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LESSON 11…..

THE PHILIPPINE VALUES EDUCATION PROGRAM:


LESSON 11…..

THE PHILIPPINE VALUES EDUCATION PROGRAM: AN IMPORTANT COMPONENT OF


PHILIPPINE PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION…

THE DECS VALUES EDUCATION PROGRAM WAS INTRODUCED BY DR. LOURDES


QUISUMBING, THEN SECRETARY OF THE DEPED CULTURE AND SPORTS THROUGH A
DEPARTMENT ORDER. THE ORDER SERVED AS A GUIDE IN THE SCHOOLS ORGANIZATION
OF THEIR VALUES EDUCATION PROGRAM.

THE DECS VALUES EDUCATION PROGRAM

VALUES EDUCATION IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH VALUES ARE FORMED IN THE


LEARNER UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF THE TEACHER AND AS HE INTERACTS WITH HIS
ENVIRONMENT.

VALUES EDUCATION INVOLVES NOT JUST ANY KIND OF TEACHER-LEARNING


PROCESS; IT HAS A DIRECT AND IMMEDIATE RELEVANCE TO THE PERSONAL LIFE OF THE
LEARNER. THE PROCESS IS NOT JUST COGNITIVE, BUT INVOLVES ALL THE FACULTIES OF
THE LEARNER. THE TEACHER MUST APPEAL NOT ONLY TO THE MIND BUT THE HEART AS
WELL. THIS LEARNING IS BY IDENTIFICATION; HENCE, THE TEACHERS PERSONAL VALUES
PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN VALUES LEARNING.

VALUES EDUCATION IS SUPPORTED BY THE PREAMBLE OF THE PHILIPPINE


CONSTITUTION OF 1987 IN ITS OBJECTIVE TO BUILD A JUST HUMANE SOCIETY WHICH
CALLS FOR A SHARED CULTURE AND COMMONLY HELD VALUES SUCH AS TRUTH,
JUSTICE, FREEDOM, LOVE, EQUALITY, AND PEACE.
IN THE PURSUIT OF THIS THRUST, THE DECS EMBARKED ON VALUES EDUCATION
PROGRAM AFTER THE FEBRUARY 1986 EDSA REVOLUTION

SOURCE: MODULES IN SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY/ PROF. AVELINA C. BUCAO/ROVELINA B.


JACOLBIA, D.E.M

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A glimpse on educational Philosophy of Filipino Educators


Written by Mary Charlotte R. Bonus | Teacher II | MNHS-Cabcaben | Mariveles, Bataan
Published: 03 November 2014

Created: 03 November 2014

There were famous Filipino educators whose work is undeniably contributed to the present
Philippine education setting. I truly believe that these educators had an impact on how Filipino
teachers deals with the present Filipino learners and adapting to the continuous changing on
education system .
The Educational Philosophies Of Filipino Educators
“Rizal’s concept of the importance ofeducation is enunciated in his work
entitledInstruction wherein he sought improvements in theschools and in the methods of teaching.
”For Rizal, the mission of education is to elevate thecountry to the highest seat of glory and to
develop the people’s mentality. Since Education is the foundation of society and aprerequisite for
social progress, Rizal claimed thatonly through education could the country be savedfrom
domination.Rizal’s philosophy of education, therefore, centers onthe provision of proper
motivation in order to bolsterthe great social forces that make education a success, tocreate in the
youth an innate desire to cultivate hisintelligence and give him life eternal.He believed in the
importance of the school as a social organization. According to him, the school must train the
citizens inthe three phases of life: 1. Moral 2. Intellectual 3. Physical .The school should prepare
the individual to live efficiently both as individual and as a member of the community to which he
belongs.
Dr. Camilo Osias“School has an important role in the development of dynamicnationalism
and internationalism in relation to democracy in theeducation of the youth.”“High educational
institutions should do more to turn outgraduates who can think logically, scientifically and
creatively.” “Our education should instill love for work, spirit of tolerance, respect for law, love
for peace and practice of thrift. Dr. Osias’ suggestions to Philippine schools:1. Preserve the
solidarity of Filipino;2. Maintain the unity of the Philippines;3. Work out a proper equilibrium in
economic order;4. Develop social justice;5. Observe the merit system in government service;6.
Promote peace and national defense;7. Uphold the inalienable rights of life, property, liberty, and
happiness;8. Keep in their prestige majesty the fundamental freedom, especially freedom of
speech, freedom of press, freedom of peace and assembly, and freedom of worship;9. Conserve
the principle of equality.10.Hold high the ideals of religion.11.Keep over aloft the torch of
education, and12.Make democracy a living and functional reality.
Palma “Education must produce individualswho are both useful to themselves and
tosociety.”Jorge Jacobo prepared himself well for any task that awaited him.Into any undertaking,
he always put the best of hisenergies and, to use his own expression, "made the failureof any work
which I undertake my own failure, its success my own success." He stressed that Filipino culture
and tradition should be thebases of education in the Philippines. According to him, the educational
concept is closely relatedto nationalism and love of country. He also stressed that education in this
country shouldprepare the child for the democratic way of life.
Apolinario Mabini “Thou shalt cultivate the special gifts whichhad been granted thee,
working and studyingaccording to thy ability, never leaving the path ofrighteousness and justice
in order to attain thineown perfection.”
TH Pardo De Tavera “Our education should instill love forwork, spirit of tolerance, respect
for law, lovefor peace and practice of thrift.”
Francisco BenitezThe qualities that should distinguish the educatedFilipinos of today are
(1) power to do (2) knowledgeof the past and current events and (3) possession ofthe elements of
conduct that area theaccomplishment of culture and morality.“The function of our school is neither
to fit theindividual for the past which is dead and gone, nor to prepare him for a remote future
which is problematic, rather it is to train the individual so that he will be a member of the world as
it is.”
Dr. Lourdes Quisumbing “Believes that education must strengthen thedignity of the learner
as a human person. Assuch, the various dimensions of man’spersonhood has to be fully developed
by theschool system through an effective andsystematized values education”
Venancio Trinidad “Education should aim to develop men andwomen who are as deeply
concerned in thedevelopment and uplift of ourcommunities, particularly in the ruralareas, as in the
promotion of their ownpersonal or individual well-being.”
Manuel L. Quezon “Show me people composed of vigorous, sturdy individuals, ofmen and
women healthy in mind andbody, courteous, industrious, self-reliant , purposeful inthought as well
in action, imbued with sound patriotism andprofound sense of righteousness, with high social
ideals andstrong moral fiber and I will show you a great nation, a nationthat will not submerged, a
nation that will emerge victoriousfrom the trials and bitter strife of a distracted world, anation that
will live forever, sharing thecommon task of advancing the welfareand promoting the happiness
of mankind”
The Filipino value system arises from our culture or way of life, ourdistinctive way of
becoming human in this particular place and time. Wespeak of Filipino values in a fourfold sense.
First, although mankind shares universal human values, it is obvious thatcertain values take on for
us a distinctively Filipino flavor. When we speak of Filipino values, we do not mean that elements
ofthese Filipino values are absent in the value systems of other peoples andcultures, Universal
human values in a Filipino context (historical, cultural, socio-economic, political, moral and
religious) take on a distinctive set of Filipinomeanings and motivations. Lastly we can speak of
Filipino values in the sense that the historical consciousness of values has evolved among our
people.
A philosophy of education for Filipinos must alsoconsider the Filipino behavioral context.
Our negativetraits must be and taken in tow, and efforts must beexpended to transform the Filipino
fromselfish, indolent, grasping, uncaring man into theindependent, hard-working concerned man..

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LESSON 5……….. AMERICAN AND OTHER THINKERS WHO


INFLUENCED THE PHILIPPINE PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
LESSON 5………..

AMERICAN AND OTHER THINKERS WHO INFLUENCED THE PHILIPPINE PHILOSOPHY OF


EDUCATION

IT HAS BEEN ASSUMED THAT THE EDUCATOIONAL SYSTEM OF THE PHILIPPINES


HAD BEEN PATTERNED AFTER THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF THE UNITED STATES. IN
FACT, MANY OF THE LEADING EDUCATIONAL THINKERS IN THE PHILIPPINES HAVE BEEN
SUBSTANTIALLY SUBSCRIBING TO THEIR AMERICAN COUNTERPARTS, ESPECIALLY JOHN
DEWEY.

1. BENJAMIN FRANKLINS EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY (1706 – 1790))


2. THE EDUCATIONAL THEORY OF THOMAS JEFFERSON (1743-`1826)
3. THE EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF FRIEDRICH WILHELM AUGUST FROEBEL (1782- 1852)
4. THE PHILOSOPHY OF JOHANN HEINRICH PESTALLOZI( 1746 – 1827)
5. HORRACE MANS EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY (1796 – 1859)
6. THE EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF HERBERT SPENCER (1820 – 1903)
7. CHARLES DARWIN PHILOSOPHY (1809 – 1882)
8. THE PHILOSOPHY OF JOHANN FRIEDRICH HERBART (1776 – 1841)
9. JOHN DEWEY’S PHILOSOPHY (1859 – 1952)

Two and a half millenniums ago, Plato stated that knowledge is justified true
belief, an influential notion that shaped educational theories across time. Since
then, modern thinkers had never stopped seeking knowledge about the
human psychology, development, and education. Here, are the ten greatest.
John Locke and the Tabula Rasa

Locke (1632-1704), an English philosopher and physician,


proposed that the mind was a blank slate or tabula rasa. This states that men
are born without innate ideas, and that knowledge comes from experience
and perception, as opposed to predetermined good and evil nature, as
believed by other thinkers.
On his treatise “Some Thoughts Concerning Education”, he emphasized that
the knowledge taught during younger years are more influential than those
during maturity because they will be the foundations of the human mind. Due
to this process of associations of ideas, he stressed out that punishments are
unhealthy and educators should teach by examples rather than rules.
This theory on education puts him on a clash with another widely accepted
philosophy, backed by another brilliant mind

Immanuel Kant and Idealism


They never lived at the same time, but history always put
Locke and Kant on a dust up.
A famed German thinker, Kant (1724–1804) was an advocate of public education
and of learning by doing, a process we call training. As he reasons that these are
two vastly different things.
He postulated “Above all things, obedience is an essential feature in the character of a
child…”. As opposed to Locke, he surmises that children should always obey
and learn the virtue of duty, because children’s inclination to earn or do
something is something unreliable. And transgressions should always be dealt
with punishment, thus enforcing obedience.
Also, he theorized that man, naturally, has a radical evil in their nature. And
learning and duty can erase this.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Emile

Plato said that each individual is born with skills appropriate


to different castes, or functions of society. Though Rousseau (1712-1778), a
Genevan intellect and writer, paid respects to the ancient philosopher, he
rejected this thinking. He believed that there was one developmental
procedure common to man; it was a built-in, natural process which the main
behavioral manifestation is curiosity.
On his book, Emile, Rousseau outlines the process of an ideal education
through a hypothetical boy of the titular name, from twelve years of age to the
time he marries a woman. Critics said this work of his foreshadowed most
modern system of education we have now.

Mortimer J. Adler and the Educational Perrenialism

Adler (1902- 2001) was an American philosopher and


educator, and a proponent of Educational Perennialism. He believed that one
should teach the things that one deems to be of perpetual importance. He
proposed that one should teach principles, not facts, since details of facts
change constantly. And since people are humans, one should teach them
about humans also, not about machines, or theories.
He argues that one should validate the reasoning with the primary descriptions
of popular experiments. This provides students with a human side to the
scientific discipline, and demonstrates the reasoning in deed.

William James and Pragmatism

William James (1842-1910), an American psychologist and


philosopher, ascribed to the philosophy of pragmatism. He believed that the
value of any truth was utterly dependent upon its use to the person who held
it. He maintained that the world is like a mosaic of different experiences that
can only be interpreted through what he calls as “Radical empiricism”.
This means that no observation is completely objective. As the mind of the
observer and the act of observing will simply just affect the outcome of the
observation.

John Dewey and the Progressivism


Dewey (1859-1952), an American philosopher, psychologist and educational
reformer, was a proponent of Educational Progressivism.
He held that education is a “participation of the individual in the social
consciousness of the race”, and that it has two sides; the psychological, which
forms the basis of the child’s instincts, and the sociological, on which the
instinct will be used to form the basis of what is around him. He postulated
that one cannot learn without motivation.

Nel Noddings and the Ethics of Care


A notable American feminist, educationalist, and philosopher, Noddings (1929-
Present) is best known in her work Ethics of Care .
The Ethic s of Care establishes the obligation, and the sense, to do something
right when others address us. We do so because either we love and respect
those that address us or we have significant regard for them. In that way, the
recipients of care must respond in a way that authenticates their caring has
been received.
The same goes for education. As teachers respond to the needs of students,
they may design a differentiated curriculum because as teachers work closely
with students, they should respond to the students’ different needs and
interests. This response should not be based on a one time virtuous decision
but an ongoing interest in the student’s welfare.

Jean Piaget and the Genetic Epistemology

Piaget (1896-1980), a Swiss developmental psychologist


and philosopher, was recognized for his epistemological studies with children,
and the establishment of Genetic epistemology. It aims to explain knowledge, on
the basis of its history, its sociogenesis, and particularly, the psychological
origins of the notions and operations upon which it is based.
Piaget concluded he could test epistemological questions by studying the
development of thought and action in children. Because of this, he
created Genetic epistemology with its own approaches and questions.

Allan Bloom and The Closing of the American Mind


American philosopher, classicist, and academic Allan David
Bloom (1930-1992) is notable for his criticism of contemporary American
higher education in his bestselling 1987 book, The Closing of the American Mind.
He stresses how “higher education has failed democracy and impoverished
the souls of today’s students.” For him, this failure of contemporary liberal
education lead to impotent social and sexual habits of today’s students and that
commercial pursuits had become more highly regarded than love, the
philosophic quest for truth, or the civilized pursuits of honor and glory.

Rudolf Steiner and the Anthroposophy

Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner (1 861-1925) was an Austrian


philosopher and social reformer, and founder of Anthroposophy. His philosophy
highlights a balanced development of cognitive, artistic, and practical skills.
He divides education into three developmental stages. Early childhood, where
teachers offer practical activities and a healthy environment. Elementary,
which is primarily arts-based, centered on the teacher’s creative jurisdiction.
And Secondary, which seeks to develop the judgment, reasoning, and
practical idealism.
Section III - Philosophical
Perspectives in Education Part 4

Related Theories of Learning (Psychological


Orientations)

Related to both the metaphysical worldview philosophies and the educational


philosophies are theories of learning that focus on how learning occurs, the
psychological orientations. They provide structures for the instructional aspects
of teaching, suggesting methods that are related to their perspective on
learning. These theoretical beliefs about learning are also at the epistemic level
of philosophy, as they are concerned with the nature of learning. Each
psychological orientation is most directly related to a particular educational
philosophy, but may have other influences as well. The first two theoretical
approaches can be thought of as transmissive, in that information is given to
learners. The second two approaches are constructivist, in that the learner has to
make meaning from experiences in the world.

Information Processing
Information Processing theorists focus on the mind and how it works to explain
how learning occurs. The focus is on the processing of a relatively fixed body
of knowledge and how it is attended to, received in the mind, processed, stored,
and retrieved from memory. This model is derived from analogies between how
the brain works and computer processing. Information processing theorists
focus on the individual rather than the social aspects of thinking and learning.
The mind is a symbolic processor that stores information in schemas or
hierarchically arranged structures.

Knowledge may be general, applicable to many situations; for example,


knowing how to type or spell. Other knowledge is domain specific, applicable
to a specific subject or task, such as vowel sounds in Spanish. Knowledge is
also declarative (content, or knowing that; for example, schools have students,
teachers, and administrators), procedural (knowing how to do things—the steps
or strategies; for example, to multiply mixed number, change both sides to
improper fractions, then multiply numerators and denominators),
or conditional (knowing when and why to apply the other two types of
knowledge; for example, when taking a standardized multiple choice test, keep
track of time, be strategic, and don't get bogged down on hard problems).
The intake and representation of information is called encoding. It is sent to the
short term or working memory, acted upon, and those pieces determined as
important are sent to long term memory storage, where they must be retrieved
and sent back to the working or short-term memory for use. Short term memory
has very limited capacity, so it must be kept active to be retained. Long term
memory is organized in structures, called schemas, scripts, or propositional or
hierarchical networks. Something learned can be retrieved by relating it to other
aspects, procedures, or episodes. There are many strategies that can help in
both getting information into long term memory and retrieving it from memory.
The teacher's job is to help students to develop strategies for thinking and
remembering.

Behaviorism
Behaviorist theorists believe that behavior is shaped deliberately by forces in
the environment and that the type of person and actions desired can be the
product of design. In other words, behavior is determined by others, rather than
by our own free will. By carefully shaping desirable behavior, morality and
information is learned. Learners will acquire and remember responses that lead
to satisfying aftereffects. Repetition of a meaningful connection results in
learning. If the student is ready for the connection, learning is enhanced; if not,
learning is inhibited. Motivation to learn is the satisfying aftereffect, or
reinforcement.

Behaviorism is linked with empiricism, which stresses scientific information


and observation, rather than subjective or metaphysical realities. Behaviorists
search for laws that govern human behavior, like scientists who look for pattern
sin empirical events. Change in behavior must be observable; internal thought
processes are not considered.

Ivan Pavlov's research on using the reinforcement of a bell sound when food
was presented to a dog and finding the sound alone would make a dog salivate
after several presentations of the conditioned stimulus, was the beginning of
behaviorist approaches. Learning occurs as a result of responses to stimuli in
the environment that are reinforced by adults and others, as well as from
feedback from actions on objects. The teacher can help students learn by
conditioning them through identifying the desired behaviors in measurable,
observable terms, recording these behaviors and their frequencies, identifying
appropriate reinforcers for each desired behavior, and providing the reinforcer
as soon as the student displays the behavior. For example, if children are
supposed to raise hands to get called on, we might reinforce a child who raises
his hand by using praise, "Thank you for raising your hand." Other influential
behaviorists include B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) and James B. Watson (1878-
1958).

Cognitivism/Constructivism
Cognitivists or Constructivists believe that the learner actively constructs his or
her own understandings of reality through interaction with objects, events, and
people in the environment, and reflecting on these interactions. Early
perceptual psychologists (Gestalt psychology) focused on the making of wholes
from bits and pieces of objects and events in the world, believing that meaning
was the construction in the brain of patterns from these pieces.

For learning to occur, an event, object, or experience must conflict with what
the learner already knows. Therefore, the learner's previous experiences
determine what can be learned. Motivation to learn is experiencing conflict
with what one knows, which causes an imbalance, which triggers a quest to
restore the equilibrium. Piaget described intelligent behavior as adaptation. The
learner organizes his or her understanding in organized structures. At the
simplest level, these are called schemes. When something new is presented, the
learner must modify these structures in order to deal with the new information.
This process, called equilibration, is the balancing between what is assimilated
(the new) and accommodation, the change in structure. The child goes through
four distinct stages or levels in his or her understandings of the world.

Some constructivists (particularly Vygotsky) emphasize the shared, social


construction of knowledge, believing that the particular social and cultural
context and the interactions of novices with more expert thinkers (usually
adult) facilitate or scaffold the learning process. The teacher mediates between
the new material to be learned and the learner's level of readiness, supporting
the child's growth through his or her "zone of proximal development."

Humanism
The roots of humanism are found in the thinking of Erasmus (1466-1536), who
attacked the religious teaching and thought prevalent in his time to focus on
free inquiry and rediscovery of the classical roots from Greece and Rome.
Erasmus believed in the essential goodness of children, that humans have free
will, moral conscience, the ability to reason, aesthetic sensibility, and religious
instinct. He advocated that the young should be treated kindly and that learning
should not be forced or rushed, as it proceeds in stages. Humanism was
developed as an educational philosophy by Rousseau (1712-1778) and
Pestalozzi, who emphasized nature and the basic goodness of humans,
understanding through the senses, and education as a gradual and unhurried
process in which the development of human character follows the unfolding of
nature. Humanists believe that the learner should be in control of his or her own
destiny. Since the learner should become a fully autonomous person, personal
freedom, choice, and responsibility are the focus. The learner is self-motivated
to achieve towards the highest level possible. Motivation to learn is intrinsic in
humanism.

Recent applications of humanist philosophy focus on the social and emotional


well-being of the child, as well as the cognitive. Development of a healthy self-
concept, awareness of the psychological needs, helping students to strive to be
all that they can are important concepts, espoused in theories of Abraham
Maslow, Carl Rogers, and Alfred Adler that are found in classrooms today.
Teachers emphasize freedom from threat, emotional well-being, learning
processes, and self-fulfillment.

*Some theorists call Rousseau's philosophy naturalism and consider this to be


a world or metaphysical level philosophy (e.g. Gutek)

Think about It:

1. Which psychological orientations are most compatible with which


educational philosophies? Explain.
2. Explain the differences in focus of the educational philosophies and
psychological orientations. Are there also similarities?
3. Non-western philosophies have also influenced American education,
such as Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Native American and African
American philosophies. Find out about these and think about their
current influences in education and where they might possibly be of
value.

Back to Module I

© 1999 LeoNora M. Cohen, OSU - School of Education