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IELTS Practice Tests Plus 1, Test 1, Reading 2

Reading the screen

the media [uncountable + singular or plural verb] the main ways that large numbers
of people receive information and entertainment, that is television, radio, newspapers
and the Internet
the news/broadcasting/national media
The trial was fully reported in the media.
exacerbate something (formal) to make something worse, especially a disease or
problem
SYNONYM AGGRAVATE
His aggressive reaction only exacerbated the situation.
The symptoms may be exacerbated by certain drugs.
potential [uncountable] the possibility of something happening or being developed or
used
potential (for) the potential for change
potential (for doing something) The European marketplace offers excellent
potential for increasing sales.
1
debate (on/about/over something) U C an argument or a discussion expressing
different opinions
a heated/wide-ranging/lively debate
the current debate about tax
charged (with something) full of or causing strong feelings or opinions
a highly charged atmosphere a politically charged issue
The dialogue is charged with menace.
(on the one hand…) on the other (hand)… used to introduce different points of
view, ideas, etc., especially when they are opposites
On the one hand they'd love to have kids, but on the other, they don't want to
give up their freedom.
army [countable + singular or plural verb] a large number of people or things,
especially when they are organized in some way or involved in a particular activity
an army of advisers/volunteers
An army of ants marched across the path.
convince to make somebody/yourself believe that something is true
convince somebody/yourself (of something) You'll need to convince them of
your enthusiasm for the job.
convince somebody/yourself (that)… I’d convinced myself (that) I was right.
host of somebody/something C a large number of people or things
a host of possibilities
progressive [usually plural] a person who is in favour of new ideas, modern methods
and change
political battles between progressives and conservatives
progressive adj in favour of new ideas, modern methods and change
progressive schools
Opposite retrogressive
technical adj [usually before noun] connected with the skills needed for a particular
job, sport, art, etc.
Skaters score extra points for technical complexity.
mastery (of something) great knowledge about or understanding of a particular thing
SYNONYM COMMAND
She has mastery of several languages.
The orchestra is unrivalled in terms of technical mastery and sheer vitality.
position (on something) C an opinion on or an attitude towards a particular subject
to declare/reconsider/shift/change your position
the party’s position on education reforms
The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating
from the late 15th century to the early 17th century
the Renaissance the period in Europe during the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries when
people became interested in the ideas and culture of ancient Greece and Rome and
used these influences in their own art, literature, etc. / thời kỳ Phục hưng (thời kỳ làm
sống lại (nghệ thuật) và (văn học) ở (thế kỷ) 14, 15 và 16, dựa trên các hình thức cổ
điển)
Renaissance art
distinction (between A and B) C a clear difference or contrast especially between
people or things that are similar or related
distinctions between traditional and modern societies
Philosophers did not use to make a distinction between arts and science.
manuscript a very old book or document that was written by hand before printing
was invented
medieval illuminated manuscripts
2
tabloid a newspaper with small pages (usually half the size of those in larger papers)
tabloid (sometimes disapproving) a newspaper of this size with short articles and a lot
of pictures and stories about famous people, often thought of as less serious than other
newspapers
The story made the front page in all the tabloids.
I despair when I read what passes for news in some of the tabloids.
simplification [uncountable, singular] the process of making something easier to do
or understand
Complaints have led to (a) simplification of the rules.
syntax U (linguistics) the way that words and phrases are put together to form
sentences in a language; the rules of grammar for this
uniform adj not varying; the same in all parts and at all times / không thay đổi về
hình thức hoặc tính cách
uniform rates of pay
The walls were a uniform grey.
readily adv quickly and without difficulty
SYNONYM FREELY
All ingredients are readily available from your local store.
distinction (between A and B) C a clear difference or contrast especially between
people or things that are similar or related
distinctions between traditional and modern societies
Philosophers did not use to make a distinction between arts and science.
3
crucial adj extremely important, because it will affect other things
SYNONYM CRITICAL, ESSENTIAL
a crucial factor/issue/decision
crucial to/for something Winning this contract is crucial to the success of the
company.
crucial that… It is crucial that we get this right.
doubtful adj unlikely; not probable
doubtful (if…) It's doubtful if this painting is a Picasso.
doubtful (that…) With her injuries it's doubtful that she'll ever walk again.
doubtful (whether…) It's doubtful whether the car will last another year.
doubtful (for something) He is injured and is doubtful for the game
tomorrow (= unlikely to play).
grasp [usually singular] a person’s understanding of a subject or of difficult facts
He has a good grasp of German grammar.
These complex formulae are beyond the grasp of the average pupil.
retain something (rather formal) to keep something; to continue to have something
SYNONYM PRESERVE to retain your independence
He struggled to retain control of the situation.
authority (to do something) U the power or right to do something
Only the Board has the authority to approve the budget.
We have the authority to search this building.
topical adj connected with something that is happening or of interest at the present
time
a topical joke/referencetopical events
usurp somebody/something (formal) to take somebody’s position and/or power
without having the right to do this / chiếm đoạt; tiếm quyền
undermine something to make something, especially somebody’s confidence or
authority, gradually weaker or less effective
Our confidence in the team has been seriously undermined by their recent
defeats.
This crisis has undermined his position.
compilation [uncountable] the process of compiling something
the compilation of a dictionary
compile something to produce a book, list, report, etc. by bringing together different
items, articles, songs, etc.
We are trying to compile a list of suitable people for the job.
The album was compiled from live recordings from last year's tour.
4
pack [countable] a set of different things that are supplied together for a particular
purpose
Send for your free information pack today.
handbook a book giving instructions on how to use something or information about a
particular subject
A study skills handbook sets out to train the students in all these areas.
spell something (for somebody/something) to have something, usually something
bad, as a result; to mean something, usually something bad
The crop failure spelt disaster for many farmers.
This defeat spelt the end of his hopes of winning the title again.
living [countable, usually singular] money to buy the things that you need in life
She earns her living as a freelance journalist.
to make a good/decent/meagre living
What do you do for a living?
reward [often passive] to give something to somebody because they have done
something good, worked hard, etc.
reward somebody for something She was rewarded for her efforts with a
cash bonus.
reward somebody for doing something He rewarded us handsomely (= with
a lot of money) for helping him.
reward somebody with something She started singing to the baby and was
rewarded with a smile.
reward somebody/something Our patience was finally rewarded.
institution [countable] a large important organization that has a particular purpose,
for example, a university or bank
an educational/financial, etc. institution
the Smithsonian Institution
rule [transitive, intransitive] to control and have authority over a country, a group of
people, etc.
rule something At that time John ruled England.
rule (over somebody/something) Charles I ruled for eleven years.
opposition [uncountable, countable] (formal) the state of being as different as
possible; two things that are as different as possible
the opposition between good and evil
His poetry is full of oppositions and contrasts.
5
the media [uncountable + singular or plural verb] the main ways that large numbers
of people receive information and entertainment, that is television, radio, newspapers
and the Internet
the news/broadcasting/national media
The trial was fully reported in the media.
The media was/were accused of influencing the final decision.
encounter somebody/something (formal) to meet somebody, or discover or
experience something, especially somebody/something new, unusual or unexpected
SYNONYM COME ACROSS
She was the most remarkable woman he had ever encountered.
central adj most important
The central issue is that of widespread racism.
Reducing inflation is central to (= is an important part of) the government's
economic policy.
devote something to something to give an amount of time, attention, etc. to
something
I could only devote two hours a day to the work.
anecdotal adj based on anecdotes and possibly not true or accurate
anecdotal evidence
Anecdotal evidence suggests there were irregularities at the polling station on
the day of the election.
master something to learn or understand something completely
to master new skills/techniques
French was a language he had never mastered.
the media [uncountable + singular or plural verb] the main ways that large numbers
of people receive information and entertainment, that is television, radio, newspapers
and the Internet
the news/broadcasting/national media
The trial was fully reported in the media.
The media was/were accused of influencing the final decision.
integrate [intransitive, transitive] to combine two or more things so that they work
together; to combine with something else in this way
integrate into/with something These programs will integrate with your
existing software.
integrate A (into/with B) | integrate A and B These programs can be
integrated with your existing software.
productive adj doing or achieving a lot
SYNONYM FRUITFUL a productive meeting
My time spent in the library was very productive.
enfranchise somebody [usually passive] (formal) to give somebody the right to vote
in an election
Opposite disenfranchise
6
foolish adj (of actions or behaviour) not showing good sense or judgement
SYNONYM SILLY, STUPID
She's just a vain, foolish woman.
The accident was my fault—it would be foolish to pretend otherwise.
ignore something to pay no attention to something
SYNONYM DISREGARD
He ignored all the ‘No Smoking’ signs and lit up a cigarette.
I made a suggestion but they chose to ignore it.
central adj most important
The central issue is that of widespread racism.
Reducing inflation is central to (= is an important part of) the government's
economic policy.
aspect [countable] a particular part or feature of a situation, an idea, a problem, etc.; a
way in which it may be considered
The book aims to cover all aspects of city life.
the most important aspect of the debate
acquiesce (in/to something) (formal) to accept something without arguing, even if
you do not really agree with it / bằng lòng, ưng thuận, đồng ý; bằng lòng ngầm, mặc
nhận
Senior government figures must have acquiesced in the cover-up.
She explained her plan and reluctantly he acquiesced.
a state of affair a situation
This state of affairs can no longer be ignored.
significant adj large or important enough to have an effect or to be noticed
a highly significant discovery
It is significant that girls generally do better in examinations than boys.
stimulus (to/for something) | stimulus (to do something) [usually
singular] something that helps somebody/something to develop better or more quickly
Books provide children with ideas and a stimulus for play.
The new tax laws should act as a stimulus to exports.
introduce to make something available for use, discussion, etc. for the first time
SYNONYM bring somebody/something in
introduce something The company is introducing a new range of products
this year.
introduce something into/to something We want to introduce the latest
technology into schools.
call for sth to need something
The situation calls for prompt action.
‘I've been promoted.’ ‘This calls for a celebration!’
camcorder a video camera that records pictures and sound and that can be carried
around
edit suite a room containing electronic equipment for editing material recorded on
video
edit something when somebody edits a film/movie, television programme, etc. they
take what has been filmed or recorded and decide which parts to include and in which
order
They're showing the edited highlights of last month's game.
integrate [intransitive, transitive] to combine two or more things so that they work
together; to combine with something else in this way
integrate into/with something These programs will integrate with your
existing software.
integrate A (into/with B) | integrate A and B These programs can be
integrated with your existing software.
stand [intransitive] (+ adj.) to be in a particular condition or situation
The house stood empty for a long time.
‘You're wrong about the date—it was 1988.’ ‘I stand corrected (= accept that I
was wrong).’
unused adj not being used at the moment; never having been used
The house was left unused for most of the year.
Any unused pastry can be frozen and used at a later date.
fate [countable] the things, especially bad things, that will happen or have happened
to somebody/something
The fate of the three men is unknown.
She sat outside, waiting to find out her fate.
media studies [uncountable + singular or plural verb] the study of newspapers,
television, radio, etc. as a subject at school, etc.
curriculum (pl. curricula, curriculums) the subjects that are included in a course of
study or taught in a school, college, etc.
the school curriculum
(British English) Spanish is on the curriculum.
(North American English) Spanish is in the curriculum.
syllabus (pl. syllabuses, (less frequent)syllabi) a list of the topics, books, etc. that
students should study in a particular subject at school or college
clamour [intransitive, transitive] (formal) to demand something loudly
clamour (for something) People began to clamour for his resignation.
clamour to do something Everyone was clamouring to know how much they
would get.
+ speech ‘Play with us!’ the children clamoured.
uncertain (about/of something) adj [not before noun] feeling doubt about
something; not sure
They're both uncertain about what to do.
I'm still uncertain of my feelings for him.
Opposite certain
area (of something) C a particular subject or activity, or an aspect of it
the areas of training and development
Finance is Mark's area.
7
draw sb into sth/into doing sth //draw sb in to involve somebody or make
somebody take part in something, although they may not want to take part at first
youngsters drawn into a life of crime
The book starts slowly, but it gradually draws you in.
debate (on/about/over something) an argument or a discussion expressing different
opinions
a heated/wide-ranging/lively debate
the current debate about tax
institution [countable] a large important organization that has a particular purpose,
for example, a university or bank
an educational/financial, etc. institution
the Smithsonian Institution
8
era a period of time, usually in history, that is different from other periods because of
particular characteristics or events
the Victorian/modern/post-war era
When she left the firm, it was the end of an era (= things were different after
that).
draw [transitive] to attract or interest somebody
draw somebody The movie is drawing large audiences.
draw somebody to something Her screams drew passers-by to the scene.
the media [uncountable + singular or plural verb] the main ways that large numbers
of people receive information and entertainment, that is television, radio, newspapers
and the Internet
the news/broadcasting/national media
The trial was fully reported in the media.
erode (something) to gradually destroy something or make it weaker over a period of
time; to be destroyed or made weaker in this way
Her confidence has been slowly eroded by repeated failures.
Mortgage payments have been eroded (= decreased in value) by inflation.
critical adj expressing disapproval of somebody/something and saying what you
think is bad about them
a critical comment/report
critical of somebody/something Tom's parents were highly critical of the
school.
judgement (of/about/on something) U C an opinion that you form about something
after thinking about it carefully; the act of making this opinion known to others
He refused to make a judgement about the situation.
Who am I to pass judgement on her behaviour? (= to criticize it)
take somebody/something used to introduce somebody/something as an example
Lots of couples have problems in the first year of marriage. Take Ann and
Paul.
coinage [countable, uncountable] a word or phrase that has been invented recently;
the process of inventing a word or phrase
new coinages
divorce (between A and B) [countable, usually singular] (formal) a separation; the
ending of a relationship between two things
the divorce between religion and science
separable (from something) that can be separated from something, or considered
separately
The moral question is not entirely separable from the financial one.
The influences of home and school are not easily separable.
heritage [usually singular] the history, traditions and qualities that a country or
society has had for many years and that are considered an important part of its
character
Spain’s rich cultural heritage
The building is part of our national heritage.
9
the media [uncountable + singular or plural verb] the main ways that large numbers
of people receive information and entertainment, that is television, radio, newspapers
and the Internet
the news/broadcasting/national media
The trial was fully reported in the media.
point to sth to suggest that something is true or likely
All the signs point to a successful year ahead.
The evidence before us points clearly to his innocence.
futuristic adj extremely modern and unusual in appearance, as if belonging to a
future time
futuristic design
cyber-economy an economy based on electronic goods and services produced by the
electronic business and traded through electronic commerce.
treasure [countable, usually plural] a highly valued object
the priceless art treasures of the Uffizi Gallery
initially adv at the beginning
Initially, the system worked well.
The death toll was initially reported at around 250, but was later revised to
300.
doubtful adj unlikely; not probable
doubtful (if…) It's doubtful if this painting is a Picasso.
doubtful (that…) With her injuries it's doubtful that she'll ever walk again.
doubtful (whether…) It's doubtful whether the car will last another year.
doubtful (for something) He is injured and is doubtful for the game
tomorrow (= unlikely to play).
heritage [usually singular] the history, traditions and qualities that a country or
society has had for many years and that are considered an important part of its
character
Spain’s rich cultural heritage
The building is part of our national heritage.
seek sb/sth out to look for and find somebody/something, especially when this means
using a lot of effort
public service broadcasting U radio and television programmes broadcast by
organizations such as the BBC in Britain that are independent of government but are
financed by public money
Questions 14-17
Tip strip
strip a long, flat, narrow piece
a narrow strip of land
He didn't have a bandage, so he ripped up his shirt into thin strips.
Answers
14 C Para 1: This second position is supported ... These studies argue that ... and
technical context.
debate (on/about/over something) U C an argument or a discussion expressing
different opinions
a heated/wide-ranging/lively debate
the current debate about tax
opposing adj [only before noun] (of attitudes, views, etc.) very different from each
other
convincing adj that makes somebody believe that something is true
a convincing argument/explanation/case
She sounded very convincing to me (= I believed what she said).
Opposite unconvinving
position (on something) C an opinion on or an attitude towards a particular subject
to declare/reconsider/shift/change your position
the party’s position on education reforms
15 A The fisrt two sentences present the two contrasing views. The rest of the paragraph
expands on them.
manual adj (of work, etc.) involving using the hands or physical strength
manual labour/jobs/skills
manual and non-manual workers
the media [uncountable + singular or plural verb] the main ways that large numbers
of people receive information and entertainment, that is television, radio, newspapers
and the Internet
the news/broadcasting/national media
The trial was fully reported in the media.
expand on/upon sth to say more about something and add some details
Could you expand on that point, please?
16 B Para 6: How should these new technologies ... it isn’t enough unless they are
properly integrated. The rest of the paragraph supports option B as does the following
paragraph.
incorporate to include something so that it forms a part of something
incorporate something The new car design incorporates all the latest safety
features.
incorporate something in/into/within something We have incorporated all
the latest safety features into the design.
mean [plural] the money that a person has
People should pay according to their means.
He doesn't have the means to support a wife and child.
widely adv to a large degree; a lot
Standards vary widely.
integrate [intransitive, transitive] to combine two or more things so that they work
together; to combine with something else in this way
integrate into/with something These programs will integrate with your
existing software.
integrate A (into/with B) | integrate A and B These programs can be
integrated with your existing software.
option [countable, uncountable] something that you can choose to have or do; the
freedom to choose what you do
As I see it, we have two options…
option (of doing something) Students have the option of studying abroad in
their second year.
option (to do something) A savings plan that gives you the option to vary
your monthly payments.
17 D A global view expressed in the final paragraph but particularly in first and last
sentences.
divorce (between A and B) [countable, usually singular] (formal) a separation; the
ending of a relationship between two things
the divorce between religion and science
exposure (to something) U the state of being in a place or situation where there is no
protection from something harmful or unpleasant
prolonged exposure to harmful radiation
(finance) the company’s exposure on the foreign exchange markets (= to the
risk of making financial losses)
global adj considering or including all parts of something
We need to take a more global approach to the problem.
global searches on the database
Questions 18-23
Tip strip
strip a long, flat, narrow piece
a narrow strip of land
He didn't have a bandage, so he ripped up his shirt into thin strips.
skim [intransitive, transitive] to read something quickly in order to find a particular
point or the main points
skim through/over something He skimmed through the article trying to find
his name.
skim something I always skim the financial section of the newspaper.
scan [transitive, intransitive] to look quickly but not very carefully at a document, etc.
scan something (for something) I scanned the list quickly for my name.
scan through something (for something) She scanned through the
newspaper over breakfast.
Answers
18 Yes Para 2: But the picture is not uniform ... of the 19th century.
uniform adj not varying; the same in all parts and at all times / không thay đổi về
hình thức hoặc tính cách
uniform rates of pay
The walls were a uniform grey.
readily adv quickly and without difficulty
SYNONYM FREELY
All ingredients are readily available from your local store.
distinction (between A and B) C a clear difference or contrast especially between
people or things that are similar or related
distinctions between traditional and modern societies
Philosophers did not use to make a distinction between arts and science.
19 NO Para 3: While reading a certain amount ... 30 or 40 years ago.
crucial adj extremely important, because it will affect other things
SYNONYM CRITICAL, ESSENTIAL
a crucial factor/issue/decision
crucial to/for something Winning this contract is crucial to the success of the
company.
crucial that… It is crucial that we get this right.
doubtful adj unlikely; not probable
doubtful (if…) It's doubtful if this painting is a Picasso.
doubtful (that…) With her injuries it's doubtful that she'll ever walk again.
doubtful (whether…) It's doubtful whether the car will last another year.
doubtful (for something) He is injured and is doubtful for the game
tomorrow (= unlikely to play).
grasp [usually singular] a person’s understanding of a subject or of difficult facts
He has a good grasp of German grammar.
These complex formulae are beyond the grasp of the average pupil.
20 NOT GIVEN Para 2: Discuss the decline in some aspects of reading and writing and
paragraph 4 looks at the importance of these skills but there is NO INFORMATION
about a rise or fall in the number of people unable to read and write.
increase (in something) a rise in the amount, number or value of something
an increase in spending
Homelessness is on the increase (= increasing).
aspect [countable] a particular part or feature of a situation, an idea, a problem, etc.; a
way in which it may be considered
The book aims to cover all aspects of city life.
the most important aspect of the debate
21 YES Para 4: On the other hand, it is ... rewarded than ever before.
relatively adv to a fairly large degree, especially in comparison to something else
I found the test relatively easy.
We had relatively few applications for the job.
living [countable, usually singular] money to buy the things that you need in life
She earns her living as a freelance journalist.
to make a good/decent/meagre living
What do you do for a living?
reward [often passive] to give something to somebody because they have done
something good, worked hard, etc.
reward somebody for something She was rewarded for her efforts with a
cash bonus.
reward somebody for doing something He rewarded us handsomely (= with
a lot of money) for helping him.
reward somebody with something She started singing to the baby and was
rewarded with a smile.
reward somebody/something Our patience was finally rewarded.
22 YES Para 4: While you may not need ... in order to make programmes.
23 NO Para 5: The computer has re-established ... get on to the Internet.
central adj most important
The central issue is that of widespread racism.
Reducing inflation is central to (= is an important part of) the government's
economic policy.
devote something to something to give an amount of time, attention, etc. to
something
I could only devote two hours a day to the work.
anecdotal adj based on anecdotes and possibly not true or accurate
anecdotal evidence
Anecdotal evidence suggests there were irregularities at the polling station on
the day of the election.
master something to learn or understand something completely
to master new skills/techniques
French was a language he had never mastered.
Questions 24-26
Answers
The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating
from the late 15th century to the early 17th century
the Renaissance the period in Europe during the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries when
people became interested in the ideas and culture of ancient Greece and Rome and
used these influences in their own art, literature, etc. / thời kỳ Phục hưng (thời kỳ làm
sống lại (nghệ thuật) và (văn học) ở (thế kỷ) 14, 15 và 16, dựa trên các hình thức cổ
điển)
Renaissance art
24 manuscript Para 1: ... there was a distinction ... of reading manuscripts.
distinction (between A and B) C a clear difference or contrast especially between
people or things that are similar or related
distinctions between traditional and modern societies
Philosophers did not use to make a distinction between arts and science.
manuscript a very old book or document that was written by hand before printing
was invented
medieval illuminated manuscripts
25 (tabloid) newspapers See the first sentence of paragraph 2.
tabloid a newspaper with small pages (usually half the size of those in larger papers)
tabloid (sometimes disapproving) a newspaper of this size with short articles and a lot
of pictures and stories about famous people, often thought of as less serious than other
newspapers
The story made the front page in all the tabloids.
I despair when I read what passes for news in some of the tabloids.
simplification [uncountable, singular] the process of making something easier to do
or understand
Complaints have led to (a) simplification of the rules.
syntax U (linguistics) the way that words and phrases are put together to form
sentences in a language; the rules of grammar for this
26 shopping lists Para 3: ... research suggests ... of shopping list.
compilation [uncountable] the process of compiling something
the compilation of a dictionary
compile something to produce a book, list, report, etc. by bringing together different
items, articles, songs, etc.
We are trying to compile a list of suitable people for the job.
The album was compiled from live recordings from last year's tour.
Tip strip
strip a long, flat, narrow piece
a narrow strip of land
He didn't have a bandage, so he ripped up his shirt into thin strips.
skim [intransitive, transitive] to read something quickly in order to find a particular
point or the main points
skim through/over something He skimmed through the article trying to find
his name.
skim something I always skim the financial section of the newspaper.
scan [transitive, intransitive] to look quickly but not very carefully at a document, etc.
scan something (for something) I scanned the list quickly for my name.
scan through something (for something) She scanned through the
newspaper over breakfast.
make sense to have a meaning that you can easily understand
This sentence doesn't make sense.
in terms of something, in…terms used to show what aspect of a subject you are
talking about or how you are thinking about it
The job is great in terms of salary, but it has its disadvantages.
The decision was disastrous in political terms.