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1.

0 Introduction to SPSS

SPSS is the acronym for Statistical Package for the Social Science.It is a

comprehensive system used to analyse data. SPSS use the data from any type of file to

generate tavulated reports, charts, pots distributions and trends, descriptive statistics as well

as more complex statistical analysis. This proprietary software is one of the most popular

statistical packages which can perform highly complex data manipulation and analysis with

simple instructions.

SPSS has a good breadth of functionality as it has scores of statistical and mathematical

functions, scores statistical procedures and the capability to flexibly handle various types and

formats of data such as numeric, alphanumeric, binary, date etc. Some of the fuctionality of

SPSS are:

 Data transformation

 Data examination

 Descriptive Statistics

 Reliability test

 Correlation

 t-test

 ANOVA

 MANOVA

 Regression

 Discriminant analysis

 Graphics and graphical interface and many more


Assignment 1 Report

a) Frequency count for school

Table 1 : Schools which participated in the survey

Valid Cumulative

Frequency Percent Percent Percent

Valid School A 31 25.8 25.8 25.8

School B 48 40.0 40.0 65.8

School C 29 24.2 24.2 90.0

School D 12 10.0 10.0 100.0

Total 120 100.0 100.0

Explain data School A …(general)

Highest… School B (n=48;40%)

followed by…..

lowest…. School D (n=12;10%).

No missing value for this data.

(buat ulasan)
Frequency Count for Type of School

Classification by Public School and Private School

Valid Cumulative

Frequency Percent Percent Percent

Valid Public School 56 46.7 46.7 46.7

Private
64 53.3 53.3 100.0
School

Total 120 100.0 100.0


Explain data School A …(general)

Highest… School B (n=48;40%)

followed by…..

lowest…. School D (n=12;10%).

No missing value for this data.

(buat ulasan)

1.b Random Sampling

Random sampling is …………………………(explanation)……………..blh google or refer

to the module.

Schools which participated in the survey

Valid Cumulative

Frequency Percent Percent Percent

Valid School A 11 36.7 36.7 36.7

School B 12 40.0 40.0 76.7

School C 4 13.3 13.3 90.0

School D 3 10.0 10.0 100.0

Total 30 100.0 100.0

1.c Ordinal Type Variable


age_category

Valid Cumulative

Frequency Percent Percent Percent

Valid 20 years and


3 2.5 2.5 2.5
below

21 to 40 years 54 45.0 45.0 47.5

41 to 60 years 58 48.3 48.3 95.8

61 years and
5 4.2 4.2 100.0
above

Total 120 100.0 100.0

Explanation :

Explain data …(general)

Highest… School B (n=48;40%)

followed by…..

lowest…. School D (n=12;10%).

No missing value for this data.

(buat ulasan)
1d. Mean, Median and Mode

Dispersion : Range, Variance and Standart Deviation

Statistics

Age of teachers

N Valid 120

Missing 0

Mean 41.96

Median 44.00

Mode 47

Std. Deviation 11.903

Variance 141.671

Range 47

Mean age of teacher is 41.96 years old.

On average, the age ………

Median age ……….

Half of the respondents’ age are …………………….. @ 50% of tehe respondents’ age is

………….
Mode age …. Value

Most of the respondents’ age ……………

Range of the respondents’ age are ……………………

The difference of highest age and lowest age are ……………..

Standard deviation …..is …..

The average deviation of age from its mean is ……

Definition : Cth : Standard deviation is square root of Variance (value)


1e) crosstabulation tables

Schools which participated in the survey * age_category Crosstabulation

age_category

20 years and 21 to 40 41 to 60 61 years and


below years years above Total

Schools which participated in the School Count 0 17 14 0 31


survey A
% within Schools which participated in
.0% 54.8% 45.2% .0% 100.0%
the survey

% within age_category .0% 31.5% 24.1% .0% 25.8%

% of Total .0% 14.2% 11.7% .0% 25.8%

School B Count 3 19 24 2 48

% within Schools which participated in


6.2% 39.6% 50.0% 4.2% 100.0%
the survey

% within age_category 100.0% 35.2% 41.4% 40.0% 40.0%

% of Total 2.5% 15.8% 20.0% 1.7% 40.0%

School C Count 0 13 13 3 29

% within Schools which participated in


.0% 44.8% 44.8% 10.3% 100.0%
the survey

% within age_category .0% 24.1% 22.4% 60.0% 24.2%


% of Total .0% 10.8% 10.8% 2.5% 24.2%

School Count 0 5 7 0 12
D
% within Schools which participated in
.0% 41.7% 58.3% .0% 100.0%
the survey

% within age_category .0% 9.3% 12.1% .0% 10.0%

% of Total .0% 4.2% 5.8% .0% 10.0%

Total Count 3 54 58 5 120

% within Schools which participated in


2.5% 45.0% 48.3% 4.2% 100.0%
the survey

% within age_category 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

% of Total 2.5% 45.0% 48.3% 4.2% 100.0%

(row) From table, most ……………..(age category) followed by ………………… least is ………………

(column) From table, most ……………..(school participated). Followed by school A …………….. least is……

Explain together. Example : 24 teachers form scgool B is from 41 to 60 years age category that is the highest frequencies. Followed by

………………
1f)

Descriptives

Classification by Public School and Private School Statistic Std. Error

Motivation Public School Mean 4.0908 .08986


level
95% Confidence Lower Bound 3.9107
Interval for Mean
Upper Bound 4.2709

5% Trimmed Mean 4.1196

Median 4.0625

Variance .452

Std. Deviation .67249

Minimum 2.53

Maximum 5.00

Range 2.47

Interquartile Range 1.09

Skewness -.285 .319

Kurtosis -.704 .628

Private Mean 3.8882 .09108


School
95% Confidence Lower Bound 3.7062
Interval for Mean
Upper Bound 4.0703

5% Trimmed Mean 3.9101

Median 4.0208

Variance .531

Std. Deviation .72867

Minimum 2.36

Maximum 5.00
Range 2.64

Interquartile Range 1.06

Skewness -.487 .299

Kurtosis -.754 .590

Average rating for public school is agree (mean=4) with the motivational level.
Rujuk page 37 to 41 in module.
Can compare between two type of schools.

Tests of Normality

Classification Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk


by Public
School and
Private School Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig.

Motivation Public School .097 56 .200* .949 56 .019


level
Private School .112 64 .046 .942 64 .005

a. Lilliefors
Significance
Correction

*. This is a lower bound of the


true significance.

Rujuk Page 47
Tulis hipotesis – ikut modul
Reject H0 if sig<0.05
Do not reject H0 if sig>0.05 x perlu tulis
Motivation level by Public school : sig is more than 0.05, so we do not reject the null
hipotesis. Conclude that, normal distribution fits the data.

Motivation Level by private school : sig is less than 0.05, so we do reject the null hipotesis.
Conclude that, normal distribution does not fits the data.
Rujuk page 28
Most of the respondent rate from 3.75 to 4.
Least , …………………
Distribution of motivation level for public school are slightlt skewed to left.(refer to
skewness)
Motivation level Stem-and-Leaf Plot for
Construct1_Type_of_School= Public School

Frequency Stem & Leaf

3.00 2 . 559
9.00 3 . 022234444
14.00 3 . 66667777778999
12.00 4 . 000112233344
12.00 4 . 556678889999
6.00 5 . 000000
Stem width: 1.00
Each leaf: 1 case(s)

Motivation level Stem-and-Leaf Plot for


Construct1_Type_of_School= Private School

Frequency Stem & Leaf

3.00 2 . 344
7.00 2 . 5788899
6.00 3 . 000002
16.00 3 . 5556677788888999
20.00 4 . 01111222222333333444
10.00 4 . 5667888889
2.00 5 . 00

Stem width: 1.00


Each leaf: 1 case(s)
Majority of the data points close to line (normal) or far from line (not normal @ skewed).
Rujuk page 41
Median untuk kedua2 hampir sama iaitu _______(rujuk jadual untuk figure).
Give n compare maximum n minimum value for both.
Check skew to right or left (depend on median from min to max): public school is not normal
(skewed to the right). Private school is also not normal( skewed to the left).
1g) Adressing missing values in a dataset

Use of “replacing missing values……” in SPSS.

STEP : In SPSS, “Transform>Recode>Replace missing values…………….

(boleh screen shot)

1h) Differences between dependent and independent variables.

Use mr google : blh guna table

Buat citation