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Information Communication

Technology (ICT)

Learning Material for the


CIM Course

January 11, 2012


What is your Previous Experience
with Computers?

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 Work

Email, memos and letters

Numerical and financial analysis
 School

Instructions and grading

Assignments and research
 Home

Play games and surf the internet

Communicate with friends and family

How many people have a computer in


their home? School? Work? Other
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locations? 3
A computer is…

 A collection of hardware components


that function together as a system
 An electronic device, operating under
the control of instructions stored in
its own memory, that can…

Accept data (input)

Process the data according to specified
rules (process)

Produce results (output)

Store results for future use (storage)

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Information processing cycle is
comprised of four basic operations

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Why are computers so
powerful?
 A computer derives its power
from its

Capability to perform the
information processing cycle with
amazing speed, reliability (low
failure rate), and accuracy

Capacity to store huge amounts of
data and information

Ability to communicate with other
computers
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How does a computer know what to
do?

 Software – Set of instructions


used to tell a computer what to
do (computer program)

E.g. Microsoft Windows and Office
etc.
 Hardware – A physical
component of a computer

E.g. keyboard, monitor, etc.

How many other examples of hardware


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and software can you think of? 7
There are six major components of a
computer

Can you give an example of these components?


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There are six major components of a
computer
 Output devices – Make the information
resulting from processing available for use
 Storage devices – Store instructions,
data and information when they are not
being used in memory
 Communication devices – Enables user
to send (transmit) and receive data,
instructions and information to and from
one or more computers

Can you give an example of these


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components? 9
Processor Communication
Devices
Instructions
Data
Information

Input Output
Data Memory Information
Devices Devices
Instructions
Data
Information

Storage
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Devices 10
What is ICT ?

It consists of 3 technologies.
• Information Technoogy
•Computer Technology
•Communication Techno;ogy

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Why are we using ICT?
• Extending the learning experience

• Extending learning

• Enriching the curriculum

• Expanding learning horizons

• Helping with assessment


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Teaching and learning with ICT
at key stages 1 and 2
• ICT as a subject

• ICT in subjects

• ICT as a teaching and learning tool

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The 4 Ps
• Policy

• Planning

• Practice

• Proof
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ICT tools that improve security
• Firewall and virus protection
• Software filters
• Accredited ISPs
• Awareness of wireless technology
issues
• Policy on using personal devices
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• Telecommunications is the exchange of
information in any form (voice, data,
text, image, audio, video) over
computer based networks
–Entertainment  Information Transactions
 Communications
–E.g. High-definition TV  Distance learning
Cellular systems

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When computers are networked, two industries
– computing and communications – converge,
and the result is vastly more than the sum of the
parts. Suddenly, computing applications
become available for business-to-business
coordination and commerce, and for small as
well as large organizations.

The global Internet creates a public place


without geographic boundaries – cyberspace –
where ordinary citizens can interact, publish
their ideas, and engage in the purchase of
goods and services. In short, the impact of both
computing on our society and organizational
structures is greatly magnified.
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• Systems which are being used to
network business processes and
employees together and connect them
to their customer, suppliers and other
business stakeholders:
–Internet
–Web
–Intranets
–Extranets

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• The Internet is a massive network of networks, a
networking infrastructure
• It connects millions of computers together
globally, forming a network in which any
computer can communicate with any other
computer as long as they are both connected to
the Internet
• Information that travels over the Internet does so
via a variety of languages known as protocols

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• The explosive growth of the Internet is a
revolutionary phenomenon in computing and
telecommunications

• Thousands of business, educational, and research


networks now connect millions of computer systems

• The Internet does not have a central computer


system. Instead each message sent has a unique
address code so any Internet server in the network
can forward it to its destination
– No headquarters - International advisory and
standards groups of individual and corporate
members promote use of the Internet and the
development of new communications
January standards
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• The Web is a way of accessing information over the
medium of the Internet
– An information-sharing model that is built on top
of the Internet
• The Web uses the HTTP protocol, only one of the
languages spoken over the Internet, to transmit data
– Web services, which use HTTP to allow
applications to communicate in order to exchange
business logic, use the Web to share information
• The Web also utilizes browsers, such as Internet Explorer
or Firefox, to access Web documents called Web pages
that are linked to each other via hyperlinks
– Web documents also contain graphics, sounds,
January text and video
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• The Internet, not the Web, is also used
for e-mail, which relies on
SMTP, Usenet news groups, instant
messaging and FTP

• The Web is just a portion of the


Internet, albeit a large portion, but the
two terms are not synonymous but are
often confused and used
interchangeably
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• The most popular Internet
applications are e-mail, instant
messaging, browsing sites on the
Web, and participating in
newsgroups and chat rooms
• You can make online searches for
information at websites using
search engines such as Google
and Yahoo!
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• WAN (Wide area networks):
Connecting a large geographic area
such as a city
• LAN (Local area network): Connect
within a limited physical area such
as an office
• VPN (Virtual private network): A
secure network that uses the
Internet to connect participating
organizations
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Shared
Databases
and
PC PC PC Software
Workstation Workstation Workstation Packages

Network
Server
Shared
Printer
PC PC PC
Workstation Workstation Workstation Internetwork
Processor to
Other
Networks
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• Client/server: Client computers (end
user PC) are interconnected by LANs
and share application processing with
network servers, which also manage
the networks
–Have become the predominant information
architecture of enterprise wide computing
• Peer-to-peer networking: The file-
sharing software in the P2P network
connects your PC with one of the
online users in the network
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Wireless
Access
Protocol
Mobile
Wireless
Web Filter Proxy Information
Communication
Server Software Software Appliance
Tower
(e.g. PDA)

HTML WML
or XML

Foundation of wireless mobile Internet


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and Web applications 27
• Modems: Convert digital signal from a
computer or transmission terminal at
one end of a communications link to
analog frequencies that can be
transmitted over telephone lines
–A modem at the other end converts the
transmitted data back into digital form
–Most common type of communications
processor

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• Internetwork processors:
–Switches: Communications processor that
makes a connections between
telecommunication circuits and networks
–Routers: Interconnects networks based on
different rules so a message can be routed
to its destination
–Hubs: Port (connection for shared access
to networks resources) switching
communications processor
–Gateways: Connect networks that use
different communications architecture
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• Major network management functions:
–Traffic management
–Security
–Network monitoring
–Capacity planning

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• How can you control your computer? How can you
tell it what you want to do now?

• You have to give it your command

• You deliver your command through the use of


input devices

– Keyboard
– Mouse
– Touch pad
– Etc.
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Additional
Keys

Special Keys Arrow Number Pad


Keys
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The electronic mouse is the most
popular pointing device used to move
the cursor on the screen
• What is a mouse?
– A hand held pointing device
• An arrow is displayed on the screen
which is called a pointer
• Performs four basic functions:
– Pointing
– Clicking (right and left)
– Double clicking
– Click and drag
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• When working with icons
– Right Click (Click)  Select
– Left Click  Icon options/management
– Double-click  Open
• When working with buttons
– Click  Open
• Click and drag
– Move (icons) – pointer on icon, then click and
hold
– Multiple selection – pointer on blank space,
draw a rectangle to cover icons
When using the term “click” it
assumed to reference the right click
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functionality 34
There is a wide spectrum of
telecommunication based technologies
available today
• Telecommunications is the exchange of
information in any form (voice, data, text,
image, audio, video) over computer based
networks
– Entertainment  Information Transactions
 Communications
– E.g. High-definition TV  Distance
learning Cellular systems

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Businesses have become networked
enterprises
• Systems which are being used to network
business processes and employees
together and connect them to their
customer, suppliers and other business
stakeholders:
– Internet
– Web
– Intranets
– Extranets

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It is important to understand some
important characteristics and basic
components of telecommunications
Network Alternative Examples of Alternatives
Network Internet, intranet, extranet, wide area,
Infrastructures local area, client/server, peer-to-peer
Twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, fiber
Media optics, comm. Satellites, wireless, LAN
Modems, multiplexers, routers,
Processors switches, hubs
Network operating systems, web
browsers, telecommunications
Software monitors
Analog/digital, switched/nonswitched,
Channels bandwidth alternatives
Star, ring, and bus topologies, OSI and
Topology/architecture TCP.IP architecture and protocols
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The basic components of a
telecommunications Network
1. Terminal 1
2. Telecommunications processors
2
3. Telecommunications channels
3
4. Computers
4
5. Telecommunications control software
5
4
1 2 2 Computers
PC, NC,
Other Processor Processor 5
Software
Terminals 3
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Even Microsoft Office includes general as
well as specialty applications
• The most popular Microsoft Office suite applications
are…
– Microsoft Word
– Microsoft Excel
– Microsoft PowerPoint
– Microsoft Access
– Microsoft Outlook

• The latest version of Microsoft Office is Office 2007


– Other versions include 2003, XP etc.

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class
What is the purpose of Microsoft Word,
PowerPoint and Excel?

• Microsoft Word – A word processing


program that allows you to create
professional looking documents and revise
them easily
• Microsoft Excel – A spreadsheet program
that allows users to organize data, complete
calculations, make decisions, graph data
and develop professional reports
• Microsoft PowerPoint – A complete
presentation graphics program that allows
you to produce professional looking
presentations
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Accessing, creating and modifying
computer files is a common activity
• File
– A block of arbitrary information or resource for
storing information which is available to a
computer program
– Remains available for programs to use after
the current program is finished

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There are hundreds of different types of
files on a computer
• File type of file is indicated by the file
extension
– .doc  Microsoft Word
– .xls  Microsoft Excel
– .pdf  Adobe PDF file
– .exe  Program Executable
• Software programs are designed to
open specific types of files

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Folders provide structure and are used
to organize a computer system
• Folder
– A named location in memory where files
are stored
– Provides organization and structure
– Can be created or deleted by user
– Identified by a folder icon and folder name

Folder Folder
Icon Name

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EXAMPLE
Computer storage structure and
FOLDERS
hierarchy
FILES
Storage Adobe
Devices Programs MSOffice
Windows Skype
Hard Etc.
Users
Drive (C:) Desktop
... ...
My
Misc.doc Owner Documents
Misc.doc
Misc.doc
Physical
Computer … My Music

My Pictures
USB Homework CPSHwk.xls
(Flash …
Drive) Resume.doc CPSHwk.ppt

Music.MP3
Music.MP3
Optical Music.MP3
Music.MP3
Music.MP3
January 11, 2012Disk (CD- Music.MP3
Music.MP3
Music.MP3
ROM) 44
What is the purpose of Microsoft Word,
PowerPoint and Excel?
• Microsoft Word (.doc)– A word processing
program that allows you to create professional
looking documents and revise them easily
(documents)
• Microsoft Excel (.xls)– A spreadsheet program
that allows users to organize data, complete
calculations, make decisions, graph data and
develop professional reports (workbooks)
• Microsoft PowerPoint (.ppt)– A complete
presentation graphics program that allows you
to produce professional looking presentations
(presentations)

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What are the parts of a Microsoft
PowerPoint presentation?
Title bar
Tool Bars

Rulers

Tool Bars

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Status Bar Task Pane
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What are the parts of a Microsoft
PowerPoint presentation?

Slides

Active
Slide
Views

January 11, 2012 Presentation Notes


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You already know how to perform many
tasks in PowerPoint
• The following tasks examples of tasks
that are completed following the same
steps as in Word
– FILE: Saving, opening, closing and printing
– EDIT: Undo, redo, copy, paste, find, replace
– VIEW: Zoom, ruler access, header and
footer
– INSERT: Inserting a picture, chart, table,
slide numbers
– FORMAT: Formatting font, bullets,
alignment
– TOOLS: Spell check, research
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Opinions of
Mr. B. Singhateh of CPS
111 programme is gratefully
acknowledged.

January 11, 2012


Thanks
for your
attention !!!
January 11, 2012