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: 2 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
PAPER – 2 REVIEW

The syllabus for Section – A (Design Part) is less as compared to Section – B (Production &
Industrial Engineering). Even though the marks allotted to both sections are same. Maximum
questions in Section – A were based on numerical problems. So, students are advised to first
concentrate on Section – A. Section – B has more theory part. So, if students had fundamental
knowledge about the subject they could have easily attempted theory questions. Then newly added
subject Mechatronics & Robotics had highest weightage in Section – B as compared to other
subjects. So, greater importance needs to be given to it.
As regards to the compulsory questions in ‘Section – A’: 80% are numerical problems and
20% are theoretical. Further questions were TOM having the weightage of 60%. However in
‘Section – B’ the weightage of theoretical and numerical questions were 60% and 40% respectively.
Further more IM & OR and Production were having a weightage of 40% only equal to that for
Mechatronics & Robotics. It is expected that the above review will help the students in future.

SUBJECT WISE REVIEW
Subjects Level Marks
Mechanics Easy 12
SOM Easy 52
Section (A)
TOM Easy to moderate 96
MD Easy to moderate 80
Production Easy 62
IM & OR Easy 32
Section (B) Material Science Easy 52
Mechatronics & Robotics Easy to tough 84
Maintenance Engineering Easy 10

Getting 170 to 200 marks is a great achievement in view of the time constraints and QCAB.
Subjects Experts,
ACE Engineering Academy

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: 3 : Mechanical Engineering

Section – A

01.
(a) A 100 N block A rests on a 150 N block B, which rests on a rough horizontal plane. The
block A is tied with a weightless horizontal cord to a wall. A force P is applied to the block
B at 45 to the horizontal as shown in the figure. If the coefficient of friction is 0.25 between
the blocks and 0.3 between block B and the floor, determine the tension T in the cord and
the value of the force P so that block B is at the point of sliding.

A Cord
P 100N
45o B
150N

(12 M)

Sol:
1 = 0.25

100 N
P A
 = 45
150 N B 2 = 0.3

Free body diagram ‘B’ is shown below

P sin 45
N1 N2

F2

B F2 A T
P cos 45
2.N1 = F1

250 N 100 N

N2 = 100 N
F2 = 1 N2 = 0.25  100 = 25 N
T = F2 = 25 N

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: 4 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

Tension in the cord is 25 N
From FBD of block B:

N1 + P sin 45 = 250
N1 = 250 – P sin 45 .............. (a)
P cos 45 = 25 + 2 N1 ……… (b)
P
P cos 45 = 25 + 0.3(250– )
2
P
( 1+ 0.3) = 25 + 75 = 100
2

00  2
P=
1.3
 P = 108.78 N
 T = 25 N

(b)
(i) Find the maximum flexural stress developed in a steel wire 2.00 mm in diameter, if it is
coiled over a drum 0.5 m in radius (it is assumed that the limit of proportionality is not
exceeded due to coiling). What is the bending moment to which the wire is subjected? Take
E = 200 GPa.
(12 M)

Sol: d = 2.00 mm, R = 0.5m, E = 200 GPa


 M E
 
y I R
d
y  1mm
2
[Thickness of wire is small compared to radius of drum so it is neglected]
200  103
Now flexural stress,    1  400 MPa
0.5  1000

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: 5 : Mechanical Engineering

EI
Now Bending moment ‘M’ =
R
   2 
4

I  d4   0.785 mm 4
64 64
200  103  0.785
M  314 N  mm
0.5  1000

(ii) If the ratio of Young’s modulus to the modulus of rigidity is 2.5 for a certain material, find
its Poisson’s ratio and the ratio of Young’s modulus to bulk modulus.

E
Sol: Given  2.5
G
To calculate  & K
We know
E = 2G(1+)
E
 21   
G
2.5
   1  0.25
2
E
K
3(1  2)
E
 31  2   3(1  2  0.25)  1.5
K

(c) An aeroplane flying at 300 km/h turns towards the left and completes a quarter circle of 80
m radius. The mass of the rotary engine and the propeller of the plane is 500 kg with a
radius of gyration of 300 mm. The engine speed is 2000 r.p.m clockwise when viewed from
the nose end (front end). Determine the gyroscopic couple on the aircraft and state its effect
whether the nose end is raised or depressed.
(12 M)

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: 6 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

Sol: m = 500 kg, k = 300 mm = 0.3m, R = 80m
2    2000
 = 209.4 rad/sec
60
300  1000
V = 300 km/hr = = 83.33 m/sec
3000
I = mk2 = 5000.32 = 45 kg-m2
V 83.33
p  = = 1.0416 rad/sec
R 80
Gyroscopic couple, C = Ip
= 45209.41.0416 = 9814.996 N-m
= 9.8149 kN-m

Y
Precession axis
Action couple
Reaction couple
o c c
X X
Spin axis O

d
d
Z
Couple axis

The angular momentum before turning is oc . When aeroplane takes right turn, vector cd
represents the angular momentum vector. The plane precesses in clockwise direction about OY
axis when viewed from top and reaction couple on the plane is anticlockwise which tends to dip
the nose of the aeroplane and raise the tail end.

b b

o a a
Left

When the aeroplane turns to its left, the magnitude of gyroscopic couple remains the same.
However, the direction of reaction couple is reversed and it will raise the nose and dip the tail of
the aeroplane.

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: 7 : Mechanical Engineering

(d)
(i) Define the following terms for the governor:
 Sensitiveness
 Stability
 Isochronous
 Hunting (12 M)

Sol:
Sensitiveness:
A governor is said to be sensitive when it readily responds to a small change of speed. The
movement of the sleeve for a fractional change of speed is the measure of sensitivity.
N 2  N1 2N 2  N1 
Sensitiveness  
N N 2  N 1 
Where N2 – N1 = Speed range from no load to full load.
When N = mean speed
N1 = minimum speed corresponding to full load conditions
N2 = maximum speed corresponding to no-load conditions

Stability:
A governor is said to be stable if it brings the speed of the engine to the required value and there is
not much hunting. The ball masses occupy a definite position for each speed of the engine within
the working range. Obviously, the stability and the sensitivity are two opposite characteristics.
Isochronisms:
A governor with a range of speed zero is known as an isochronous governor. This mean that for all
positions of the sleeve or the balls, the governor has the same equilibrium speed. However, it is not
practical due to the friction at the sleeve
Hunting:
A governor is said to be hunt if the speed of the engine fluctuates continuously above and below
the mean speed. This is caused by too sensitive governor which changes the fuel supply by a large
amount when a small change in speed of rotation takes place.

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: 8 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

A governor is said to be isochronous when the equilibrium speed is constant (i.e., range of speed is
zero) for Degree of hunting is more in unstable governors.

(ii) Draw the controlling force (Fc) vs. radius of rotation of balls (r) for spring controlled
governors for the above conditions.

Sol:
B
Unstable, F =ar+b
Controlling force

C
Isochronous, F =ar
E
Stable, F =ar - b

O D Radius of Rotation

(e) A gear set consists of an 18-tooth pinion driving a 45-tooth gear. The module is 10 mm. The
gears are cut using a pressure angle of 20. In mounting the gears, the centre distance was
incorrectly made 8 mm larger. Compute the new values of the pressure angle and pitch
circle diameter. If the pinion transmits 20 kW and rotates at 950 r.p.m., determine the
forces on the tooth for mounted gears.
(12 M)

Sol: t = 18, T = 45, m = 10 mm,  = 20,


mt 10  18
For the pinion radius, r   = 90mm
2 2
mT 10  45
Gear radius, R =  = 225 mm
2 2
Design centre distance = R + r = 225 + 90 = 315 mm
Assembled centre distance = R+ r = 315 + 8 = 323 mm
` By assuming the gear profile as involute and for involute gear variation in centre distance will
not alter the velocity ratio.

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: 9 : Mechanical Engineering

R  R 225
   = 2.5
r r 90
 R+ r = 323  R = 230.714 mm, r = 92.286 mm
As the base circle radius remains unaltered, the increase in centre distance leads to an increase in
pressure angle.
 Rcos = Rcos
230.714cos = 225cos20
 = 23.59
New pitch circle diameter for gear = 2R = 2230.714 = 461.428 mm
New pitch circle diameter for pinion = 2r = 2(323–230.714) = 184.572 mm
P = 20 kW, N = 950 rpm
2NT 2NT
P  20103=  T = 201.037 N-m
60 60
Ft
Fn
T = Ftr  201.037 = Ftr 
Fr
201.037
 Ft  = 2178.412 N B Fr C
 92.286 
  
 1000  Ft
Fn
Fr = Fttan = 2178.412 tan23.591
= 951.317 N
FT
Normal tooth load, FN =
cos 
2178.412
  2377.07 N
cos 23.591

02.
(a). A beam of uniform section and length (L+2a) is simply supported over a span L with two
equal overhanging lengths ‘a’. Compute the deflection at mid span due to a uniformly
distributed load w/unit length when covering the length L between the supports and when
covering only two overhanging lengths. EI is the flexural rigidity of the beam.
(20 M)

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: 10 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

Sol:
(1) When load is placed between span.

x  a   w x  a 
2
wL
Mx 
2 2
2
wL  L  w  L 
ME     
2 2 2 2

wL2 wL2 wL2


=  
4 8 8
From area moment diagram between E & C

1  2  wL2   L  5 
yC  yE          L
EI  3  8   2  16 

deflection at C = 0
5wL4
 yE  (deflection is downwards)
384EI

(2) When load is in over hanging portion


x
Between D to C A B E C D
a a
RB = RC = wa, L
RC= wa
RB= wa
wx 2
Mx  
2 A B E C D
Between C to B
(–)
 a wa2/2
M x   wa  x    wa x  a 
 2

wa 2 wa 2
=  wax  wax  wa 2  
2 2
1  wa 2 L  L  1  wa 2 L2
yC  yE     .   
EI  2 2  2  2  16EI
yC = 0
wa 2 L2
yE   (deflection is upwards)
16EI

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: 11 : Mechanical Engineering

(b). A cam operates a roller reciprocating follower with the following data:
Minimum radius of the cam = 24 mm,
Lift = 30 mm,
Roller diameter = 16 mm,
The cam lifts the follower for 120 with SHM followed by a dwell period of 40. Then the
follower lowers down during 150 of the cam rotation with uniform acceleration and
deceleration followed by a dwell period.
(i) Draw the profile of the cam.
(ii) If the cam rotates at a uniform speed of 160 r.p.m., calculate the maximum velocity and
acceleration of the follower during the descent period.
(20 M)

Sol: Given that, rc = 24 mm, rr = 16/2 = 8 mm, Lift h = 30 mm,


N = 160 r.p.m, 1 = 40
a = 120, d = 150 and 2 = 40
1
2 1
5 6 6 6 14 14
3 2
4 5 7 8 3 a 2 13 13
4
3 9 o
4 12
3 4 12
2 10 d 11
11 5 10
2 1 1 11
12 6 9
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
6 7 8 9 10 11 12
5 10
(a)
9
6
7 8

Simple harmonic motion


The displacement diagram is drawn as follows:
1). On the ordinate, draw a semi-circle of diameter equal to lift, i.e., 30 mm and divide into six
number of equal parts by radial lines.
2). On the abscissa, take cam displacemtn 120 for rise, next 40 for dwell and next 150 for return.
3). Divide the angle of rise into six equal parts.
4). Through each division of semi-circle, draw horizontal lines up to angle of rise period.
5). Mark points 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 as shown in figure and join them with smooth curve.

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: 12 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

6). Now divide the angle of return into six equal parts and mark points on abscissa (7, 8 …….12).
7). Pick point 9 on abscissa and divide vertical line on it into six equal parts.

Construction of the cam profile:


 Draw a circle with radius of prime circle, i.e., sum of radii of the base circle and the roller circle

(24+8 = 32 mm)
 With reference to vertical axis, mark the points on circle at 120, 40, 150 intervals to represent

angle of rise, dwell and return strokes respectively.


 Divide the angles is a, d into the same number of divisions as done in the displacement diagram

each into 6 equal parts.


 On the radius lines produced, mark the distances from the displaced diagram.

 Draw a series of arcs of radii equal to rr, as shown in the diagram from the points 1, 2, 3 etc.

Draw a smooth curve tangential to all the arcs which is the required cam profile.
During the descent period, the acceleration and the deceleration are uniform. Therefore, the maximum
velocity is at the end of the acceleration period.
2  160
2h 60
Vmax  = 2  30  = 384 mm/s
d 
150 
180
2
 2  160 
4  30   
4h 2
 60 
f max  f uniform  2 = = 4915.2 mm/s2 or 4.915 mm/s2
d   
2

150  
 180 

(c) A rotating shaft shown in the figure below is supported in ball bearings at A and D and
loaded by a non-rotating force of 6.8 kN. The shaft is made of 40 C8 steel (y = 360 N/mm2,
u = 650 N/mm2). Endurance limit e may be taken as 55% of u. The shaft is machined.
The reliability is 90% (reliability factor cr is 0.897). Static stress concentration at BB may
be taken as 1.5 and at CC 1.4. The notch sensitivity factor q may be taken as 0.95.

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: 13 : Mechanical Engineering

6.8 kN
300 75 75 D
B 200
C
A
30 50 E 35
A B D
C
All dimensions are in mm
Find out the critical section and factor of safety. (20 M)

Sol: P = 6.8 kN, y = 360 MPa


u = 650 MPa, e = 0.55  650 = 357.5 MPa
Re = 90%, cr = 0.897
(Kt)BB = 1.5, (Kt)CC = 1.4
q = 0.95
RA + RD = 6800 ....... (a)
MA = 0
6800  0.375 – RD  0.65 = 0
RD= 3923 N
RA = 2876.92 N  2877 N

RA & RD  Reaction at A & D.


so bending moment diagram of shaft is
1078.875 N.m
863.1N.m 784.65 N.m

A D
B E C

so critical section can be B, E or C.


32 M E
E = 3 = 87.95 MPa
 DE

32 M C
C = = 186.50 MPa
 D3C

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: 14 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

C = (K1)CC. C = 261.10 MPa

32 M B
C = = 325.77 MPa
 D 3B

B  K t BB . B = 488.66 MPa


Hence, section B-B is the most critical section among all
KP = 1 + q(Kt – 1)
At section B, Kf = 1 + 0.95(1.5 – 1)
Kf = 1.475
 c . 0.897  357.5
e  r e =
Kf 1.5

e = 213.785 MPa

Stress at section B- B is
a = 325.77 MPa
Hence factor of safety
c 213.785
FOS = 
a 325.77
FOS = 0.656
Hence shaft is unsafe.

03(a)
(i) Draw the shear force and bending moment diagram for the given simply supported beam
with moment loads as shown in the figure. Show the magnitude of shear force and bending
moments at the respective points of the beam, i.e., at A, B, C, D and E.

M M
A E
B C D
L/2

L/3 L/3 L/3

(20 M)

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: 15 : Mechanical Engineering

Sol:
(i) ME = 0
M M RE = 2M/L
RA + RE = 0
C E
B D
RA .L – M–M = 0 L/2
2M L/3 L/3 L/3
2M RA 
RA  L
L 2 M/L
(+) 2 M/L
2M SFD
RE  
L 2M/3
M/3
SHEAR FORCE
BMD A E
B C D
From support E consider a section
M/3
at distance ‘x’ 2M
2M 3
SFx  throughout the beam
L
BENDING MOMENT
From E to D
2M
Mx   x
L
2M  L  2M
at M D    
L 3 3
From D to B
2M
Mx   xM
L
2M  L  M
MD    M 
L 3 3
2M  L 
MC    M
L 2
2 M  2L 
MB   .   M
L  3 

=  4M  M   M
3 3

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: 16 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

Between B to A
2M
Mx =  xMM
L
2 M  2L  2M
MB   .   2M 
L  3  3
2M
MA   .L   2M  0
L

(ii) Determine the maximum shear stress values for the given set of principal stresses. Draw
the Mohr’s stress circle for each case and show the maximum shear stress on it.
(A) 1 = , 2 = /2, 3 = 0
(B) 1 = , 2 = –, 3 = 0
(C) 1 = , 2 = 0, 3 = 0
(D) 1 = 2 = 3 = 

Sol:
(A) 1 =  2 = /2 3 = 0
    2  2  3 3  1 
max  Max  1 , ,
 2 2 2 

   
    / 2   0 0   
2
= Max  , , 
 2 2 2 
 
 
  (,0)
     ,0 
max  Max  , ,   2 
4 4 2 2
1   2   
Inplane max    
2 4 2 4
Here Inplane max is not the maximum shear stress

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: 17 : Mechanical Engineering

(0,
(B) 1  ,  2  , 3  0

      0   0
max   , , 
 2 2 2  (–,0) (,0)

Inplane maximum shear stress is


same as maximum shear stress.

  0   0   0  (/2,/2)
max  max  max = /2
(C) , , 
 2 2 2  2

max  (0,0) (,0)
2
Inplane maximum shear stress and
maximum shear stress are same.

  


(D) max  Max  , , 0
 2 2 2 
where shear stress is zero.
,

(b)
(i) Derive the expression for minimum number of teeth on a pinion for involute rack in order
to avoid interference.

sol: Rack is a segment of gear having infinite pitch circle diameter, We know that as the size of pitch
circle of thereby that of base circle increases, the involute curve becomes more and more flat.
Therefore, the teeth profile of a rack becomes straight line. In a rack pinion arrangement, to
avoid interference, the point of contact E must lie between the points P and C. In other words,
the limiting value of addendum should be such that the point E coincides with point C. Thus
addendum of rack must be less than distance CG, as shown in figure.

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: 18 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

O1
Maximum addendum:
CG = PCsin 

= (r1sin)sin
= r1sin2 C

mZ1 2
Or, CG  sin  E
2 P G
Where ar = addendum coefficient and m = module,
Therefore, to avoid interference, Interference in rack and pinion

CG  mar
mZ1
Or,  sin 2   ma r
2
2a r
Or, Z1 
sin 2 

(ii) A pinion of 30 involute teeth and 4 mm module drives a rack. The pressure angle is 20.
The addendum of both, the pinion and the rack is the same. What is the permissible value
of the addendum to avoid interference?
(15+5 = 20)

Sol: t = 30, m = 4 mm
mT
r  60 mm,  = 20,
2
To avoid interference, the maximum value of addendum interference, the maximum value of
addendum = GE = rsin2 = 60sin220 = 7.018 mm.

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: 19 : Mechanical Engineering

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: 20 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

(c) A pair of spur gears with pressure angle 20 consists of a 24-tooth pinion which rotates at
950 r.p.m and transmits power to a 60-tooth gear. The module is 6 mm and face width is 60
mm. Both the gears are made of 45 C8 steel (y = 330 N/mm2, u =680 N/mm2 and e =
0.55u). Take surface endurance limit 1500 N/mm2. Assuming overload factor as 1.8,
dynamic factor as 2.5 and taking factor of safety of 2.5, determine:
(i) Beam strength
(ii) Wear strength
(iii) The rated power, the gears can transmit.
E = 2.1105 N/mm2
(20 M)

Sol: Np = 950 rpm, Tp = 24


 = 20, TG = 60
m = 6 mm
b = 60 mm
Y = 330 MPa, U = 680 MPa
e = 0.55 U = 374 MPa
surface endurance limit (e) = 1500 MPa
FOS = 2.5, dynamic factor (Cv) = 2.5
over load factor = 1.8 = C0

i) we know that beam strength of shaft is given by,


WT = M b b. Y = b. b.  my
when Pinion & gear are made of same material then Pinion is weaker.
DP = MTP = 6  24 = 144 mm
 DP N P
V= = 7.1592 m/s
60 1000

For 20 full depth involute

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: 21 : Mechanical Engineering

0.912
Y = 0.154 –
TP
Y = 0.116
 b .b  m y
WT =
C v .C0

WT  Beam strength
U
b = = 226.66 MPa
3
226.66  6  3.14  60  0.116
WT =
1.8 2.5
WT = 6604.88 N

ii) We know that wear strength


WW = DP . b. Q. k
2.V R 2 TG
Q = = 1.428
V R  1 TG  TP

K
e 2 sin   1

1 
 
1 .4  EG EP 

K=
15002 sin 20  2
= 5.23 MPa
1.4 2.1 105

WW = 144  60  5.23  1.42


WW = 64165.82 N

WT
iii) Peff = = 2641.952 N
FOS
V = 7.1592 m/s
Rated power, (P) = Peff.V
P = 2641.952  7.1592
P = 18.9142 kW

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: 22 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

04.
(a) A steam turbine delivers 8200 kW of power at 1800 r.p.m. This power is received by a shaft
coupled with the turbine. This shaft delivers this power to the other shaft through gear
reduction unit at 90% efficiency. The other shaft rotates at 107 r.p.m. Determine the
diameters of both the solid shafts. Take allowable shear stress as 3.45108 N/m2. Further, if
these shafts are replaced by hollow shafts with internal diameters half of the outer
diameter, determine the internal and external diameters of both the shafts.
(20 M)

Sol: P1 = 8200 kW
1
N1 = 1800 rpm Gear
N2 = 107 rpm
2
rG = 0.9
allow = 3.45  108 Pa = 345 MPa
Case 1: when solid shaft are there
60 P 60  8200 1000
T1 = =
2 N1 2 1800
T1 = 43524.4 N-m

16 T1 16 T1
all = = d1 = 3
d13
  all

16  43524.4 1000
d1 = 3
  345

d1 = 86.30 mm  87 mm
P2 = 0.9 P1
60  0.9 P1
T2 = = 658967.79 N-m
2 N 2

16 T2
d2 = 3 = 213.5  214 mm
 all

d2 = 214 mm
d1 = 87 mm
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: 23 : Mechanical Engineering

Case 2: when solid shaft replaced by follow shaft.


 D2   d2 
   0.5    K
 D1 1  d1  2
D1, D2  External & internal dfa or shaft 1
d1, d2  External & internal dfa or shaft 2
T1 = 43524.4 N-m

16 T1
D13  3
 
 1  K 4  all

K = 0.5
D1 = 88.18 mm  90 mm
D2 = 0.5 D1  45 mm

From Case 1:
T2 = 658967.79 N-m

16 T2
d1 = 3
 
 1  K 4 all

d1 = 218.14  220 mm
d2 = 0.5 d1 = 110 mm

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: 24 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

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: 25 : Mechanical Engineering

(b) A 100 kg machine is symmetrically supported on four springs. The mass of the
reciprocating parts is 2.5 kg which move through a vertical stroke of 100 mm with SHM.
Neglecting damping, determine the combined stiffness of the springs so that the force
transmitted to the foundation is 1/20th of the impressed force. The machine crankshaft
rotates at 850 r.p.m.
If under actual working conditions, the damping reduces the amplitudes of successive
vibrations by 30% , find
(i) the force transmitted to the foundation at 850 r.p.m.,
(ii) the force transmitted to the foundation at resonance, and
(iii) the amplitude of the vibration at resonance. (20 M)

1 100
Sol: M = 100 kg,    0.05 , m = 2.5 kg, N = 850 r.p.m, r  = 50 mm
20 2
2N 2  850
= = = 89.011 rad/sec
600 60
In the absence of damping:
1 1
 2
or, 0.05  2
   89.011 
   1    1
 n   n 
n = 19.423 rad/sec

k k
n   19.423 =  k = 37725.29 N/m
M 100
 combined stiffness, k = 37725.29 N/m
x   1  2
n  1  = n =
 x2   1  0.3  1  2
2
 0.3566 
1  2

  = 0.0567

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: 26 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

1  2 / n 
2

With damping, transsimissibility ratio,  =


1   /     2 /  
n
2 2
n
2

2
 89.011 
1   2  0.0567  
 19.423 
=
1  89.011/ 19.423 
2
2 2  89.011 
  2  0.0567  
 19.423 
= 0.0563
The maximum unbalanced force on machine due to reciprocating parts.
50
F = mr2 = 2.5 89.0112
1000
= 990.37 N
FT FT
(i)   0.0563 =
F 990.37
 FT = 55.757 N

(ii) at resonance, 1
n

1  2  1  2  0.0567 
2 2
 = = 8.875
2 2  0.0567
Maximum unbalanced force on the machine due to reciprocating parts at resonance i.e.,  = n
F = mr2n = 2.50.0519.4232 = 47.1566 N

FT = TF = 8.87547.1566 = 418.514 N


  
(iii) amplitude of vibration at resonance   1
 n 
2
  
 
A
mr
  n 
M    2  
2 2
1       2  

  n    n 
 
mr 1 2.5  0.05
A   = 11.04 mm
M 2 100  2  0.0567
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: 27 : Mechanical Engineering

(c) A ball bearing operates on a work cycle consisting of three parts - a radial load of 3500 N at
1440 r.p.m for 30% of the cycle, a radial load of 6000 N, 750 r.p.m for 35% of the cycle and
a radial load of 2500 N at 1440 r.p.m., for the remaining cycle. The expected life of the
bearing is 10,000 hours. Calculate the dynamic load carrying capacity of the bearing.
(20 M)

Sol: Consider the cycle of 1 minute duration. The value of load 'P' and revolution 'N' tabulated as
follow.

P(N) Element time (Minute) Speed (rpm) Revolution 'N' in element time
3500 0.3 1440 432
6000 0.35 750 262.5
2500 0.35 1440 504

N1P13  N 2 P23  N 3P33


Equivalent load(Pe) = 3
N1  N 2  N 3

432  35003  262.5  60003  504  25003


Pe = 3
1198.5
Pe = 4108.17 N
Bearing Life = 1000 hour = L90
= 10000  60  1198.5 rev
= 719.1 million rev
For ball bearing,
3
C
   L90  719.1
 Pe 
C  Dynamic Load Capacity
C = 36805.39 N

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: 28 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

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: 29 : Mechanical Engineering

SECTION - B

05.
(a) Explain briefly: Nitriding, Cyaniding, Flame Hardening and Induction Hardening.
(12 M)

Sol:
(i) Nitriding:
 Nitriding is the process of enriching the surface of steel with nitrogen by holding for a prolonged
period at temperature of ammonia (NH3).
 In this process the machined and heat treated (hardening by heating to 930C and quenching in oil,
then tempering at 6500 to obtain the required properties in core) components are heated to a
temperature of 5000C for between 40 to 100 hours (depending on case depth) in a gas tight
chamber through which ammonia is allowed to circulate.
 By incorporating Nitrogen atom on the outer envelope of L.C.S component it will be termed as
hard by forming iron Nitride phase.
Case Depth = 0.5 mm /hrs.
 Ammonia dissociates according to the following reaction.
2 NH3  3H2 + 2N
 The atomic nitrogen thus formed diffuses into iron forms hard nitrides by combining with iron and
certain alloying elements present in steel. The alloying elements having more affinity for nitrogen
are aluminum, chromium and molybdenum.

H2

Fe3N N2 + H2
L.C.S

CD

NH3 gas

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: 30 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

Advantages of this process are
 Good surface finish
 Less distortion and cracks
 Good wear resistance
 Used for mass production
 Better than carburizing
Disadvantages of this process are
 Long operational times 100 hours for 0.038 mm depth.
 All alloys steels can not be used.
 Special equipment is needed.
 More oxidation due to prolonged heating.
(ii) Cyaniding:
 During cyaniding the surface of steel is enriched with carbon and nitrogen by incorporating carbon
& Nitrogen atoms simultaneous on to the outer envelope of the low carbon steels, it will be turned
as hard by form iron carbide & iron Nitride phases.
 In this process the components are immersed in a liquid bath of 30 % NaCN, 40 % Na2CO3 and 30
%NaCl, maintained at a temperature of 8000C to 8500C.
 Then a measured amount of air is passed through the molten bath.
 Sodium cyanide reacts with oxygen of the air and is oxidized. The basic reactions in the bath are:
2 NaCN + O2  2 NaCNO
2 NaCNO + O2  Na2 Co3 + CO+ 2 N
2 CO  CO2 + C
Nothing
(Fe3N+Fe3C)

L.C.S

CD

 Carbon and nitrogen thus formed in atomic form diffuse into steel surface.
 Case Depth = 0.5 mm/10 hrs.

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: 31 : Mechanical Engineering

 This process usually requires 30 to 90 minutes for completion.
 After cyaniding, the components are taken out and quenched in water or oil followed by low
temperature tempering.
Advantages of this process are:
 Can be applied to Low carbon and medium carbon steels.
 Bright finish in parts can be obtained.
 Cracks and distortions are minimized.
 Most suitable for parts subjected to high loads.
Disadvantages of this process are:
 Risk of splitting of poisonous salts.
 Unhealthy fumes are formed.

(iii) Flame Hardening:


 In this process, the heat treatable steel is rapidly heated by means of a oxyacetylene flame to above
the AC3 temperature and then quenched with water as shown in figure.
 The highly heated surface becomes hard due to the transformation of austenite to martensite
whereas the core remain soft and tough.
 Depth of the hardened zone may be controlled by controlling the flame intensity, heating time or
speed of travel of the torch.
Torch

Flame water

Hardened surfaces

Work piece Heated surfaces

 The disadvantage of this process is that the temperature cannot be controlled accurately and over-
heating may cause distortion and cracking of the component.

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: 32 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

 Flame hardening can be carried in four different ways. These are:
(a) Stationery: Here both the work piece and torch is stationary and this method is used for spot
hardening of small parts.
(b) Progressive: Here the torch moves over stationary work piece. This method is used for large
parts.
(c) Spinning: Here torch is stationary while the work piece rotates. This method is used for
circular parts.
(d) Progressive spinning: Here torch moves over a rotating work piece. Large rolls are hardened
by this method.

(iv) Induction Hardening:


Water inlet
Sprayer

Inductor

Work piece
Magnetic
Field

 The disadvantage of flame hardening i.e., over-heating may be avoided by inducing heat
electrically in the surface of steel.
 In Induction hardening the heating time is only a few seconds.
 Heat generated in the work piece by induction is mostly confined to outer surface which is to be
hardened.
 The depth to which heat penetrates is inversely proportional to the square root of frequency of the
current. Hence the hardened depth decreases with increase in frequency of the current.
 Similar to flame hardening, the induction hardened work piece is also subjected to low temperature
tempering to relieve stresses.

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: 33 : Mechanical Engineering

(b) Classify gating designs in respect to pouring of molten metals into the mould cavity in the
casting process. Give sketches of (i) simple vertical gating, and (ii) bottom gating design
provisions.
(12 M)

Sol: Classification of Gating system:


1. Based on pressure above molten metal in pouring basin
(a) Non pressurized gating system (b) Pressurized gating system

2. Based on the position of ingate


(a) Top gating system (b) Bottom gating system
(c) Parting gating system (d) Step gating system

Non pressurized gating system:


 If pressure above molten metal in gating system is equal to atmospheric pressure, it is called as non
pressurized gating system.
P = Patm
 It is very easy to maintain just by keeping top of the pouring basin open to atmosphere.
 But it can’t be used for casting of highly reactive metals like Al, Mg etc.
 Optimum gating ratio =1:4:4 or 1:2:2 for non-pressurizing gating system.

Pressurised Gating System:


If top of the pouring basin is closed and the pressure above molten metal in pouring basin is maintained
as greater than atmospheric pressure is called as pressurized gating system.
i.e., P > Patm
Uses:
The pressurized gating system is used in three cases
 During casting of highly reactive metals like Al, Mg etc..
 Back pressure gating system.
 To increase the velocity of molten metal in the gating system without increasing the height of sprue

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: 34 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

V = 2 gh t for P = Patm
ht = height of sprue + height of molten metal in pouring basin
 Optimum gating ratio in pressure gating system is =1:2:1
Volume of casting
Pouring time= Flow rate

Flow rate = area × velocity = Vmax × Amin

Vmax = 2 gh t   for Non pressurized gating system.


Flow rate = Vmax × Amin = Vmax × Ac
Ac = choke area
Choke area = Amin = min. of (As, Ar, Ag)
Volume
Pouring time = V
max  A c

Top Gating System:


Volume Volume
Pouring time  
Flow rate A c  V max
h
Vmax = 2 gh t t

Ac = Choke area = Min (As, Ar, Ag)


Volume = Volume of the casting or pattern hm 200 mm

Features of top gating system:


 Pouring time is lowest with top gating system.
 Manufacturing of the top system is easier.
 Cannot be used for filling of cavities with loose sand moulds.
 The top gating system used is upto 200 mm to avoid the sand erosion.

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: 35 : Mechanical Engineering

Bottom Gating System:

hb=0
VF=0
hb
ht
ht
Cavity

Volume Volume volume


Pouring time= flow rate 
velocity  A c Vavg  A c

The limitations of bottom gating system are


 Pouring time is greater than top gating system
 Cutting of bottom gating system is difficult.

(c) M/s TV Assembler needs 10,000 tubes per annum. The cost of one procurement is Rs 80.00.
The holding cost per tube is Rs 3.00 per annum. The rush purchase of tubes, if not in stock,
amounts to equivalent shortage cost of Rs 6.00 per tube per annum.
If the order is delivered instantaneously, determine how much he should order, at what
interval and what will be the total cost of inventory.
(12 M)

Sol: Annual demand (D) = 10,000; Procurement cost (Co) = 80


Holding cost (Cc) = 3/unit/year; Shortage cost (Cs) = 6/unit/year

Economic Batch Size (EBS)

2 D C0 C c  Cs 2 10000  80 36
EBS = =
Cc Cs 3 6

= 895 units

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: 36 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

Cycle Time (CT)
EBS
T= = 0.0894 years = 1.07 months
D

Total Inventory Cost (TIC)

Cs
TIC = 2 D C0 Cc
Cc  Cs

6
= 2 10000  80  3
36
= Rs. 1788.12

(d)
(i) List out any six inherent characteristics of a hydraulic actuator. (12 M)

Sol: Any Six inherent characteristics of hydraulic actuator are:


(1) It can produce large force / torque to derive loads.
(2) Higher load carrying capacity.
(3) Due to stiffness its accuracy is good.
(4) Power to weight ratio is high.
(5) Its manufacturing cost and maintenance is high.
(6) Certain oils may pose fire hazards limit its application where ever safety is essential.

(ii) Explain the working of a gear pump with the help of a schematic diagram. Also detail its
other properties.

Sol: Commonly used hydraulic pumps are the gear pump, the vane pump and the piston pump. The
gear pump consists of two close-meshing gear wheels which rotate in opposite directions as
shown in the figure below.

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: 37 : Mechanical Engineering

Fluid discharged Outlet port Fluid transported


to outlet round between teeth

Intermeshing fluid trapped


gears Inlet port

Fluid is forced through the pump as it becomes trapped between the rotating gear teeth and the
housing and so is transferred from the inlet port to be discharged at the outlet port. Such pumps are
widely used, being low cost and robust. They generally operate at pressures below about 15 MPa
and at 2400 rotations per minute. The maximum flow capacity is about 0.5m3/min. However,
leakage occurs between the teeth and the casing and between the interlocking teeth, and this limits
the efficiency.

(e) Determine the missing elements of the following frame representation, if the frame is
attached to an object in space. Also show the orientation and position of the frame F with
respect to OXYZ shown.
(12 M)
? 0  1 5
? 0 0 3
F
?  1 0 2
 
0 0 0 1
Y

O
X

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: 38 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

Sol: Missing elements of frame
? 0  1 5
? 0 0 3
F
?  1 0 2
 
0 0 0 1
Position of frame w.r.t origin [oxyz] is
[5 3 2]T  Px = 5, Py = 3, Pz = 2
[Px, Py, Pz] = [ 5,3,2]
 Orientation of frame w.r.t oxyz systems

Frame
x y z
Origin
x 90o 90o 180o
y 180o 90o 90o
Z 90o 180o 90o

0 0 –1
–1 0 0
0 –1 0
After applying cos values
Orientation of frame F w.r.t oxyz
 cos 90 o cos 90 o cos180 o 
 
 cos180 o cos 90 o cos 90 o 
 cos 90 o cos180 o cos 90 o 

So missing elements of frame
? 0  1 5  0 0 1 5
? 0 0 
3  1 0 0 3
 
?  1 0 2  0 1 0 2
   
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

 0,–1,0 are missing elements.

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: 39 : Mechanical Engineering

06. (a)
(i) Explain uniform corrosion and pitting corrosion. (10 M)

Sol: Uniform Corrosion: Uniform and general corrosion, in which the entire metal surface area is
exposed to the corrosive environment and converted into its oxide form. It is the uniform thinning
of a metal without any localized attack and corrosion does not penetrate very deep inside that
means the corrosion is passive. The most familiar example is the rusting of steel in air and it is not
recognized as dangerous form of corrosion, because:

 Prediction of thickness reduction rate can by means of simple tests. corresponding corrosion
allowance can be added taking into account strength requiring and life
 Available protection methods are usually so efficient that the corrosion rate is reduced to an
acceptable level. Actual methods are application of coatings, cathodic protection or possibly
change of environment or material.

Mechanism of uniform corrosion: A very thin layer of electrolyte is present and putting a small
drop of seawater on a piece of steel. A metal surface exposed to atmosphere, only a limited
quantity of water and dissolved ions are present, whereas the access to oxygen present in the air
is unlimited. Corrosion products are formed close to the metal surface, unlike the case in aqueous
corrosion, and they may prevent further corrosion by acting as a physical barrier between the
metal surface and environment, particularly if they are insoluble as in the case of copper or lead.
The following is a simplified mechanism of aqueous corrosion of iron

1. At anodic areas, anodic reaction takes place:


2. At cathodic areas reduction of Oxygen takes place:
3. The OH ions react with iron ions , produced at the anode:
4. With more access to Oxygen in the air , Fe(OH)2 oxidizes to Fe(OH)3:

5. Ferrous hydroxide is converted to hydrated ferric oxide or rust by oxygen,

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: 40 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

(Rust (Fe2O3.3H2O)
O2(g) O2(g)
Rust Formation
Fe2+(aq)+2OH–(aq)Fe(OH)2(s)
4Fe(OH)2(s)+O2(g)+2H2O(I)4Fe(OH)3(s)

Cathode
O2(g)+2H2O(I)+4e–4OH–(aq)

Anode
Fe(s)Fe2+(aq)+2e–

Pitting Corrosion: Pitting corrosion is a localized form of corrosion by which cavities or "holes"
are produced in the material. Pitting is considered to be more dangerous than uniform
corrosion damage because it is more difficult to detect, predict and design
against. Corrosion products often cover the pits.
A small, narrow pit with minimal overall metal loss can lead to the failure of an entire
engineering system and is a common denominator of all types of localized corrosion
attack. Pitting corrosion can produce pits with their mouth open (uncovered) or covered with a
semi-permeable membrane of corrosion products. Pits can be either hemispherical or cup-shaped.

Pitting Corrosion:
Defect in passive
Corrosion
Layer allows metal Concentrated Iron
products
To dissolve chloride Solutions
Cathodic
Passive e–
Oxide
layer
e–
H+

Anodic
Electrochemical process

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: 41 : Mechanical Engineering

Pitting corrosion may occur in stainless steels in neutral or acid solutions containing halides*,
primarily chlorides (Cl-), such as seawater.
Pitting corrosion can be prevented through:
1. Proper selection of materials with known resistance to the service environment.

2. Control pH, chloride concentration and temperature.

3. Cathodic protection and/or Anodic Protection.

4. Use higher alloys (ASTM G48) for increased resistance to pitting corrosion.

(ii) For a 79.65 wt% Fe, 0.35 wt % C, an alloy is at a temperature just below the eutectoid.
Determine the fraction of total ferrite and cementite phases, the fraction of the proeutectoid
ferrite and pearlite, and the fraction of the eutectoid ferrite.
(10 M)

Sol: Fraction of total ferrite and cementite phase:


Applying lever rule between 0.022% and 6.67% carbon with fulcrum at 0.35% carbon, just below
723C
Temperature
C
6.67  0.35 Pro- + 
f  = 0.95
6.67  0.022 723C
 -Fe

cementite
Pearlite
0.35  0.022
f Fe3C  = 0.05
6.67  0.02
0.022% 0.35% 0.8%
% of carbon

Fraction of pro-eutectoid ferrite and pearlite, eutectoid ferrite:


Pro-eutectoid phase is formed above the eutectoid temperature.
Applying lever rule between 0.022 and 0.8% carbon with fulcrum at 0.35% carbon.
0.8  0.35
f pro    = 0.56
0.8  0.022
Fpearlite = 1–fpro- = 1–0.56= 0.44

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: 42 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

The fraction of ferrite in an eutectoid steel:
Total ferrite = Fraction of pro-eutectoid ferrite + Fraction of eutectoid ferrite.
Feut- = ftotal- –fpro-
= 0.95 – 0.56 = 0.39

(b) (i) The following table shows the activities of a network along with their time estimates in
days :

Activity 
Estimated Time 1–2 2–3 2–4 3–5 4–5 5–6

to 1 2 2 7 5 3
tm 7 14 5 10 5 3
tp 13 26 8 19 17 9

Draw the project network and find the probability of completion of the project in 40 days.
(10 M)
Sol:
(i)
t0  4 tm  tp
Activity EE =
6
1–2 7
2–3 14
2–4 5
7  410  19
3–5  11
6
5  45  17
4–5 7
6
3  43  9
5–6 4
6

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: 43 : Mechanical Engineering

3 11
14
7 4
1 2 5 6
5 7
4

Path Duration
1–2–3–5–6 7 + 14 + 11 + 4 = 36
1 – 2 – 4 – 5- 6 7 + 5 + 7 + 4 = 23

Expected duration of the project = 36 days

Probability of completion of the project


Due data (A) = 40 days
X
Z=

 = Critical path duration = 36
 = Critical path
= V1 2  V2  3  V3 5  V5  6

2 2 2 2
 13  1   26  2   19  7   9  3 
=        
 6   6   6   6 
2
t t 
 V =  p 0 
 6 
=5
X 40  36
Z= =
 5
= 0.8  P(Z) = 0.7881 (From the Normal distribution table)
Probability of completion in 40 days = 78.81%

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: 44 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

(ii) Describe with an illustrative sketch the “Ultrasonic Welding” process. (10 M)

Sol: Ultrasonic Welding:


Ultrasonic welding (USW) is a solid-state process that forms a weld by applying localized high-
frequency vibratory energy while the workpieces are held together under light pressure. A sound
metallurgical bond is produced without significant heat.
The basic equipment required in this process is shown in below figure. A light clamping force
applies pressure through the reed to the sono-trode tip. The transducer is wedge-shaped where it
attaches to the reed. It produces the vibration that disrupts surface roughness and impurities prior to
welding. The workpieces are placed beneath the sono-trode tip and supported underneath to sustain
the force used, there by holding the workpieces together.
Though ultrasonic welding bears a resemblance to resistance welding, it utilizes no electrical
current flow or significant heat across the joint interface. The transducer used in the process
typically vibrates at 20 kHz.
The vibratory energy disrupts surface roughness and impurities, interatomic attraction occurs, and a
weld results. The equipment components must be acoustically tuned to each other or the weld will
not take place. It should be noted, however, that the ultrasonic welding process is limited to the size
and capability of the transducer.
Process variations have been developed to form welds in spot, ring, line, and seam configurations.
Metals such as aluminum and copper and nonmetals such as thermoplastics are routinely joined by
ultrasonic welding. The process has the capacity to weld thin sections to thick sections and join a
variety of dissimilar materials. For metals, the process is limited to the welding of relatively thin,
lapped sections and the joining of wires to sheet or wires to other wires. Once the parameters are
set, little skill is required to operate the ultrasonic welding process. This process can be used for
automatic and robotic applications.

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: 45 : Mechanical Engineering

Clamping
force

Reed

Wedge

Sonotrode Transducer
tip Vibration
Workpiece

Force

Figure: Schematic Representation of Ultrasonic Welding


Ultrasonic welding (USW), used in the semiconductor, microcircuit, electrical, aluminum
fabricating and chemical industries.

(c) Answer the following: (4+16 = 20)

(i) Explain the following control strategies:


(A) Proportional Control (P) (B) Derivative Control (D)
(C) Integral Control (I) (D) PID Control
06. (c) (i)
Sol: (A) Proportional Control (P): In this controller output is directly proportional to present error in
measurement and control system.
(B) Derivative (D) control: Controller output is directly proportional to rate of change of error.
(C) Integral (I) control: Control output is directly proportional to integration (Total sum) of error.
(D) PID control: Controller output is proportional to present error and integral (sum) of error and
derivative (Rate of change) of error.

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: 46 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

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: 47 : Mechanical Engineering

(ii)
(A) Derive the forward kinematics equations for the given figure of two degrees of freedom
planar robot. Assign the coordinate frames based on D-H representations, prepare the D-H
parameter table, prepare the individual transformation matrices and finally the composite
transformation matrix depicting the F-K equations.

Sol:
a2 P
a2
P  2
a1
2 a1
1
1

D – H (Denavit & Hartenberg) parameters are


(i) Link length (ai)
(ii) Link twist (i)
(iii) Joint depth / offset (di)
(iv) Joint Angle (i)
D – H parameter table for 2 DOF planar robot

ai i di i
1 a1 0 0 1
2 a2 0 0 2
composite transformation matrix = 0 T 2

T 2  0T 1 1T 2
0

Individual transformation matrix


c 1 s1 0 a 1c1 
s c1 0 a 1s1 
0T 
1  1
0 0 1 0 
 
0 0 0 1 

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: 48 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

c 2  s2 0 a 2c2 
s c2 0 a 2s 2 
1T 
2  2
0 0 1 0 
 
0 0 0 1 
Finally composite transformation matrix is

0 T 2  0 T1.1 T 2 .

c 1  s1 0 a 1 c 1  c 2  s2 0 a 2c2 
s c1 0 a 1s1  s 2 c2 0 a 2 s 2 
 1
0 0 1 0  0 0 1 0 
  
0 0 0 1  0 0 0 1 

c12  s12 0 a 2 c 2 c1  a 2 s 2 s 1  a 1c1 


s c12 0 a 2 c 2 s1  a 2 s 2 c1  a 1s1 
  12
0 0 1 0 
 
0 0 0 1 
c12  s12 0 a1c1  a 2 c12 
s c12 0 a 1s1  a 2s12 
  12 is final composite matrix.
0 0 1 0 
 
0 0 0 1 

Forward kinematic equations are


Px  a 1c1  a 2 c12 

Py  a 1s1  a 2 s12  Position of po int (P)

Pz  0 

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: 49 : Mechanical Engineering

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: 50 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

(B) If the link lengths are a1 = 15 units and a2 = 10 units determine the final position and
orientation of tool point (e.e.) frame for 1 = 45 and for 2 = 45 (measured in counter –
clockwise sense).

a2

a1 P

2

1
2 Link 2-DOF planar robot arm

Sol: Link length a1 = 15, a2 = 10 units


1  45 0 
for counter clockwise
 2  45 o 

Find position and orientation of tool point is as per above matrix as follows.
Position Px = a1cos1+a2cos(1+2)
Py = a1sin1+a2sin(1+2)
Pz = 0

After substitution of above values


Px = 15.cos45+10cos(45+45)
Py = 15.sin45+10sin(45+45)
Pz = 0

15 15
Px   10. cos 90 o 
2 2

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: 51 : Mechanical Engineering

15 15
Py   10. sin 90 o   10
2 2
Pz = 0
Position of tool point is
 15 15 
 ,  10,0
 2 2 
Orientation of tool point is
c12  s12 0
s c12 0
 12
 0 0 1

cos 90  sin 90 0 0  1 0
  sin 90 cos 90 0  1 0 0
 0 0 1 0 0 1

07. (a)
(i) Describe the stress – strain behaviour and glass transition temperature for polymers.
(10 M)
Sol: Stress strain behavior and glass transition temperature of polymers:
The Stress/Strain behavior of solid polymers can be categorized into several classes of behavior:
 Brittle Fracture: characterized by no yield point, a region of Hookean behavior at low
strains and failure characterized by chonchoidal lines such as seen in inorganic glasses.
 Yield Behavior: characterized by a maximum in the stress/strain curve followed by yielding
deformation which is usually associated with crazing or shear banding and usually ductile
failure. Ductile failure exhibits a high extent of deformation on the failure surface. Yield
behavior can result in necking which exhibits a close to constant load regime and a terminal
increase in the stress.
 Rubber-Like Behavior: characterized by the absence of a yield point maximum but
exhibiting a plateau in an engineering stress/strain curve. Often rubber-like behavior exhibits
a terminal increase in the stress followed by failure which results in a tear with little
permanent deformation exhibited in the failure surface, e.g. Jell-O.

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: 52 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

Generally, a single polymer sample displays one of the characteristic failure mechanisms under
normal conditions, i.e. polystyrene exhibits brittle failure, polyethylene displays necking,
crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane displays rubbery behavior, high impact polystyrene displays
yielding behavior. The type of behavior can also change with the type of deformation, i.e.
polystyrene displays crazing or brittle failure in tension but displays shear banding and yield
behavior in compression.

Stress ()
a

Strain ()

Glass transition temperature for polymers:


The glass–liquid transition or glass transition for short is the reversible transition in amorphous
materials from a hard and relatively brittle "glassy" state into a viscous or rubbery state as the
temperature is increased. An amorphous solid that exhibits a glass transition is called a glass. The
reverse transition, achieved by supercooling a viscous liquid into the glass state, is called
vitrification.

Glassy plateau

Glass transition
Modulus E (MPa)

Viscous flow

Rubbery plateau

Normalised Temperature (T/Tg)

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: 53 : Mechanical Engineering

(ii) Define the term hardenability and the factors affecting it. Also name various hardening
methods. (10 M)

Sol: Hardenability:
Hardenability is defined as the ability of steel to develop its maximum hardness when subjected to
the hardening (heat treatment) process. Good hardenability is indicated by a greater depth of
hardening below the surface.
 Hardening is applicable to steels with carbon % 0 to 2.11% (LCS, MCS & HCS).
 Hardening is applied to cutting tools and machine parts where high hardness and wear resistance is
desirable.

A
910 UCR

B LCR C
723
Temp

0 0.8 2.11
%C

 Due to hardening process, When the component is subjected to hardening process in a quenched
medium, the outer surface of the component experiences cooling effect immediately compare to
core of the component  outer surface produces small grains (martensite) and where as core
remains with large grains (Fe-Austenite Phase)  outer surface is hard & core remains in soft
condition.
The depth up to which it is converted into hard is known as depth of hardness (Dh).
 The depth up to which from the surface of the component has been hardened is known as depth of
hardenability (Dh).
 During hardening process if a steel produces more Dh value means more volume is converted into
martensite  easily hardenable.
 Dh Hardenability of steel.

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: 54 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

Factors affecting the hardenability
 Carbon content in the steel: carbon steels are usually quenched in water and alloy steels are
quenched in oil. The sudden cooling is called Quenching.
High carbon steels are easily hardenable compared to low carbon steels.
 Rate of cooling: To obtain martensitic structure the cooling rate should be higher than the critical
rate.
 Type of quench medium: based on the nature of quench medium like water, oil, polymer quench
etc.
Hardening methods:
(i) Flame hardening
(ii) Induction hardening
(iii) Nitriding
(iv) Cyaniding

(b) (i) For a deterministic inventory model assuming uniform rate of supply and fixed demand,
(A) illustrate the model graphically, (B) derive the expression for optimum order quantity,
(C) also derive the expression for the optimum time for ordering, and (D) derive the
expression for the cost of inventory.
(10 M)

Sol:
This technique is based on several assumptions:

1. Demand is known, constant and independent.


2. Lead time- that is, the time between placement and receipt of the order- is known and constant.
3. Instantaneous replenishment i.e. the receipt of inventory is instantaneous and complete.
4. No shortage is permitted.
5. No safety stock is provided.
6. Quantity discounts are not possible.

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: 55 : Mechanical Engineering

Let Cu = Unit cost
D = Annual demand
C0 = Ordering cost/order
Q
Cc = Carrying cost/unit/year d

Q = order quantity
d = Rate of consumption
T T

Total annual cost = Annual carrying cost + Annual ordering cost + Annual maturity cost
QTD D
TC =  Cc   C0  D  C 4
2 Q
d TC
To minimize TC; 0
dQ
1 D
0  Cc  2  C0  0
2 Q

2 D C0
 Q where Q = EOQ
Cc

Cost Vs Quantity
Total annual cost

Cost
Annual carrying cost

Annual ordering cost

Qty

Optimum Time (T)


Annual demand
Number of orders (TN) =
order quantity

1 Optimum order quantity


Cycle time = =
N Annual demand
EOQ
Topt =
D
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: 56 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

Inventory Cost
Q Q
(Inventory cost)Q   Cc   C0
2 Q

 2 D C0 
 
 Cc  D
(Inventory cost)Q= EoQ =   C 
c  C0 = 2 D C0 Cc
2  2 DC0 
 
 Cc 
 

(ii) Give a schematic diagram of a piezoelectric accelerometer for shock and vibration
measurement and briefly explain how it works. (10 M)

Sol: Piezoelectric accelerometer: The heart of a piezoelectric accelerometer is the slice of piezoelectric
material, usually an artificially polarized ferroelectric ceramic, which exhibits the unique piezoelectric
effect. When it is mechanically stressed, either in tension, compression or shear, it generates an
electrical charge across its pole faces which are proportional to the applied force. All piezo-
electric accelerometers work by measuring the charge generated by a crystal that is being compressed or
shear loaded by a mass influenced by acceleration. In most applications this high impedance charge
output is converted to a low impedance voltage output by the use of integral electronics.

Two configurations are in common use:


The Compression Type where the mass exerts a compressive force on the piezoelectric element

The Shear Type where the mass exerts a shear force on the piezoelectric element.
 Most widely used vibration transducer is the piezoelectric accelerometer.
 It has very wide frequency and dynamic ranges with good linearity throughout the ranges.
 It is relatively robust and reliable for long period of time.

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: 57 : Mechanical Engineering

 The piezoelectric accelerometer is self-generating, so that it doesn't need a power supply.
 There are no moving parts to wear out, and finally, its acceleration proportional output can be
integrated to get velocity and displacement proportional signals.
Disadvantages:
 Does not measure shaft vibration.
 Sensitive to mounting techniques and surface conditions.
 Difficult to perform calibration check.
 Double integration to displacement often causes low frequency noise.
 One accelerometer does not fit all applications.
At higher temperatures (250°C) the piezoelectric ceramic will begin to depolarize so that the sensitivity
will be permanently altered. Such an accelerometer may still be used after recalibration if the
depolarization is not too severe. For temperatures up to 400°C, accelerometers with a special
piezoelectric ceramic are available.

(c) Answer the following: (5+15 = 20)


(i) Describe in brief the following forms of memory units :
ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, RAM

Sol: ROM (Read only memory) is a memory device used for store element programs/data. It is not
lost when power is removed.
PROM (Programmable ROM) is a type of ROM chip programmed by used for one time only.
EPROM (Erasable and Programmable ROM) is type of ROM chip programmed by user and
contents can be erased for repeated programming.
EEPROM (Electrically erasable PROM) is similar to EPROM, but erasing is done by
electrically by applying high voltage and programmed repeatedly.
RAM Random Access memory is used to store temporary data/programs during execution. It is
lost with power.

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: 58 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

(ii) Determine and compare the coordinates of a point P(5,3,1)T attached to a moving frame Fuvw,
which undergoes the following two sets of successive transformation :
Set A:
1. First a rotation of (-90) about Z-axis.
2. Followed by translation of [5 –3 4] about the X, Y and Z axes respectively.
3. Finally a rotation of (–90) about Y – axis.
Set B:
1. First a rotation of (–90) about W-axis.
2. Followed by translation of [5 –3 4] about the U, V and W axes respectively.
3. Finally a rotation of (–90) about V-axis.

Sol: Coordinate of point P (5,3,1)T attached to moving frame Fuvw


Point (P) undergoes successive relations as given below.
Set A: z z

(i) R (z, –90o) w 


v o P(5,3,1)
(ii) T (5,–3,4) u o
y
y
o
(iii) R (y, –90 ) x x

Rotation about fixed axis  pre multiplication


 R (y,–90o), T(5,–3,4), R(z,–90o)
 c(90 o ) 0 s(90) 0
 

R y,90 o  
0
 s(90)
1 0 0
0 c(90 o ) 0
 
 0 0 0 1

0 0 1 0
0 1 0 0

1 0 0 0
 
0 0 0 1

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: 59 : Mechanical Engineering

1 0 0 5
0 1 0  3
T5,3,4  
0 0 1 4
 
0 0 0 1

 Resultant multiplication of above two matrix


0 0  1  4
0 1 0  3

1 0 0 5
 
0 0 0 1 

 Multiplied with R(2,–90o)


0 0  1  4  0 1 0 0
0 1 0  3  1 0 0 0

1 0 0 5  0 0 1 0
  
0 0 0 1  0 0 0 1
Overall transformation matrix
0 0  1  4
 1 0 0  3
T
0 1 0 5
 
0 0 0 1 
New co-ordinate point P after above rotation
0 0  1  4 5  5
 1 0 0  3 3   8
 
0 1 0 5  1  8 
    
0 0 0 1  1  1 
New point is [–5, –8, 8]T

Set B:

(i) R w ,90 o  

(ii) T5,3,4  Rotation about current frame  Post multiplication

(iii) R v,90 o  
 R(w,–90o).T(5,–3,4), R(v,–90o)

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: 60 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

0 1 0 0  0 0 0 5  0 0  1 0
 1 0 0 0  0 1 0  3 0 1 0 0 

0 0 1 0  0 0 1 4  1 0 1 0
   
0 0 0 1  0 0 0 1  0 0 0 1
0 1 0  3 0 0  1 0
 1 0 0  5 0 1 0 0

0 0 1 4  1 0 0 0
  
0 0 0 1  0 0 0 1

0 1 0  3 5  0 
0 0 1  5 3  4
 
1 0 0 4  1  9 
    
0 0 0 1  1  1 
New points is (0,–4,9)

08. (a)
(i) How is the heat for electron beam welding obtained? With the help of a diagram, discuss the
working of this method of welding. (10 M)

Sol: Electron Beam Welding:


Used for high-precision and high-production applications involving most metals, electron beam
welding (EBW) accomplishes joining by means of a concentrated stream of high-velocity electrons
that is formed into a beam to provide a source of intense local heating.
The basic equipment required for most electron beam welding includes a vacuum chamber,
controls, an electron beam gun, a three-phase power supply, an optical viewing system or tracking
device, and work-handling equipment. The operation of this equipment may be either
semiautomatic or automatic.
Electron beam welding is illustrated schematically in below figure. When very high voltage is
applied to electron gun, it induces very high velocity electrons in all the directions. By using
magnetic lense or magnetic deflector, all this high velocity electrons will be collected and formed

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: 61 : Mechanical Engineering

like beam of electrons. When this beam of elctrcrons are impinging on to the work, the kinetic
energy of electrons is converted into heat energy. This heat energy is used to produce the joint.
The electron welding beam process can focus the beam onto a minute spot approximately 0.04 in.
(1 mm) in diameter. As the metal is bombarded by the electrons, the rapid heating produces a vapor
hole surrounded by the molten metal that forms the weld. The molten metal flows to the rear of the
vaporized hole and coalesces as the workpiece or beam is moved along the joint. The vacuum, if
one is used, provides very effective shielding from the atmosphere. Even a moderate vacuum
provides better protection from oxidation than inert gas shielding from a nozzle. Precise control of
travel along the joint is required for full weld penetration.

If the speed is too fast, however, joint penetration may be less than 100%, and porosity may occur
near the weld depth termination. If the travel speed is too slow, the molten metal around the
keyhole fails to coalesce, and no joining takes place. It is also important to note that when welding
thick sections of some alloys, magnetic fields cause the beam to curve away from the joint. In this
case, the weld will not fully penetrate, and the lower portion of the joint will not be welded.
Electron beam welding has its limitations, however. First, the capital costs associated with this
process are substantially higher than those incurred with arc welding equipment, though unit cost is
competitive when production volume is high. When performing electron beam welding in a
moderate vacuum or no vacuum, atmospheric molecules quickly dissipate the beam energy. This
phenomenon may make electron beam welding less desirable than other processes with
considerably smaller capital investments.
In addition, in the high vacuum and medium vacuum variations, a significant amount of pump-
down time is incurred while placing the parts in a vacuum chamber, though welding in a medium
vacuum involves less pump-down time than the high vacuum process. As they require a vacuum
chamber, the high and medium vacuum processes are limited with respect to the size of parts that
can be welded. Production speed can be augmented by increasing the size of the vacuum chambers
to permit them to accommodate more workpieces. Another option to increase productivity is the
use of chambers in a circular, or carousel, arrangement. After the workpiece is loaded into the
carousel, it is sent at timed intervals through the chambers, where the vacuum becomes

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: 62 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

progressively higher. In the final chamber, the desired vacuum is attained, and the workpiece is
welded.
When performing electron beam welding in a vacuum, porosity and spatter can be caused by the
evolution of gas as the metal is melted by the beam, a phenomenon known as outgassing. When the
evolving gas causes the ejection of molten drops of metal that scatter over the work surface, the
solidified drops take the form of spatter. It is important to keep the workpiece clean in order to
minimize outgassing. In the presence of a vacuum, the gases and impurities present in the material
evolve during welding, causing the workpiece and the chamber to become coated with residue.
In non-vacuum electron beam welding, the vacuum is used only to create the electron beam.
Therefore, the weldment size is not limited to the size of a vacuum chamber. However, penetration
capability is much lower, and shielding gas is required. In addition, as a vacuum chamber fails to
provide protection from the X-radiation emitted by the beam, more contamination occurs. Thus,
operators must control the process remotely from outside the required radiation enclosure.
Personnel must be protected from the ozone and other noxious gases produced during the non-
vacuum process.
Emitter
(Cathode)
Grid
– +
(Bias cup) –
Beam Accelerating
Anode voltage
+
Magnetic
Electron Beam
focusing
lens
Magnetic
deflection
coil

Deflection
capability Focus range

Workpiece

Figure: Schematic Representation of Electron Beam Welding

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: 63 : Mechanical Engineering

(ii) Describe with neat sketch the method of cold drawing of a wire or a bar. (10 M)

Sol: Cold Wire Drawing:


The operation of producing wire from the solid rod by pulling through stationary die is called as
“wire drawing operation.”

2=die
angle

d0 Z2 Z1 Z3 Z4 d1 2

L 2 to 5 m

Fig: Wire Drawing Process

Zone – I (Deformation zone):


→ What ever the deformation required for converting rod into wire is obtained in zone-1 only it is
called as “deformation zone”. i.e., inlet cross section of the zone equal rod cross section or exit
cross section equal to wire cross section.
 2  = die angle (or) deformation angle
= 12 (Hard material) to 48 (soft material)
 L = Length of deformation zone
or
= die land
→ During the drawing operation because of presence of friction are the interface of die or surface
of the wire, the backward frictional force is acting the inclined plane. This frictional force can be
resolved into two components.

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: 64 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

1. Horizontal component of frictional force: It will increases the drawing stresses applied the front
side.
2. Vertical component of frictional force: It will try to damage of failure the die.
Zone – II: (Lubricating zone):-
To reduced the above the friction force, it required to reduced friction at inter the face for the
lubricating must be used in at the drawing operating. Whatever lubricant required in the drawing
operation will be supplied only zone-2. Hence, zone-2 also called as “lubricating zone”.
(i) No-lubricant: When no lubricant is used, the friction is high, Heat generation and temperature
is high. Hence the surface of wire produced is like a black or burnt type of the colour.
(ii) Liquid Lubricant: - (Metallic or Dull surface)
When the liquid lubricant are used, it is reduced the friction, heat generation and temperature
and produces the surface of the wire like a metallic or dull surface.
Commonly liquid lubricants are SAE oils, mineral oils, vegetable oils, Kerosene etc.
Kerosene will be used during wire drawing operation of highly reactive materials like Al, Mg,
etc. This Kerosene will form a protective layer on this surface of reactive metals from
environmental corrosion/oxide layer.
(iii) Solid Powdered Lubricant: - (Bright shining surface or silvery surface)
When solid powdered lubricant is used, it is reducing the friction, Heat generation and
temperature and it also produces microscopic scratch on the wire surface and it will make the
appearance the wire surface like a bright shining or silvery surface.
→ The commonly powdered are used, glass powder, carbon powder, graphite powder etc.

Zone – III:- (Sizing zone)


It is a constant cross section zone and it is cross section area equal to exit cross section area of the
wire. The zone is used for maintaining the size of the wire, therefore it is called as “sizing zone”
This is used for converging elastic deformation present in the plastic deformation zone into plastic
deformation. If sizing zone is not used, the size of wire obtained greater than the exist size of the
zone-I. The length of sizing zone will be about 2-5 meters.

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: 65 : Mechanical Engineering

Zone – IV: (Exit zone (or) safety zone):-
When the lubricant in wire drawing, is passing through the interface, it is a experiencing high
pressure and high temperature. When this high pressure lubricant coming out from the zone – III
due to high pressure is falling through the front side body, due to high temperature is damaged in
the front side body. To avoid this a divergent zone is provided exit zone and it is closed by using a
cover so that lubricant will be collected in the divergent zone and it will be drained out after wards.
Because it is used for safety, it is called as “Safety zone”.
If the lubricant are not used in the drawing operation, it is not necessary used for the zone-IV.

(b) (i) The dimensions of the mating parts according to the hole system are given below :
Hole 30.0 mm Shaft 29.98 mm
30.05mm 29.94mm
Find the hole tolerance, shaft tolerance and allowance. (10 M)

Sol: H.hole = 30.05 mm,


L. hole = 30 mm
H. shaft = 29.98 mm
L. shaft = 29.94 mm
Hole tolerance = 30.05 – 30 = 0.05 mm
Shaft tolerance = 29.98 – 29.94 = 0.04 mm
Allowance = The difference between the maximum material limits of hole and shaft
= L.hole – H.shaft = 30 – 29.98 = 0.02 mm

(ii) Illustrate and describe through a linking flow diagram, the elements of a CIM system for
integrating CAD/CAM including latest communication technology to all the operational
functions and information processing in manufacturing. (10 M)

Sol: Computer – Integrated Manufacturing


Computer – integrated manufacturing includes all of the engineering functions of CAD/CAM, but
it also includes the firm’s business functions that are related to manufacturing. The ideal CIM

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: 66 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

system applies computer and communications technology to all the operational functions and
information processing functions in manufacturing from order receipt through design and
production to product shipment. The scope of CIM, compared with the more limited scope of
CAD/CAM, is depicted in figure (a).
The CIM concept is that all of the firm’s operations related to production are incorporated in an
integrated computer system to assist, augment, and automatic the operations. The computer system
is pervasive throughout the firm, touching all activities that support manufacturing. In this
integrated computer system, the output of one activity serves as the input to the next activity,
through the chain of events that starts with the sales order and culminates with shipment of the
product. The components of the integrated computer system are illustrated in figure (b).

Customer orders are initially entered by the company’s sales force or directly by the customer into
a computerized odder entry system. The orders contain the specifications describing the product.
The specifications serve as the input to the product design department. New products are designed
on a CAD system. The components that comprise the product are designed, the bill of materials is
compiled, and assembly drawings are prepared. The output of the design department serves as the
input to manufacturing engineering, where process panning, tool design, and similar activities are
accomplished to prepare for production. Many of these manufacturing engineering activities are
supported by the CIM system. Process planning is performed using CAPP.

Toll and fixture design is done on a CAD system, making use of the product model generated
during product design. The output from manufacturing engineering provides the input to
production planning and control, where material requirements planning and scheduling are
performed using the computer system, and so it goes, through each step in the manufacturing
cycle. Full implementation of CIM results in the automation of the information flow though every
aspect of the company’s organization.

Enterprise resource planning (ERP), which refers to a software system that integrates the data and
operations of a company through a central data base. In effect, ERP implements computer-

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: 67 : Mechanical Engineering

integrated manufacturing. It also includes all of the business functions of the organization that are
not related to manufacturing, such as accounting, finance, and human resources.

Scope of CIM

Scope of CAD/CAM

Design

Business Factory Mfg.


functions operations planning

Mfg.
control

Fig(a): The Scope of CAD/CAM and CIM

CAD
Geometric MODELING
Engineering analysis
Design review and evaluation
Automation drafting

Design
CAM
Cost estimation
Computarized business system CAPP NC part programming
Business Factory Mfg.
order entry computerized work stds
functions operations planning
account pay role MRP,
capacity planning

Mfg.
control

CAM
Process control
Process monitoring
Shop floor controlling
Computer aided inspection

Fig(b): Computerized elements of a CIM System

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: 68 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

(c) Answer the following: (10+10=20)

(i) Develop Forward Kinematics model for the given three degrees of freedom RPY wrist figure.
Assign the frames, develop D-H parameters table, generate individual transformation
matrices and overall transformation matrix. Assume a3 = d3 = 0. Determine the orientation of
the last frame with reference to the {0} frame, if 1 = 0 and 2 = 3 = 90.

Joint 2 Joint 3
Joint 1

Tool Point

P
Arm end
Roll
Pitch
Yaw
A 3-DOF freedom roll, pitch and yaw (RPY) wrist

Sol: 3 dot RPY wrist (Roll, pitch, yaw)


3 Joints: J1 = Roll ; J2 = Pitch ; J3 = yaw
Assigning the coordinate frames for 3 DOF RPY wrist.
Arm end point as stationary base frame (0)
Frame 1 for link 1 & link 2 for link 2…

X0 X1 Z2 Z3
Z1 3
1 2

X2
(0) Z0 (1) (2) (3) X3
1
[Roll] [Pitch] [yaw] Tool
Joint 1 Joint 2 Joint 3 Point
Origin is same for all above frames
D-4 (Denavit & Hartenberg) parameter table
Link a  D 
1 0 90 0 1
2 0 90 0 2 + 90
3 0 0 0 3

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: 69 : Mechanical Engineering

Individual transformation matrices
C1 0 S1 0
S 0  C1 0
0T 
1  1
0 1 0 0
 
0 0 0 1

  S2 0 C2 0
C 0 S2 0
1T 
2  2
 0 1 0 0
 
 0 0 0 1

C 3  S3 0 0
S C3 0 0
T 3
  3
2
0 0 1 0
 
0 0 0 1
Overall transformation matrix for RPY wrist is

0 T 3  0 T1.1 T 2 .2 T 3

 C1S2 C3  S1S3 C1S2S3  S1C3 C1C 2 0


 S S C  C S S S S  C C S1C 2 0
 1 2 3 1 3 1 2 3 1 3

 C 2 C3  C 2S3 S2 0
 
 0 0 0 1
Orientation of last frame w.r.t (0) for
1 = 0 & 2 = 3 = 90
 0 1 0
  1 0 0
 
 0 0 1

(ii) Determine the three joint variables for a given end effector orientation matrix TE for the
RPY wrist in the figure above.
n x ox ax 0
n oy ay 0
TE   y
n z oz az 0
 
0 0 0 1

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: 70 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

Sol: Joint variables (1, 2, 3) for given end effector orientation matrix for RPY wrist

n x 0x ax 0
n 0y ay 0
TF   y
n z 0z az 0
 
0 0 0 1

Equated with previous overall T.M to solve joint variables (1, 2, 3)  Roll, Pitch, Yaw

n x 0x ax 0
n 0y ay 0
 y 0 T3
n z 0z az 0
 
0 0 0 1

 To solve 1(Roll) both sides


ax, ay cells
ax = c1 , c2 , ay = s 1 c 2
ay s1c 2
  tan 1
ax c1c 2

a 
So, 1  tan 1  y 
ax 
 
So, 1  tan  a y / a x ------------ (1)

 for 3(yaw) both sides


O3 = –C2S3
nz = C2C3
O3  C 2S3
   tan 3 . 
nz C 2 C3

 o 
3  tan   z  ---------- (2)
 nz 

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: 71 : Mechanical Engineering

 To solve 2 (pitch) both sides are pre multiplied by OT1 
1

C1 S1 0 0 n x ox ax 0   S2 0 C2 0 C 3  S3 0 0
0 0 1 0 n oy ay 
0 C 0 S2 0 S C3 0 0
  y =  2  3
 S1  C1 0 0 n z oz az 0  0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
       
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

C2 = C1ax + S1ay
S2 = a3
S2 az
tan  2  
C 2 C1a x  S1a y

 az 
 2  tan    ----------- (3)
 C1a x  S1a y 
.

ACE Engineering Academy Hyderabad|Delhi|Bhopal|Pune|Bhubaneswar| Lucknow|Patna|Bengaluru|Chennai|Vijayawada|Vizag |Tirupati | Kukatpally| Kolkata



: 72 : ESE ‐17 _ Conventional Paper – 2

ACE Engineering Academy Hyderabad|Delhi|Bhopal|Pune|Bhubaneswar| Lucknow|Patna|Bengaluru|Chennai|Vijayawada|Vizag |Tirupati | Kukatpally| Kolkata