “differentiable”. We call it the inverse Laplace transform of
F(s), denoted by f (t) = ℒ-1{F(s)}.

Inverse Laplace Transform Properties:

1. ℒ -1 {c f(s)}= c ℒ -1 {f(s)}
2. [{c1f1 (s) +c2f2 (s)}= c1 ℒ -1 {f1(s)}+ c2 ℒ -1 {f2(s)}
3. ℒ -1{1/s} =1 or ℒ -1{c/s}= c
𝑛!
4. ℒ -1 {𝑠𝑛+1}= tn
1
5. ℒ -1{𝑠+𝑎}= e-at
𝑠
6. ℒ -1{𝑠2 +𝑘 2 }= cos kt
𝑘
7. ℒ -1{𝑠2 +𝑘 2 }= sinkt
𝑠
8. ℒ -1{𝑠2 −𝑘 2 }= coshkt
𝑘
9. ℒ -1{ }= sinhkt
𝑠2 −𝑘 2
𝑠−𝑘
10. ℒ -1{ (𝑠−𝑘)2 +𝑤 2} = ekt cos wt
𝑤
11. ℒ -1{ (𝑠−𝑘)2 +𝑤 2} = ekt sin wt

Sample Problems
1
1. ℒ -1{ 2 }
𝑠 −2𝑠+10

Solution:
1 1 1
ℒ -1{𝑠2 −2𝑠+10} = ℒ -1{(𝑠2 +2𝑠+1)+(10−1)} = ℒ -1{(𝑠+1)2+9}

1
f{s} = {(𝑠+1)2 +9}
1 3 1 3
ℒ -1 f{s} = 3 ℒ -1(𝑠+1)2 +32 = = 3 e−t ℒ -1𝑠2 +32

1
ℒ -1 f{s} = = 3 e−t sin 3t

3𝑠
2. ℒ -1{𝑠2 +4𝑠+13}

Solution:
3𝑠 3𝑠 3𝑠
ℒ -1{𝑠2 +4𝑠+13} = ℒ -1{(𝑠2 +4𝑠+4)+(13−4)} = ℒ -1{(𝑠+2)2 +9}

3𝑠
f{s} = { }
(𝑠+2)2 +9
(𝑠+2)−2
ℒ -1 f{s} = 3ℒ -1 {(𝑠+2)2 +9}
(𝑠+2) 2
ℒ -1 f{s} = 3ℒ -1 { } - ℒ -1 {(𝑠+2)2 +9}
(𝑠+2)2 +9
(𝑠+2) 2 3
ℒ -1 f{s} = -1
3ℒ {(𝑠+2)2 +9} - 3ℒ -1 {(𝑠+2)2 +9}

2
ℒ -1 f{s} = = 3e−2t cos 3t - 3 e−2t sin 3t

18𝑠−12
3. ℒ -1{ 9𝑠2 −1 }

Solution:
1 4
18𝑠−12 {18𝑠−12}{ ) 2𝑠−
9 3
ℒ -1{ 9𝑠2 −1 } = ℒ -1 1 = ℒ -1 { 1 }
{9𝑠2 −1}{ ) 𝑠2 −
9 9

4
2𝑠−
3
f{s} ={ 1 }
𝑠2 −
9
4 1
2𝑠 3 𝑠 3
ℒ -1 1 - ℒ
-1
1 = 2 ℒ -1 1 - 4 ℒ -1 1
𝑠2 − 𝑠2 − 𝑠2 −( )2 𝑠2 −( )2
9 9 3 3

1 1
ℒ -1 f{s} = 2 cosh t - 4 sinh t
3 3

𝑠+3
4. ℒ -1{𝑠2 −𝑠−2}

Solution:
𝑠+3 𝑠+3
ℒ -1{𝑠2 −𝑠−2}= ℒ -1 {(𝑠−2)(𝑠+1)}
𝑠+3
f{s} ={(𝑠−2)(𝑠+1)}

𝑠+3 𝐴 𝐵
(𝑠−2)(𝑠+1)
= (𝑠−2) + (𝑠+1)

s+3 = A(s+1) + B(s-2)

@ s = -1 @s=2
s+3=B(s-2) s+3=A(s+1)
−2 5
B= A=
3 3

5 -1 1 2 1
3
ℒ {𝑠−2} - 3 ℒ -1{𝑠+1}
5 2
ℒ -1 f{s} = 3 e2t - 3 e−t

SOLUTION OF LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS BY LAPLACE TRANSFORMS

Consider the equation

The first step is to take the Laplace transform of both sides of the original differential equation:

The Laplace transform of the function 0 is 0. So we have,

Now use the formulas for the L[y'']and L[y'],

Here we have used the fact that y(0)=2. And,

Hence, we have

The Laplace-transformed differential equation is

Solving for Y(s), we have

We can simplify this expression using the method of partial


fractions:
Recall the inverse transforms:

Using linearity of the inverse transform, we have

Examples

1. y’ + 4y = 0; y(0) = 2.8

Solution:
y’ + 4y = 0

Ly’ + 4Ly = L0

sY + 4Y = y(0)

Y (s + 4) =2.8

𝐿−1 2.8
𝐿−1 Y =
s+4
y (t) = 2.8 e-4t

2. y” – y’ – 6y = 0; y’(0) = 13, y(0) = 6

Solution:

[s2Y – sy(0) – y’(0)] – [sY –y(0)] – 6Y = 0


s2Y – sy(0) – y’(0) – sY + y(0) – 6Y = 0
s2Y – 6s– 13 – sY + 6 – 6Y = 0
s2Y – sY– 6Y – 6s – 7 = 0
Y(s2 – s – 6) – 6s – 7 = 0
Y(s2 – s – 6) = 6s + 7
6𝑠 + 7
𝑌= 2
s – s– 6
−1
𝐿−1 6𝑠 + 7
𝐿 𝑌=
(s − 3)(s + 2)
6𝑠 + 7 𝐴 𝐵
𝐿−1 𝑌 = = +
(s − 3)(s + 2) (s − 3) (s + 2)

𝐿−1 𝑌 = 6𝑠 + 7 = 𝐴(s + 2) + 𝐵(s − 3)

@ s = -2

-5 = A(0) + B(-5)

B=1

@s=3

25 = A(5) + B(0)

A=5
5 1
𝑌= +
(s − 3) (s + 2)
1 1
𝐿−1 𝑌 = 5 𝐿−1 + 𝐿−1
(s − 3) (s + 2)

y(t) = 5e3t + e-2t


DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS
 Components of a system are represented by idealized elements that have the essential
characteristics of the real components and whose behavior can be described by the
mathematical equations.
 Variables: quantities which may take on different values at any time, either in the design
analysis or in actual operation of the design.
 Parameters: assume different values only during the design analysis.

A. What is mathematical modelling?


Models describe our beliefs about how the world functions. In mathematical
modelling, we translate those beliefs into the language of mathematics. This has many
advantages

1. Mathematics is a very precise language. This helps us to formulate ideas and


identify underlying assumptions.
2. Mathematics is a concise language, with well-defined rules for manipulations.
3. All the results that mathematicians have proved over hundreds of years are at our
disposal.
4. Computers can be used to perform numerical calculations.

B. Objectives of Mathematical Modeling


All models are abstractions of real systems and processes. Nevertheless, they serve
as tools for engineers and scientists to develop an understanding of important systems and
processes using mathematical equations. In a chemical engineering context, mathematical
modeling is a prerequisite for:

a. design and scale-up;


b. process control; optimization;
c. mechanistic understanding;
d. evaluation/planning of experiments;
e. trouble shooting and diagnostics;
f. determining quantities that cannot be measured directly;
g. simulation instead of costly experiments in the development lab;
h. feasibility studies to determine potential before building prototype equipment or
devices.

C. Steps in Developing Mathematical Models


1. Devise a conceptual model, represents the real system to be analyzed.
2. Assumption, determine the degree of realism of the model and on the other hand the
practicality of the model for achieving a numerical solution.
3. Choice of system, breaking the system into simpler components and modeling each
of them.
 Systems engineering: techniques for treating large and complex systems by
isolating the critical components and modeling.
1. Simplification, minimize the number of physical quantities that must be considered,
when the distributed properties of physical quantities are replaced by their lumped
equivalents, chief components have been identified.
 Lumped parameters: systems that can be analyzed in terms of the behavior
of the endpoints of a finite number of discrete elements, mathematical
equation expressed by differential equations.
 Distributed parameters: have many values spread over a field in space,
mathematical equation expressed by partial differential equations.
2. List the important physical and chemical quantities that describe and determine the
behavior of the system; Grouped as input and output parameters.
3. Various physical quantities are related to one another by the appropriate physical laws,
modified in ways appropriate to the model to transform the input quantities into the
desired output.
 Transfer function: relation that transforms the input quantities into output ones;
take the form of algebraic, differential, or integral equations;
4. Solutions either analytically, numerically, or graphically of the equation.
5. Validation; comparing the results of the model against experimental results.

MODELS FOR CONTROL PURPOSES


Models used for control purposes fall into categories of system modelling,
identification, parameter estimation and simulation.

1. In system modelling models are described in a mathematical framework capturing the


system behaviour. This includes linear models, continuous models and non-linear
models.
Linear and non-linear systems are generally presented on a state-space form.
Linear systems can also be represented as a difference equation in a state-space
form. Another possibility is the linear difference equation. There is also a nonlinear
difference equation.

2. In identification models that are fit to measurement data. This includes time series
analysis and process identification.
System identification calls for good experimental data. There is also a choice of
model structure; it can be either tailor-made, which is, based on first principles
modelling, or ready made, for example, MATLAB Identification Toolbox.

3. Parameter estimation uses tailor-made models, ready-made models and physical


experiment. Tailor made models are based on first principles and estimation of
parameters proceeds with physical interpretation. Ready-made models are general,
that is, problem independent (black-box models) and are often stochastic difference
equations. Physical experiment based estimation is problem, technology and
application dependent. Parameter estimation is usually done with either linear
regression methods or iterative methods.

4. In simulation, models that are generated, are approximated to generate a numerical


solution. Methods of model approximation are, for example, space discretization of
PDEs to ODEs, linearization of non-linear models to linear models, time discretization
of continuous models to discrete models and model reduction. Simulation covers the
areas of linear and non-linear equations, sparse matrices and continuous and discrete
simulation.

5. In intelligent control (Årzén & Åström 1995) two paradigms are used, namely, fuzzy
control and expert control.
a. Fuzzy control has its roots in manual control. A strong motivation for the
approach is the desire to mimic the control actions of an experienced process
operator, that is, to model the control actions of the operator. This approach is
possible when it is not technically or economically justified to develop a
physical or mathematical model. Fuzzy sets, the foundation of fuzzy control,
were introduced by Zadeh (1965) as a way of expressing non-probabilistic
uncertainties. Also, fuzzy control is no longer only used to directly express a
priori process knowledge. For example, a fuzzy controller can be derived from
fuzzy model obtained through system identification.
b. Expert control attempts to represent generic knowledge about feedback control
as well as specific knowledge about the particular process, i.e. the knowledge
of experienced control and process engineers. This knowledge includes
theoretical control knowledge, heuristics and knowledge acquired during the
operation of the process.
LINEARIZATION
Chemical engineering processes often operate in nonlinear and unsteady manners
(i.e. not always at steady state), and are generally governed by nonlinear ordinary differential
equations (ODEs). The ODE is a relation that contains functions of only one independent
variable and derivatives with respect to that variable. Many studies have been devoted to
developing solutions to these equations, and in cases where the ODE is linear it can be solved
easily using an analytical method. However, if the ODE is nonlinear and not all of the operating
parameters are available, it is frequently difficult or impossible to solve equations directly.
Even when all the parameters are known, powerful computational and mathematical tools are
needed to completely solve the ODEs in order to model the process. In order to simplify this
modeling procedure and obtain approximate functions to describe the process, engineers
often linearize the ODEs and employ matrix math to solve the linearized equations.

A linear equation is an equation in which each term is either a constant or the product
of a constant times the first power of a variable. These equations are called "linear" because
they represent straight lines in Cartesian coordinates. A common form of a linear equation in
the two variables x and y is y = mx + b. This is opposed to a nonlinear equation, such as m =
ex + x2 + 2x + 5. Even though 2x + 5 is a linear portion of the equation, ex and x2 are not.
Any nonlinear terms in an equation makes the whole system nonlinear.

As mentioned above, linearizing ODEs allows engineers to understand the behavior


of their system at a given point. This is very important because many ODEs are impossible to
solve analytically. It will also lead to determining the local stability of that point. Most of the
time a system will be linearized around steady state, but this is not always the case. You may
be interested in understanding the behavior of your system at its operating point or equilibrium
state (not necessarily steady state). The linearization approach can be used for any type of
nonlinear system; however, as a chemical engineer, linearizing will usually involve ODEs.
Chemical engineers use ODEs in applications such as CSTRs, heat exchangers, or biological
cell growth.

It is also important to understand the advantages and disadvantages of linearizing a


system of ODEs:

Advantages

 Provides
a
simpler, more
convenient
way
to
solve
the
ODEs

 The
behavior
of
a
process
can
be
observed

 Any
type
or
order
of
ODE
can
be
used


Disadvantages


 The
solution
is
only
an
exact
solution
at
the
chosen
point;
otherwise
it
 is
an

approximation
and
becomes
less
accurate
away
from
the
point
 Although
linearizing
is
a
quicker
alternative,
it
takes
time
to
initially
 learn
the

process
(ex:
using
Mathematica)


What makes an equation "linear"?

 all variables present only to the first power


 no product terms where variables are multiplied (constants are ok)
 no square roots, exponentials, products, etc. involving variables

These can be understood by looking at some examples.

LINEAR EQUATIONS NON – LINEAR EQUATIONS

as long as a is a because of the


constant square root.
and m(t) is linear.
because of the
cross-product
when m(t) is x1x2 term,
linear. while is linear

Linearity is useful, because of the mathematical theorems that state:

f(x) is a linear differential equation:

1. If x1 is a solution to the equation and c1 a constant, then c1x1 is also a solution


2. If x1 and x2 are solutions to the equation, then x1+x2 is also a solution.

The latter means that for a linear process, the result of two input changes is the sum of the results
of the individual changes.

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