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Information Communication Technology (ICT)

Learning Material for the CIM Course

January 11, 2012

What is your Previous Experience with Computers?
What is your Previous Experience
with Computers?
What is your Previous Experience with Computers? January 11, 2012 2

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 Work ● Email, memos and letters ● Numerical and financial analysis  School ●

Work

Email, memos and letters

Numerical and financial analysis

School

Instructions and grading

Assignments and research

Home

Play games and surf the internet

Communicate with friends and family

the internet ● Communicate with friends and family How many people have a computer in their

How many people have a computer in their home? School? Work? Other locations?

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A computer is…
A computer is…

A collection of hardware components that function together as a system

An electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory, that can…

of instructions stored in its own memory, that can… January 11, 2012 ● Accept data (input)
of instructions stored in its own memory, that can… January 11, 2012 ● Accept data (input)
of instructions stored in its own memory, that can… January 11, 2012 ● Accept data (input)

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Accept data (input)

Process the data according to specified rules (process)

Produce results (output)

Store results for future use (storage)

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Information processing cycle is comprised of four basic operations
Information processing cycle is
comprised of four basic operations
Information processing cycle is comprised of four basic operations January 11, 2012 5

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Why are computers so powerful?
Why are computers so
powerful?

A computer derives its power from its

Capability to perform the information processing cycle with amazing speed, reliability (low failure rate), and accuracy

Capacity to store huge amounts of data and information

Ability to communicate with other computers

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How does a computer know what to do?

Software – Set of instructions used to tell a computer what to do (computer program)

E.g. Microsoft Windows and Office etc.

Hardware – A physical component of a computer

E.g. keyboard, monitor, etc.

How many other examples of hardware and software can you think of?

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There are six major components of a computer
There are six major components of a
computer
There are six major components of a computer Can you give an example of these components?

Can you give an example of these components?

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There are six major components of a computer

 Output devices – Make the information resulting from processing available for use  Storage
 Output devices – Make the information
resulting from processing available for use
 Storage devices – Store instructions,
data and information when they are not
being used in memory
 Communication devices – Enables user
to send (transmit) and receive data,
instructions and information to and from
one or more computers

Can you give an example of these components?

Input Devices January 11, 2012 Data Processor Instructions Data Information Memory Communication Devices Information

Input

Devices

January 11, 2012

Data
Data

Processor

Instructions Data Information
Instructions
Data
Information

Memory

Communication

Devices

Information
Information

Output

Devices

Instructions Data Information
Instructions
Data
Information

Storage

Devices

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What is ICT ?

It consists of 3 technologies.

Information Technoogy Computer Technology Communication Techno;ogy

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Why are we using ICT?

Extending the learning experience

• Extending learning

• Enriching the curriculum

• Expanding learning horizons

• Helping with assessment

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Teaching and learning with ICT at key stages 1 and 2

ICT as a subject

ICT in subjects

ICT as a teaching and learning tool

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Policy

Planning

Practice

• Proof

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The 4 Ps

ICT tools that improve security

Firewall and virus protection

Software filters

• Accredited ISPs

Awareness of wireless technology issues

• Policy on using personal devices

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• Telecommunications is the exchange of information in any form (voice, data, text, image, audio,

Telecommunications is the exchange of information in any form (voice, data, text, image, audio, video) over computer based networks

Entertainment Information Transactions Communications E.g. High-definition TV Distance learning Cellular systems

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When computers are networked, two industries – computing and communications – converge, and the result

When computers are networked, two industries – computing and communications – converge, and the result is vastly more than the sum of the parts. Suddenly, computing applications become available for business-to-business coordination and commerce, and for small as well as large organizations.

The global Internet creates a public place without geographic boundaries – cyberspace – where ordinary citizens can interact, publish their ideas, and engage in the purchase of goods and services. In short, the impact of both computing on our society and organizational structures is greatly magnified.

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• Systems which are being used to network business processes and employees together and connect

Systems which are being used to network business processes and employees together and connect them to their customer, suppliers and other business stakeholders:

Internet

Web

Intranets

Extranets

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• The Internet is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure • It connects

• The Internet is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure

• It connects millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any computer can communicate with any other computer as long as they are both connected to the Internet

• Information that travels over the Internet does so via a variety of languages known as protocols

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• The explosive growth of the Internet is a revolutionary phenomenon in computing and telecommunications

The explosive growth of the Internet is a revolutionary phenomenon in computing and telecommunications

Thousands of business, educational, and research networks now connect millions of computer systems

The Internet does not have a central computer system. Instead each message sent has a unique address code so any Internet server in the network can forward it to its destination

No headquarters - International advisory and standards groups of individual and corporate members promote use of the Internet and the development of new communications standards

• The Web is a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet

The Web is a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet

An information-sharing model that is built on top of the Internet

The Web uses the HTTP protocol, only one of the languages spoken over the Internet, to transmit data

Web services, which use HTTP to allow applications to communicate in order to exchange business logic, use the Web to share information

The Web also utilizes browsers, such as Internet Explorer or Firefox, to access Web documents called Web pages that are linked to each other via hyperlinks

Web documents also contain graphics, sounds,

text and video

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• The Internet, not the Web, is also used for e-mail, which relies on SMTP,

The Internet, not the Web, is also used for e-mail, which relies on SMTP, Usenet news groups, instant messaging and FTP

The Web is just a portion of the Internet, albeit a large portion, but the two terms are not synonymous but are often confused and used interchangeably

• The most popular Internet applications are e-mail, instant messaging, browsing sites on the Web,

The most popular Internet applications are e-mail, instant messaging, browsing sites on the Web, and participating in newsgroups and chat rooms

You can make online searches for information at websites using search engines such as Google and Yahoo!

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• WAN (Wide area networks): Connecting a large geographic area such as a city •

WAN (Wide area networks):

Connecting a large geographic area such as a city LAN (Local area network): Connect within a limited physical area such as an office

VPN (Virtual private network): A secure network that uses the Internet to connect participating organizations

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Shared Databases and Software Packages PC PC PC Workstation Workstation Workstation Network Server PC PC
Shared Databases and Software Packages
Shared
Databases
and
Software
Packages
PC PC PC Workstation Workstation Workstation Network Server PC PC PC Workstation Workstation Workstation
PC
PC
PC
Workstation
Workstation
Workstation
Network
Server
PC
PC
PC
Workstation
Workstation
Workstation

Shared

Printer

Internetwork Processor to Other Networks

PC Workstation Workstation Workstation Shared Printer Internetwork Processor to Other Networks January 11, 2012 25

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• Client/server: Client computers (end user PC) are interconnected by LANs and share application processing

Client/server: Client computers (end user PC) are interconnected by LANs and share application processing with network servers, which also manage the networks

Have become the predominant information architecture of enterprise wide computing

Peer-to-peer networking: The file- sharing software in the P2P network connects your PC with one of the online users in the network

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Wireless Access Protocol Wireless Web Filter Proxy Communication Server Software Software Tower Mobile
Wireless Access Protocol Wireless Web Filter Proxy Communication Server Software Software Tower Mobile
Wireless
Access
Protocol
Wireless
Web
Filter
Proxy
Communication
Server
Software
Software
Tower
Mobile
Information
Appliance
(e.g. PDA)
HTML
WML
or XML

Foundation of wireless mobile Internet

and Web applications

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• Modems: Convert digital signal from a computer or transmission terminal at one end of

Modems: Convert digital signal from a computer or transmission terminal at one end of a communications link to analog frequencies that can be transmitted over telephone lines

A modem at the other end converts the transmitted data back into digital form Most common type of communications processor

January 11, 2012

• Internetwork processors: – Switches: Communications processor that makes a connections between

Internetwork processors:

Switches: Communications processor that makes a connections between telecommunication circuits and networks Routers: Interconnects networks based on different rules so a message can be routed to its destination Hubs: Port (connection for shared access to networks resources) switching communications processor Gateways: Connect networks that use different communications architecture

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• Major network management functions: – Traffic management – Security – Network monitoring – Capacity

Major network management functions:

Traffic management Security Network monitoring Capacity planning

January 11, 2012

• How can you control your computer? How can you tell it what you want

How can you control your computer? How can you tell it what you want to do now?

You have to give it your command

You deliver your command through the use of input devices

Keyboard

Mouse

Touch pad

Etc.

Additional Keys Special Keys Arrow Number Pad January 11, 2012 Keys 32

Additional

Keys Special Keys Arrow Number Pad
Keys
Special Keys
Arrow
Number Pad

January 11, 2012

Keys

The electronic mouse is the most popular pointing device used to move the cursor on the screen

What is a mouse? A hand held pointing device

An arrow is displayed on the screen which is called a pointer Performs four basic functions:

Pointing

Clicking (right and left)

Double clicking

Click and drag

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• When working with icons – Right Click (Click)  Select – Left Click 

When working with icons

Right Click (Click) Select

Left Click Icon options/management

Double-click Open

When working with buttons

Click Open

Click and drag

with buttons – Click  Open • Click and drag – Move (icons) – pointer on

Move (icons) – pointer on icon, then click and hold

Multiple selection – pointer on blank space, draw a rectangle to cover icons

When using the term “click” it assumed to reference the right click

to cover icons When using the term “click” it assumed to reference the right click functionality

functionality

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There is a wide spectrum of telecommunication based technologies available today

Telecommunications is the exchange of information in any form (voice, data, text, image, audio, video) over computer based networks

Entertainment Information Transactions Communications

E.g. High-definition TV Distance learning Cellular systems

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Businesses have become networked enterprises

Systems which are being used to network business processes and employees together and connect them to their customer, suppliers and other business stakeholders:

– Internet – Web

– Intranets

– Extranets

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It is important to understand some important characteristics and basic components of telecommunications

Network Alternative Examples of Alternatives Network Infrastructures Internet, intranet, extranet, wide area, local
Network Alternative
Examples of Alternatives
Network
Infrastructures
Internet, intranet, extranet, wide area,
local area, client/server, peer-to-peer
Media
Twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, fiber
optics, comm. Satellites, wireless, LAN
Processors
Modems, multiplexers, routers,
switches, hubs
Software
Network operating systems, web
browsers, telecommunications
monitors
Channels
Analog/digital, switched/nonswitched,
bandwidth alternatives
Topology/architecture
Star, ring, and bus topologies, OSI and
TCP.IP architecture and protocols

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The basic components of a telecommunications Network

1. Terminal

1

2. Telecommunications processors

2

3. Telecommunications channels

4. Computers

5. Telecommunications control software

3

4

1

PC, NC, Other Terminals

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5

2 2 Processor Processor 3
2
2
Processor
Processor
3

4

Computers

5 Software

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Even Microsoft Office includes general as well as specialty applications

• The most popular Microsoft Office suite applications are…

– Microsoft Word

Office suite applications are… – Microsoft Word – Microsoft Excel – Microsoft PowerPoint – Microsoft

– Microsoft Excel

– Microsoft PowerPoint

– Microsoft Access

– Microsoft Outlook

• The latest version of Microsoft Office is Office 2007

– Other versions include 2003, XP etc.

Focus of this class

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What is the purpose of Microsoft Word, PowerPoint and Excel?

Microsoft Word – A word processing program that allows you to create professional looking documents and revise them easily

Microsoft Excel – A spreadsheet program that allows users to organize data, complete calculations, make decisions, graph data and develop professional reports

Microsoft PowerPoint – A complete presentation graphics program that allows you to produce professional looking presentations

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Accessing, creating and modifying computer files is a common activity

File

– A block of arbitrary information or resource for storing information which is available to a computer program – Remains available for programs to use after the current program is finished

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There are hundreds of different types of files on a computer

File type of file is indicated by the file extension

.doc Microsoft Word

.xls Microsoft Excel

.pdf Adobe PDF file

.exe Program Executable

Software programs are designed to open specific types of files

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Folders provide structure and are used to organize a computer system

Folder

A named location in memory where files are stored Provides organization and structure

Can be created or deleted by user

Identified by a folder icon and folder name

Folder

Icon

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be created or deleted by user – Identified by a folder icon and folder name Folder

Folder

Name

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EXAMPLE

FOLDERS

FILES

Computer storage structure and hierarchy

Adobe Storage Devices Programs MSOffice Skype Windows Etc. Hard Drive (C:) Users Misc.doc Owner Misc.doc
Adobe
Storage
Devices
Programs
MSOffice
Skype
Windows
Etc.
Hard
Drive (C:)
Users
Misc.doc
Owner
Misc.doc Misc.doc
Hard Drive (C:) Users Misc.doc Owner Misc.doc Misc.doc … Homework Desktop My Documents Physical Computer My

Homework

Homework

Desktop

My

Documents

Physical

Computer

My Music

My Pictures

USB

(Flash

Drive)

CPSHwk.xls

My Music My Pictures USB (Flash Drive) CPSHwk.xls … Resume.doc Music.MP3 Music.MP3 Music.MP3 Music.MP3
My Music My Pictures USB (Flash Drive) CPSHwk.xls … Resume.doc Music.MP3 Music.MP3 Music.MP3 Music.MP3

Resume.doc

Music.MP3 Music.MP3 Music.MP3 Music.MP3 Music.MP3 Music.MP3 Music.MP3 Music.MP3
Music.MP3
Music.MP3
Music.MP3
Music.MP3
Music.MP3
Music.MP3
Music.MP3
Music.MP3

CPSHwk.ppt

Optical Disk (CD- ROM)

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What is the purpose of Microsoft Word, PowerPoint and Excel?

Microsoft Word (.doc)– A word processing program that allows you to create professional looking documents and revise them easily (documents)

Microsoft Excel (.xls)– A spreadsheet program that allows users to organize data, complete calculations, make decisions, graph data and develop professional reports (workbooks)

Microsoft PowerPoint (.ppt)– A complete presentation graphics program that allows you to produce professional looking presentations (presentations)

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What are the parts of a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation?

Title bar Tool Bars Rulers Tool Bars January 11, 2012 Status Bar Task Pane 46
Title bar
Tool Bars
Rulers
Tool Bars
January 11, 2012
Status Bar
Task Pane
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What are the parts of a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation?

Active Slide
Active
Slide

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are the parts of a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation? Active Slide January 11, 2012 Presentation Notes 47

Presentation Notes

47

Slides

Views

You already know how to perform many tasks in PowerPoint

The following tasks examples of tasks that are completed following the same steps as in Word

FILE: Saving, opening, closing and printing

EDIT: Undo, redo, copy, paste, find, replace VIEW: Zoom, ruler access, header and footer

INSERT: Inserting a picture, chart, table, slide numbers

FORMAT: Formatting font, bullets, alignment

TOOLS: Spell check, research

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Opinions of Mr. B. Singhateh of CPS 111 programme is gratefully acknowledged.

January 11, 2012

Thanks for your attention !!!

January 11, 2012