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Design basic configurations of Op- Amp Circuits such as Comparator, Summing, Integrators and

Differentiators.

Describe and analyze the operation of several types of comparator circuits.

Describe and analyze the operation of several types of summing amplifiers.

Describe and analyze the operation of integrators and differentiators.

EAZZZZYYYY COPY PASTE LECTURE. BASIC.

Circuit Design and Analysis

3. A zero level detector with hysteresis voltage of 5V

Fig. 3 Zero Level Detector with 5V Hysteresis.


Fig 3. is a Zero Level Detector designed to have hysteresis of 5V. Hysteresis is positive feedback technique
used to reduce the sensitivity of an Op- Amp to noise. It means there is a higher reference level when the
input voltage goes from a lower to higher value than when it goes from a higher to a lower value. The two
reference levels are referred to as the upper trigger point (UTP) and the lower trigger point (LTP).

Fig 3.. Signal with Noise


Fig. 3.. shows the output waveform when using Hysteresis. The output signal is only triggered to its
saturation when the signal reaches either the two reference states- LTP or UTP.

Computation:

𝑉𝐻𝑌𝑆 = 𝑉𝑈𝑇𝑃 − 𝑉𝐿𝑇𝑃

𝑅2
𝑉𝑈𝑇𝑃 = (+𝑉𝑂𝑈𝑇 )
𝑅2 + 𝑅1
𝑅2
𝑉𝐿𝑇𝑃 = (−𝑉𝑂𝑈𝑇 )
𝑅2 + 𝑅1
Ideally, based on the above condition,

𝑉𝑂𝑈𝑇 = 𝑉𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑆𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑔

But due to the Op- Amp used:


𝑉𝑂𝑈𝑇 = 𝑉𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑆𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑔 ≅ ±5𝑉

By substitution:
10𝑘Ω
𝑉𝑈𝑇𝑃 = (+5𝑉) = 2.5𝑉
10𝑘Ω + 10𝑘Ω
10𝑘Ω
𝑉𝐿𝑇𝑃 = (−5𝑉) = −2.5𝑉
10𝑘Ω + 10𝑘Ω
𝑉𝐻𝑌𝑆 = 2.5𝑉 − (−2.5𝑉) = 5𝑉

4. A zero level detector with output bounded at both positive and negative maximum voltage.

Fig. 4 Two Zener Diode were used to limit the output


Bounding is the operation wherein the output is limited to certain value. It is necessary
when the output is required to be less than the saturation value. Fig 4. shows an example of
bounding the output through two Zener Diodes (1N4736).
1N4736 Diode features the following:
Nominal Zener Voltage (Vz): 6.8V
Max. Regulator Current (Izm): 0.133A
Max. Reverse Leakage Current (Ir): 10µA
Forward Voltage Drop (Vf): 1.2V
Total Power Dissipation (Ptot): 1W
III. Results and Analysis

Fig. 3. Output Waveform for A zero level detector with hysteresis voltage of 5V.
Fig 3 demonstrates the output waveform of Hysteresis technique. The blue signal represents the input
signal while the red signal is its output. Accordingly, when the output is at the maximum positive voltage
and the input exceeds UTP, the output switches to the maximum negative voltage. In this case VUTP is
computed to be +2.5V. On the other hand, when the output is at the maximum negative voltage and the
input goes below LTP, the output switches back to the maximum positive voltage. As previously computed
VLTP = -2.5V. Device triggers only once when UTP or LTP is reached; thus, there is immunity to noise that
is riding on the input signal.

Fig…. Output for the zero level detector with output bounded at both positive and negative
maximum voltage.
Biasing of the diodes determines the voltage output of this circuit. The voltage read is the
combination of the forward and reverse voltages of each diode. In any case, one of the diode is
in forward bias condition while the other one is reversed. In a more detailed manner two zener
diodes are arranged to limit the output voltage to the zener voltage plus the forward voltage
drop (0.7 V) of the forward-biased zener, both positively and negatively. In the case of the circuit
in Fig 4 which used 1N4736 the Nominal Zener Voltage (Vz) = 6.8V and a larger Forward Voltage
Drop (Vf) = 1.2V.