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MTT-SME-HUST

Machine tool
lecture

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PREFACE

Machine tools are metal cutting machine tools, factory equipments


for producing machines, instruments, and tools of all kinds
Metal part manufacturing
Definite form, dimension
History: The first is the wood lathe.
The wood lather:
XIV, in China: Grinding, Milling machine machining sword,
wheel…
XVII, in Russia: designed the lathe
Machine Tools win 30% national economic with many kind of
machines, different accuracy
In Vietnam: HN Mechanical Factory, Duyen Hai Mechanical
Factory…
Lathe machine: T616, T620
Milling machine: P623…
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PREFACE
Designation:

Vietnam:
T - turning, K - drill, P - milling, M - grind…
The first number all purpose
The following one is base dimension and
degree improvement. T620, T812A

Soviet Union:
1 - Turning, 2 - Drill, 3 - Grind, 6 - Milling..
(1K62, 3B12, 6H82..)

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Chapter I
Introduction of machine tools

1.1 Metal cutting theory


1.2 Machine tool Classification
1.3 Auxiliary Motions in Machine
tools
1.4 Gearing diagrams of machine
tools
1.5 Cutting speed equation diagrams
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1.1 Metal cutting theory


Forming by geometric method
Example:
- Machining general cylindrical
surfaces.
Q T
- Machining shaped cylindrical surfaces

T
Q Q
T1

T T2
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1.1. Metal cutting theory


Surfaces used in machining technology:
Circular baseline surfaces
→ cylinder, cone, threads …
§Baseline §ö êng sinh
ö êng chuÈn (C) Generator line(S)(S) C1 C2 S

(a)
a) - Cylinder
H×nh trô (b)
b) Cone
- H×nh c«n
(Tape)
C S S

(c)- H×nh
a) Shaped
tang trèng (d)
b) Thread
- H×nh d¹ng ren
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1.1. Metal cutting theory


Straight baseline surfaces
Generator line: straight line; curve line, spline , ...
C S
C
S
S C

a. b. c.
Special surfaces:
Cam, balding, involutes curve… C
S

C
a) b)
* To define generator line and baseline is relative.
* Choose generator line, baseline kinematic diagram of the machine is
completely different
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1.1. Metal cutting theory


Forming surface in machine using two generator
types
Generator: line, cylinder, involutes curve, acsimet
helical
→ Need movement: rotating and straight reciprocating.
Generator: hyperbolic, ellipse, helical, etc
→ Need movements: un-uniform rotary and straight
motions.
To make the process of surfaces to make
baseline and generator Forming motions

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1.2 Part surface forming methods


2.1 Surface forming motions on Machine tools: the way to create
generator and baseline
Definition: Surface forming motions are all relative motions between
cutting
tool and work piece which
directly create the surface Q
of part.
Classification:
Simple surface forming I
I
motions: Forming motions Q
are independent a. b. II
II
Complicated surface
T t
forming motion: Q Q
Forming motions are regular
related each other. I I
Example: Sd
For thread surface forming:
Q1 rotate 1 revolution,
II II
T2 moving a distance t ST
S Sng
Machine-tool and Tribology
a. b.
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1.2 Part surface forming methods


Simple and complicated integrated forming motions :
Example: cone forming motions
Q1: Simple motion, T1 & T2: Complicated forming motions

Forming motions can be performed by cutting tool or work piece


when designing a machine, need to well arrange the mechanisms
which perform the surface forming motions, let the mechanisms are
simplest and get highest accuracy

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1.2.3 Surface forming on machine tool


3.1 Surface copy method:
Cutting edge is the same as generator line and always tangle
with part
Shaving cutting disk

Dao ®Þnhcutting
Shaped h×nh tool Indexing

Cutting edge is also generator line, creating the part surface when
moving base on the baseline
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1.2.3 Surface forming on machine tool


3.2 Surface generation cutting method :
Cutting edge and surface generator line
can be different but cutting edge always
tangle to part surface
QuÜ tÝch of tangled points is generator line
of part surface
Surface and cutting edge is independent
Note: With the same cutting method, cutting tool, but different relative
position between cutting tool and work piece will result different
surface

a. b. c.
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1.3 Basic motions in Machine tool


To obtain a part of the required shape and size on a
machine tool
The shaped surface is depend upon the motions imparted
The work
Cutting tool
The shape of the tool

Basic motions in machine tool include the following


Working motions: may be imparted either to the workpiece being
machined or to the cutting tool.
Auxiliary motions: can be per formed either manually or
automatically.
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1.3 Basic motions in Machine tool


Working motions:
Primary cutting motion: provides cutting speed for
removing the chip
Lather, grind, drill...The cutting speed of a rotary cutting
motion is
V= πdn/1000 m per min
Plane, broach, mortise...The cutting speed of
translational motion is
V=2.l.nhtk /1000 m per min
Feed motion
Lather: l(m), s (mm/v), time _ T
n.T=l/s s=l / (n.T)
Longitudinal (traverse), cross, radial etc...
Auxiliary motions: indexing, surface generating motions,
control motions, setting up motions...
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1.4. Gearing diagrams of machine tools


It is conventional representation of interconnections
of its separate mechanisms and elements
transmitting motions to various machine members.
Kinematic chains: motion is transmitted to the
operating units, also serve to change the speeds
and direction of motion of the operation units, to
coordinate the motions of various units of the
machine tool, etc.
Gearing diagrams or Kinematic diagrams:
the conventional representation of the kinematic
chains of a machine tool in a single plane.

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1.4. Gearing diagrams of machine tools


Principal conventional symbols used in
gearing diagrams

Spindle nose Chain drive

Milling shaft
Loose cylindrical gear

Lead sreww Floating cylindrical gear

Flat belt drive Stationary cylindrical gear

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1.4 Gearing diagrams of machine tools


Kinematics diagram of turning machine

§C 1
tp
2

iv Ph«i
Work part
3
4
5
®éng
ôTail stock
is V Cutting tool
Dao
6 Tooldao
Bµn port
7 Lead
VÝt me screw

tx

Speed chain: Motor -1-2-iv-3-4-5-part


Feed chain: Part-4-5-is-6-7-8-lead screw

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1.4 Gearing diagrams of machine tools


Chain equation: is equation of transmission calculation
beginning the first chain to the end chain:
Speed chain equation: n®c.i12.iv.i34.k=ntc
Feed chain equation: 1revtc.i45.is.i67.tx=Sm
i12,, i34, const
k, correction index
tx, lead screw pitch
n®c, ntc,1revtc, Sm: change
Adjusting:
Adjustment device: iv, is
Formula:
Iv= ntc / (n®c.i12.i34.k)
Is= S / (i45.i67.tx)
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Chapter two
Typical parts and the mechanisms of
machine tool

§1 Drive systems of machine tool


§2 Kinematics calculation of
speed gearboxes
§3 Feed Boxes

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Chapter two
typecal part and the mechanisms of
machine tool

§4 Mechanisms for Straight


Movement
§5 Ratchet and Geneva_type
Gearings
§6 Shaft couplings
§7 Planetary Transmissions

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2.1 Drive systems of machine tool


A drive is a system of mechanisms used to actuate
the operate members of the machine tool.
Machine tool (MT) drives include step pulley drives,
gear box drive and multi-speed induction motor
drives.
The source of motion is an electric motor. Its can be
located beside the machine, inside it, or into the
headstock, etc
The gear box is now prevalent in MT as the drive for
the principle movement.

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2.1 Drive systems of machine tool


Example:
Kinematic chain equation:
n®c . i® . ibr = nTC
Z1 Z2 Z3 Ii
The transmission ratio
D2
nB §
i= Iii
nC §
i® = D1 / D2 I
ibr= ZC® / ZB® D1

Z'1 Z'2 Z'3

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2.2 Actuating mechanisms


2.1 Classification:

The transmission form:

Centralized transmissions: using 1 motor, flat belts, driving step


pulley
Grouping transmissions: using 1 motor for 1 machine group
Independent transmissions: using 1 motor for 1 machine, 1
motor for 1 motion → common.

The following level:

Step transmissions:
For limit the speed or the feed - The lathe T616 - 12 speeds from
44 rpm → 1980 rpm.
Stepless transmissions:
For continuously varying the speed or the feed rate - Grinding
machine , CNC machine.
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2.2 Actuating mechanisms


2.2 Mechanisms in the speed-box
1. Infinitely Variable - Speed Transmission
a. Variable –pitch sheave drive:(Variable speed belt drive)

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2.2 Actuating mechanisms


2.2 Mechanisms in the speed-box
1. Infinitely Variable - Speed Transmission
a. Variable –pitch sheave drive:(Variable speed belt drive)

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2.2 Actuating mechanisms


2.2 Mechanisms in the speed-box
1. Infinitely Variable - Speed Transmission
b. A toroidal stepless transmission:

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2.2 Actuating mechanisms


4 5
c. Hydraulic system V

1 – oil filter
2 – Pump
3
3 – Throttle valve
4 – Piston
5 – Cylinder
2
Change the speed:
- Change pump delivery 2
- Change the volume of the
discharged oil

1
d. Using Servo Motor

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§éng c¬ Servo

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2.2 Actuating mechanisms


2. Stepping mechanisms.
a. Step pulley transmission:
Motor → belt → Shaft I → pulley
I
- Direct:
Close plug → Shaft II i2
Z4
- Indirect: i1 Z1
chèt nTC
Open plug → Intermediate shaft
Ii
→ Shaft III → shaft II
n§C
Z2

Iii
Z3

H¸c - ne Shaft

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2.2 Actuating mechanisms


b. Sliding – gear transmissions:
From Shaft I → III to 2 sliding gear group:
Sliding 2 - speed: Z1/Z1’ - Z2/Z2’
Sliding 3 - speed: Z3/Z3’ - Z4/Z4’ - Z5/Z5’
Changing for 6 speeds: Z1 Z2
nTC1= nI .. Z1/Z1’ . Z3/Z3’ I Z4
nI Z3 Z5
nTC2= nI . Z2/Z2’ . Z3/Z3’
nTC3= nI . Z1/Z1 ’. Z4/Z4’
Ii
nTC4= nI . Z2/Z2’ . Z4/Z4’
nTC
nTC5= nI . Z1/Z1’ . Z5/Z5’ Z'1 Z'2
Iii
nTC6= nI . Z2/Z2’ . Z5/Z5’
Z'4
Z'3 Z'5
The number of spindle speeds: Z= p1.p2..pi
With pi - the product of the transmission numbers
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2.2 Actuating mechanisms


C. Changing – gear
To provide for the appropriate i®ai
mesh of pick -- off gears.

ic«n nTC
n®c . i® . a/b . ic = nTC

b a
Change speed → change transmission ratio a/b
Using in automatic machines and single purpose
machines.
In normal machines using change - gear
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2.3 Feed boxes


Work task:
To provide the required feed rates and feeding forces
machining different work pieces.
a. Norton gearboxes:
a
Change
B¸nh r¨ng-
gear b c
thay thÕ

C¬ cÊu
Norton
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2.3 Feed boxes


Z0: Carrying tumble gear,
Satellite rotate along shaft II A Zi
Z2

Z1

I
B¸nh r¨ng
®Öm Z0

Z0
A0

Iii

Za, Z0 sliding gear Ii

Za, Z0, Zi mesh together. A Za


The values of gear ratio:
Z1/Za; Z2/Za; … Zi/Za
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2.3 Feed boxes Z1 Z2


Z3
b. Mechanism with sliding - key: nIi
Z4 Sliding key
Then kÐo
To provide four different ratios: Ii
1 2 3 4
Gear wheels are keyed
nI
on the drive shaft (I) i
and mesh respectively with gear wheel
on the driven key shaft (II) Z'1 Z'2
Z'3 Z'4

3 1
1 - Driving key
2 - Gear
3 - Space
2
(these feed gearboxes are used in
small , medium – size drilling machines and turret lathe)
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2.3 Feed boxes Z1 Z2

c. Meander – type mechanism


Z1 Z2 (I)

(I)
(II)

Z4
(II) Z3
Z0

Z4
(III)
Z3
(III)

Z5
Z5

Type 1: * Shaft I (the drive shaft): 3 gear clusters.


* Shaft II (the intermediate shaft): 4 gear clusters.
* Shaft III (the driven shaft): sliding gear Z5 mesh 4 gear Z3 for four
ratios.
Type 2: Carries tumbler gear Z0 (as Norton – type gearbox), and move sliding
gear, meshed with the latter for more rations.
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2.3 Feed boxes


d. Change – gear quadrant as a feed gearbox
B
3
- This type provides for
a a 1
B
the appropriate mesh of pick off gears. I 4

c b b A c
R
2
II
A0

- The transmission ratio can be up to 1/8 A


d d

III

- Commonly two pairs of pick off gears are


AA BB
sufficiet to obtain the required feed rates. b
6
c 1

1 8 8

3
2

7 2

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2.3 Feed boxes


d. Change – gear quadrant as a feed gearbox

Shaft I to change - gears a/b, c/d → Shaft III:


itt = a/b . c/d
Change itt by changing a, b, c, d → change radius of
gear
A0 = Const → Use Quadrant

→ Quality mesh with changing a, b, c, d

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2.4 Special mechanisms B

1. Reversing Mechanisms C
Combined gears
The schemes of reversing mechanisms
with sliding spur gears (a, b).
The schemes of reversing mechanisms
A
with bevel gears and a duplex claw clutch (c)

Z1
I Z1 Z2
Z1 Z2
I
Z2 M
Z3
Z0 Ii I
Z4 Tay g¹t
Ii Z'1
Z'2
Z3
Ii
b.
c.
a.
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2.4 Mechanisms for Straight Movement


Rack and pinion transmissions
Using for the principal movement, the feed movement,
l2
and various auxiliary movements

T2
l1+l0 = l1/ (z.t) + l2 / (z.t)
t
= (l1+l2)) / (z.t)
T3
l1

Rack
Gear
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2.4 Mechanisms for Straight Movement


b. Worm and pinion gears,

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2.4 Mechanisms for Straight Movement


b. Lead screw and nut assembly

c. Ball screw and nut transmissions

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2.4 Mechanisms for Straight Movement


Cam mechanism:
- Converting rotating movement into straight movement

- There are disc cams and cylindrical cams

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2.5 Ratchet and Geneva_type Gearings


To produce single-way movements
In its forward stroke, the pawl
engages a tooth of the ratchet
wheel, which is fastened to the
table. This causes the ratchet
wheel and lead screw to rotate
a fraction of a revolution. On the
return stroke, the pawl slips over
the ratchet teeth

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2.5 Ratchet and Geneva-stop


Geneva - stop
The main relations between the parameters
Z= 3 ÷ 8
2β = 2π/Z
α + β = π/2
R = l.sin β = l.sin π/z
with z – being the number of slots
β - half the angle between starwheel slots
α - half the central angle of the disc rotation

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2.7 Planetary Transmissions


Combining 2 separate motions

Any two members can be driving members, the third one is driven member
The differential contains central gear Z1 and Z4 and satellites (an additional wheel)
rotated by worm gear 2

Z4 is a driving member, the carrier is a


driven member, and worm gear 2 is
stationary.
The carrier is a driving member, gear Z4 is
a driven member, and worm gear 2 is
stationary.
Gear wheel Z1 is a driving member
(rotated by worm gear 2), gear wheel Z4
is a driven member, and the carrier is fixed.
The carrier is a driving member, so gear Z1,
and gear wheel Z4 are driven member.
Gear wheels Z1 and Z4 are driving members
and the carrier is a driven member.

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Chapter Three
kinetics of lathes and milling
machines
§1 Engine Lathes
§2 Milling machines
§3 Some types of Gear - cutting machines

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3.1 Engine Lathes


1.1 The Engine Lathe Purpose
– Are the most popular machine tool, account for 25÷50% in
mechanical factory.
– Are designed for various jobs: turning external cylindrical, tapered,
and contour surfaces, boring cylindrical and taper holes, machining
face surfaces, cutting external threads, drilling, counterboring,
countersinking, and reaming holes, counterfacing, cutting off, etc

– Accuracy: level 6, 7.
– Gloss level 8: Ra= 0,63 µm
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3.1 Engine Lathes


1.2 Main Unit of the Engine Lathe:

Permanent Units: Control Units:


Handwheel, hand lever
Speed gearbox(1)
Rack and pinion screw
Feed gearbox(3) threads
Movable Units: Cross slide transverse
movement
Carriage (5) Control panel (8)
Apron (6) The others:
Tailstock (7) Luynet
Guideways (4)
Headstock
Change – gear (2)

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3.1 Engine Lathes


Main Unit of the Engine Lathe

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3.2 1K62 - Engine Lathe


Safety glass Electrical
Speed gearbox Chuck Tailstock
box
Tool post

Feed gearbox
Lead screw
Machine Frame Gear bar Carriage Chip pan Shaft
Machine Frame

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3.2 1K62 - Engine Lathe


2.1 Specifications:
Maximum diameter of work piece: 400mm.
Number of spindle speeds 23: speed range,
12,5 ÷ 2000 rpm.
Feed range:
Longitudinal: 0,07 ÷ 4,16 mm per rev
Cross traverse: 0,035 ÷ 2,08 mm per rev.
Pitch of screw threads cut:
Metric: tp= 1 ÷ 192 mm.
Inch thread: 24 ÷ 2 revolutions per inch.
Module thread: 0,5 ÷ 48π mm.
Pitch thread: 96 ÷ 1
Driver: N= 10kW; n= 1450 rpm.
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3.2 1K62 - Engine Lathe


2.2 Kinematics machine:
There are two kinematic chains:
Speed chain: from motor to the spindle.
Feed chain: - From the spindle to the lead screw
(thread cutting) or the feed shaft (transmitting rotation)
- It consists of
- The pitch – increasing gear train
- Reversing mechanism
- Pick off gear train with quadrant feed gearbox
- Apron gear transmission

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3.2 1K62 - Engine Lathe

Kinematic diagram of 1K62 engine lathe


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3.2 1K62 - Engine Lathe


1. The speed chain:
Friction Clutch
Ly hîp ma s¸t

iv
ii

iii v
Low speeds
Motor vi
High speed
There are two kinematic chains:
Low speeds

High speeds
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3.2 1K62 - Engine Lathe


The short kinematic chain: provides six higher speeds
Z = 2x3x1 = 6
The long kinematic chain: provides 18 more lower speeds
Z = 2x3x2x2x1 = 24
However Actually, form 3rd shaft → 4th shaft is only three ratios

18 low speeds n1, n2,..n18


6 high speeds: n19, n20.. n24
Actually n18 ≈ n19 total 23 speeds

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3.2 1K62 - Engine Lathe


2. The feed chain
a. Thread cutting:
Metric, module, inch, diametrical –pitch thread cutting, cutting threads
of higher accuracy, extra- coarse screw thread…

From the spindle VI VII, VIII, the change gear the feed
gearbox the feed shaft:
1 rev pitch tp (mm)

The change gear – VII&IX includes: itt = 64/97 or 42/50


Norton Cone includes two main kinematic chains (ics)
One chain, for inch and diametrical – pitch thread cutting, 28 pitch
values
IX C2 XI (NT quay) X C4 XII XIII XIV C5 the lead screw
The other chain, for metric and module thread cutting, 28 pitch values
IX 35/35 X 28/25 (NT)XI 35/35 XII XIII XIV C5 the lead
screw.
The multiplying transmission, XII, XIII, XIV (igb)

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3.2 1K62 - Engine Lathe


To cut the left thread:
From VII though gear train: i®c = 35/28 x 28/35 VIII
The kinematic diagram:
1rev tp

i®c
tp

iTT
tx

ics igb

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3.2 1K62 - Engine Lathe


Equation of thread cutting in general
1 rev x i®c x itt x ics (OR 1/ ics) x igb x tx = tp
Metric threads: standard pitch tp; itt = 42/50; The Norton is driver

⇒tp = KQT.Zn.igb tp ~ Zn, igb


Module threads: m = tp/π - itt= 64/97; the Norton is driver

tp = K1.Zn.igb m.π= K1.Zn.igb m= Km. Zn. Igb; Km= K1/π


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3.2 1K62 - Engine Lathe


Inch thread: K: 1 inch - 25,4 mm.
K=25,4/tp tp=25,4/K - itt= 42/50; the Norton is driven.

K2.igb/Zn = tp = 25,4/K K = KA.Zn/igb

Diametrical – Pitch Thread: Dp: is a calculated value in toothed gearing.


Dp=25,4/m, m=tp/ π Dp=25,4.π/tp tp= 25,4.π/Dp
itt= 64/97; the Norton is driven.

K3.igb/Zn = tp = 25,4.π/Dp Dp = KP.Zn/igb

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3.2 1K62 - Engine Lathe


Extra- coarse screw thread: machining thread with huge step
Enlarge 4 standard thread types up to 2, 8, 32 times.
Motion chain: spindle V IV III VI VII Enlarge module

High accurate thread cutting: Requiring the shortest motion chain (used
directly change-gear box as feed gear box): spindle VII VIII itt IX C2 XI
C3 XIV C5 Lead screw
Plane thread: machining plane - Acsimet on the 3 jaw chuck:
Feed cutting motion chain is the same as cutting normal thread, however from
CX to XIV 28/56 (Skip friction clutch) XV (shaft) Tool carriage crossing
lead screw (tx=5)
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3.2 1K62 - Engine Lathe


b. The transmitting rotation:
NThe same cutting thread, to XIV (C5 disengaged) Overrunning
clutch(C0) - 28/56 (feed shaft) 27/20.20/28 worm gearing
4/20 Shaft XIX
the cross traverse feed: Engaging clutches C8, C9, to the
cross slide feed screw though 40/61.61/20 xix
k=4
Z=20
xiii
the longitudinal feed
Engaging clutches C6, C7, though 14/66 Z=40 Z=45

to XXI and pinion z10


Z=37
Z=37 Lång kh«ng
xx xxii
Z=45

xxii
xx

Z=37
Z=37 xix
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Z=40

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3.2 1K62 - Engine Lathe


2.3 Special Mechanisms.
1. Overrunning Clutch.
To one shaft two diverse motions:
A slow working motion, A rapid idle motion
Figure presents a roll –type overrunning clutch
Body 1 keyed on a shaft, Outer ring 2
Several rolls 3 placed in recesses of body 1
Pins 4 (up to 3), Springs 5
28
To rapid motor
xiv
To motor
xv xvii The feed shaft
56
Overrunning clutch

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N=1KW 61
n=1410 v/p

3.2 1K62 - Engine Lathe


2.Half-nut.
The movements of the saddle and the cross slide .

Carriage
(2) (4) (6)
(4)

(1)
(5)

There are two halves 1 and 2 of a split nut


Power feed is engaged by closing half nuts
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3.2 1K62 - Engine Lathe


3. Overload Protection
Devices

Safety friction clutches

Drop- worm devices,


T630 (1A62)

Ratchet tooth claw clutches:


T616

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3.3 Milling Machines


Milling Machines: 16th century , 1/10 in machines
1815: Horizontal knee - type milling machines
1884: Bed - type milling machines
In VN: P623, P613
2.1 General Purpose:
Are used for machining flat surfaces, contoured surfaces (die
impression, punches, cams, ..), external and internal surfaces
thread, surfaces of revolution, helical grooves, cutting gear, etc..

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3.3 Milling Machines


2.2. Classification of Milling Machines (MM)
- Following purpose:
+ General purpose MM
+ Copying MM
+ Continuous MM

- Following groups :
+ Knee - type MM: plain horizontal, vertical, ram head

+ Planer - type: single column, open side, ..

+ Specialized MM: thread, keyway, spline - shaft…

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3.3 Milling Machines

Vertical knee type MM, model Ram head knee type MM


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3.4 6M82 Milling Machines


Specifications
Horizontal Spindle axis
Spindle speed: 18 level (from 30 - 1500 rpm)
Feed rates: 18 level (SL,a = 23,5-1800mm/min)
Working table: 320 x 1250 mm
Maximum table travel:
Longitudinal : 700 mm
Cross : 240 - 260 mm
Vertical : 380 mm
Maximum angle of table swivel: ± 450
Spindle motor: N = 7 kW , n = 1440 rpm
Feed motor: N = 1,7 kW, n = 1420 rpm
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3.4 6M82 Milling Machines


06 07 08 09 10 11 12

13

14

15

16

25
17

18
19

19
22 22
24

20
23
05
21

04 26
20

03
30 29 28 27

02

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3.4 6M82 Milling Machines


Main Units:
Column, speed gearbox 1

Over-arm 2:

Tool 3

Spindle 4

Working Table 5: Sd

Working Table 6: Sn

Feed gearbox

Bearing Brackets 8

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3.4 6M82 Milling Machines

38 82 71

v
26 37 47 30 15 M7 t=6x1 t2=6x1 xii
t 1=6x1 t=6x1
18 xi
iv 33 M5
22 33 22 16 18 x 13
39 36 19
ix 37 20
40 M2 44 M4 vii
iii 33 M6
Viii 26
M3
28 33 18 vi 35 18
ii 13 M1 34 28
37
v 43
54 16 22 19 21
N= 7 kW iv 40 57
i
n=1440 27
vg/ph 36 18
26 iii 64
45 18 40 24 18 27 44
36 ii
t=6x1 t=6x1 24
i
t 3=6x1 26

N= 17 kW
n=1420 rpm

The kinematic diagram


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3.4 6M82 Milling Machines


The kinematic machines

Primary movement chain:

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3.4 6M82 Milling Machines


The feed movement chain:
The longitudinal, cross and vertical feeds:

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3.4 6M82 Milling Machines


40
M3
4 2

13

40 M1 1
45 2 3 1

18
a) b) c)

a. Idle position
b. Indirect transmission: 1→2→3→4
c. Direct transmission: 1→2

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3.4 6M82 Milling Machines


Rapid traverse: 3 axis

Special Mechanisms
Clutches on output shaft VI:
+ Ball type safety clutch M2 (1)
+ Claw clutch M3 (7)
+ Disk friction clutch M4 (6)

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3.4 6M82 Milling Machines


A single handwheel pre-selector control mechanism
disk
disc
Dial

handwheel

lock
stop sleeve

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3.5 Gear cutting Machines


3.1 Gear - Cutting Methods
– There are two principal methods
– The form-cutting method
The edges of cutting tool formed
to the shape of the tooth space to be cut
Each cutter in the set is designed for cutting a limited
range of numbers of teeth.
By this method: not very accurate since, errors
associated, errors inherent in the cutting tool.
It is used, in repairs, in making single gears, in some
cases for cutting herringbone gear, and in roughing the
tooth spaces.

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3.5 Gear Cutting Machines


– The generating method
Is base upon the meshing of the cutter with the gear by the
relative rolling motion of the cutter and the work
The cutting tools: a gear, gear rack or worm, shaping cutter.
This method: cannot compare in output with form cutting
Can cut gears with any number of teeth of the same
module, including modified gears

Helical gear

Rack

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3.5 Gear Cutting Machines


3.2 Classification of Gear Cutting Machines
Purpose
Spur and helical gears
Straight bevel gears and curved tooth bevel
Worm wheels, gear racks..…
Type of machining and tool
Gear – hobbing machines
Gear shaping, gear planing, gear broaching...
Machining accuracy
Roughing the teeth
Finishing the teeth, micro-finishing the teeth

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3.6 Gear - Hobbing Machines, Model 5E32


1.Purpose
A general purpose machines,
cutting spur gear, helical gears,
worm wheels.
2. Main Units
1 - bed (body)
2 - Column
3 - Control panel
4 - hob slide;
5 - Motor ;
6- Work table
7- Work piece;
8- Part back head
9,10- change gearbox.
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3.6 Gear - Hobbing Machines, Model 5E32


N=0,18kW Extended tool shaft
n=1400vg/ph
76
18
t=5x1 §4 9 77 72
120 78
16 79 vii vi
k=1 25
18 t=10x1 25
72
vii vi 80 v
25 25 35 16
v xxx
k=4
25 10 xxiv t=5x1 xxxii 16
20 20
25
50 xxix
iv 20 xxxi
xiv xxviii
k=5 k=1 35
d1 c1 b1
30 10
xxv a1
xv 24 d
M3 xxvi xiii k=2
xvi
c
t=10x1 20 46viii 30 30 82 f
96 k=1 x M5 xii b
xxvii xi
25 a
25 d =240 e
xxiii 2 iii 30 ix 81 M4 xi
20 32 B B
46 30 i 30 k=1
25 N=1kW
M1 35 A iia
M2 K=4 n=1440vg/ph 42
19
xxii DS A
§2 xix
34 36 k=16 iib

xxi xvii 35 48
19
The kinematic diagram: 16
16

§1 36 xx
45
N=45kW xviii

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and Tribology d1=126 80
a2 b2 c2 d2

3.7. Gear - Shaping Machines


Machining external and internal
spur gears, gear clusters, helical
gears..
D = 20 - 1600mm ;
β= 300 ,
mmax = 12mm
Designation: 512, 5A12, 514,
5A14, …

– Principle: Repeat movement matching


gears (1 is tool& 1 is gear blank)
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3.7. Gear - Shaping Machines


3.2 Gear Shaping Machines 514

Main Units
1 - Bed
2 - Working table
3 - Spindle head
4 - spindle radial
- infeed mechanism

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3.7. Gear - Shaping Machines

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Machine-tool model 514
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3.7 Gear - Shaping Machine


Symbolic mechanisms of the machine
Cutting infeed mechanism with counting and switching - off device

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3.7 Gear - Shaping Machine

Mechanism for
table oscillation

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1
3.7 Gear - Shaping Machine
– Cutting spindle for cutting helical gears.
Movable part of helical guide - 1
Shaping cutter - 2

– Mechanism for adjusting cutter travel length


relative to gear blank
2

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Chapter four
basic structures of CNC machine tool

§1. Introduction to CNC Machine Tool


§2. Major elements in a CNC Machine Tool
§3. Working and Auxiliary Motions in CNC Machine Tool
§4. Work piece clamping and automatic tool change
§5. Spindle drives and Feed Drives
§6. Guide ways and ball screw – nut
§7. Measuring Systems

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4.1. Introduction of CNC Machine Tool


Development

Time
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4.1. Introduction of CNC Machine Tool

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4.1.Introduction
§1. Introductionto
ofCNC
CNCMachine
MachineTool
Tool
1.2. CNC machines
1947: J.Parson began experimenting for 3 – axis curvature date to
control. machine tool motion for the production of aircraft
components
1949: Parson awarded a US Air Force contract to build the first NC
machine
1951: MIT was involved in the project
1952: NC achieved when MIT demonstrated that simultaneous 3 –
axis movements were possible using a laboratory – build
controller and a Cincinnati HYDROTEL vertical spindle
1955: after refinements NC become available to industry.

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§1.
4.1.Introduction
Introductionto
ofCNC
CNCMachine
MachineTool
Tool
1.2. CNC machines
1947: J.Parson began experimenting for 3 – axis curvature date to
control. machine tool motion for the production of aircraft
components
1949: Parson awarded a US Air Force contract to build the first NC
machine
1951: MIT was involved in the project
1952: NC achieved when MIT demonstrated that simultaneous 3 –
axis movements were possible using a laboratory – build
controller and a Cincinnati HYDROTEL vertical spindle
1955: after refinements NC become available to industry.

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4.1. Introduction of CNC Machine Tool


1.2. COMPARISSIONS BETWEEN GENERAL PURPOSE MACHINE
TOOL AND CNC MACHINE
a. Structure:
The basic motions is the same as conventional machine tool.
Difference:
o The design and construction of CNC greatly differ from that of
convention machine tool
o The computer controls all operator of machine
o Movements on CNC are driven by a separated servo motors
and controlled directly by CNC controller (computer), located
on a coordinate and machine axes.
o Each movement is always inspected by measuring system
then feedback to controller

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4.1. Introduction of CNC Machine


Feature Machine tool NC CNC
Change clamp, NC program input NC program read to
blank, tool by controler by hole controller via keyboard,
Input hand paper band disk, communicated
port then saved to
memory
Technology Controller processes Computer processes all
index of the information of the input data and
manufacturing motion of the cutting feedback signals to
Control
process (v,s,t) tool then give control actuators (may
was controlled controlled signal to use error analysis and
by hand wheels actuators compensative software)
Offline manual Automatic online Automatic online
measuring, measure and feedback measure and feedback
Inspecti checking (if to controller to online to controller, integrated
on error, adjust manufacturing online tool wear
remanufacture) process detection and tool wear
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4.2. Major elements of a CNC machine


Machine structure

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4.2. Major elements of a CNC machine


Machine structure

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4.2. Major elements of a CNC machine


Machine structure – motion transmission
1. Spindle and feed rate motions:
Feed rate motions are driven by separated servo motors which are
controlled directly by computer
Hand manual motions are disappear
CNC Turning machine:
There are at least two feed rate motions always be controlled: X and Z

Beside that there may have more motions such as A, B, C


rotation along X, Y, Z axes
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4.2. Major elements of a CNC machine


Machine structure – motion transmission
CNC Milling machine
There are at least 3 feed rate motions which are driven
directly by servo motors: 3 translations along X, Y, Z

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4.2. Major elements of a CNC machine


Machine structure – motion transmission
2. Spindle and feed rate motions:
Motion transmission mechanism:
Servo motor and electronic controlled clutchs, safety mechanisms
Lead ball screw – nut with tiny backlash which helps to reduce
load, gaps…
Each motion has its own inspection device
Spindle motion:
Consist with cutting required power
Against friction, loss energy in mechanisms
Stability at every cutting conditions.
Enough power for high acceleration without vibration
Actuators can be DC motor, DC servo motor, AC motor or
hydraulic servo motors, etc
Spindle speed up to 12000 - 20000 rpm

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4.2. Major elements of a CNC machine


Machine structure – motion transmission
Feed rate motions:
Standardization axes, rigid mechanism
Feed rate ranging from 18m/min to 42m/min, acceleration from
10m/s2 to 40m/s2
Lead ball screw – nut helps to change from rotation into
translation motion with leak of backlash, loss energy
Actuators can be hydraulic servo motor, (step motor), AC or
DC motor

Motion Working table


transmission

Servo motor
Ball screw Measuring
Nut system

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4.2. Major elements of a CNC machine


Work piece holder and Tool changer
1. Work piece holder:
Functions:
Accurate positioning work piece
Fasten work piece and against cutting force
High accuracy, fast and rapid work piece change, easy operation
Position: on the spindle of Turning machine, on working
table of Milling machine
CNC Turning machine:
Self centered chuck, against centrifugal force at high speed rotation

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4.2. Major elements of a CNC machine


Work piece holder and Tool changer
CNC Milling machine:
Mechanical work piece holder: đòn kẹp, gối đỡ, bulông kẹp với đầu chữ T
Mechanical Vice fasten by hand
Pneumatic Vice, automatically fasten and automatically adjust fastening
force, self-centered
Magnetic work piece holder table.
Special Jig
Multi pallets system
Integrated robot and chuck, automatic hydraulic fastener
(fastening force depend on weight, material, dimension and
cutting depth, etc)

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Work piece clamping – Tool changer


2. Tool changer (device):
In general, CNC machine has an Automatic Tool changer
module which allow the CNC machine automatically change
cutting tools
Depending on machining type and working area, automatic
tool change module may include:
Automatic tool changer
Magazine
Tool register
ATC can be turret, or magazine
a) Turret: When a tool change NC
command is executed, the turret will
fast rotate let the new cutting tool is
in right possition (with in from 7s to 0,2s)
Illustration of Turret on
Turret may store up to 8 or 16 tools, Lathe CNC machine
even more than that
A large CNC Milling Center may have up to 3 Turrets used
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Work piece Clamping – Automatic Tool change

Turret ATC
Turret ATC

Lathe CNC Machine

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Work piece clamping – automatic Tool change


b) Tool magazine (Often used for
more than 48 cutting tools)
Chain magazines used
together with tool changer
Robot arm

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Work piece clamping – Automatic Tool Change


Tool changer arm
Moving tool called by NC
program, spindle moves
to tool change position
Arm moves to tool
change position, rotates
90o grips tool in
magazine and spindle
Tools are pushed out of
spindle and magazine
Arm rotates 180o to
change tool
Tools are pushed in to
spindle and magazine
Arm rotates 900 then
moves back to starting
position (all happens in
3-16s)

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Work piece clamping – Automatic Tool change


Self operated magazine:
Spindle is moved to tool changing position
Magazine gets in and grips tool in spindle
Spindle moves up to push out the cutting tool
Magazine moves the tool called by NC program to the spindle position
Spindle moves down to push in and fasten tool
Magazine moves back to starting position

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Work piece clamping – Automatic Tool change

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Spindle and guide ways


1. Spindle: produce the cutting motion
Pneumatic
Lathe CNC machine: the structure is Cylinder ATC
similar to it of lathe machine with Piston
hydraulic chuck but manufactured at Pulley
higher accuracy
Milling CNC machine: the spindle Bearing
integrated with automatic pneumatic
tool fastener
Release Tool: compressed air Disk spring
pushes the piston moves down ->
spring is compressed -> release
(nhả mỏ kẹp), by the way, Limitation Gripper
compressed air get into gripper
then push out tool from spindle Bearing
Tool fastening : tool has been push
into spindle, compressed air Standard
pushes piston to move upward, Cone
make gripper moves upward that Tool post
fastens the tool (kẹp chặt đuôi
dụng cụ) Rack pinion
Tool

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Spindle and guide ways


2. Guide ways: using rolling friction instead of sliding
friction
Reduce friction, backlash, Improve responsibility
Standardizing: improving quality and accuracy
Lubricating: oil mist or direct injection regular lubricating
Satisfying the requirement of high acceleration, small
displacement, discrete displacement against stick slip in
sliding guide ways

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Spindle and guide ways


3. Ball screw – Nut: transmitting motions “without”
backlash, high responsibility
Translation transmission: each moving axis has its own driving
and measuring system which is directly controlled by CNC
Nut is often made in 2 parts then assembled in order to reduce
backlash. There are 2 type of nut assembly
Longitudinal assembly: used in motion transmission which requires high
accuracy, tiny backlash

Left ball screw Right ball screw


Ball

Left ball screw

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Spindle and guide ways


Radial assembly: Used in motion transmission which requires smooth
and easy for displacement

The backlash and other errors of ball screw can be


inspected and save in memory of the machine for automatic
compensating

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Measuring system

1. Functions and classification:


Function: collecting the status of all the
parts of the machine during working
condition
Classification:
Base on motion:
Translation measuring system
Rotation measuring system
Measuring signal:
Digital measuring system
Analogue measuring system
Measuring method:
Absolute measuring system
Incremental measuring system
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Measuring system
2. Direct and indirect measuring system:
Direct measuring system
The displacement is directly inspected by measuring
device. This measuring type ignores the errors of every
motion transmission. The sensor can be optical ruler or
induction ruler

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Measuring system
Incremental:
The displacement is inspected through a related
displacement. Then from measured result, the expected
displacement can be calculated based on the regular
relationship between that 2 displacements
Sensor normally is optical disk

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Measuring system

3. Absolute and Incremental measurements:


Absolute measurements:
Ruler is encoded in the way let it can tell directly the
position of the reader without any calculation from
previous position so every time power on the machine, the
measuring system can say immediate the position of the
object on the ruler
Measuring range depends on the working area and coding
area. There are 2 types of ruler
Rotational ruler: Ruler is a disk mounted on the rotational
objects. This type is often used for indirect measuring system
Linear ruler: Ruler is a bar (Optical or induction) and mounted
directly on the linear moving object. This type is often used
for direct measuring system.

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Measuring system
Incremental measuring system:
Thang đo là lưới vạch đơn giản hình thành từ các vạch sáng tối
xen kẽ nhau, có khoảng cách bước là Δs.
Đầu đo đếm số vạch sáng tối, và chuyển cho bộ ĐK tính toán vị trí
tức thời của bàn máy dựa vào vị trí trước đó.
Hệ ĐK phải được nhận biết một lần vị trí tuyệt đối, sau đó mới có
thể tính được vị trí tức thời với sự hỗ trợ của đo vị trí tương đối.
Điểm tuyệt đối được gọi là điểm tham chiếu của máy R
L = số xung đo x Δs

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2.5 Đặc điểm cấu trúc máy CNC - hệ thống


đo
Hệ thống đo dùng thước chắn có 2 hệ thống của
sổ chiều đếm
Có 1 nguồn sáng với hệ thống quang học phát ra chùm sáng
//
Bố trí 2 tế bào quang điện cho 2 xung cảm nhận f1 và f2

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2.5 Đặc điểm cấu trúc máy CNC - hệ thống đo


4. Đo tương tự: Resolver
Đo theo nguyên tắc cảm ứng điện từ
Điện áp tỷ lệ vào tốc độ quay
Cấu tạo gồm:

Stato: 2 cuộn dây vuông góc với nhau


Cấp điện áp cùng biên độ, tần số nhưng lệch pha nhau 90 độ:
U1=Uscosωt và U2=Ussinωt
Sinh ra từ trường tuỳ thuộc điện áp được cung cấp
Rôto: thường có 1 cuộn dây có góc φ với từ trường
Điện áp cảm ứng trên cuộn dây RT phụ thuộc vào vị trí của nó
trong từ trường Ur=Ussin(ωt+φ)
Ur=O khi mặt phẳng cuộn dây vuông góc với từ trường, nó
được sử dụng làm điểm cân bằng cần thực.

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CHƯƠNG 6: KHÁI QUÁT LẬP TRÌNH NC


6.1 Lập trình thủ công & lập trình máy
1. Lập trình thủ công:
Chương trình NC được viết trực tiếp theo một hệ
điều khiển CNC
Thời gian lập trình tuỳ thuộc vào độ phức tạp hình
học của chi tiết và khả năng của hệ điều khiển.
Khả năng mắc lỗi dễ xảy ra và rất khó nhận biết,
hiện nay thường sử dụng các phần mềm mô phỏng
để kiểm tra chương trình.
2. Lập trình bằng máy (phần mềm)
Sử dụng hệ thống phần mềm đồng bộ từ thiết kế
đến tạo lập chương trình NC, với phần mềm mô
phỏng quá trình gia công.
Hỗ trợ việc tính toán toạ độ, tính toán các thông số
công nghệ

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6.1 Lập trình thủ công & lập trình máy


Có thư viện về các thông số của dụng cụ cắt,
thiết bị gá kẹp...
Có hỗ trợ tối ưu hoá quá trình gia công.
Có thư viện về các loại máy công cụ CNC, cùng
các hệ điều khiển tương thích
Các bước lập trình máy:
Thiết lập hình dáng hình học của chi tiết và phôi
(CAD)
Xác định các bước gia công, Phần mềm hỗ trợ lựa
chọn dụng cụ và các thông số công nghệ tương
ứng, phụ thuộc vào vật liệu lựa chọn gia công.
Mô phỏng quá trình gia công, lựa chọn máy công
cụ, lựa chọn hệ điều khiển sau đó xuất ra file NC,
đưa sang máy CNC.(CAM)

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6.2 Lập trình CNC


1. Tiêu chuẩn hoá lập trình NC (ISO)
Chương trình NC chứa các thông tin về hệ lệnh
đường đi và hệ lệnh đóng ngắt
Chương trình NC hình thành từ một chuỗi các câu
lệnh, nó được dùng để điều khiển máy công cụ
CNC.
Các lệnh được mã hoá dưới dạng chữ số, chữ cái
và các ký tự đặc trưng.
Tiêu chuẩn ISO-6983 đã qui định giới hạn chung
của các lệnh cũng như cấu trúc cơ bản của một
chương trình NC.
Các nhà sản xuất hệ điều khiển đã mở rộng phạm
vi mã hoá các lệnh NC đặc thù cho hệ điều khiển
mình trên cơ sở các qui định chung của ISO-6983.
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6.2 Lập trình CNC


2. Cấu trúc cơ bản chương trình NC
Bắt đầu chương trình: (VD: %PHAY018)
Có các ký tự đặc trưng do nhà sản xuất hệ ĐK qui định: %
Tiếp theo là tên của chương trình do người lập trình đặt, có
tối đa 6 ký tự, bao gồm các chữ cái và chữ số
Đảm bảo để dễ dàng quản lý, lưu trữ và truy nhập khi cần thiết.
Thân chương trình:
Bao gồm các câu lệnh đựơc sắp đặt theo trình tự nhất định
để gia công chi tiết tối ưu nhất.
Các câu lệnh chứa các thông tin về hình dáng hình học,
công nghệ và kỹ thuật của chương trình.
Thông thường một câu lệnh cung cấp đủ thông tin cho mỗi
bước gia công.
Kết thúc chương trình:
Chương trình được kết thúc bởi lệnh M30 hoặc M02.
Các chú thích diễn giải đặt trong ngoặc đơn sẽ được bộ ĐK
bỏ qua.
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6.2 Lập trình CNC


2. Cấu trúc câu lệnh, từ lệnh
Cấu trúc câu lệnh:
(VD: N0035 G01 X10.01 F100 S2000 M08 LF)
Đầu tiên là số thứ tự của câu lệnh N0035, chỉ được cấp
một lần trong một câu lệnh. Nó không làm ảnh hưởng
đến tác động của từng câu lệnh.
Điều kiện hành trình dịch chuyển của dụng cụ cắt “G01”
cùng với 2 chữ số quyết định quĩ đạo chuyển động của
dụng cụ cắt.
Toạ độ điểm đích: X10.01, Y_, Z_cùng với các con số là
toạ độ của điểm đích mà dụng cụ di chuyển đến.
Các tham số nội suy: I_, J_, Z_ cùng với các con số là
toạ độ của tâm cung tròn theo giá trị tương đối với điểm
xuất phát.
Lượng chạy dao F100 cùng với các con số nó dùng để
17/10/2017
điều khiển tốc độ Machine-tool
dịch chuyển của dụng cụ cắt, Mặc123
and Tribology
định
là mm/ph, hoặc mm/vòng.

MACHINE TOOLS 41
MTT-SME-HUST

6.2 Lập trình CNC


Tốc độ quay của trục chính: S2000 đựoc sử dụng để điều
khiển số vòng quay của trục chính theo v/ph
Chức năng phụ trợ M08 là chức năng cuả máy dùng để
ĐK các thông số công nghệ, được nhậpvào sau các từ
lệnh F, S, T trong một dòng lệnh có không quá 3 chức
năng máy
Chức năng dụng cụ cắt T06 dùng để chỉ đinh dụng cụ cắt
được sử dụng, ý nghĩa của địa chỉ này không giống nhau
trong các hệ ĐK và thuờng có hai nhiệm vụ cơ bản sau:
Gọi dụng cụ được chỉ định trong ổ chứa dao
Truy cập kích thước hiệu chỉnh dụng cụ cắt trong bộ nhớ của
máy
Cần lưu ý các con số tuỳ thuộc vào các chữ cái địa chỉ sẽ
có ý nghĩa là một mã lệnh hoặc là một giá trị khi đó nó có
thể có giá trị âm, dạng của con số tuỳ thuộc vào qui định
của từng hệ điều khiển khác nhau
Thông thường có 3 nhóm từ lệnh trong một câu lệnh: Điều
kiện hành trình, CácMachine-tool
17/10/2017
toạ độandđích,Các
Tribology
chức năng công124
nghệ
và phụ trợ

6.2 Lập trình CNC


Cấu trúc của từ lệnh
Từ lệnh được hình thành từ một chữ cái địa chỉ và
các con số,
Ý nghĩa và trình tự của các từ lệnh được qui định
trong từng hệ điều khiển (do nhà sản xuất quyết
định)
VD: N0035 G01 X10.01 F100 S2000 M08 LF
N0035: Mô tả số của câu lện NC cho địa chỉ N
G01: Ý nghĩa mã lệnh 01 cho địa chỉ G, dịch chuyển
của dụng cụ cắt là đường thẳng với lượng chạy dao
tương ứng
X10.01: Số 10.01 có ý nghĩa là một giá trị cho địa
chỉ Z trong mối tương quan với địa chỉ G01, cho biết
dụng cụ cần dic chuyển đến toah độ X10.01 với
lương chạy dao đã cho và trong hệ toạ độ tức thời
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6.3 Mã lệnh cơ bản theo ISO- 6983


Chuyển động chạy dao nhanh G00
C/đ nội suy đường thẳng với lượng chạy dao xác định G01
C/đ nội suy cung tròn cùng chiều kim đồng hồ G02
C/đ nội suy cung tròn ngược chiều kim đồng hồ G03
Thời gian dừng chuyển động chạy dao (s) G04
Dừng chính xác G09
Đổi đơn vị đo ra mm G20
Đổi đơn vị đo ra inch G21
Gọi chương trình con G22
Lặp lại đoạn chương trình G23
Huỷ hiệu chỉnh bán kính dụng cụ cắt G40
Hiệu chỉnh bán kính bên trái đường biên dạng G41
Hiệu chỉnh bán kính bên phải đường biên dạng G42
Vào và ra dụng cụ song song với biên dạng G45
Vào và ra dụng cụ theo một nửa đường tròn G46

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6.3 Mã lệnh cơ bản theo ISO- 6983


Vào và ra dụng cụ theo một phần tư đường tròn G47
Huỷ dịch chuyển điểm không tương đối G53
Dịch chuyển điểm không G54,... G59
Lập trình theo kích thước tuyệt đối G90
Lập trình theo kích thước tương đối G91
Lượng chạy dao mm/phút G94
Lượng chạy dao mm/vòng G95
Chu trình khoan (phay) G81
Chu trình tiện rãnh G79
Toạ độ theo trục X, Y, Z X_,Y_, Z_
Toạ độ tâm cung tròn theo toạ độ tương đối X, Y, Z I_, J_, K_
Số vòng quay của trục chính (vòng/phút) S_
Lượng chạy dao F_
Chỉ định dụng cụ T_
Thay dụng cụ M06
Mở trục chính quay phải M03
Mở trục chính quay trái M04
Mở dung dịch trơn nguội M07, M08
Tắt dung dich trơn nguội M09
Kết thúc chương trình M30

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6.3 Mã lệnh cơ bản theo ISO- 6983


Ví dụ chương trình NC

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