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A. RATIONAL NUMBERS: THE SET Q 1. Understanding Rational Numbers Definition The ratio of an

A. RATIONAL NUMBERS: THE SET Q

1. Understanding Rational Numbers

Definition The ratio of an integer to a non-zero integer is called a rational nnumber.
Definition
The ratio of an integer to a non-zero integer is called a rational nnumber. The set of rational
numbers is denoted by Q. Q = {
a | a, b  Z, b  0}
b
2. The Set of Positive Rational Numbers
If a rational number represents a point on the number line on the right side of zero, then it
is called a positive rational number.
In short,
a is a positive rational number if a and b are both positive integers or both nega-
b
tive integers.
 2
–2
2
For example,
and
are positive rational numbers, and denoted by
.
 7
–7
7
Definition
The set of positive rational nnumbers is denoted by Q + .
a
a
Q + = {
|
0 and a, b  , b  0}
b
b 
3. The Set of Negative Rational Numbers
If a rational number represents a point on the number line on the left side of zero, then it is
called a negative rational number.
In short,
a is a negative rational number if a is a positive integer and b is a negative integer,
b
or if a is a negative integer and b is a positive integer.
–5
5
For example,
and
are negative rational numbers. We can write negative rational
 4
–4
5
–5
5
numbers in three ways:
.
4
4
–4
Definition
The set of negative rational numbers is denoted by Q–.
a
a
Q – = {
|
0 and a, b  , b  0}
b
b 
10
Algebra 8
A. THE SET OF REAL NUMBERS 1. Understanding Real Numbers In algebra we use many

A. THE SET OF REAL NUMBERS

1. Understanding Real Numbers

In algebra we use many different sets of numbers. For example, we use the natural numbers

to express quantities of whole objects that we can count, such as the number of students in a class, or the number of books on a shelf.

The set of natural numbers is denoted by N.

N = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, }
N = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
}

The set of whole numbers is the set of natural numbers together with zero. It is denoted by

W. W = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, }
W.
W
= {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
}

The set of integers is the set of natural numbers, together with zero and the negatives of the natural numbers. It is denoted by Z.

Z = {

,

–5, –4, –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,

}

. Z = { , –5, –4, –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
. Z = { , –5, –4, –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
. Z = { , –5, –4, –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
. Z = { , –5, –4, –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
. Z = { , –5, –4, –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
. Z = { , –5, –4, –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
. Z = { , –5, –4, –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
. Z = { , –5, –4, –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
. Z = { , –5, –4, –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
. Z = { , –5, –4, –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
. Z = { , –5, –4, –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
. Z = { , –5, –4, –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
. Z = { , –5, –4, –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
. Z = { , –5, –4, –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
. Z = { , –5, –4, –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,

We use integers to express temperatures below zero, distances above and below sea level, and increases and decreases in stock prices, etc. For example, we can write ten degrees Celsius below zero as –10°C.

To express ratios between numbers, and parts of wholes, we use rational numbers.

For example,

8

2

3

0

17

1

and

are rational numbers.

,

35

,

,

77

,

The set of rational numbers is the set of numbers that can be written as the quotient of two

integers. It is denoted by Q.

Q

a

= { | a, b and b 0}

b

as the quotient of two integers. It is denoted by Q . Q a = {
as the quotient of two integers. It is denoted by Q . Q a = {
as the quotient of two integers. It is denoted by Q . Q a = {
as the quotient of two integers. It is denoted by Q . Q a = {
as the quotient of two integers. It is denoted by Q . Q a = {
as the quotient of two integers. It is denoted by Q . Q a = {
as the quotient of two integers. It is denoted by Q . Q a = {
as the quotient of two integers. It is denoted by Q . Q a = {
as the quotient of two integers. It is denoted by Q . Q a = {
as the quotient of two integers. It is denoted by Q . Q a = {
as the quotient of two integers. It is denoted by Q . Q a = {
as the quotient of two integers. It is denoted by Q . Q a = {
as the quotient of two integers. It is denoted by Q . Q a = {
as the quotient of two integers. It is denoted by Q . Q a = {
as the quotient of two integers. It is denoted by Q . Q a = {
as the quotient of two integers. It is denoted by Q . Q a = {
as the quotient of two integers. It is denoted by Q . Q a = {
as the quotient of two integers. It is denoted by Q . Q a = {
as the quotient of two integers. It is denoted by Q . Q a = {
as the quotient of two integers. It is denoted by Q . Q a = {
as the quotient of two integers. It is denoted by Q . Q a = {
as the quotient of two integers. It is denoted by Q . Q a = {

Radicals

Radicals 11
11
11
Radicals 11

We can write every rational number as a repeating or terminating decimal. Conversely, we can write any repeating or terminating decimal as a rational number.

any repeating or terminating decimal as a rational number. R = R +  {0} 
any repeating or terminating decimal as a rational number. R = R +  {0} 
any repeating or terminating decimal as a rational number. R = R +  {0} 
any repeating or terminating decimal as a rational number. R = R +  {0} 
any repeating or terminating decimal as a rational number. R = R +  {0} 

R = R + {0} R

the set of positive

real numbers R is the set of negative real numbers

R +

is

Definition

Definition

For example,

3

5

0.6, and

321

990

0.324

= 0.324242424

0.6 is a terminating decimal, and 0.324 ––

There are some decimals which do not repeat or terminate.

For example, the decimals

is a repeating decimal.

0.1012001230001234000

3.141592653

=

2.71828

= e

1.4142135

= ñ 2

do not terminate and do not repeat. Therefore, we cannot write these decimals as rational numbers. We say that they are irrational.

A number whose decimal form does not repeat or terminate is called an irrational number. The set of irrational numbers is denoted by Qor I.

The union of the set of rational numbers and the set of irrational numbers forms the set of all decimals. This union is called the set of real nnumbers.

The set of real numbers is denoted by R.

R = Q Q

Real NNumbers

is denoted by R. R = Q  Q  Real N N umbers N 

N W Z Q R Q R

For every real number there is a point on the number line. In other words, there is a one-to-one correspondence between the real numbers and the points on the number line.

between the real numbers and the points on the number line. The real numbers fill up

The real numbers fill up the number line.

We can summarize the relationship between the different sets of numbers that we have described in a diagram. As we know, the set of natural numbers is a subset of the set of whole numbers, the set of whole numbers is a subset of the set of integers, the set of integers is a subset of the set of rational numbers, and the set of rational numbers is a subset of the set of real numbers. This relationship is shown by the dia- gram on the left.

12 Algebra 8
12
Algebra 8
1. Understanding Square Roots Remember that we can write a  a as a 2

1. Understanding Square Roots

Remember that we can write a a as a 2 . We call a 2 the square of a, and multiplying a number by itself is called squaring the number. The inverse operation of squaring a number is called finding the square root of the number.

Objectives

 
 
 

After studying this section you will be able to:

1.

Understand the concepts of square root and radical number.

2.

Use the properties of square roots to simplify expressions.

3.

Find the product of square roots.

4.

Rationalize the denominator of a fraction containing square roots.

Definition

 
 
 

If

a 2 = b

then a is the square rroot of b (a 0, b 0).

We use the symbol ñ

to denote the square root of a number. ñ b is read as ‘the square root of

b. So if a 22 = b

then a = ñb (a b, b 0).

Here are the square roots of all the perfect squares from 1 to 100.

1 2 = 1

ñ 1 = 1

6 2 = 36

ò36 = 6

2 2 = 4

ñ 4 = 2

7 2 = 49

ò49 = 7

3 2 = 9

ñ 9 = 3

8 2 = 64

ò64 = 8

4 2 = 16

ò 16 = 4

9 2 = 81

ò81 = 9

5 2 = 25

ò 25 = 5

10 2 = 100

ó100 = 10

The equation x 2 = 9 can be stated as the question, ‘What number multiplied itself is 9?’ There are two such numbers, 3 and –3.

Rule

Rule

If x R then

2 x
2
x

|

x

|

 

x

x

if

if

x

x

0.

0.

In other words, if x is a non-negative real number, then

if x is a negative real number, then

2 x
2
x

x.

2 x
2
x

x,

and

Radicals

Radicals 13
13
13
Radicals 13
For example, 2  3, ( 3  9 3), and 2  –(–3) 
For example,
2
3,
(
3

9
3), and
2
–(–3)
3
(
(–3)

9
3).

We can conclude that the square root of any real number will always be greater than or equal to zero. ò –9 is undefined. Negative numbers have no square root because the square of any real number cannot be negative.

EXAMPLE

ò –9 3, since 3 2 is 9, not (–9).

ò –9 –3, since (–3) 2 is 9, not (–9).

Note

x = ñ 9 and x 2 = 9 have different

ñ 9 =

2 3
2
3

= |3| = 3

If x 2 = 9 then x = 3 or x = –3.

meanings in the set of all real numbers.

1 Evaluate each square root.

a.

ò 81

g. ó 100

b. ñ 1

h. ó 0.09

c. ñ 0

i.

ò4

d. ò 64 e. ñ 9 2 2 j. (–4) k. –4
d. ò 64
e. ñ 9
2
2
j.
(–4)
k.
–4

f.

ó 0.64

Solution

a.

ò 81 = 9

b.

ñ 1 = 1

c.

ñ 0 = 0

d.

ò 64 = 8

e.

4 2  9 3
4
2
9
3

f.

ó 0.64 = 0.8

g. ó 100 = –10

h. ó 0.09 = –0.3

i.

ò–4 is undefined

EXAMPLE

j.

2 (–4) 
2
(–4)

16 4

k.

2 –4 
2
–4

–16 is undefined

2 Evaluate each square root.

a. ó 100 b. ó 121 c. ó 144 d. ó 169 e. ó 225 f. ó 361

g. ó 400 h. ó 625

i.

1225
1225

j.

10000
10000

Solution

a.

ó 100 = 10

b.

ó 121 = 11

c. ó 144 = 12

d.

ó 169 = 13

e.

ó 225 = 15

f.

ó361 = 19

g.

ó 400 = 20

h.

ó 625 = 25

i.

1225  35

1225 35

j.

10000  100

10000 100

14 Algebra 8
14
Algebra 8

Property

EXAMPLE

3

Solution

Property If a > 0 then a a = == 1 1. a a
Property
If
a > 0
then
a a
=
== 1
1.
a a

2. Properties of Square Roots

For any real number a and b, where a 0, and b 0, ñañb = óab.

For example,

25  16  25  16  5 4 20, 3  27 
25 
16
25
16

5
4
20,
3 
27

3
27
81
9,
2
2
36 a
36
a

6
aa
(
0), and
 
5  5  5  5 25
5
5
5

5
25

5.

 

Note

 

If a 0 then ñ a ñ a = ó a a =

2 a
2
a

a.

Simplify each of the following.

 

a.

ñ 2 ñ 8

b. ñ 7 ñ 7 c. ò 50 ñ 2

 

d.

ò25 ñ1

a.

ñ 2 ñ 8 = ó2 8 = ò16 = 4

 

b.

c.

ò 50 ñ 2 = ó502 = ó 100 = 10

d.

e.

576  36  16  36 
576
36  16 
36

16 6

4

24

f.

10  90  10 90
10 
90 
10 90

900 30

 
b  0 ó a.6 = a  0  ñ a . ñ 6
b  0
ó a.6 =
a  0
ñ a . ñ 6

Mathematics is a universal language.

e. ó 576 f. ò 10  ò 90 7  7  7 7
e. ó 576
f.
ò 10  ò 90
7 
7 
7 7
49  7
25 
1 
25 1
25  5

For any real numbers a and b, where a 0, and b > 0,

For example,

a a  . b b
a
a
.
b
b
24 24  4 6 6 1 1   1 . 49 49 7
24
24
4
6
6
1
1
1 .
49
49
7

 2, and

Radicals

Radicals 15
15
15
Radicals 15

EXAMPLE

4 Simplify the expressions.

a.

25 9
25
9

b.

50 2
50
2

c.

16 49
16
49

d.

1 64
1
64

e.

1 100
1
100

f.

g.

3 24a 6a
3
24a
6a

h.

5 6 a  b 2 ab
5
6
a
 b
2
ab

i.

x  y 3 3 x  y
x  y
3
3
x
 y

Solution

a.

c.

e.

g.

h.

i.

25 25 5 = = 9 9 3 16 16 4   49 49
25
25
5
=
=
9
9
3
16
16
4
49
49
7
1
1
–––
100
100

1

10

3 3 24 a 24 a 2 2   a 442  aa 
3
3
24
a
24
a
2
2
 a
442
aa 
6
a
6
a
5
6
5
6
a
 b
a
 b
4
4
2
22
22
a
 b
(
a
b
)
ab
2
2
ab
ab
x  y
x
y
1
1
1

33
22
33
xy
xy
2
2
xy
xy
x
y

b.

d.

f.

50 50   25 5 2 2 1 1 1   64 64
50
50
 25
5
2
2
1
1
1
64
64
8
625
625
25
144
144
12
625 144
625
144

Property

For any real number a and n Z,

Proof

( a )
(
a
)

n

n a
n
a

(a 0).

n n ( a )  a  a  a   a 
n
n
(
a
)
a
a
a
a
aaa


a
a
n factors of ñ a
n factors of a
2
2
For example,
() a
aa 
,
3
3
(
5)
5
125,
and
8
8
(
2)

2
256
16.
16
Algebra 8

EXAMPLE

5

Solution

Evaluate

( ñ 2) 4 + ( ñ 5) 4 – ( ñ 5) 2 – ( ñ2) 6 .

2 ( 2)
2
(
2)

4 ( 5)
4
(
5)

–(

5)
5)

2

–(

2)
2)

6

4426  2  5 – 5 – 2 22 22 2 32  (2
4426
2
5
5
2
22
22
2
32
(2
)
(5
)
5
(2
)
22
3
2
5
– 5 – 2

4
25 – 5 – 8
16

3. Working with Pure and Mixed Radicals

Definition

Definition

A radical eexpression is an expression of the form

n a .
n a .
radical sign index n ñ a radicand
radical sign
index
n
ñ
a
radicand

Square roots have index 2. However, we usually write square roots in their shorter form, ñ a:

2 a
2 a

a
a

A mixed rradical is a radical of the form

x

 a A mixed r r adical is a radical of the form x  (

(x Q,

x {–1, 0, 1})

For example, 3ñ 2, 6 ñ 7, and 9 ó 115 are mixed radicals.

ò 55, ò 99, and ò 27 are not mixed radicals. We say that they are pure radicals .

We can convert between mixed and pure radical numbers to simplify radical expressions.

Property

For any real numbers a and b, where a 0 and b 0,

For example,

2 2 a  b  ab and ab  a  b. 2 2
2
2
a
b
ab
and
ab
a
b.
2
2
8
4

2
2

2
2
2
2
2,
2
2
27
9

3
3

3
3
3
3
3,
2
2
32
16

2
4

2
4
2
4
2, and
2
2
50
25

2
5

2
5
2
5
2.

Radicals

Radicals 17
17
17
Radicals 17

EXAMPLE

6 Simplify the expressions.

a.

b.

ñ 8+2 ò 32 – ò 18 + ò 72 – ò 98

2 ò 48 + 3 ò 27 – ó 108 + ó 243

Solution

a. 8 = 2 2  2=2 2    2 2 32 =
a.
8
=
2
2  2=2 2
2
2
32 = 2
4
2 = 8
2
8
2
32

18
72
98
2
18
=
3
2
= 3
2

22
82
32
62
72
2
72
=
6
 2 = 6
2
2
  
(2
8
3
6
7)
6
2
2
98
=
7
 2
= 7
2
2
222
b.
2
48
 3
27 –
108
243
 
2
4
3
3
3
3 –
6
3
9
3

8
3
9 3–6
3
9
3

(8
9 – 6
9)
3
20
3

EXAMPLE

7 Write the numbers as pure radicals.

Solution

a. 2 ñ 2 b. 3 ñ 5 c. 5 ñ 3 2 2 a.
a. 2 ñ 2
b. 3 ñ 5
c. 5 ñ 3
2
2
a. 22
2
2
2

2
42

8
2
b. 3
5
 3

5
9

5
45
2
c. 5
3
 5

3
25

3
75
2
d. 10
10
10

10
100

10
1000
2
e. x
y
xy

d. 10 ò 10

e. x ñ y

Property

For any non-zero real numbers a, b, c, and x,

a ñx + b ñx c ñ x = (a + b c) ñx.

Note

ñ a + ñ b ó a+b For example, ñ 9 + ò 16 = 3 + 4 = 7, but ó 9 + 16 = ò 25 = 5.

18 Algebra 8
18
Algebra 8

EXAMPLE

8 Perform the operations.

 

a.

ñ 3 + ñ 3

b. 2 ñ 5 + ñ 5

c. 3 ñ 6 + 4ñ 6

d. 10 ñ5 – 3 ñ 5

e.

ò 50 + ò 98 + ó 162

f.

5 ñx ò 9x + ó64x

Solution

a.

ñ 3 + ñ3 = (1 + 1)ñ 3 = 2 ñ 3

b.

2 ñ 5 + ñ 5 = (2 + 1)ñ 5 = 3 ñ5

c.

3 ñ 6 + 4 ñ 6 = (3 + 4) ñ6 = 7 ñ 6

d.

10 ñ 5 – 3 ñ 5 = (10 – 3) ñ5 = 7 ñ5

e.

ò 50 + ò 98 + ó 162

= ó 252 + ó 492 + ó 812 = 5ñ 2 + 7 ñ2 + 9 ñ 2

 

= (5 + 7 + 9)ñ2 = 21 ñ 2

 
 

f.

5 ñ x ò 9x + ó 64x = 5 ñ x – 3 ñx + 8 ñ x = (5 – 3 + 8)ñ x = 10 ñx

EXAMPLE

9 Compare the following numbers.

 

a.

ñ 7

3

Solution

a.

7
7

3

 
7
7
9
9
7
7

9
9
7
7

3

b. 3 ñ 5

2ò10

c. 2 ñ 7

3ñ 3

 

d. –2 ñ 3

–3ñ 2

 

b.

3

5 2 10
5
2
10

c.

2

7
7

3

3
3

d.

–2

3
3

– 3

2
2
2 2 3  5 2  10 45  40 3 5  2
2
2
3
5
2
10
45
 40
3
5
 2
10
2 2 2  7 3  3 28  27 27  33
2
2
2
7
3
3
28
 27
27
33
2 2 – 2  3 – 3  2 – 18 12  –
2
2
– 2
3
3
2
– 18
12
–2
3
 –3
2

Property

Let a, b, m, and n be four real numbers, satisfying a = m + n and b = m n. Then,

1.

mna  2 b
mna
 2 b

2.

m – n  a –2 b
m –
n 
a –2
b

(mn

)

Proof 1. In order to verify these expressions, suppose that t = ò m + ñn.

t 2 = ( ò m + ñ n) 2 = ( ò m + ñ n) ( ò m + ñ n)

= ( ò m ñn) + (ò m ñ n) + (ñ n ò m ) + (ñ n ñn)

(by the distributive property)

= m + ( ò m ñ n) + (ñn ò m ) + n

= m + n + 2ó mn

(by the commutative property)

a b
a
b

t 2 = a + 2 ñb

t =

a  2 b
a  2
b

2. We can prove the second part in the same way. Try it yourself.

Radicals

Radicals 19
19
19
Radicals 19

EXAMPLE

10 Simplify the expressions. Use the property to help you.

Solution

a.

e.

a.

c.

d.

b. c. 6  32 d. 6–4 2 f. 2  3 3 22 
b.
c.
6 
32
d.
6–4 2
f.
2 
3
3 22 
2
1 2 1
b.
5  26 3
2
2+1
2
1
3+2
3  2
6 
32
6  2
8
4 
2 2
2
4+2
4  2
6–4 2  6–2  2 2
6–4 2
6–2
2
2

2 6–2 2 2
2
6–2 2
2



6–2 8  4– 2 4+2 4  2
6–2 8
4–
2
4+2
4  2

2–

2
2

e. We need a 2 in front of ò 21 before we can use the property. Therefore, let us multi-

f.

ply the expression by

2 . 2
2 .
2
7+3 7  3 2 2  (5 21) 10  2 21 73 
7+3
7  3
2
2

(5
21)
10
 2
21
73
7
3
5
21

5
21
2
2
22
2
2
3+1
3
1
2
4
2
3
31
3
1

2
3
2
22
2
2

Check Yourself 1

1. Simplify the expressions.

a.

ñ 2 ñ 2

b. ñ 8 ò 32

c. ò 3x ó 12x

d. ñ 2 ò 18

e.

32 2
32
2

f.

12 3
12
3

g.

a  b 3 3 a  b
a 
b
3
3
a
 b

h.

1 49
1
49

2. Evaluate the following.

a. ( ñ 3) 2 + ( ñ 4) 4 – ( ñ 5) 2 – ( ñ2) 4

3. Simplify the expressions.

b.

( ñ a) 4 + ( ñ b) 2 – ( ñc) 6

a. ò 18 b. ò 50 c. ò 48 d. ò20 e. 5 ñ 3
a.
ò 18 b. ò 50
c.
ò 48
d. ò20
e. 5 ñ 3 – 2ñ 3 + ñ 3
f.
2 ñ 2 + 3 ñ 2 – 4 ñ 2
g.
ò50 – ò 18 – ò32
h. ó 12x + ó 27x – ó 48x
20
Algebra 8

4. Write each number as a pure radical.

a. 5 ñ 3 b. 3 ñ 5

 

c. 4 ñ 2

 

d. 2 ñ 5

 

e. a ñ b

 

5. Perform the operations.

 
27
27

75
75
 
12
12

a.

6

10 3
10
3

2

15 2
15
2

b.

5 ñ 2 – ñ 8

 

c.

ò27 – ò 48

d.

 

444

6. Compare the numbers.

 

a. 3 ñ 5 and 2 ò 10

b.

1 2
1
2

and

1 3
1
3

c.

–2 ñ 5 and –3 ñ 3

 

7. Write each expression in its simplest form.

 

a.

g.

3–2 2
3–2 2

b.

6  28
6  28
(
(

6 –

3–2 2 b. 6  28 ( 6 – 2)  ( 8  2 12

2) (

8  2 12 )
8  2
12 )

c.

h.

7 – 2 10
7 – 2
10
(
(

7 1)

(

d.

3  8
3 
8
8 – 28 )
8 –
28 )

e.

i.

9–4 5
9–4 5
3–
3–

5

f.

7 – 48
7 –
48
3  5
3 
5

EXAMPLE

Answers

1. a. 2

b. 16

c. 6x

d. 6

e. 4

f. 2

g.

1

ab

h.

1

7

2. a. 10

b. a 2 + b c 3

3. a. 3 ñ 2 b. 5 ñ 2

c.

4 ñ 3 d. 2 ñ 5 e. 4 ñ 3 f. ñ2

g. –2 ñ 2 h. ò 3x 4. a. ò75 b. ò45 c. ò 32 d. ò 20

e.

2 a  b
2
a
 b

5. a. 3 ò 30 b. 3 ñ 2 c. ñ 3 d. 3 ñ3 6. a. 3 ñ 5 > 2 ò10 b.

1 2
1
2

c. –2 ñ 5 > –3 ñ 3 7. a. ñ 2 – 1 –2 ñ 5 > –3 ñ3 7. a. ñ 2 – 1

b. 2 + ñ 2 c. ñ5 – ñ 2 d. ñ 2 + 1
b.
2 + ñ 2
c. ñ5 – ñ 2
d. ñ 2 + 1
11 Simplify the following.
a.
4 21
13
9
e. ñ 5 – 2 f. 2 – ñ 3 g. 4 h. 6 i.
e. ñ 5 – 2
f. 2 – ñ 3
g. 4
h. 6
i. 2
b.
6
6
72
1 16
c.
16
9 1  1  16
9
1
 1
16

Solution

Start from the radical on the ‘inside’ of the expression and move outwards.

a.

Start with ñ 9, on the inside, and work outwards.

b.

4  21  13  9 1 6 6 72 16  16
4
21
13
9
1
6
6
72
16
16

 4  21  13  3 4  21  16  4
4
21
13

3
4
21
16
4
21

4
4
25
4

5
9
41
6
6
72
6
6
72
16
4
1
6
6
72

6
6
36
2
6
6
 6
6
36
6
 6
36
6

3

c.

9 11   16
9
11 
16

25 1  16
25
1
16
1 4
1
4

  5

9 3  4 2
9
3
4
2

Radicals

Radicals 21
21
21
Radicals 21

EXAMPLE

12

Solution

a. Evaluate 2 2 2 2 c. xxx   5. Find x.
a. Evaluate
2
2
2
2
c.
xxx
 5. Find x.

b.

aaaa
aaaa

7. Find a.

a. Let x  2 2 2 2 2 x 2  ( 2 2
a. Let
x 
2
2
2
2
2
x 2
 (
2
2
2
2
)
x
2  2
 2 2 2 2
x
2
xx

2
x  x  2 x
x
x
x
2. Therefore,
b.
aaaa
 7
2
2
(
aaaa )
 7
49
aaaa 
7
a 
7
49

a 7

(take the square of both sides)

(remove a square root) ( 2 2 2  x )
(remove a square root)
(
2
2
2
x
)

(simplify)

2 2 2 2  2. 2 2 c. ( xxx  )  5
2
2
2
2
2.
2
2
c.
(
xxx 
)
5
  
25
xxxx 
5
x  
5
25

x 20

4. Multiplying Square Roots

To multiply expressions containing square roots, we used the product property of square roots: ñ a ñ b = ó a b . We can also use the distributive property of multiplication over addition and subtraction to simplify the products of expressions that contain radicals.

For example,

2 ñ 8  3 ñ 2 = 2  3  ñ 8 
2 ñ 8  3 ñ 2 =
2  3  ñ 8  ñ2
= 6 ò 16
= 6  4
=
24

ñ 2 ( ñ 3 + 2 ñ 2) = ñ 2 ñ 3 + ñ 2 2 ñ 2

= ñ 6 + 2 ñ2 ñ2

= ñ 6 + 2 2

= ñ 6 + 4

Multiply the rational part by the rational part and the radical part by the radical part.

22 Algebra 8
22
Algebra 8

EXAMPLE

13 Perform the operations.

a. ñ 2( ñ 5 + ñ 3)

b. ñ 3(3 ñ3 + 2 ñ 2)

c. 2 ñ 5(ñ 3 + ñ2 + 2 ñ 5 – ñ 7)

Solution

a. ñ 2( ñ 5 + ñ 3) = ñ 2 ñ 5 + ñ 2 ñ 3 = ó 2 5 + ó 2 3 = ò 10 + ñ 6

b. ñ 3(3 ñ 3 + 2 ñ 2)= ñ 3 3 ñ3 + ñ 3 2 ñ 2 = 3 ó 3 3 + 2 ó 3 2 = 3 3 + 2 ñ6 = 9 + 2 ñ 6

c. 2 ñ 5( ñ 3 + ñ 2 + 2 ñ 5 – ñ7)= 2 ñ5 ñ3 + 2 ñ 5 ñ2 + 2 ñ 5 2 ñ5 – 2 ñ5 ñ 7

= 2 ò15 + 2 ò 10 + 4ò 25 – 2 ò 35

= 2 ò15 + 2 ò 10 + 20 – 2 ò35

EXAMPLE

14 Multiply and simplify.

Solution

a. ( ñ 2 + ñ 3) ( ñ 2 + ñ 3)

b.

(5 + ñ 5) (5 + ñ 5)

 ( ñ 2 + ñ 3) b. (5 + ñ 5)  (5 + ñ

a. ( ñ 2 + ñ 3) ( ñ 2 + ñ 3) = ñ 2 ñ2 + ñ 2 ñ 3 + ñ 3 ñ 2 + ñ 3 ñ 3

ñ 2  ñ 3 + ñ 3  ñ 2 + ñ 3  ñ
ñ 2  ñ 3 + ñ 3  ñ 2 + ñ 3  ñ

= ñ4 + ñ 6 + ñ 6 + ñ 9 = 2 + 2 ñ 6 + 3 = 5 + 2ñ 6

b. (5 + ñ 5) (5 + ñ 5)= 5 2 + 2 5 ñ 5 + (ñ 5) 2 = 25 + 10 ñ5 + 5 = 30 + 10 ñ 5

EXAMPLE

15 Multiply and simplify.

Solution

a.

( ñ 2 + 1) ( ñ 2 – 1)

b. ( ñ 5 + ñ3) ( ñ 5 – ñ 3)

c.

(1 – 2 ñ2) (1 + 2ñ 2)

d.

( ñ a + 1) ( ñ a – 1)

e. ( ñ a + ñb) ( ña – ñ b)

a.

(ñ2 + 1) (ñ2 – 1) = ñ2 ñ2 – ñ2 1+1 ñ2 – 1 1 = (ñ2) 2 1 2 = 2 – 1 = 1

b.

( ñ 5 + ñ 3) ( ñ 5 – ñ 3) = (ñ 5) 2 – ( ñ3) 2 = 5 – 3 = 2

 

c.

(1 – 2 ñ 2) (1 + 2 ñ 2) = 1 2 – (2 ñ2) 2 = 1 – 4 2 = 1 – 8 = –7

 

d.

( ñ a + 1) ( ñ a – 1) = (ña) 2 – 1 2 = a – 1

(a 0)

 

e.

( ñ a + ñ b) ( ñ a – ñ b) = (ña) 2 – ( ñb) 2 = a – b (a, b 0)

EXAMPLE

16 Multiply and simplify.

a. 5  3  3– 5 b. 2  2  2– 2 c.
a. 5 
3 
3–
5
b.
2 
2 
2–
2
c.
abab
2
2
Solution
a. 3 –
3

5
5
(3
5)
(3 –
5)
3
–(
5)
9 – 5

4
2
2
2
b. 2 –
2

2
2
(2
2)
(2 –
2)
2
–(
2)
4 – 2
2
2
c. a –
a

b
b
ab–

Radicals

Radicals 23
23
23
Radicals 23

EXAMPLE

17 Multiply and simplify.

a.

c.

( ñ 3 + ñ 2) ( ñ 5 – 1)

(2 ñ 3 + 1) ( ñ 5 + 1)

b. ( ñ5 + ñ 3) ( ñ 7 + ñ 2)

d. (3ñ 2 – 2) ( ñ 5 – ñ3)

Solution

a.

b.

c.

d.

( ñ 3 + ñ 2) ( ñ 5 – 1)= (ñ 3 ñ5) – (ñ 3 1) + (ñ 2 ñ 5) – (ñ2 1)

= ò 15 – ñ3 + ò 10 – ñ2

( ñ 5 + ñ 3) ( ñ 7 + ñ 2) = ( ñ 5 ñ 7) + (ñ 5 ñ2) + (ñ3 ñ 7) + (ñ3 ñ 2)

= ò 35 + ò10 + ò 21 + ñ 6

(2 ñ 3 + 1) ( ñ 5 + 1) = (2ñ 3 ñ 5) + (2 ñ3 1) + (1 ñ5) + 1

= 2 ò 15 + 2ñ 3 + ñ5 + 1

(3 ñ 2 – 2) ( ñ 5 – ñ 3)= (3 ñ2 ñ 5) – (3 ñ 2 ñ 3) – (2 ñ5 + 2 ñ 3)

= 3 ò 10 – 3 ñ 6 – 2 ñ 5 + 2 ñ3

5. Rationalizing Denominators

Look at the numbers

1 3 10 , , , 5 2 12
1
3
10
, ,
,
5
2
12

and

19 . 13
19
.
13

They are all fractions, and each fraction

has an irrational number as the denominator. In math, it is easier to work with fractions that

Definition

have a rational number as the denominator.

Changing the denominator of a fraction from an irrational number to a rational number is called rationalizing tthe ddenominator of the fraction. Rationalizing the denominator does not change the value of the original fraction.

To rationalize the denominator, we multiply the numerator and denominator of the fraction

by a suitable factor. For example, if the fraction is in the form

a , b
a
,
b

we multiply both the

numerator and the denominator by ñb. a a b a  b ab a ab
numerator and the denominator by ñb.
a a
b
a  b
ab
a
ab
So,

. Note that
and
b b
b
bb
b
b
b
equivalent fractions.
Look at some more examples:
3
3
2
3
2
3
2
6

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
6 ,
2
3
3
3
33
33

3, and
3
3
3
33
3
35
35
2
3
52 
3
10
3
10 .

22
22
2
222
22
4

have the same value: they are

24 Algebra 8
24
Algebra 8

Definition

An expression with exactly two terms is called a binomial expression. Two binomial expressions whose first terms are equal and last terms are opposite are called conjugates, i.e. a + b and a b are conjugates.

If a 0 and b 0, then the binomials x ñ a + y ñ b and x ñ a y ñ b are conjugates. We can use conjugates to rationalize denominators that contain radical expressions.

For example, let us rationalize

1

. 3  2
.
3 
2

ñ 3 – ñ2 is the conjugate of ñ 3 + ñ 2.

Therefore, we multiply the numerator and the denominator by ñ 3 – ñ 2 to rationalize the denominator.

Remark

1 3 – 2 3  2 3 – 2
1 3 –
2
3 
2
3 –
2



1  ( 3 – 2) 3 – 2 3 – 2 3 – 2
1
(
3 –
2)
3 –
2
3 –
2
3 –
2
2
2
(
3
 2)
(
3 –
2)
(
3)
–(
2)
3–2
1



3– 2) ( 3 – 2) ( 3) –( 2) 3–2 1  2 ( a

2
2

(a + b)(a b) = a 2 b 2

( ñ a + ñ b)( ñ a ñ b) = a b where a 0 and b 0.

EXAMPLE

18 Rationalize the denominators.

a.

b.b  0. EXAMPLE 1 8 Rationalize the denominators. a. c. 6  2 1– 3

c. 0. EXAMPLE 1 8 Rationalize the denominators. a. b. 6  2 1– 3 d