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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Power system generation and control are very important topics since 1920. The
first control issue is related to remote power stations that feeding a load to the centre
over a long transmission line. One of the most important and popular power plants is
the thermal power plant, which depend on the fossil fuels as a source of energy such as,
coal, petroleum and gas.

Generally, the successful operation of the power systems needs matching between
the overall generation and the overall load demands and system losses. The
operating point of a power system changes with the time depends on the load status,
and hence, systems would be experienced deviations from nominal system frequency,
and scheduled tie power exchanges between different areas, which can yield
undesirable effects.

The controller that responsible for matching the generations and load demands, and
also the tie-line power interchange within the specified limits is known as load
frequency control (LFC). Which, the first attempt to solve LFC issue was through the
primary control strategy to regulate the frequency of a power system by
a flywheel governor of the synchronous machine (Hassan Bevrani, 2009; Shayeghi,
Shayanfar, & Jalili, 2009). The power system is a highly non-linear system, which has
increasing the system complexity for modelling and control. In addition, the
system complexity has become more challenging with the finding of the interconnected
between the power system areas which were supported by the reliability and economic
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aspect. These have led to the LFC problems in the power system operations and control
analysis.

The improvements of the system control came about by way of faster response and
less over, or under shoot. With the advancement of the computer technology, the
operating model, parameters identification and control could be simulated in any
behaviour of multi-machine power systems. Since that, considerable efforts have been
made in LFC designs, in which the conventional control strategies (such as PI/PID) are
those that take the integral or/and differential of the control error as the control signal.
This is the first for the secondary control strategy in power system. Then, the
improvements have been done by introducing two categories of adaptive control
systems (i.e., model reference control systems and self-tuning regulators) which had
been presented in many research papers. As a result, the less sensitive of controlled
process has been presented as an improvement to the plant parameters changes.

On the other hand, many parameters identification methods of power


system modelling have been proposed in order to get the closer estimation parameters
values as compared with the real values. Consequently, it has shown that the good
parameters estimation of power systems modelling is important in dynamic control
analysis, especially in very complex systems. Thus, the study on the parameters
identification is still applicable and useful.

Due to the multi-variable conditions and complexity in the power systems, the
classical and non-flexible LFC models do not stand for good solutions. Thus, flexible
methods had been a topic of research during recent years. The advances of modern
intelligent control methods, such as fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks (ANNs),
particle swam optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithms (GAs) have solved the
frequency control problems in better extent. Even various works have been proposed
using fuzzy logic in solving LFC problems, the improvement and modification of fuzzy
logic still can be made so as the optimal performance can be obtained.

Therefore, motivated by these, a method of parameters identification using new


approach of PSO is proposed in this Thesis. Then, the improvements and new fuzzy
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logic based control for LFC also have been proposed in single and multiple areas of
power systems. The performances are compared with PID control through simulation
verification.

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT

Recently, various controllers have been proposed in different areas (Wen, 2011;
Pandey, Mohanty, & Kishor, 2013), but due to the non-linearity in system components
and alternators, these development feedback controllers could not efficiently control the
frequency and rather slow for the output responses.

The most penetration in LFC is the conventional controller (Hassan Bevrani, 2009).
However, in the last decade, PSO, GA, and ANN optimization methods have been
studied to tune the control parameters. It is been very simple for implementation (M. M
.Ismail, 2012; Tan, 2010), but the dynamic response deteriorates when the complexity
and system increases.

In this respect, Fuzzy control is the most suitable system to get promising results
in case of a properly choosing of the memberships and rules (Tan, 2010; H Bevrani &
Daneshmand, 2012). Many strategies were used to determine the shapes and the limits
of membership functions. Nevertheless, these methods are designed for a unique
condition. So, any changes in power system conditions should be led to change in
membership shapes and limits. As a result for improvement, the scaled fuzzy controller
has been developed using GA (Broujeni, Hemmati, & Fayazi, 2011). This method is
good to scale the boundaries of the memberships, and it is flexible for multi-
disturbances, but it still has two problems, which are a constant fuzzy membership
triangular shapes and GA initial value.

On the other hand, in practical, the parameters that commonly used in stability
studies are manufacturer specified values, or “typical” values. These typical values may
be grossly inaccurate, as various parameters may drift over time or with operating
condition. Thus, to avoid such a problem and to obtain more realistic simulation results,
the identification of the system parameters based field test is recommended (Abd-Alla